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date: 26 October 2020

(p. 685) Subject Index

(p. 685) Subject Index

Abetting, see Lifne iver.
Ability to pay approach, see Taxation.
Accountability, 272–279
Acquisition, see Kinyan.
Administrative costs, 162, 167, 175–178
Agent, see Shelihut
Amortization, 217, 405–408
Akhsanya, see also Billeting, 117
allocation of resources, 75–78
‘Ani hamehapekh behararah, see also Interloper
and automobile case, 263–266
and courtship case, 256
and discounted item case, 259–260
and fair competition, 257–258
and financial means of parties, 261
and organized marketplace, 258–259
compounded case, 262–263
designation as wicked person, 255–256
dispute between Rashi and R. Tam, 256–258
judicial relief in, 255
life insurance case, 263
real estate case of, 265
recent rabbinical ruling in, 263–268
seller’s preference, 261–262
stage of negotiations, 258–259
tutor case, 261
unintentional intrusion, 260
Anthropocentric, 389–394
Antitrust, see also Monopoly, 75, 180
anti-Semitism, 384, 634, 646, 660
Acquisition, see Kinyan
Agrarian society, 77, 81, 198, 401
Apotrops, 192
Appraisal, 170–181, 417, 424
Appreciated value, 208, 217
Arbitration, 175–176, 213, 314–315, 536
Arev,
Arev kabbelan, 528–535
Arev shilof dots, 530, 534
Arev stam, 528–530, 533, 537
disciplinary context, 524–525
economic value, 525–526
relevant expressions, 531
under English law, 535–541
Asimon, 582
Asmakhta, 439, 529
Assyrian Code, See Law
Asymmetric information, 316–322
Auction, 179
Avak ribbit, 91–105, 241, 482
se’ah be’seah, 446–447
yatza hasha’ar, 446–447, 453–459, 489, 496
Banks, 181, 215, 310, 404, 418, 420, 436, 450, 451, 452, 455, 456, 466, 533, 535
Bargaining, 66–71, 176, 430, 433, 594
Barter, 135, 136, 507, 552, 574–576, 606, 607, 608, 609, 614, 618, 620
Benefit principle, see Taxation
Benin Dikhrin, 590–591
Billeting (akhsanya), 115–117, 129, 124
Billings Report, 630–631
Bimetallic Standard, see Coins
Blood, donation of, 324, 325, 326, 332, 333
Body, ownership of, 331–332
Bone marrow, donation of, 332–333
Branding, 311, 320
Bretton Woods Conference, 580
Bribery, see Shohad
Cadaver, compensation for donation from, 328–329
Cairo Genizah, 587, 590, 591, 601, 604
Calendar, Jewish, 188–190
Capital gain, 114–115, 120
Capital Reserves, 181
Care,
bilateral care, 157–161
differential care, 163–166
due care, 149–151
efficient care, 151–154
marginal benefit of care, 155
marginal cost of care, 155
proper care, 149–151
unilateral care, 152–160
Categories of damage (avoth nezikin), 163
Cave of Makhpela, 566–568
Charade, 200
Charitable Loans, see Loans
Charity, 201, 227–228, 234, 243, 270, 273, 276–279, 286–287, 290–294, 416, 423, 473, 481
Dei mahsoro, 423
kuppah, 423
tamhui, 423
Clean slate, 85–86
Coase Theorem, 109, 111, 148
Co-extensiveness, see Guarantor
Coins, 93, 446–449, 453–457, 565–584, 609–622
coin clipping, 621–622
bimetallic standard, 577, 607, 616, 622
Collateral, see Loan
Commenda, 95–97
Commercial practice, see Minhag ha-soharim
Commercial transactions, 344–352
Commodity loans, see Loans
Communal ban, 354
Communal decrees/legislation/ordinances, 435, 437, 439, 592
Condition, see Tenai
Conflict(s) of interest, 178, 276–279, 417–418, 424
Congress, 379, 417, 442, 488, 490, 491, 494
Consecrated property, 171–173, 178–179
Consumer behavior, 127–142
confidence building mechanism, 309–313
credence good, 137–138, 320–321
experience good, 138
search good, 137, 138
search for price, 144
trust-replacing mechanisms, 310
Consumer Price Index, 445–446, 451–466
Contingent claim, 523–525
Copyright, 381–383,
Corporate Debt, see Debt
Cost,
opportunity cost, 25, 459, 463, 465, 492, 647, 650, 651, 652, 653, 654, 657, 661
private, 109, 111
social, 156, 166,
transactions costs, 128, 133, 140, 175, 178, 182, 421, 525, 578–579
Cost-benefit analysis, 391
Craftsmen, 206, 433, 440
Crawling Peg, 450–451, 461, 465
Creating a false impression, see Geneivat da’at
Credence goods, see Consumer behavior
Credit history, 310, 408–409
Credit-rating agencies, 310–311, 411–413, 417–418, 424, 426
Criminal law, 146, 241, 315–316, 338, 370
Culpability, 110, 120–121, 124, 317
Currency,
and depreciation, 449, 450, 461, 463–464
and devaluation, 450–466, 577–578
and exchange controls, 451–452, 455–457
and exchange rates, 451, 457–461, 466
as a commodity, 618–620
dinarius, 617, 621
drachma, 572, 580
fixed value, 616–618
maneh, 192, 569
metal standard, 613–616
nature of, 609–611
primitive money, 565–570
relative values, 611, 612, 614
Custom (minhag), 547, 548, 555
Customers, 139, 258, 288, 310–312, 413, 496
Customer list, 353
Customer relationship, 310
Customer service, 311
Damages
consequential damages, 347, 352
liquidated damages, 170, 351–352
penalty damages, 253, 352
remote damages, 353
tort damages, 168, 353–354
Damage by Fire,
basic laws, 147–148
bilateral care, 157–161
differential care, 163–164
due care, 149–151
efficient care, 151–152
marginal benefit of care, 155
marginal cost of care, 155
proper care, 149–151
R. Shimon’s view, 161–162
tamun rule, 162–166
unilateral care, 152–156
Darkhei shalom, 57–63, 69, 70, 72, 281–282
Davar shein bo mamash, 517–519
Davar she-lo ba l’olam, 344, 519
Davar she-lo ba lirshuto, 517, 519
Davar she ein ba mamash, 353, 517, 518, 519
Debt/Debtor,
changes in law, 371–379
corporate debt, 235–236, 379–382
developments and changes in retrieval law, 228–232
enslavement of debtor, 222–223
ethical underpinnings of Jewish approach, 226–228
in ancient world, 222–224
in Jewish law, 225,
paradigm for changes in retrieval law, 232–235
Dei mahsoro, see Charity
Democracy, 364, 379, 385, 646
Depreciation, see Currency
Deterrent, 320–321, 352
Devaluation, see Currency
(p. 687) Dillingham Commission Report, 638
Diminishing marginal benefit, 155
Diminshing returns, Law of, 178
Dina de-malkhuta dina, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 20, 21, 337–339, 365, 367, 370–371, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 382, 383, 384, 385, 387, 388, 442, 508, 562, 577
Dina d’malkhuta dina, see Dina de-malkhuta dina
Dinar, see currency,
Dinei Shamayim, 352
Disclosure duty, 54–55, 407–408, 411
Disgorgement, 352, 355, 356, 357, 359
Divine Providence, 52–53, 67
Dollarization, 445, 452–457
Dowry, 579, 588–593, 603
Due diligence, 342, 410, 426
Duress, 288, 350
Duty,
Reliance based, 346
Reliance induced, 348
E-Commerce, 499–521
Economic analysis of law, 146, 148,
Economic welfare, 349
Economics of information, 127–128, 144–145
Efficiency, see also Care, Efficient breach,
and the Jubilee, 74–87
and the tamun rule, 164–166
behavior, 148–149, 151, 159, 176
economic exchange, 343
Kaldor-Hicks compensation principle, 341
Pareto Optimailty, 390
system of interaction, 343
theorists, 342
Efficient Breach, 340–357
Eliezer, 42–72
agency role, 43–47
dealmaking, 66–67
duty to disclose, 54–56
ethical considerations, 43–47
test at the well, 47–52
Employee Free Choice Act, 429
Employer-Worker Relations, 353–357, 373, 429–433, 474–475
Employment Agreement, 349–356
Enabling, see Lifne iver,
Endowment effect, 179, 180
Enforcement mechanisms, 320
Enforceability, 213, 220, 344–345
Entitlement, 168, 173, 180, 257, 262, 340, 349, 356
Evidence,
rules of in Jewish law, 29, 171, 175
Environmentalism, 388–402
Equality, 74, 78, 383–386
Equity (fairness), 389, 391, 430
Equity (stock or security representing ownership), 95–96, 101–104, 409, 410, 419, 450, 456, 457, 539, 540
Erekh vows, see Vows
Expectancy interest, 352–353
Experience goods, see Consumer behavior
Expert witnesses, 209
Externalities,
Negative, 108–112
Positive, 108–112
Public goods and regulation, 112–112
Talmud’s view, 110–111
Factors of production, 78
Fair competition, 257
False weights and measures, 47, 405, 471
Fiat money, 449–450
Fiduciary obligation, see Obligation.
Fines, 29–41, 172,
First Commonwealth, 565
First-born, 318
Force majeure (oness), 98, 147
Foreclosure, 215–216
Gemilut Hessed, 354, 481
Gemirat Da’at, 344, 439
Geneivat Da’at, 288, 407
Gezel mi-divrehem, 262–263
Giv’onim, 365–366
Global Recession of 2007–2009, 404–427
Gold/silver ratio, 568–570, 573
Good Faith imperative, see Hin Tzedek.
Guarantee, see Arev,
Guarantor, see also Arev,
coextensiveness, 541
marshalling, 541
subrogation, 538–541
Guardianship, see Arev
Haaramah, see Hetter Iska
Hair, sale of, 326, 332
Half loan, half deposit, see Iska.
Ha-motzi me-chaveiro alov ha-rei’ya, 246
Hasagat gevul, 257–258
Fair competition, see Hasagat Gevul
Financial governance, 269–279
Haaramah, 198–199
Havalah, 239, 331
Heal, obligation to, 234
Hefker bet din, 377
Hexaplex Trunculus, see Tekheilet
Hin tzedek, 46–47, 405
Hofheldian, 358
Housing bubble, 419–421, 424
Imitatio Dei, 415–422, 427
In Terrorem effect, 352
Incentives, 29, 30, 37, 41, 79, 91–105, 123–124, 148, 154, 157, 166, 190, 335, 398, 427, 480, 598, 603, 640, 641, 643, 644–645, 647, 652, 653, 662
Income tax, 416, 421, 491, 494
interest deduction, 218
Indemnity, 534–535, 540
Individual liberties, 343
Induced reliance, 346–348
Inflation, 92–93, 421–424, 445–466, 484, 490–491, 566, 571,
Israeli inflation crisis, 450–453
Information asymmetry, 132, 138, 182–183, 187–193
Injustice, 383, 470
Institutional moral norm, 346
Interest prohibition-biblical, See Ribbit ketzuzah.
Interest prohibition-rabbinic, Avak ribbit
Internal Revenue Service, 218
International law, see Law
IPOs, 183, 184
Israeli army, 30
Investment, 76, 79, 96, 100, 197, 201–216, 235–236, 244, 269, 309, 317, 381, 406, 409–420, 450, 471–474, 496, 515, 591, 600–604, 651, 654, 663
Prudence, 204, 270–275, 279, 293
Socially responsible, 279–293
Transparency, 274, 277–279
Jewish education, 648, 651, 654–657, 660–662
Jewish immigration, 625–630, 640–642
Joint venture, 94–96, 100–101, 176, 177, 179, 203, 208–210
Jubilee, 74–86
Judges, 170–192, 232, 290, 314–315, 320–322, 326–327, 367, 381, 463–464, 509, 529, 538, 553, 582, 586, 634
bias, 179, 321
compensation, 326–327
majority rule, 171, 175–177,
multimember, 175–177
Justice, 74, 119, 120, 148, 295, 312, 314, 320, 321, 322, 364, 367, 368, 370, 372, 386, 387, 389, 391, 398, 468, 470, 472, 473, 475
Kabbelan, 528–535
Kaldor-Hicks Compensation doctrine, see Efficiency
Kantian principles, 345
Ketubbah, 579–581
King, 85, 86, 373, 377, 379, 449, 450, 464, 555
Kinyan, 200, 257, 336, 344–352. 374–375, 438–440, 507–509, 516–519 529, 576, 577, 592
asmakhta, 439, 529
sudar, 575, 576, 577
Kuppah, see Charity
Labor Unions, 429–443
Land,
appraisement of, 192
price seasonality, 183–190
productivity of, 187
Law, see also Civil law, Criminal law
Assyrian Code, 222
English law, 523–525, 528, 535, 537–542
Hammurabian, 222
Hittite, 222
Natural law, 201, 345–346
Nuzi, 222
right-based system, 358
Sasanian Law, 544, 546, 547, 549, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 560, 561, 562, 563
Sumerian, 85
Theodosian Code, 116, 126
world/international, 363–386
Leasehold, 217, 219
Legal fictions, 198, 204, 493
Le-tikkunei shedartikha ve-lo le-ivutei / le-takkonei shaddartikh, 64–65, 74–75
Leverage,
negative, 67–71
normative, 67, 72
positive, 67–68
Levites, 199
Lex Rhodia de Iactu, 121
Lex Mercatoria, 372
Liberty, 79–80, 85–86, 229, 288, 342
Lifnei iver, 407
Liquidity, 187, 193, 235, 271–274, 279, 308, 417, 419, 450, 473, 611
Lydda, 130–134, 139, 144
Majority rule, 171, 173, 176–177, 434
Managers, 191, 292, 309, 633, 637, 646
Manipulation, 308, 312, 342, 577
Marginalist revolution, 120
Marital Engagements, 352
Mariage Contract, see Ketubbah
Marufia, 443
Marshalling, see Guarantor
Mehusar amanah, 345
Mekah ta’ut, 46, 414
Minhag ha-soharim, 370–375, 385–386
(p. 689) Mitzvah, payment for performance of, 326–328
Monopoly/ Monopolies, 75–77, 81, 434, 441
concentration of factors of production, 76–77, 78, 81, 86
Morality, 235, 242, 253, 342–344, 468–470
utilitarian moral philosophy, 390
Moral education, 424–425, 476
Mortgage broker, 215, 407–408
Mortgage loans, see Loans
movable property, 349, 607, 614
Natural law, see Law
Negligence, 151, 159–161, 165, 166
Negotiations, 42–71
Neoclassical welfare economics, 389–392
Non-Jew, 8–14, 199, 200, 215, 275, 282, 283, 292, 367, 368, 369, 371, 373, 380, 384, 526, 327, 450, 531, 532, 533, 546, 551, 552, 553, 559, 586, 588, 590, 602
Noncompliance, 343, 351–352
Nonperformance, 352, 355, 413, 539
Omer Sacrifice, 188
On- the- job training, 353
Opportunity cost, see Cost
Option, 405, 412, 418, 524, 525, 526
Orange County, 273
Organ donation,
altruism, 334–335
broker fee, 332
cadaveric donation, 331–332
cadaveric donation, 331–332
compensation for, 326–327
exploitation of poor, 336–337
for research, 334
halakhic precedent, 326
nature of transaction, 336
non-vital organs, 332–333
public policy, 337
tikkun olam, 335
Overbidder paradigm, 343, 349, 350
Overcharge, see Ona’ah
Panels,
arbitration, 175–176
multimember, 175–177
valuation, 171–173, 181
Pardon, 29–41
Pareto Optimality, see Efficiency
Passover, 188–200, 423
Partis Secanto, 224
Pecuniary loss, 347
Periodic profits, 204
Peddlers, 628, 630, 645, 648
Permissible venture, see Hetter iska
Peshara, 315
Physician, payment of, 324–327
Po’el, 438
Pornography, 288, 343
Poverty, see also Charity, 233, 271, 336–337, 423–424, 427, 468–469, 473, 475, 650, 661
Poor tithe, 185
Preventing, 423–424
Power of Attorney, 603–604
Precautions, 146–167
Preventative Measures, 416, 422
Price
cum-dividend, 185–186
dispersion, 127–128, 131–132
equilibrium, 127, 133, 139, 141–144
ex-Dividend, 185
fair, 169
redemption, 168, 173, 179
Price fraud, see Ona’ah
Privacy, 354–355, 511
Profit sharing, 357
Profit and loss allocations, 91–92
Promise, 47, 62, 227, 341–352, 355, 359, 405, 536, 584, 646
Proprietary right, 355–357
Prudence, 45, 204, 270–275, 279, 293
Public Goods, see also Externalities, 107–125
exclusion principle, 109, 111, 117
Public finance, 111–117
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), 460
Quasi-theft, 356
Real estate, 46, 114, 171, 178, 216–217, 260, 265, 308, 459, 526, 551, 562, 567, 573, 607
Real property, 171–173, 202, 215, 219, 349, 553, 608–609
Redemption, 79–83, 168–173, 179, 573
Reliance duty, 346, 348
Remedy before the affliction, 421–422
Rescission remedy, 169, 170
Reward, 30, 278, 336
Ribbit de-rabbanan, see Avak ribbit
Right-based system, see Law
Risk, 46–53, 68, 71, 72, 100, 91–121, 151, 165, 154–155, 177–178, 328, 406–427, 456, 491, 502–505, 525–527, 595, 599, 600
aversion, 91, 99–100, 104, 309
calculated, 48, 53
neutral, 31–32, 38
unnecessary, 46–48, 53
(p. 690) Robbery, 172,
Sabbath, 274, 292, 327, 335, 406, 431, 472, 649
Sasanian Law, see Law
Saving life, 331–335
Search goods, see Consumer behavior
Second Temple, 316, 566, 571, 586, 591, 605, 607
Second Tithe, 171–172, 178, 582–583
Securities market, 208, 308
Self- wounding, see Havalah.
Self-employment, 638–639, 643, 645
Self-endangerment, 329–331
Self-interest, 70, 204, 300, 304, 318, 349, 390, 429, 468
Sephardic Jews, 627, 629, 630, 631
Shirking, 91, 99–105
Shi’bud nechasim, 351
Shohad, 411
Situmta, see Kinyan.
Social convention, 345, 346
Social welfare, 167, 338, 390, 423, 442
Statute of limitations, 213
Specific performance, 350–352
Stewardship, see Apotropos
Subrogation, see Guarantor
Subterfuge, 198–208, 288, 318
Sudar, see Kinyan
Surety relationship, see Arev
Surety, see Arev.
Sustainability, 388–392, 400, 402
Sustainable development, 388–394
Tangibility, 353
Tanning, 111
Tamhui, see Charity
Taxation, 108, 113–114, 119, 121, 198, 384, 472, 480, 487, 557, 562
allocation of fee for caravan guide, 117–120
double taxation, 434
benefit principle, 115, 118, 124
federal taxation, 482
financing of town wall, 112–116
income tax, 416, 421, 491, 494
Pigovian, 119, 121
poll, 114, 125
Temple tax, 125, 571
window tax, 116
Technological process, 353
Tekheilet, 318, 320
Temple Treasury, 170, 173, 179–181
Tenai, 350
Theft, 29–41
Theodosian Code, see Law
Theory of promissory obligation, 345
Tikkun olam, 335
Townspeople, powers of, 434–437
Trade secret, 353–357
Tradesmen, powers of, 437–441
Trading volume, 182, 193
Traditio, 554
Transaction costs, see Costs
Transparency, 277–279, 287, 417
Treaty, 365–367, 372, 379, 381, 385
Tribunals, 172
Trust, 205, 234, 269, 272, 278, 290, 307–322, 343, 345, 364, 426
Trust-replacing mechanisms, see Consumer behavior
Ugarit, 222, 568, 584
United States, 311, 325, 365, 375, 379, 385, 445, 461, 483, 500, 520–521, 581, 626–663
Unions, 429–443
Unjust enrichment, 355, 359
Voluntary obligations, 343–345
Vows, 170–173
erekh vows, 170
Warranties, 311
Wealth distribution, 226
Wealth improvement, 113
Wealth maximization, 342
Windfall profit, 350
Worker,
paid on per hour basis, see Po’el
paid for finished work, see Kabbelan
World law, see Law
Zeh nehene ve-zeh haser hayyav, see also Unjust enrichment, 356