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date: 06 December 2019

(p. 829) INDEX

(p. 829) INDEX

Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” denote figures and tables, respectively.

A
ABC-X Model, 667, 668f, 675, 676
abusive men, 363–364
accelerated-arrested pattern of relationship, 334
accelerated pattern of relationship, 334
accommodation, 577
as dyadic regulation, 439
self-construals and, in personal relationships, 559–560
accuracy of judgments, 310–311, 313, 316–318
and mean-level bias, 312
and relationship outcomes, 312
acquaintanceship effect
evidence for, 357
informational bases of, 358
action sequences, 519
activation of relational selves, 284–285
evidence of, 285–291
Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), 655
actual understanding, 404
acute physiological arousal, 458
acute stressors, 666
adaptation(ism), 56–59, 138, 376–378
adaptiveness, concept of, 376
as by-products of selection, 377
causal role functional analysis, 376
defined, 376
evolution of adaptations, 376
exaptation, concept of, 377
function, concept of, 376
future situations, managing and selecting, 58–59
identifying adaptations, 377–378
one’s own person factors, calibrating, 56–57
reevaluating relationship, using discretion, 57–58
secondary adaptation, concept of, 377
adaptive attributions, 673
adaptiveness, concept of, 376
adolescent close relationships, attachment security role in, 66–83
and close relationships, 69–82
dating, 70–72
flirting, 70–72
future directions of, 82–83
mental representations of, 68–69
relationship consolidation, 72–75
relationship maintenance, 75–81
relationship satisfaction, 81–82
adolescent romantic relationships, 755–756
adolescent sexual behavior, 803
adult attachment, 626
Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), 756
Bartholomew’s proposal of, 482
Bowlby’s work on, 480
classification of, 481
implicit and explicit knowledge structures, 481–482
and implicit if-then contingencies, 484
adult attachment system, 757–758
adult close relationships, attachment security role in, 66–83
and close relationships, 69–82
dating, 70–72
flirting, 70–72
future directions of, 82–83
mental representations of, 68–69
relationship consolidation, 72–75
relationship maintenance, 75–81
relationship satisfaction, 81–82
adult development, understanding of, 762
adult off spring’s self-construals, 558
adult outcomes, parent divorce on, 805
barriers to positive adjustment, 809
mental health outcomes, 806–808
parenting, 805–806
physical health outcomes, 808–809
adult reproductive strategy, 781–782
maturational effects on, 779–780
psychosocial effects on, 779–780
pubertal maturation effects in, 781–782
adult romantic attachment styles, 171
affective exaggeration, 441
affective forecasting error, in relationship contexts, 311
affective priming paradigm, 482
affiliation, 23–25
linking with social motives, 25
agape (altruistic, selfless love), 202, 210
age differences
and empathic accuracy, 354
maturational change associated with, 354
agreeableness, 49, 52, 537–538
AIDS patients, empathic brain responses to, 691
alcohol abuse, 455
alcohol intoxication, 465
dispositional anger and, 467
provocation and, 466
allo-inclusive identity, 108
alternative life history and reproductive strategies, 774
altruistic love
gender differences in, 213
and satisfaction, 219
always-married families, children from, 804
ambient darkness, 20
ambivalence, 73, 118, 187, 489, 653–654
amygdala and emotion recognition, 688–689
anal sex, 590
(p. 830) anger, expressions of, 519–520
anhedonia, 408
antecedents, 456
anxiety attachment
during relationship initiation, 71–72
interpersonal risk and, 120
anxiety-related disorders, 455
anxious-ambivalent attachment, 777
anxiously attached individuals, 361–363
appraisal, 516
primary, 516
secondary, 516
structural models of, 516
appraisal theories, 515
phasic models, 516
structural models, 516
approach–approach conflict, 577
approach–avoidance conflict, 117, 118, 577
arginine-vasopressin (AVP), 694
assumed similarity, 309
asthma, 629
attachment
avoidance, 438, 518
behaviors, 67
figures, 67, 518
injuries, 77
insecurity, 417
orientation, 49, 67, 71, 82
security, 674, 699, 738
style, 518
styles, adult romantic, 171
attachment anxiety, 5, 76, 518, 438, 441, 445
distinguished from caregiving/sexuality system, 31
and forgiveness, link between, 78
interpersonal risk and, 120
and regulation within relationships, 438–439
during relationship initiation, 71–72
attachment diathesis-stress process model, 7
attachment love, 204
culture and, 218
gender differences in, 213–214
measurement of, 210
and satisfaction, 223–224
Attachment Love Scale, 227
attachment–mortality theory, 776–777
attachment security, role in adolescent/adult close relationships, 66–83
and close relationships, 69–82
dating, 70–72
flirting, 70–72
future directions of, 82–83
mental representations of, 68–69
relationship consolidation, 72–75
relationship maintenance, 75–81
relationship satisfaction, 81–82
attachment theory, 5, 6, 92, 294–295, 429, 437, 445, 517–518
and dynamic cognitive-motivational process, 484–485
and emotion regulation, 508
process model and, 488–489
of responsiveness, 407
selective attention under stress, 487–488
static to dynamic models, 494–495
threat and distress effects, 485, 487
attention, 579
to alternatives, 99–100
deployment, 502
attentional adhesion, 574
Attention to Alternatives Scale, 100
Attitudes toward Love Scale, 208
Attitudes toward Romanticism Scale, 208
attitudinal ambivalence, 489
attraction, cultural influences on, 161–178
adult romantic attachment styles, 171
familiarity, 170–171
mate preferences, 168–169
new directions in research on, 175–177
partner choice, 164–165
passionate love, 164–165
reciprocity, 170–171
sex ratio, 165–166
sexual behavior, appropriate, 166–168
similarity, 170–171
system of marriage, 165–166
theoretical perspectives on, 171–175
attractive alternatives, threat of, 574–576
attractiveness, defined, 169–170
attribution error, 307
attributions, 576
and evaluations, 580
auditory looming, 236
autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 364
autistic individuals, empathic accuracy of, 353–354
automatic functioning and self-esteem, 489–491
automatic risk regulation processes, 128–130
autonomy, 125
avoidance, 67
fearful, 20
systems, 15
avoidant attachment, 71, 76, 777
and forgiveness, link between, 78
avoidantly attached individuals, 363
B
balanced integration-differentiation (BID) model, 566, 567
balance theory, 309
basic emotions, 515, 516
basic researchers–practitioners–policy maker’s connections, building, 7
Bayes’ theorem, 309
Bayesian-like prediction, 700
bees, communication in, 15
behavior
domain-general view of, 15
in individualistic cultures, 553
behavioral immune system, 22–23
behavioral repertoire, 456
Belief Pattern Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward Romanticism, 208
benefit-triggered gratitude, 642
between-sex variations, 18–19, 772
bias
in actions, 249–250
in beliefs, 249–250
in coalitions, 244–245
conditional EMT, 246–248, 247t
confirmation, 307
in courtship, 237–242
directional, and relationship quality, 313
in friendships, 244–245
interloper, 242
and judgments, 310–311
in kinship, 245–246
in long-term romantic relationships, 242–244
mating rivalry, 241–242
mean-level, 312
men’s sexual overperception, 238–240, 238–239f
in partner and relationship judgments, 313–318
positive, 312
rationality, 308–310
self-serving, 307
types of, 406
Big Five personality traits, 81, 203, 535
agreeableness, 537–538
conscientiousness, 538–539
extraversion, 539–540, 542
facets of, 542
neuroticism, 536–537, 545
openness, 540, 542
personality similarity, 541–542
Saucier’s mini-markers scale, 547–548
biconstruals, 559
biological health markers, relationship conflict and, 621
biological motion, intention, and mentalizing, 686
bisexual couples, 599
Brahman, 111
brain, caring, 692–693
bunching behavior, 699
by-products of selection, adaptation as, 377
C
capitalization, 405–406
interactions, 446
on positive emotions, 80
CARE circuit, 692
caregiving, 405–407, 690–693
responsiveness, 416
system versus attachment system, 31
causal analysis, multiple levels of, 16
channel regulation communications, 436
child development theory, 778, 781
childhood abuse, 456
(p. 831) child outcomes, parent divorce on, 802, 804–805
academic outcomes, 802–803
meta-analyses on child outcomes, 803–804
moderators of, 804
psychopathology, 802
relationships, 803
children, having, 591
children–father relationship, 803
children of twins (CoT) design, 800, 805
chronic concerns of, relationship processes, 323–326
alternative questionnaire measures, 325
magnitude versus predominance, 325–326
Regulatory Focus Questionnaire measures, 324–325
self-discrepancy measures, 324
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), 364
chronic rejection sensitivity, impulses associated with, 442
chronic stressors, 667
classical conditioning, 15, 454
clinical psychiatric disorders, 455
closeness, 104
close relationships, 321, 327–328, 500
dyadic forms, 428
dyadic regulation within, 430, 447
and emotion regulation, 504–508, 514–515
foundational principles, 428–430, 515–519
perspectives on self-regulation in, 330
social connections and, 429
social developmental antecedents of. See social developmental antecedents, of close relationships
and suppression, 504
as turning processes, 765
coalitions
biases in, 244–245
sinister attribution bias in, 245
cognition
mating-related, 147
in relationship consolidation, 72–73
self-expansion model of, 101–109
self–other inclusion, 105–106
cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS), 7, 546
cognitive bias, in communal relationships, 269–274
cognitive change, 502
cognitive development and close relationships, 765–766
cognitive dissonance theory, 562
cognitive distortions, 456
cognitive interdependence, 565, 582
cognitive resources, 582–584
collectivism, 555
commitment, 49, 581
and forgiveness, 648–649
love and, 224–225
in relationship consolidation, 73–74
committed relationships, 583
loss-focused aspects of, 339
as multifaceted phenomena, 338–339
promotion-focused individuals versus prevention-focused individuals, 336
Communal Orientation Scale, 263t
communal relationships, 255–277, 409, 411, 413
in adulthood, 275–276
asymmetrical, 266–267
attending to different types of, 274
challenges to, 265–266
cognitive, in communal relationships, 269–274
cognitive bias in, 269–274
conceptualization of, 257–258
and exchange relationships, qualitative distinction between, 256–257
existence criteria for, 268–269
functioning of, social contexts influence on, 274–275
individual differences in, 267–268
initiating strong, 272–274
in ongoing relationships, 269
partner welfare in, 262–263
quantitative dimension to the theory, adding, 263–265
symmetrical, 266–267
ten-item communal strength measure, 267t
theories and research programs, fitting, 275
threats to, 270–272
communication, role in sexuality, 592–593
companionate love, 202, 203
culture and, 217–218
gender differences in, 213
measurement of, 209–210
personality differences in, 214
and satisfaction, 219
Companionate Love Scale, 227
compassionate goals, 195–196
compassionate love, 203
culture and, 218
defined, 202
gender differences in, 213
measurement of, 210
personality differences in, 214–215
and satisfaction, 219
Compassionate Love Scale (CLS), 210, 227
concealed estrus, concept of, 390–391
conditional forgiveness, 527
confirmation bias, 307
conflict-handling behaviors, 559
conflict resolution, 417
conscientiousness, 49, 538–539
constraint, personality trait, 543
construct accessibility principle, 282
social-cognitive theories, 282–283
temporary source of, 283
continuity, 292
conventional diagnosis, 596
cooperative intentional action, 172
COPE, 190
coping with conflict, 189–191
coronary heart disease (CHD), 619
cost–benefit theory, 378
Couple Contact Enhancement intervention, 627
couples, happy and unhappy, 576
couples and stress, 664
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological models, 666
challenges, 664
different sources of stress, 679
emerging themes, 669
competing roles, 667–668
context of chronic stress, acute stress in, 675–676
individual differences, 673–674
normative versus non-normative stress, 676–677
one versus two partners, 677
salient stressors, 668–669
stress effects mediators, 670–673
stress effects moderators, 673
foundational principles, 665
early and contemporary models, 667–669
stress spillover versus stress crossover, 669
future directions, 679
impacts of, 680
implications of self-selection into contexts, 679–680
marital satisfaction, 664
C-reactive protein (CRP), 619
Cross’s theory of relational self-construal, 581
cross-lagged regression, 733
cues of fertility status, 389–390
male partner responses to women, 390
cultural influences on attraction, 161–178
adult romantic attachment styles, 171
familiarity, 170–171
mate preferences, 168–169
new directions in research on, 175–177
partner choice, 164–165
passionate love, 164–165
reciprocity, 170–171
sex ratio, 165–166
sexual behavior, appropriate, 166–168
similarity, 170–171
system of marriage, 165–166
theoretical perspectives on, 171–175
cultural mutation, 177
cultural practices and self-construals, 296–297
cultural psychology, 553
inclusion-of-other-in-the-self, 563–564
(p. 832) independent versus interdependent self-construals, 555
among partners in intercultural relationships, 565–566
among partners in intracultural relationships, 566
differentially valued in discipline of psychology, 555
as moderators of dissonance reduction processes, 562
multiple types of, 566–567
priming, 562–563
self-monitoring, low versus high levels of, 555–556
interdependence, 554, 556–557
new and promising directions for future research, 564
loyalty as accommodative response, 565
motivation, transformation of, 560
parents’ and adult off spring’s self-construals, 558
personal relationships, culturally informed research on, 567–568
relational-interdependent self-construal, 560–561, 563, 567
as reflected in relational trust, 561
self-construals, 555
and accommodation, in personal relationships, 559–560
and interdependence processes, 558–559
and personal relationship processes, 557–558
cultural syndromes, 555
cultural variants, 162
intentional transmission of, 163
culture
after decade of ethnicity, 554
defined, 162
differences across populations, 162–163
differences across time, 163
evoked, 173–175
honor, 463
and love, 215–218
transmitted, 172–173
D
daily-diary paradigm, 119
Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, 210
daily stress at work, 671–672
Darwinian theory of evolution, 307, 376
dating, 70–72, 168
interactions, emotional tone of, 70
outcomes, 71–72
preferences, 71–72
relationships, 581, 590
self-disclosure, 70–71
Dating Game, 144
dependable character, 412
dependence-based interactions, 437
depression, 802
in children, 802
depressive disorders, 455
destiny belief, 184, 185, 186f
coping with conflict, 189–191
flexibility of, 191–192
function of, 187–191
implicitness of, reasons for, 192
relational context, 192–193
relational events, meaning assigned to, 188–189
destructive strategies for, partner regulation, 438
detecting kin, bias in, 245–246
deterioration/dissolution of relationships, love and, 225–227
developmental hierarchy, of life history perspective, 17–18
developmental history and current circumstances, interactions between, 751
developmental precursors, of relationship functioning 753
conflict and conflict resolution, 759–761
relationship involvement, 753–754
relationship quality, 754–756
romantic attachment, 756–759
romantic involvement versus quality, 753
developmental relationship trajectories, 8–9
Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (DANVA), 355
diagnostic situations, 408–409
differential parental investment, 18–19, 25, 154
dimensional models, 516–517
direct communication, 437
directed self-expansion, 94
direct effects, of emotion regulation, 504
directional bias, 310
discrete emotions, 516
model, 515, 517
discriminative stimuli, for IPV, 456
disease avoidance, 22–23
disengagement, 803
disgust, 23
dismissive individuals, 518
dispositional aggressiveness, 458, 459, 467
dispositional anger, 463
dispositional disinhibitors, 464
dispositional impellors, 463
dispositional retaliatory tendencies, 467–468
dispositional self-control, 459
dissatisfaction with power, 463
dissonance reduction processes
independent/interdependent self-construals as moderators of, 562
distal disinhibitors, 464
distal impellors, 463
distinguishability tests, 745–747
distinguishable dyads, 739–745
divorce, 7, 795
adult outcomes, 805
barriers to positive adjustment, 809
mental health outcomes, 806–808
parenting, 805–806
physical health outcomes, 808–809
child outcomes, 802, 804–805
academic outcomes, 802–803
meta-analyses on child outcomes, 803–804
moderators of, 804
psychopathology, 802
relationships, 803
children and adults, risk and resilience for, 797–798
contextual variables, 801–802
divorce–stress–adjustment model, 798–799
emerging themes and future directions, 815
diverse family forms, 816
legal, psycholegal, and therapeutic interventions, 816
psychological mechanisms, in children and adults, 815
social selection and social causation, 816
history and demographics, 795
interventions, 809
mandatory informational divorce education programs, 812–813
mediation, 811
multisession group treatments, for parents and children, 813
parenting coordination, 811–812
psycholegal interventions, 810–811
intrapersonal processes
attributions, 801
gender, 800–801
parental divorce history, 799–800
patterns of interaction, 801
personality, 799
nonmarital unions and stepfamilies, research on, 813–815
predictors of, 799
psychological pain, 798–799
rates of, 664, 796–797
divorced families, children from, 804
divorce–stress–adjustment model, 798
dizygotic (DZ) twins, 805
domestic violence, 461
dominant versus submissive dimensions, 25
doormat effect, 581, 584
dopamine
desire and romantic love, 695
and sexual behavior, 693–694
dot-probe paradigm, 583
Double ABC-X Model, 667–668, 675, 676
dual-process approach to risk regulation, 122–130
(p. 833) automatic risk regulation processes, 128–130
initial impulses, correcting, 123–126
dual process models of relationship processes, developing and testing, 8
Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), 697
dyadic communication, 76
dyadic interactions, 40, 238t, 350
between partner motivations, 340–341
dyadic processes of relationship initiation, 332–335
dyadic research, 595
dyads, repeated measures with, 731
analysis issues, 736
data structure, 736–737
distinguishability, 736
types of variables, 737–738
illustrative analyses, 738
analyzing with distinguishable dyads, 739–741
analyzing with indistinguishable dyads, 741–745
example data, 738–739
test of distinguishability, 745–747
models for, 732
comparing repeated measures to each other, 734
longitudinal growth curve model, 732–733
stability and influence model, 733–734
variance due to observation, estimating, 735–736
variance due to person, estimating, 735–736
E
earned security, 412
East–West mean differences in self-monitoring, 556
economy of action, 698–699
ego depletion, 699
emotion
basic, 515
defined, 501–502
and interpersonal functions, 501–502
“modal model” of, 501
positive, 502, 505–506
and regulation, 501–502
theoretical perspectives, 515–519
emotional closeness, 429
emotional contagion, 691
emotional intelligence, 528
Emotional Investment Scale, 228n2
emotional-motivational importance of significant others, 283
emotional states and significant-other representations, 288–289
emotional support, 412
emotional theories, 514–515
emotional well-being, 719
emotion-focused coping strategies, 438
emotion-in-relationships model, 518–519, 700
emotion regulation, 456, 501
analysis of, 509
and attachment theory, 508
in close relationships, 504508
defined, 502
direct effects of, 504
in East Asian cultures, 506–507, 509
future research, 508–511
Gross’s process model of, 500, 502–503, 507
indirect effects of, 504–506
individual differences in, 504, 508
interpersonal consequences, 503–504
intrapersonal consequences, 500–503
social antecedents of, 507–508
social consequences, 504
social impact of, 504
themes, 504–508
emotions, in close relationships, 528
anger expressions, 519–521
fear expressions, 521–522
forgiveness, 526–528
gratitude, experience of, 523
happiness, 522–523
hurt feelings, 525–526
jealousy feelings, 523–525
sadness, 521
empathic accuracy, 348
acquaintanceship effect and, 357–358
age differences and, 354
association between social success and, 365–366
in close relationships, 357–359
dyadic interaction paradigm, 350
future of studying, 367–369
gender differences in, 354–355
harmfulness aspect of, 366–367
individual differences in, 354–356
and interaction outcomes, 364–365
interpersonal sensitivity skills and, 355–356
measurement of, 350–352
motivational influences on, 358–359
normally developing individuals versus autistic individuals, 353–354
origin, 349
original and revised, 360–364
partner-based motivators, 359
perceiver-based motivators, 359
perceiver variance versus target variance, 356
personality traits and, 355
relation between intelligence and, 355
relationship-based motivators, 359–360
relationship-specific factors, 364
reliability and validity of measures, 352–353
reliable predictors of, 353
role-specific factors, 364
self-report measures, 355
situational motivators, 358–359
standard interview paradigm, 352
standard stimulus paradigm, 350–352
target differences and, 356–357
techniques for specifying “stop points,” 369
empathic inference, 349
empathy, 690–693
defined, 349
neural bases of, 690–692
empathy–altruism analysis of forgiveness, 645
enacted support, 712–713, 714, 715, 716, 718, 720
entering relationships, 94–95
entity theory, 184
environmental tracking, sex differences in, 789
erectile dysfunction, men with, 594, 596
eros (romantic, passionate love), 202, 216
error management, in relationships, 234–251
biases in courtship, 237–242
biases in friendships and coalitions, 244–245
biases in kinship, 245–246
biases in long-term romantic relationships, 242–244
future directions of, 246–250
new predictions of, 250
problems created by concealment, 236–237
problems created by deception, 236–237
recent developments in, 246–250
error management theory (EMT), 235–237, 235f, 241, 242, 317
conditional biases, 246–248, 247t
past versus present, 248–249
ultimate and proximate causes, of biases, 249
essentialist view of love, 204
esteem support, 412
estrus
adaptationist perspective, 383–384
concealed, 390–391
as discriminating sexuality, 381
historical background, 379
implications in romantic relationships, 384–385
loss of, 380
modification of, 391–394
patterns of cycle shifts in preferences, 385
phylogenetic perspective, 384, 391
in promoting extra-pair mating, 392–394
in promoting good relationships, 394
as sperm facilitation, 380
in women, 379–380
evidence-based interventions, 401
(p. 834) evoked culture meta-theoretical perspective, 173–175
evolutionarily relevant environment, 174
evolutionary life perspective, relationships from, 13–33
affiliation, 23–25
causal analysis, multiple levels of, 16
disease avoidance, 22–23
foundational principles of, 14–15
future directions of, 32
historical background of, 15–16
kin care, 30–32
life history perspective, 16–20
mate acquisition, 26–28
mate retention, 28–30
modularity, 20
motivational systems, 20
self-protection, 20–22
status, 25–26
evolutionary psychology, 138
theory in, 378
evolutionary theory, 5
exaptation, concept of, 377
excessive parental worry, 246
Exchange Orientation Scale, 263t
exchange relationships
in adulthood, 275–276
avoidance of, 260–262
and communal relationships, qualitative distinction between, 256–257
conceptualization of, 257
friendships, 258–259
individual differences in, 267–268
romantic relationships, 258–259
exit, 577
exosystem, of IPV analysis, 456
explicit evolutionary theory, 378
expressive pathway, in sexual satisfaction, 593
extended sexuality, 385–387
defined, 385–386
functions, 386
in humans, 387
illustrations in chimpanzees and orangutans, 386–387
in women, 387–388
external stress, 670
extra-pair mating, 392–394
extra-pair paternity, 393–394
extraversion, 151, 539–540, 542
extrinsic morbidity-mortality, 777
F
Facebook, 564
Facial Action Coding System, 289
facial affect
pleasant, 288
role-incongruent interaction and, 288
in terms of relationship-protective self-regulation, 290
facial attractiveness, 170
falling in love, 94–95
false-negative error, 235
false-positive error, 235
familiarity, 690–693
familiarity–attraction principle, 170–171
familism, 558
family allocentrism, 558
family-of-origin violence, 454
family relationships, 259–260
Fast Friends procedure, 104
father absence effects, 779
father–children relationship, 803
father–daughter comparison, 558
father–daughter relationships, 558, 779
father–son comparison, 558
fear, expressions of, 521–522
fearful individuals, 518
feature, defined, 376
felt security, 429
female mate choice, 785–786
female psychology, menstrual cycle effects on, 148–149
female strategic variation, addressing, 787
female-to-male IPV, 453
female trade-offs, nature of, 784
fertility status, cues of, 389–390
fight or flight response, 24
first sexual partner, 590
fitness, 235
inclusive, 245
five-factor model of personality, 535
agreeableness, 537–538
conscientiousness, 538–539
extraversion, 539–540
neuroticism, 536–537, 545
openness, 540
personality similarity and, 541–542
flirting, 70–72
self-disclosure, 70–71
fluidity in sexual attractions and behavior, 607
food aversion, 15
foreplay, 591
forgiveness, 338–339, 406, 526–528, 579, 638–660
and attachment anxiety, link between, 78
and avoidant attachment, link between, 78
broader versus more specific forms, 651–652
causal relations, 655–656
close relationship context, 642–643
commitment and, 648–649
conceptualization, 640–641
degrees of, 652–653
effect on self-concept, 78
effect on self-respect, 78
emerging issues, 649–651
balanced views, 650–651
close relationships partners, 650
disaggregation, 649
integration, 651
mechanism, 649–650
future research, relationship context as focus of, 654–655
using gratitude to improve interventions for, 656–657
identifying boundary conditions, 659
interpersonal versus emotional characterization, 652
prototype analyses of, 641–642
reciprocal relationships, 655
reviewing research on, 648–649
self-forgiveness, 656
shared impact on other relationship processes and outcomes, 654
theoretical perspectives on, 644–646
empathy–altruism analysis, 645
malleability model, 645–646
pyramid model, 644–645
social-cognitive perspective, 645
two-dimensional framework for, 653–654
foul mood, 678
Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), 813
friends, relationships with, 755
Friendship-based Love Scale, 209–210, 219, 227
friendships, 258–260
biases in, 244–245
new EMT predictions of, 250
and peer relationships, conflict in, 761
script, 602
function, concept of, 376
functional analysis of interaction, 40–42
future directions, of relationship science, 4–9, 4t
basic researchers–practitioners–policy maker’s connections, building, 7
developmental relationship trajectories, 8–9
dual process models of relationship processes, developing and testing, 8
focus on relationships and physiological processes, 9
individualistic orientation to human behavior, 4–5
interdisciplinary connections, development of, 6–7
person-by-situation models, developing and testing, 7–8
theoretical integration within relationship science, developing, 5–6
G
gay/lesbian/bisexual couples, 599
gay relationships, 736
gender differences
in empathic accuracy, 354–355
in love, 211–214
and self-construals, 297–298
Gender Empowerment Measure, 169
Gender-Related Development Index, 169
(p. 835) gender-related emotional dynamics, magnification of, 602–603
general estimating equations (GEE) algorithm, 747
generalized gratitude, 642
generalized negative affect, 49
general relationship theories, 308–309
General Social Survey, 210
“getting to know you” conversation, 335
global self-concept, 295
goal affordances, in risky situations, 117–118
good health, 176
good relationships, role of estrus, 394
gratitude, 401, 414–415, 638–660
balanced views, 650–651
benefit-triggered, 642
broader versus more specific forms, 651–652
causal relations, 655–656
close relationship context, 642–643
close relationships partners, 650
conceptualization, 639–640
degrees of, 652–653
disaggregation, 649
enhancement, 657
experience of, 523
future research, relationship context as a focus of, 654–655
generalized, 642
identifying boundary conditions, 659
implementation phase, 658
to improve interventions for forgiveness, 656–657
increasing, 658
integration, 651
interpersonal versus emotional characterization, 652
laying groundwork for, 657–658
maintenance phase, 658–659
mechanism, 649–650
orientation phase, 657–658
personal, 640
prototype analyses of, 641–642
reciprocal relationships, 655
reviewing research on, 646–648
self-processes in, 656
shared impact on other relationship processes and outcomes, 654
theoretical perspectives on, 643–644
attributional perspective, 643
evolutionary perspectives, 643
moral affect theory, 644
social-functionalist perspective, 644
transpersonal, 640
two-dimensional framework for, 653–654
Gross’s process model
and antecedent-focused strategies, 502
of emotion regulation, 500, 502–503, 507
growth belief, 184, 185, 186f
coping with conflict, 189–191
flexibility of, 191–192
function of, 187–191
implicitness of, reasons for, 192
relational context, 192–193
relational events, meaning assigned to, 188–189
guided variation, 173
gut response, 439
H
halo bias, 576
happiness, 522–523
happy and unhappy couples, 576
harshness–unpredictability theory, 777
heat-of-the-moment reactions, 439
help, 405
heterosexual couples
and same-sex couples, differences between, 599
sexual behavior within, 590–591
heterosexual romantic relationships, 583
high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), 621
history of relationships, 48–49
Homo sapiens, 162, 172, 173, 175
hormonal effects and variations, in mating strategies, 28
hostility, rejection-sensitive, 441
hot temperatures, as predictor of aggressive behavior, 463
human mind, self-regulatory systems of, 400
humor, 146
hunger, 15
hurt feelings, 525–526
husbands’ workload and marital satisfaction, 732
hybrid relationships, 258
I
I3 theory, 452, 457–459
hierarchical structure of, 460f
IPV from perspective of, 459–461
idealization, 578–579
and illusions, 579
ideal partner standards, 309
Ideal Standards Model, for partner regulation, 430–431
identity goals, 582
if–then contingency rule, 68, 119, 121, 122, 127, 131, 292–293, 299, 583
approach to personality, 292
contingencies of interaction, 293
relational selves, 292–293
self-inference rule, 293
self-schema component, 293
illness/disability, sexuality in couples coping with, 594–595
illusions, idealization and, 579
immediate outcomes, interpretation and evaluation of, 55–56
impellance, 458
Implicit Association Task (IAT), 8, 108, 482–483
implicit attitudes, 476
consciousness awareness and, 476
implicit cognition, 475
implicit constructs, 476
implicit emotion regulation, 510
implicit if-then contingencies, 483–484
implicit measure
implicit constructs, defined, 476
properties of assessment methods and, 476
properties of measures at construct level and, 476
and relational cognition approach, 494
implicit processes and relationship enrichment, 584–585
implicit representation of partner and self
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 482–483
Partner-IAT, 482–483
implicit social cognition, 476
implicit theories of relationships (ITRs), 183–196
compassionate goals, 195–196
defined, 184
destiny belief. See destiny belief
future directions of, 193–196
goals of, 193–194
growth belief. See growth belief
measurement approaches, 185–187, 186f
motivation of, 193–194
openness to interdependence, 195
openness to self-expansion, 195
others’ relationships, evaluating, 196
perceived partner responsiveness, 195
relationship troubles, help-seeking for, 194–195
Implicit Theories of Relationships Scale, 185, 186
imprinting, 15
impulsive system, 476–477
Inclusion of Community in Self Scale, 108
inclusion-of-other-in-the-self (IOS), 101–109, 295–296
defined, 90, 91t, 102
distinguished from self-expansion motivation, 91t
extensions of, 107–108
future directions of, 110
measuring, 102–104
outcomes of, 105–107
physical effect of, 106
physiological effect of, 106
predictors of, 104–105
Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, 91, 91t, 102–108, 103f, 582
distinguished from inclusion-of-other-in-the-self principle, 91t
(p. 836) inclusive fitness, 245
independence, 554
independent versus interdependent self-construals, 555
differentially valued in discipline of psychology, 555
as moderators of dissonance reduction processes, 562
multiple types of, 566–567
priming, 562–563
self-monitoring, low versus high levels of, 555–556
among partners in intercultural relationships, 565–566
among partners in intracultural relationships, 566
indirect effects of emotion regulation, 504–506
individual(s)
differences, 504, 508, 673–674
in communal/exchange relationships, 267–268
life history and, 18
in risk appraisal, 121
dismissive, 518
dispositions, 45
meta-perceptions, 314
prevention-focused. See prevention-focused individuals
and relationship functioning, interplay between, 752
secure, 518
self-expansion, 101
individualism, 555
individualism-collectivism dichotomy, 568
individualistic cultures, behavior in, 553
individualistic orientation to human behavior, 4–5
inferences, 284
inferential difficulty, index of, 356
infertility, effects on marital satisfaction, 82
infidelity, 29, 30
partner infidelity, overestimations of, 242
self-expansion motivation, 99–100
threat of, 143
Informational Divorce Education Programs (IDEPs), 812
informational influence, 172
inhibition, 458
initial attraction, self-expansion motivation role in, 93–94, 111n1
initial impulses, correcting, 123–126
innate drives
primary, 15
secondary, 15
insecurity, regulation of, 444–446
across daily life, 441–442
attachment anxiety within relationships, 438–439
buffering relationships from rejection sensitivity, 437–442
conflict interactions, 439–441
instigation, 458
instinctive behavior, 15
open, 15
instrumental aggression, 453
instrumental pathway, in sexual satisfaction, 593
integrated social-emotion system, 695
integrative neuroscience of relationships, 685
familiarity, empathy, and caregiving, 690
caring brain, 692–693
neural bases of empathy, 690–692
future directions, 702
clinical implications, 703
longitudinal designs, implementing, 702–703
neuroscientific measurement modalities, expanding, 702
relational contexts, utilizing, 702
integrated social-emotion system, 695
principles of, 698
economy of action, 698–699
perception–action links, 701
prediction, 670–701
sociality, 701–702
romantic love and sex, 693
dopamine, desire and, 695
neurobiology of sexual behavior, 693–694
oxytocin and pair bonding, 694
social baseline theory, 696–698
social perception, 686
amygdala and emotion recognition, 688–689
biological motion, intention, and mentalizing, 686
mirror neurons and mimicry, 686–688
oxytocin and trusting behavior, 689–690
social rejection and loneliness, 696
tend and befriend, 696
integrative summary, 579–580
intelligence, 184
and empathic accuracy, relation between, 355
intentional transmission, of cultural variants, 163
interaction situation
affordance, 44
constraints of, 44
future situations, managing and selecting, 58–59
perceiving, 48, 49, 51–53, 56, 57
properties of, 43–44
structure of, 42–45
cognitive/mental process, 52–54
in everyday interaction, identifying, 44–45
person factors triggered by, 51–52
intercultural relationships
independent versus interdependent self-construals among partners in, 565–566
interdependence, 554, 556–557
defined, 554
importance of, 554
new and promising directions for future research, 564
openness to, 195
relational, 567
self-construals and, 558–559
interdependence theory, 5, 7, 39–61, 92, 309, 626–627
adaptation process, 56–59
adaptation, 40f
components of, 42–45
functional analysis of, 40–42
future research of, 60–61
interaction situation. See interaction situation
partner’s behavior, interpretation and evaluation of, 55–56
person-by-situation interactions, 45–55
of responsiveness, 409–410
interdependent self-construals, 326
versus independent self-construals, 555
interdisciplinary connections, development of, 6–7
interloper bias, 242
intermittent explosive disorder (IED), 466
internal working models, 67
interpersonal aggression, 463
interpersonal behavior and significant-other representations, 291
interpersonal conflict, 456
interpersonal emotional competence, 528
interpersonal functions of emotion, 501–502
interpersonal integration orientation, 567
interpersonal partner violence (IPV), 7
Interpersonal Perceptions Task (IPT-15), 356
Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), 355
interpersonal relationships, 685
interpersonal risk, regulating, 116–132
automatic risk regulation processes, 128–130
chronic trust, 118–121
dual-process approach to, 122–130
goal affordances, in risky situations, 117–118
in novel situations, 121–122
initial impulses, correcting, 123–126
procedural rules, 118–121
research, future of, 130–131
risk appraisal, individual differences in, 121
interpersonal sensitivity skills and empathic accuracy, 355–356
(p. 837) Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), 712
interpersonal trust, 333, 561
interracial relationships, 411
intersexual mate choice, 772
intimacy and closeness, development of, 403, 411
intimacy development, 332–333
prevention-focused individuals, 332
promotion -focused individuals, 332
trust and, 332–333
upward spiral of, 333
intimacy process model, for responsiveness, 402–405, 410
intimate partner abuse (IPA) literature, 809
intimate partner violence (IPV), 452–453
clinical approach for investigation of, 454–455
cognitive-behavioral approach for investigation of, 454
cross-cultural analyses of, 453
cultural approval for perpetration of, 464
disinhibiting risk factors, 464–465
due to self-regulatory failures, 458
exhibition of, 454
female-to-male, 453
from perspective of I3 theory, 459–461
impelling risk factors, 462–464
impellor and inhibitor interaction effects, 466–467
instigating risk factors, 461–462
instigator and impellor interaction effects, 465
instigator and inhibitor interaction effects, 465–466
integrative models of, 456–457
interpersonal models for, 455–456
intrapersonal models of, 454–455
I3 theory applications, effects of, 461t
motivating factors for changing likelihood of, 456
perpetrators, categories of, 456
personality approach for investigation of, 454
physical proclivity and negative outcome expectancies, 467
provocation and alcohol intoxication, effects of, 466
provocation and relationship commitment, effects of, 466
risk factors, 454, 456
social learning theory for, 454
sociocultural models of, 453–454
theoretical models of, 453
three-way instigator, impellor, and inhibitor interaction effects, 467
typological models for, 456
verbal rules, 456
intimate relationships, 430, 589
bias and accuracy in, 307
independent versus interdependent self-construals among partners in, 566
of same sex, 599
gender-related emotional dynamics, magnification of, 602–603
legal formalization, lack of opportunities for, 601–602
norms and practices regarding sexuality, 603–604
sexual stigmatization and marginalization, 599–601
intrafamilial aggression, 453
intrapersonal consequences of emotion regulation, 500–503
intrapersonal differentiation orientation, 567
intrapersonal processes, in divorce
attributions, 801
gender, 800–801
parental divorce history, 799–800
patterns of interaction, 801
personality, 799
intrasexual competition, 141–144
infidelity, threat of, 143
intrasexual cooperation, 143–144
intrasexual competition, 782, 783, 789–790
intrasexual cooperation, 143–144
Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB), 713
investment
differential parental, 18–19, 25
in different relationships, 18
minimal obligatory parental, 18
in other relatives, 17
invisible support, 413
J
jealousy feelings, 463, 523–525
judgments
accuracy of. See accuracy of judgments
and biases, 310–311
kinds of, 311
in partner and relationship, 313–318
K
kin care, 30–32
kindness, 141, 146, 656, 657
kin rearing, 20
kinship
biases in, 245–246
new EMT predictions of, 250
kitchen cupboard theory of bonding, 701
L
lack of shared leisure time, 671
laypeople’s conceptions of love, 204–208
leadership
commitment, 29
maintenance, 29
social-emotional, 26
task, 26
learning, principles of, 454
lesbian bed death, case of, 604–605
lesbian couples, 599
less appealing, making oneself, 576
lexical decision tasks, 8
LG-ABN mothers, 781
life history perspective, 16–20, 153, 772–775
between-sex variations, 18–19
developmental hierarchy of, 17–18
future directions of, 32
individual differences, 18
investment in different relationships, 18
sexual selection and, synthesis between, 788
environmental tracking, sex differences in, 789
evolutionary-developmental model of peer status and mate value, need for, 789–791
unresolved issues, addressing, 788–789
within-sex variations, 19–20
life history trade-offs, 773
life-span social support theory, 720–721, 720f
Liking Scale, 209, 211, 219
lineage of a living species, 379
load sharing, 697
local relationship theory, 308–309
loneliness, 685, 695
social rejection and, 696
long-distance relationship, 577
longitudinal growth curve model, 732–733
long-lasting romantic relationship consolidation, 72–75
attachment, 74
cognitions, 72–73
commitment, 73–74
effect on support provision, 74–75
perceptions, 72–73
relational investment, 73–74
synchronization, 74
long-term mating, 787
long-term romantic commitments, 306
long-term romantic relationships, biases in, 242–244
love
altruistic, 213, 219
attachment, 204, 210, 213–214, 218, 223–224
companionate, 202, 209–210, 213, 214, 217–218, 219
compassionate, 202, 203, 210, 213, 214–215, 218, 219
components of, 202, 203
culture and, 215–218
defined, 202–208, 224
(p. 838) descriptive psychologists’ definition of, 203–204
essentialist view of, 204
falling in, 94–95
future directions of, 227–218, 220–223f
gender differences in, 211–214
kinds of, 202–203
laypeople’s conceptions of, 204–208
measurement of, 208–211
measures and models of, integration of, 210–211
parental, 204
personality differences in, 214–215
relational implications of, 219–227
social psychologists’ definition of, 202–203
social psychology of. See social psychology of love
styles of, 187, 202
Love Attitudes Scale, 208–211, 216
“love is blind” hypothesis, 307
solving, 308
Love Scale, 209, 211, 219, 225
low dispositional self-control, 464
lower-order perceptual processes, 145–148
loyalty, 577, 580
as accommodative response, 565
ludus (game-playing love), 202
M
macrosystem, of IPV analysis, 456
male–male couples, sexual nonexclusivity in, 605–606
male partner responses to women, 390
male psychology, menstrual cycle effects on, 149–151
male reproductive strategies, 786
male warrior hypothesis, 154
malleability model of forgiveness, 645–646
mandatory informational divorce education programs, 812–813
Mandler’s theorizing, 518–519
mania (obsessive, dependent love), 202
marginal models, 747
Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), 653
marital communication, 416
marital distress, social-cognitive model of, 801
maritally aggressive individuals, 363–364
marital resource model, 620
marital satisfaction, 678–679
in arranged marriage, 164–165
infertility effects on, 82
marital separation. See divorce
marital status, 618
and mortality, 620
and objective health indicators, 618–620
and self-rated health, 618
and sleep, 619
Markus and Kitayama’s self-construal model, 555
marriage
defined, 795
arranged, 164–165
-like relationship, 607, 622
relationship, 607
system of, 165–166
mate acquisition, 26–28
affiliation and, 25
mating strategies, hormonal effects and variations in, 28
men’s relative preference, for status, 28
short-term relationships, sex difference in, 27
women’s relative preference, for status, 27–28
mate poaching, 81, 168
mate preferences, 168–169, 783–784
mate retention, 20, 28–30
maternal depression, impact of, 408
maternal sensitivity, to infant distress, 407
mate-selection settings, 313–314
mate value hierarchies, 782
mating, 17
algorithm, 259
rivalry biases, 241–242
among female friends, 242
situational triggers of, 152–154
strategies, hormonal effects and variations in, 28
meaning analysis, 56
mean-level biases, 406
medial preoptic area (mPOA), 692
mediators of stress effects on relationships, 670–673
memes, 162
men
abusive, 363–364
attractiveness rating, 382
empathic accuracy in, 354–355
extended sexuality, 387
facial masculinity, 382–383, 387
mate’s fertility status, responses to, 390
relative preference, for status, 28
response to women, 376
across the cycle, 388–389
and scent of fertile women, 378, 382
sexiness, 382–383
sexual overperception bias, 238–240, 238–239f
symmetrical, scent of, 382
testosterone level responses to fertility, 390
women’s preferences of scent of, 382
“me/not-me” paradigm, 105
menstrual cycle, psychological and behavioral changes across, 148–151
effects on female psychology, 148–149
effects on male psychology, 149–151
mental representations, of attachment security, 68–69
meshed intrachain sequences, 519
meta-cognition, 308, 312
meta-perception, 404
Michelangelo phenomenon, 92, 99, 416
microsystem, of IPV analysis, 456
Mikulincer and Shaver’s process model, 484–486
and attachment system, 488–489
mimicry, 576
mind reading strategies, 367–368
minimal obligatory parental investment, 18
Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation, 440
minority stress, 600
MIO effects
postulates of, 478
and SPA research, 478
mirror neurons and mimicry, 686–688
“modal model” of emotion, 501
moderator identification
age factor, 506
other moderators, 507
role of culture, 506, 509
moderators of stress effects on relationships, 673
modularity, 20
monogamy, 30, 165
serial, 165
socially imposed, 165
monozygotic (MZ) twins, 805
morbidity
positive aspects of relationships and, 623
relationship conflict and, 621
mortality
marital status and, 620
positive aspects of relationships and, 623
relationship conflict and, 621
mother–child interaction, 814
mother–daughter correlation, 558
motivated inaccuracy, 360–361
motivated management of mutual responsiveness, 411
motivated reinterpretations, 403
motivation
in close relationships, 49–51
principle of, 90
transformation of, 45–48, 560
motivational systems, 20
Motivation-Management Model of Mutual Responsiveness, 409
Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), 543
multilevel modeling (MLM), 732, 740–741
multiple-transition families, children in, 804
multiple-word priming, subliminal, 479
(p. 839) multisession group treatments for parents and children, 813
mutual cyclical growth, 411
mutually responsive relationships, 410
N
narcissism, 49, 543
sexual, 546–547
Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), 547
National Comorbidity Survey–Replication study, 466
natural killer (NK) cell, 622
natural selection, 138, 173, 782
negative affect, generalized, 49
negative emotionality, 543–544
neglect, 577
nerve growth factor (NGF), 630
neuroticism, 536–537, 545
Nirvana, 111
nonaffective psychosis disorders, 455
nonmarital romantic relationships, 627–628
nonmarital unions and stepfamilies, research on, 813–815
non-normative stress, 676–677
nonpathological perpetrators, 456
nonverbal expressions, 402
normative development, 751
normative influence, 172
normative stress, 676–677
novel situations, risk regulation in, 121–122
O
objective health indicators, marital status and, 618–620
object relations theory, 479–480
observational learning, 172, 454
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 246
one’s own person factors, calibrating, 56–57
one’s own self-expansion in ongoing relationships, partner support for, 98–99
ongoing relationships
one’s own self-expansion in, partner’s support for, 98–99
shared novel/challenging activities in, 95–98
ontogentic level, of IPV analysis, 456
ontogeny and proximate mechanisms, 787–788
open instincts, 15. See also instinctive behavior
openness, 540, 542
to experience, 151
to interdependence, 195
to self-expansion, 195
open relationships, 606
operant conditioning, 15, 454
opposite-sex friendship, 561
optimal matching hypothesis, 713, 714–715
oral sex, 590
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 686
other’s outcomes as one’s own, treating, 106–107
others’ relationships, evaluating, 196
outcome(s), 41
correspondence of, 43, 44
dating, 71–72
dependence, 42
immediate outcomes, interpretation and evaluation of, 55–56
Own Significant-Other (Own S-O) condition, 284–286, 288–289
oxytocin, 29, 410
and pair bonding, 694
and sexual behavior, 693
and trusting behavior, 689–690
P
pair bonding, oxytocin and, 694
parental care, 17, 30
parental investment, 139
differential, 18–19
minimal obligatory, 18
strategies, 776
theory, 782
parental love, 204
parental monitoring, 754
parental remarriages, 804
parental worry, excessive, 246
parent–child relationship, 812, 813
quality of, 753–754, 755, 780
repeated measures with dyads, 736
responsiveness in, 407–408
parenthood marital satisfaction, 676–677, 678
parenting coordination, 811–812
parenting coordinator programs (PCPs), 811
parents’ and adult off spring’s self-construals, 558
partible paternity, 165
partner(s)
-based motivators, of empathic accuracy, 359
-blaming attributions, 584
choice, 164–165
effects, 584
extraversion effects, 539–540
forgiveness, underestimations of, 242–243
idealization and relationship worry, 243–244
implicit representation of, 482–483
infidelity, overestimations of, 242
negative behaviors, responses to, 77–79
openness, 540
positive behavior, responses to, 79–80
potential, 140–141
responsiveness, perceptions of, 416
selection, developmental processes in, 763–764
transgressions, 576–577
welfare, in communal relationships, 262–263
partner’s behavior, interpretation and evaluation of, 55–56
immediate outcomes, 55–56
meaning analysis, 56
partner’s relationship satisfaction
agreeableness, 537
conscientiousness, 537–538
extraversion, 539, 541
narcissism, 543
neuroticism, 536
openness, 540–541
and personality similarity, 541–542
shyness, 544
Trait X situation interactions, 545
Trait X Trait interactions, 545–546
Partner-IAT, 482–483
relationship outcomes and, 491–492
partner regulation, 443–444
causes of, 430–431
consequences of, 430–431, 432f, 435t
and degree of conflict recovery, 441
demand–withdraw pattern, 434
destructive strategies for, 438
effects of, 434
emerging themes and future directions for, 442–447
Ideal Standards Model for, 430
for insecurity. See insecurity, regulation of
negative-direct tactics for, 434
negative-indirect tactics for, 435
and perceived regard, 431–432
positive-direct tactics for, 434
positive-indirect tactics for, 435, 436
versus self-regulation, 432–433
strategies and regulation success, 433–437
passionate love, 164–165
beliefs, attitudes and, 208–209
culture and, 215–217
defined, 202
measurement of, 208–209
personality differences in, 214
relationship experience, 209
and satisfaction, 219
Passionate Love Scale, 209, 211, 219, 225, 227
Passion Scale, 209
paternal investment theory, 777–778, 782–783
pathological perpetrators, 456
peacock
sexual selection, 18
peer competence, 754
peer expectations, 410
peer relationships
and friendships, conflict in, 761
(p. 840) and romantic involvement, links between, 754
peer status and mate value, evolutionary-developmental model of, 789–791
penile–vaginal intercourse, 590, 603
perceived caring, 406
perceived partner responsiveness, 195, 402–405, 411, 415–416
perceived support, 712, 713, 714, 716, 719, 722, 723, 724
personality and life-span perspectives of, 720–722
perceived understanding, 404
perceiver-based motivators, of empathic accuracy, 359
perception–action links, 701
perceptions, of relationship consolidation, 72–73
personal gratitude, 640
personality
additional issues, 544
differences in love, 214–215
five-factor model of, 535–542
interactionist theory of, 292–293
other traits, 543–544
and relationship functioning, 535
similarity, 541–542
situation-specific nature of, 544–548
traits and empathic accuracy, 355
personal relationships, 496
culturally informed research on, 567–568
self-construals and, 557–560
person-by-situation interactions, 45–55
cognitive/mental process, 52–54
motives, in close relationships, 49–51
Person A’s behavior, 54–55
Person B’s behavior, 54–55
person factors, in close relationships, 49
relationships, history of, 48–49
transformation of motivation, 45–48
triggered by situation structure, 51–52
person-by-situation models, developing and testing, 7–8
person-centered support, 413
person factors, in close relationships, 49
person period pairwise file, 739
person seeking a mate, 138–139
phalaropes
sexual selection, 18–19
phasic models of appraisal, 516
phylogenetics, 378–379
implications of, 379
phylogenetic tree, 378–379
physical attractiveness, of potential partners, 140, 146, 151
physiological reactivity systems, developmental precursors of, 762–763
Plutchik’s circumplex model, 516–517
Pollyannaish self perceptions, 307
polyandry, 165
polygyny, 30, 165–166
informal, 167
positive affect, 69
positive aspects of relationships, 622
and biological health markers, 623–624
and morbidity and mortality, 623
and self-rated health, 622–623
positive-direct communication, 437
positive directional bias
accuracy of judgments and, 310
in a happy, romantic relationship, 314
in intimate relationships, 315–316
levels of relationship quality and, 313
relationship satisfaction and, 313–315
stress and, 316
in studies of judgment categories, 317
positive emotion, 502, 505–506, 543
positive emotions, capitalization on, 80
positive-indirect behavior, consequences of, 436
positive relationship, 312
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 455
pragma (practical love), 187, 202
predicting relationship, accuracy of, 315–316
predictions, 670–701
making, 700
prefrontal cortex (PFC), 686
pregnancy and marital satisfaction, 676–677
premarital sex, 590
preoccupied individuals, 518
prestige, 25
prevention-focused individuals
anxious attachment orientations, 330–331
approach-oriented relationship goals, 328–329
avoidance-oriented relationship goals, 328–329
avoidant attachment orientations, 330–331
in committed relationships, 336
intimacy development, 332
motivations, 322–323, 329–341
partner’s support, 339–340
perspectives on self-regulation, 330
reciprocal attraction, dyadic processes of, 333–335
relationship initiation, 332
risk and dependency regulation, 331
self-disclosure, dyadic processes of, 333–335
strategic preferences, 328–329
primary appraisal, 516
primary drives, 15
priming
affective, 482
of significant-other representation, 283
principal components analysis (PCA), 760
probabilistic developmental pathways, 751–752
problem-solving support, 714
process, defined, 376
projecting judgments of the self, 308–309
promotion-focused individuals, 332
anxious attachment orientations, 330–331
approach-oriented relationship goals, 328–329
avoidance-oriented relationship goals, 328–329
avoidant attachment orientations, 330–331
in committed relationships, 336
intimacy development, 332
motivations, 322–323, 329–341
partner’s support, 339–340
perspectives on self-regulation, 330
reciprocal attraction, dyadic processes of, 333–335
relationship initiation, 332
risk and dependency regulation, 331
self-disclosure, dyadic processes of, 333–335
strategic preferences, 328–329
pro-relationship motivations, 437
prototype approach to love, 204–207
prototype hypothesis, 757
prototype perspectives, 517
provisional mate-selection, 313
provocation, 458, 459, 467–468
and self-regulatory depletion, 465–466
Proximal Antecedents to Violent Episodes (PAVE) Scale, 462
proximate causation, theory of, 378
proximate mechanism, 787–788, 790
psychoanalysis
concept of transference, 479
Freudian, 477
subliminal semantic priming, 477
psychodynamic activation, subliminal, 477–479
psychological distress, 595
psychosocial acceleration theory, 775–776, 778
pubertal maturation, psychosocial effects on, 778–779
pyramid model of forgiveness, 644–645
Q
quail
food aversion, 15–16
quasi-signal-detection analysis, 416
R
rats
food aversion, 15
real-life partners, 306
reappraisal, 502, 516
differential cognitive consequences of, 503
and emotional goals, 509
social effects of, 504
(p. 841) reciprocal responsiveness, 414
reciprocity–attraction principle, 170–171, 175
recognition-memory test, 284
reevaluating relationship, using discretion, 57–58
Reflective-Impulsive Model, 476
reflective system, 476–477
Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ) measures, 324–325, 336, 341
rejection, threat of, 404
rejection sensitivity, 49
and automatic functioning, 490
overcoming automatic, 490–491
related-individuation orientation, 567
related-patterning orientation, 567
relational cognition approach
automatic level interventions, 495–496
different measurement approaches, 495
implicitness, 494
static to dynamic attachment models, 494–495
relational conflict, responses to, 76–77
relational disinhibitors, 464
relational identity, 581–582
relational impellors, 463
relational interdependence, 567
relational-interdependent self-construal, 560–561, 563
as reflected in relational trust, 561
Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal (RISC) Scale, 297–298, 301, 561
relational investment, in relationship consolidation, 73–74
relational regulation theory (RRT), 717, 724
evidence for, 718–719
future research directions, 719–720
relational satisfaction, 522–523
relational schemata, 293–294
attachment and selective attention under stress, 487–488
attachment as dynamic cognitive-motivational process, 484–485
Baldwin’s concept of, 481–482, 494
Bartholomew’s model, 482
cognitive methods and, 482–489
implicit if-then contingencies and, 483–484
implicit representation of partner and self, 482–483
motivation and goals, 488–489
object relations theory and, 479–480
threat and distress effects, 485, 487
relational self-construal, Cross’s theory of, 581
relational selves, 281
activation in transference, 284–285
affective elements of, 288
attachment-theoretical view of, 294
and culture, 296–297
and gender, 297–298
idiographic and normative aspects of, 285
“if–then” approach, 292–293
and interpersonal behavior, 291
IOS perspective, 295–296
research on, 298
and self-regulatory processes, 289
and social identities, 300–301
and well-being, 301
relational themes, 516
relational trust, 561
relationship-based motivators, of empathic accuracy, 359–360
relationship commitment, 465, 467–468
relationship conflict, 441, 620
and biological health markers, 621
and morbidity and mortality, 621
and self-rated health, 621
relationship conflict, coping with, 189–191
relationship consolidation, long-lasting romantic, 72–75
relationship contexts
East Asian Americans, 296–297
Japanese, 296
North Americans, 296
relationship dissolution, 100–101, 307
relationship enrichment, implicit processes and, 584–585
relationship flag, waving of, 825–827
relationship functioning and personality, 535
relationship initiation, influencing factors, 332–335
dyadic, reciprocal processes, 332–335
promotion-focused individuals versus prevention-focused individuals, 332
trust, 332–333
relationship initiation, 332–333
relationship-maintaining attributions, 576
relationship maintenance, 75–81, 338–339, 573
acts, types of, 430
attractive alternatives, 574–576
capitalization on positive emotions, 80
dark side of, 580–581
dyadic communication, 76
dyadic interactions between partner motivations in, 340–341
idealization, 578–579
integrative summary, 579–580
motivated strategies for, 336
motivational bases of, 581
cognitive resources, 582–584
implicit processes and relationship enrichment, 584–585
partner effects, 584
relational identity, 581–582
need for commitment, 336–338
partner transgressions, 576–577
partner’s support, 339–340
responses to a partner’s negative behaviors, 77–79
responses to partner’s positive behavior, 79–80
responses to relational conflict, 76–77
romantic alternatives, evaluation of, 336
Rusbult’s investment model, 335
sacrifice, willingness to, 577–578
sexual satisfaction, 80–81
topography of, 580
trust, forgiveness and feelings of, 338–339
relationship outcomes, predicting
break-up adjustment, 493–494
maintenance and dissolution, 493
Partner-IAT scores and, 491–492
recent developments in, 491–494
well-being and, 492–493
relationship processes. See also individual entries
anxious attachment orientations, 330–331
approach-oriented relationship goals, 328–329
avoidance-oriented relationship goals, 328–329
avoidant attachment orientations, 330–331
chronic focus on promotion and prevention, 323–326
influences on evaluative sensitivities and strategic preferences, 327–328
motivation in, 328–329, 331–341
prevention-focused strategic preferences, 328–329
promotion-focused strategic preferences, 328–329
risk and dependency regulation, 331
sensitivities, 327–328
temporarily activated promotion or prevention concerns, 326–327
prevention, motivations for, 322–323
promotion, motivations for, 322–323
temporary and chronic activation, interactions between, 327
Relationship Questionnaire, 226
Relationship Rating Form, 209, 211
relationship research, 475
relationships as contexts, 752
relationship satisfaction, 81–82, 321, 335, 338, 340, 342, 431, 434
individuals’ judgments of, 309
levels of, 309
relationship selection, 138–141
lower-order perceptual processes, 145–148
partner, 140–141
person, 138–139
situation, 139–140
(p. 842) relationship-specific attachment models, 294
relationship-specific factors, in empathic accuracy, 364
Relationship Specific Investment Inventory (RSI), 786
relationship-specific motives, 409
relationship stage, 314–315
relationship theories, 308
accuracy of predicting relationship, 315
affective forecasting error in relationship contexts, 311
general, 308–309
individual differences, influence in, 315–316
local, 308–309
Relationship Theories Questionnaire, 186
relationship threat, 118
interactions, 439
situations, 439
relationship troubles, help-seeking for, 194–195
repeated measures with dyads. See dyads, repeated measures with
reproductive effort, 17
reproductive strategies, development of, 771
developmental, life history models, 775
attachment–mortality theory, 776–777
child development theory, 778
empirical evidence, 778–780
evaluation, 782
harshness–unpredictability theory, 777
limitations, 780–782
paternal investment theory, 777–778
psychosocial acceleration theory, 775–776
life history theory, 772–775
life history theory and sexual selection, synthesis between, 788
environmental tracking, sex differences in, 789
evolutionary-developmental model of peer status and mate value, need for, 789–791
unresolved issues, addressing, 788–789
sexual selection theory and parental investment, 782
empirical evidence, 785–786
evaluation, 778
human reproductive variation, sexual selection model of, 784–785
limitations, 786–788
within-sex variation, 783
research in emotion regulation
assessment at different levels, 509
and implicit emotion regulation, 510
specific emotions and regulatory goals, 508–509
specific strategies, 509–510
temporal dynamics, 510–511
resource acquisition, 20
response modulation, 502
responsive communication, 403
responsive listening, 403, 409
responsiveness
attachment theory of, 407
attraction and relationship maintenance, 410–412
and caregiving, 405–407
core constructs in, 401–410
developmental perspective on, 407–408
factors eliciting, 410
impact on relationship, 401
interdependence theory perspective on, 409–410
intimacy process model for, 402–405
intrapersonal influences on, 402
versus nonresponsiveness, 416–417
in parent–child relationships, 407–408
perceived partner responsiveness, 402–405
perception of, 402
related constructs to, 412–415
and social interaction, 400
Revised NEO Personality Inventory, 542
reward, 257
risk appraisal, individual differences in, 121
risk distribution, 697
risk regulation. See interpersonal risk, regulating
role incongruence, 288
role-specific factors, in empathic accuracy, 364
romantic attachment research, 756
multiple representations, in(ter)dependence of, 757–758
prototype hypothesis, 757
romantic attachment behavior, 758–759
romantic attraction, 138–141
applied research, 153–155
evolution, learning, and culture, integrating theories of, 151–152
lower-order perceptual processes, 145–148
mating, situational triggers of, 152–154
partner, 140–141
person, 138–139
situation, 139–140
Romantic Beliefs Scale, 208
Romantic Idealist Factor, 208
romantic love, 203, 306
beliefs, attitudes and, 208–209
culture and, 215–217
defined, 224
distinguished romantic obsession, 211
gender differences in, 211–213
measurement of, 208–209
personality differences in, 214
relationship experience, 209
and satisfaction, 219
and sex, 693
dopamine, desire and, 695
neurobiology of, 693–694
oxytocin and pair bonding, 694
Romantic Love Complex, 208
romantic obsession versus romantic love, 211
romantic relationships, 187, 258–259, 337–338, 375–376
estrus, role of, 384–385
heterosexual, 583
mean-level bias in, 312
positive directional bias in, 314
sexuality within. See sexuality
romantic relationships and health, 617
expanded contexts, 629
ethnicity/culture, 631
relationship transitions, 630
social networks, 631
expanded health outcomes studied, 628
asthma, 629
upper respiratory tract infections (URIs), 629
generalizability, increasing, 624–625
marital status, 618
and mortality, 620
and objective health indicators, 618–620
and self-rated health, 618
nonmarital romantic relationships, importance of, 627–628
positive aspects of relationships, 622
and biological health markers, 623–624
and morbidity and mortality, 623
and self-rated health, 622–623
relationship conflict, 620
and biological health markers, 621
and morbidity and mortality, 621
and self-rated health, 621
searching for underlying mechanisms, 625
adult attachment, 626
interdependence theory, 626–627
social ostracism, 626
touch/physical contact, 627
rumor transmission, 172
S
SABI model, 42, 48, 52
sacrifice, 406
willingness to, 577–578
sadness, 521
sadomasochism, 104
same-sex and heterosexual couples, differences between, 599
same-sex friendship, 561
(p. 843) same-sex intimate relationships, 599, 607
gender-related emotional dynamics, magnification of, 602–603
legal formalization, lack of opportunities for, 601–602
norms and practices regarding sexuality, 603–604
sexual stigmatization and marginalization, 599–601
Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale, 210
SAS syntax, 743–745
satisfaction
across dating partners, ratings of, 735
love and, 219–224, 220–223f
relationship, 321, 335, 338, 340, 342
individuals’ judgments of, 309
levels of, 309
Saucier’s Big Five mini-markers scale, 547–548
scent of fertility
men’s testosterone response, 390
women’s response, 389–390
scrambled-sentence task priming procedure, 186
secondary adaptation, 377
secondary appraisal, 516
secondary attachment strategies, 67
secondary drives, 15
secret selves, 118
secure individuals, 518
selective attention, 487–488
self, implicit representation of, 482–483
self, inclusion of other in, 563–564
self-actualization, 555
self-awareness, limits of, 8
self-concept, 52, 58, 94, 170, 284
forgiveness effect on, 78
global, 295
significant-other representation, 285–286
self-construals, 557
and accommodation, in personal relationships, 559–560
and interdependence processes, 555, 558–559
and personal relationship processes, 557–558
and self-monitoring, 556
Self-Construal Scale (SCS), 560
self-control, 671
self-definition, 285–286
self-disclosure, 333–335, 402–403, 410–411, 431
in flirting/dating relationships, 70–71
intimacy development through, 104
responsive, 71
self-discrepancy theory, 289
self-efficacy, 69, 94
self-enhancement, 81
self-esteem, 49, 52, 58, 69, 70, 81, 94, 432, 443
and automatic functioning, 489–491
high, 6, 74, 77, 120, 123, 125–127, 131, 214, 272, 275, 490, 575, 673
individuals, 575
low, 5, 6, 51, 60, 74, 77, 120, 123, 125–127, 131, 214, 271, 272, 275, 315, 316, 405, 409, 411, 412, 415, 417, 429–430, 441, 444, 445, 489, 490, 494, 575, 804
overcoming automatic rejection sensitivity, 490–491
and rejection sensitivity, 490
sociometer model of, 120
self-evaluation, 285–286
self-expansion model, 5
self-expansion motivation, 91–101
attention to alternatives, 99–100
defined, 91t
entering relationships and falling in love, 94–95
future directions of, 109
inclusion-of-other-in-the-self aspect of, 108–109
individual, 101
infidelity, 99–100
one’s own self-expansion in ongoing relationships, partner’s support for, 98–99
openness to, 195
relation to other relationship models, 92–93
relationship dissolution, 100–101
role in initial attraction, 93–94, 111n1
shared novel/challenging activities, in ongoing relationships, 95–98
Self-Expansion Questionnaire (SEQ), 91–92, 91t, 100
self-focus, 408, 417
self-forgiveness, 656
self-knowledge, 284
self-monitoring
East–West mean differences in, 556
low versus high levels of, 555–556
self-construals and, 556
self-perception, 578
developing, 790
self-protection, 20–22
functional flexibility, 21–22
goals, 118, 119
strategy, 581
trade-offs, 21
self-protective biases, 406
self-protective defenses, 406
self-rated health
marital status and, 618
positive aspects of relationships and, 622–623
relationship conflict and, 621
self-regulation, 321, 671
accommodation and, 439
partner regulation versus, 432–433
and relationships, 428–430
theories for, 444
self-regulatory processes, interpersonal influences on, 289
self-report measures, of empathic accuracy, 355
self-reports, 8
self-respect, forgiveness effect on, 78
self-revealing actions, 402
self-serving biases, 307
sensitive parenting, 408
separated-individuation orientation, 567
separated-patterning orientation, 567
serial monogamy, 165
sex differences
in mate poaching, 168
in mate preferences, 169
in sexual strategies, 237–238
in short-term relationships, 27
in sociosexuality, 167
sexes, conflict between, 144–145
sex ratio, 165–166, 574
sex-specific developmental pathways, 780–781
sexual activity, unwanted, 598
sexual attitudes, 166–167
sexual attraction, 378, 384–385, 387, 393–394
sexual behavior, appropriate, 166–168
mate poaching, 168
sexual attitudes, 166–167
sexual scripts, 168
sociosexuality, 167–168
sexual behavior, neurobiology of, 693–694
sexual dysfunction, 595, 596
treatment of, 596
sexual infidelity, 29, 30
sexual intimacy, 595
sexuality, 589
age and time, 591–592
communication, role of, 592–593
within contemporary heterosexual couples, 590–591
in couples coping with illness or disability, 594–595
during/after pregnancy, 591
emerging directions, 606–607
emotional intimacy, 591
gender’s role in, 590–591
longer-term relationships, 591
male–male couples, sexual nonexclusivity in, 605–606
premarital sex, 590
same-sex intimate relationships, 599
gender-related emotional dynamics, magnification of, 602–603
legal formalization, lack of opportunities for, 601–602
norms and practices regarding sexuality, 603–604
sexual stigmatization and marginalization, 599–601
(p. 844) sexual coercion and unwanted sexual contact, 597–599
sexual dysfunction, 595–597
sexual frequency, 604–605
sexual satisfaction
determination of, 593
and relationship satisfaction, 592–593
social exchange perspectives on, 593–594
system versus attachment system, 31
sexual jealousy, 29–30
sexual/mating strategies, 772
sexual-minority individuals, 599–601
sexual misperception, 239–240
sexual narcissism, 546–547
Sexual Narcissism Scale (SNS), 546–547
sexual satisfaction, 80–81
determination of, 593
and relationship satisfaction, 592–593
social exchange perspectives on, 593–594
sexual scripts, 168
sexual selection, 18–19, 138, 772
sexual selection theory and parental investment, 782
empirical evidence, 785–786
evaluation, 778
limitations, 786–788
sexual selection model of human reproductive variation, 784–785
within-sex variation, 783
sexual strategies, sex differences in, 237–238
sexy sons hypothesis, 140
short-term mating, 787
shyness, 543–544
significant-other representations, 281–282
abusive, 290
cues for activation of, 283
defined, 283
disrupted positive affect, 289
elicitation of affect in, 288–289
emotional-motivational importance of, 283
exemplar -and category-based processing, 282
and individuals’ acceptance or rejection, 286–287
and individuals’ goals and motives, 287–288
and interpersonal behavior, 291
and perceivers’ consciousness, 283
perceiver’s representation, 282
priming, 283
role-incongruent interaction and, 288
in self-concept terms, 285–286
self-discrepancy theory and, 289
as self-regulatory processes, 289–291
in social-cognitive model of transference, 282
similarity, 141
assumed, 309
similarity–attraction principle, 170–171, 175
sinister attribution bias, in coalitions, 245
situation
associated with relationship selection, 139–140
affordance, 44
modification, 502
selection, 502, 510
-specific measurements of personality, 546–548
situational disinhibitors, 465
situational impellors, 463
situational motivators, of empathic accuracy, 358–359
situation-specific nature of personality
measurements, 546–548
Trait X Partner Trait interactions, 546
Trait X situation interactions, 544–545
Trait X Trait interactions, 545–546
sleep, marital status and, 619
social acceptance, 405
social antecedents, of emotion regulation, 507–508
social baseline theory (SBT), 696–698
social categorization approach to love, 207–208
social cognition, 307
social-cognitive model of marital distress, 801
social-cognitive model of transference, 282–284
significant others in, 282
social-cognitive perspective of forgiveness, 645
social-cognitive theories, of construct accessibility, 282–283
social comparison, 172
social competence, levels of, 408
social developmental antecedents, of close relationships, 750
developmental precursors, 753
conflict and conflict resolution, 759–761
relationship involvement, 753–754
relationship quality, 754–756
romantic attachment, 756–759
romantic involvement versus quality, 753
future directions in relationships research, 761
adult development, better understanding of, 762
close relationships as turning processes, 765
cognitive development and close relationships, 765–766
“hook-ups,” research on, 764–765
partner selection, developmental processes in, 763–764
physiological reactivity systems, developmental precursors of, 762–763
principles, 751
developmental history and current circumstances, interactions between, 751
individual and relationship functioning, interplay between, 752
normative and individual development, 751
probabilistic developmental pathways, 751–752
relationships as contexts, 752
social effects
of emotion regulation, 504, 506–507
of reappraisal, 504
suppression, 504, 506
social-emotional leadership, 26
social exchange heuristic, 244–245
social functioning, of emotion regulation, 504
social antecedents, 507–508
suppression, 508
temporal dynamics of, 510–511
social identities and transference, 300–301
social integration, 713
social interactions, 402
sociality, 701–702
social learning theory, 454
social motives, affiliation and, 25
social networks, 631
social ostracism, 626
social perception, 686
amygdala and emotion recognition, 688–689
biological motion, intention, and mentalizing, 686
mirror neurons and mimicry, 686–688
oxytocin and trusting behavior, 689–690
social psychology of love, 201–228
Social Readjustment Rating Scale, 630
social regulation of emotion, 686, 695, 697, 702, 703
social rejection and loneliness, 696
Social Relations Model (SRM), 717, 718
social selection process, 805
social support, 401, 403, 405, 412–414, 711
theoretical approaches, 713
perceived support, personality and life-span perspectives of, 720–722
relational regulation theory (RRT), 717–720
stress and coping social support theory, 713–717
issues relevant to, 722
health outcomes, 723
(p. 845) perceived support reflect personality and social processes, 722
social support interventions, 723–724
social withdrawal, 408
socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), 506
sociosexuality, 139, 151, 167–168
somatic effort, 17
versus reproductive effort, 773, 774f
soulmate theory, 185, 186, 188
specific emotion regulation, 508
and strategies, 509–510
spillover effect, 801–802
spousal abuse, 457
stability and influence model, 733–734
Standard Cross Cultural Sample (SCCS), 165, 166, 174
standard interview paradigm, 352
standard stimulus paradigm, 350–352
status, 25–26
men’s relative preference for, 28
prestige and, 25
women’s relative preference for, 27–28
stepfamilies, research on, 813–815
stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), fixed action patterns in, 15
stimulus evaluation checks (SECs), 516
storge (friendship-based love), 187, 202
strain tests, 411
Strange Situation Test, 481
strategic pluralism theory (SPT), 167, 787, 784–785, 786–787
stress
buffering, 712, 713, 714, 715, 716–717
and coping social support theory, 713–714
evidence for, 714–716
future research directions, 716–717
crossover, 669
defining, 666–667
model, 620
in one versus two partners, 677
pileup, 668
and relationships, early and contemporary models of, 667–669
spillover, 669, 801
stressors, 668–669
Stroop task, 487, 490
structural equation modeling (SEM), 747
structural models of appraisal, 516
subliminal multiple-word priming, 479
subliminal psychodynamic activation, 477–478
subselves, defined, 20
superior temporal sulcus (STS), 686
support provision, relationship consolidation effect on, 74–75
suppressing thoughts, 575
suppression
and close relationships, 504, 509
differential cognitive consequences of, 502
and individual regulators, 507
in older adults, 505
and responsiveness, 505
social effects and, 504, 506
social functioning, 508
symbolic interactionism, 568
symbolic interdependence, 568
synchronization, in relationship consolidation, 74
T
tangible support, 412
task leadership, 26
teen pregnancy, 803
temporal dynamics, of emotion regulation, 510–511
“tend and befriend” response, 24
tending and befriending, 695, 696
theoretical integration within relationship science, developing, 5–6
theories of ego depletion, 671
theory of mind (TOM), 354, 686
thirst, 15
thought/feeling inference form, 350
thoughts, suppressing, 575
threats
to communal relationships, 270–272
of infidelity, 143
relationship, 118
touch/physical contact, 627
tracking accuracy, 404
trade-offs
affiliation, 23
life history, 773
self-protection, 21
status, 25
Trait X Partner Trait interactions, 546
Trait X situation interactions, 544–545
Trait X Trait interactions, 545–546
transference, 281
activation of relational selves in, 284–285
applicability-based triggering of, 283
attachment-theoretical view of, 294–295
based approach to relational self, 282–291
clinicians and, 282
elicitation of affect in, 288
emotional numbing response, 288
in learning phase, 283–284
locating the relational self in, 284–285
moderating variables, 298–299
nomothetic and idiographic components, 282
psychoanalytic concept, 479
research paradigm and standard indices of, 283–284
in self-concept terms, 285–286
and social identities, 300–301
and temporary source of accessibility, 283
in test phase, 284
triggering cues, 299–300
transformation of motivation, 45–47, 53
evidence of, 47–48
Transgression Narrative Test of Forgivingness (TNTF), 646
Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations (TRIM) inventory, 641
transgressions, 576–577
transgressors, 650
transient hypofrontality, 699
transmitted and evoked cultural change, psychological model of, 176–177, 176f
transmitted culture meta-theoretical perspective, 172–173
transpersonal gratitude, 640
Triangular Love Scale, 209, 211, 225
Triangular Theory of Love Scale, 211
triggering cues of transference, 299–300
trust, 49, 411
chronic, impact on risk regulation behavior, 118–121, 123
differential associations with forgiveness, 338–339
diminished, 121
gain-focused aspects of, 339
impulsive, 129, 131
Two Route Model of Stress Effects on Marriage., 672f
U
unconscious processes, 477, 480
unilateral dependence, 44
unmarried partnerships, 797
unwanted sexual activity, 598
unwanted sexual contact, 597–599
upper respiratory tract infections (URIs), 629
urge readiness, 458
V
vaginal sex, 590
ventral tegmental area (VTA), 692, 395
verbal communication, 408
verbal expressions, 402
verbal rules for perpetrating IPV, 456
Viagra revolution, 596
violence, types of, 462
visible support, 413
visual attention, 146, 147
voice, 577
Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation (VSA) model, 668–669, 673–674
vulnerability-stress-adaptation model, 536
W
waist-to-hip ratio, 169–170
Wallerstein’s position, “moderate version” of, 798
(p. 846) warm contact, 627
weight–attractiveness association, 169
Weinberger’s proposal of SPA, 478
well-being and relational selves, 301
we-ness, 105, 582
withdrawal from conflict, 445
within-sex variations, 19–20, 772
in reproductive strategies, 783
wives’ workload and marital satisfaction, 678
women
commitment underperception bias, 240–241
concealed ovulation, 388–389
cue to fertility status, 389
in dating relationships, 581
discriminating fertile-phase sexuality, 381–383
empathic accuracy in, 354–355
estrus, concept of, 379–380, 389
extended sexuality in, 387–388
ovarian cycles and shifts in preferences, 385
scent of symmetrical men, preferences for, 382–383
relative preference, for status, 27–28
revealed ovulation, 388–389
scent of fertility, 389–390
scent of symmetry, 382
sexual attraction, 384–385
work–family tension, 669
work-it-out theory, 185, 186, 188, 190
Y
Yoked Significant-Other (Yoked S-O) condition, 284–286, 288–289
young male syndrome, 142
youth violence, models of, 454