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date: 21 August 2019

(p. 557) Index

(p. 557) Index

A
ableism, 219–21
access to treatment, contextual factors impacting, 250–52, 256
financial barriers, 250
homelessness, 251–52
immigration status, 252
lack of insurance, 250–51
rural settings, 251
transportation issues, 251
access to treatment, intrapsychic factors impacting, 252–53, 256
mistrust, 253
perceived discrimination, 253
self-efficacy, 253
acculturation, 472, 533–37
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 381–83
activities of daily living (ADLs), 344, 345–49
ADDRESSING framework, 139–40, 451–52
adult violence, 530; see also violence
advocacy, 436–37
competencies model, 27–29
implications for, 524
affluence, 549–50
of parents, 280–81
African Americans
aggressive behavior of, 527–29
ethnic identity of, 533–37
ethnic minority status, 531–32
poverty, 532–33
racial discrimination, 531–32
sexual aggression, 531
social inequalities, 532
African-Caribbeans, 487–88
age
impact on psychological assessment, 241
and trauma effects, 150
veteran demographics by, 168
aggression, 526–43; see also microaggression(s)
acceptance, cultural differences in, 533–37
current theoretical models, 527–29
defined, 527–29
ethnic differences in rates of, 529–31
sexual, 531
agnosia, 345–49
Aid for Families with Dependent Children. see Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
alcoholism, late-life, 358–59
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), 358–59
Alzheimer’s disease, 345–49
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), 345–59
American Counseling Association (ACA), 24–26, 59–60
American Indians
aggressive behavior of, 527–29
poverty, 532–33
American Psychological Association (APA), 144–45
Committee on Socioeconomic Status and the Socioeconomic Status Office, 24–26
Division 12, 24–26
Division 17, 24–26
Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Older Adults, 341–42
Interdivisional Taskforce on Qualifications for Practice in Clinical and Applied, Report of the APA Task Force on Socioeconomic Status, 63
Resolution on Poverty and Socioeconomic Status, 24–26, 63, 316–17
Geropsychology, 351
Task Force on Socioeconomic Status, 413–14
American Red Cross (ARC), 144–45, 150–52
American School Counseling Association, 24–26
anorexia nervosa (AN), 209–10
antidepressants, for late-life depression, 352–53
anti-immigrant agenda, 516–17
antipsychoptics, for serious mental illness, 353–54
anxiety, late-life, 349–51
assessment of, 350
interventions for, 350–51
aphasia, 345–49
Appalachia, 417–22
apraxia, 345–49
Aricept. see Donepazil
Asian Americans
adult violence, 530
ethnic identity of, 533–37
poverty, 532–33
sexual aggression, 531
youth violence, 529–30
aspiration-expectation gap, 91–95
Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD), 24–26, 59–60
at-risk youth, 332–33
attachment, 273–91
counseling/clinical implications, 286
future directions of, 287
intervention, 285–86
poverty and, 276–85
race/ethnicity and, 281–85
social class impact on, 275–85
(p. 558) socioeconomic status and, 276–85
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 249–50
attitudes, 468–69
authoritarian styles, of parents, 277–78
automaticity, 71–72
autonomy, 321
B
bading, 449–51
Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), 350
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 43–46
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), 109–10, 351–52
Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSI), 356–57
behavioral activation, for late-life depression, 352–53
Behavioral Assessment Scales for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), 109–10
behaviors, 468–69
Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), 489–90
“benevolent sexism,” 485–87
benzodiazepines, for late-life anxiety, 350–51
Betz and Hackett’s model, 417–22
biculturalism, 533–37
Big Brother/Big Sister programs, 432–34
binary dynamics, 441–42
Black working-class/lower social class men, 487–88
blue collar jobs, 67–68
body image
clinical considerations, 210–12
dissatisfaction, 198–99, 200–5
ethnic differences in, 198–99
neighborhood affluence and, 201–5
obesity and, 199–200
research considerations, 210–12
self-esteem and, 201–5
social class relations with, 197–217
training considerations, 210–12
weight and, 201–5
bordering, race/ethnicity and, 399–401
boundary violations, associated with online counseling, 264
Bronfenbrenner’s systems model, 432–34
bulimia nervosa (BN), 208–9
bullying and trauma, 13–14
C
CAGE, 358–59
California Therapeutic Alliance Rating System, 41–43
Calvin, John, 367–69
campus outreach programming, 436–37
Canada, employment rate of recent immigrants in, 517–20
capital, 219–21, 428–29
economic, 219–21
human, 6–8, 415–17, 482
physical, 219–21
capital accumulation paradigm (CAP), 415–17
application to LGB persons, 449–51
capitalist class, 515–16
capitalist societies, 219–21
capital socioeconomic status (CAPSES), 242–43
career; see also occupation; work
adaptability of, 96–98
construction, life-designing paradigm for, 96–98
development, at microsystem level, 330–31
development, in schools, 296–99
development, social class in, 82–84
maturity of, 96–98
mobility, 164–67
career counseling, 24–26; see also counseling
occupational selection, social class role in, 26–27
Career Decision Scale (CDS), 417–22
Career Futures Inventory-Revised, 96–98
Career HOPES, 265–68
Career Maturity Inventory (CMI), 96–98, 417–22
carriage road, 82–84
case management, for serious mental illness, 353–54
Cass’s model, 452–54
cast system (Hinduism), 373–74
Center for Deployment Psychology (CDP), 179–80
Central America, migration within, 515–16
Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED), 146
challenge models, 318
chavinism, 449–51
Chernobyl nuclear explosion, 159–60
childhood-adolescent persistence model, 188–89
childhood-limited model, 188–89
Child Protective Services (CPS), 532
children, 431–32
cognitive and behavioral judgments of social class, 417–22
homeless, 431–32
in poverty cultural mismatch between, 431–32
vulnerability to trauma, 149–53
China, immigrants from, 517
Christian denominationalism, 368–69
Christianity, 368–69; see also religion
chronic indecision-impaired development, 417–22
chronosystem, 147
circumscription, 93–94
Citalopram, for late-life depression, 352–53
class
capitalist, 515–16
warfare, 3–5
classism, 62, 104, 219–21, 415–17, 428–29, 467–68, 482; see also social class
bias, 548
in counseling, addressing, 29–31
defined, 22–23, 104
downward, 8, 62, 305, 415–17, 482
intrapsychic, 8
operationalization of, 70
and relationships, 547–48
role in valuing student perspective, 305
upward, 8, 62, 243–44, 305, 415–17, 482
classism-based trauma(s), 3–5, 9–18; see also trauma
bullying and, 13–14
counseling implications of, 16–18
defined, 13–14
pain and, 15–16
research implications, 550–51
social exclusion and, 14–15
social rejection and, 14–15
teasing and, 13–14
classist microaggressions, 430–31
classless society, 499
client contributions to psychotherapy, 124–25
a (p. 559) ttributes, 124–25
obstacles, 125
client-related psychological barriers to women, 506
client–therapist interaction, 41–43
clinical interviews, 110
clinicians, empirical support for treatment, implications of, 50–52
cocreated therapeutic interventions, 440
code switching, 85–88
cognitive ability, 104–5
tests, bias in, 105–6
cognitive assessment, 105–8
bias in cognitive ability, 105–6
linking with social class, 106–7
positive use of, 107–8
research considerations in, 111
training/practice considerations in, 111–14
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 43–48, 50–53, 262–63, 265–68, 506–8
for late-life anxiety, 350–51
for late-life depression, 352–53
cognitive decline, 345–49
assessment of, 348
interventions for, 348–49
cognitive neoassociation theory, 527–29
Cognitive Performance Test (CPT), 348
cognitive reserve, 189–90
cognitive restructuring, for late-life anxiety, 350–51
Cogswell High School, 24–26
cohesion, 152–53
college counseling
impact of poverty on, 434–37
centers, 436–37
college counselors, attention to social class, 436–37
college enrollment rates, 434–36
“college for all,” 295–96
combat, masculine-warrior (CMW) paradigm, 173–74
Committee on Socioeconomic Status and the Socioeconomic Status Office, 24–26
communalism, 159–60
community(ies)
collaboration, 27–29
microsystem of, 327–28
resilience, 155–57, 159–60, 328–29
risk factors, 328
schools as cultural, 311–12
social class relationship with, 329
support, 152–53
understanding, 311
community-based counseling, impact of poverty on, 437–40
community-based organizations (CBOs), 428, 437–40
Community Mental Health Act of 1963, 343
community mental health center (CMHC), 429–31
services to older adults, 343
Community Older Persons Alcohol Program (COPA), 359
compensated work therapy (CWT), 171–72
compensatory models, 318
composite indices, 68
compromise, 93–94
concerted cultivation, 85–88
Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI), 489–90, 494–95
consciousness, 468–69
consumerism, 551
counseling, 460–62
across life span, 545–46
attributions in, 29
career, 24–26
classism in, addressing, 29–31
culturally competent, 460–62
historical and social location of, 24–26
implications, in classism-based traumas, 16–18
implications, in parenting/attachment, 286
implications, in race-ethnicity, 389–90
at microsystem level, 330–31
multicultural, 405–6
online. see online counseling
psychological assessment, implications of, 244–45
psychology, systemic change in, 334
religion, role of, 375–76
school. see school counseling
social class/socioeconomic status, role of, 62–64
social justice oriented practice in, implementation of, 22–23
counselor(s)
classism in counseling, addressing, 29
clinical considerations and recommendations for, 475
professional competence of, 422–24
working with immigrant populations, 301
Counselors for Social Justice, 24–26
countertransference
social class-based, 121–23
systemic contributions to, 127
creativity, 136–37
critical Whiteness studies, 395–96
crystalized intelligence, 104–5; see also intelligence
Cultural Assessment Interview Protocol (CAIP), 239–40
cultural capital, 6–8, 219–21, 415–17, 428–29, 482; see also capital
Cultural Competency Curriculum for Disaster Preparedness and Crisis Response (CCCDPCR), 155–57
cultural context, understanding, 311
cultural determinism, 219–21
culturally competent counseling, 460–62
culturally sensitive therapy (CST), 50–52
cultural values theory, 370–72
culture
adapting to local, 411–13
defined, 527–29
economic, 6–8
honor, 533–39
of poverty, 219–21, 325
resistance, 533–37
veterans, military core values and, 173–75
cybertherapy
cost of, 263
relevance of, 263
D
dementia, 345–49
assessment of, 348
interventions for, 348–49
vascular, 345–49
demographic information, 63
Department of Defense, 173–74
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 155–57
Department of Homeland Security, 146–49, 173–74
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 171–72, 176–77
HUD-VA Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program, 171–72, 176–77
Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA), 167–73, 179–80
Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, 167–73
health care system, 167–73
Office of Academic Affiliations, 175–76
Palo Alto Health Care System Domiciliary Service, 176–79
services for homeless veterans, 171–72
Suicide Prevention Program, 179–80
(p. 560) depression, late-life, 351–53
assessment of, 351
interventions for, 351
despair, 10–12
despotism, 372–73
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 52–53
for personality disorders, 355
diaspora hypothesis, 370–72
Differential Status Identity Scale, 82–84
disability
cultural experience of, 222–24
economic experience of, 221–22
Disabled Veterans of America, 179–80
disaster, 146
defined, 146
response, social justice in, 157–60
disaster crisis intervention, 144–63
macrosystemic effects, 146–49
mass media, 153–54
response at individual level, 154–55
women/children’s vulnerability to trauma, 149–53
future directions of, 160–61
disaster crisis intervention at community level, 155
community resilience, 159–60
resilience, as protective factor, 158–59
risk and protective factors, 158
discrepancy strain, 482–84
discrimination, 415–17, 473–74
discrimination, 146
against immigrants, 517–20
individual-level, 473–74
institutional-level, 473–74
disordered eating behaviors, 206–8
Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans (DCHV), 171–72
Donepazil, for dementia, 348–49
do no harm, 150–52
“Don’t Ask Don’t Tell” policy, 173–74, 454–56
downward classism, 8, 62, 305; see also classism
downward classism, 415–17, 482
Duncan’s Socioeconomic Index, 68
dyadic contributions to psychotherapy, 125–27
social class identity interactions, 126–27
therapy relationship, 125–26
dysfunction strain, 482–84
E
eating disorders
anorexia nervosa, 209–10
bulimia nervosa, 208–9
clinical considerations, 210–12
research considerations, 210–12
social class relations with, 198–99
training considerations, 210–12
ecological asset-mapping, 309, 311–12
ecological model, 144–45, 394–95
interventions based on, 156
social justice in, 157–60
ecological model of multicultural counseling psychology processes (EMMCPP), 311, 318–20
exosystem, 319
individual, 318
macrosystem, 319–20
mesosystem, 319
microsystem, 318–19
Economic Belief Scale, 70
economic capital, 219–21; see also capital
economic cultures, context of, 6–8; see also culture
economic diversity, in United States, 165
economic imbalance and migration, 516–17
economic privilege, 5–6, 550; see also privilege
psychological composition of, 3–5
education, 3–5
exosystem, 332
psychological assessment of, 232–39
of veterans, 169
education
choice of, counseling for, 27–29
implications in psychotherapy, 127–28
implications in social justice practice, 30–31
educational attainment, 66–67
socioeconomic status and, 321–22
of veterans, 168–69
ego despair, 351
ego integrity, 351
eHealth modalities, 190–92
election, Jewish notion of, 370–72
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
for late-life depression, 352–53
for serious mental illness, 353–54
elitism, 381–83
empirically validated treatments (EVTs), 37–39, 49–50
empirical support for treatment (EST), 35–58
fit to client’s needs, 46–48
implications for clinicians, 50–52
implications for research, 49–50
implications for training, 52–53
overview of, 35–36
movement, criticism of, 39–48
movement, medical model as foundation of, 39–41
movement, overview of, 37–38
purpose of, 35–36
rationale and support for, 38–39
research criteria for, 43–46
social class and, 35, 36–37
employment. see career; occupation; work
engagement, 10–12
environmental justice, 190–92
equilibration, 10–12
ethnic differences, in body image, 198–99
ethnicity, 379–93; see also race(ism)
and attachment, 281–85
impact on psychological assessment, 240–41
implications for counseling, 389–90
implications for psychotherapy, 389–90
implications for research, 388–89
and parenting, 281–85
psychological correlates of, 384–85
psychological models of, 383–84
social class interactions with, 385–87
veteran demographics by, 168
ethnic minority status and violent behavior, 531–32
European Americans
adult violence, 530
poverty, 532–33
sexual aggression, 531
social inequalities, 532
violence/aggressive behavior, acceptance of, 533–37
violent behavior of, 527–29
evidence-based practice (EBP), 37–38, 49–50
evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), 46–48, 52–53
defined, 37–38
rationale and support for, 38–39
excitation transfer theory, 527–29
exosystem, 147, 156, 319, 331–32, 394–95
education, 332
health care, 331
juvenile justice, 331–32
expatriates, 471
exploration, 10–12
F
FAFSA, 295–96
Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, 358–59
family(ies)
juvenile justice issues, 330
resilience of, 322–23
social capital, 330
social class impact on, 323–24
strength, 160
stress model, 323–24
values and dynamics, exploring, 311
violence, 530–31
family education model (FEM), 332–33
(p. 561) fathering/fatherhood, 279; see also parenting
private, 485–87
public, 485–87
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 396–98
Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, 340–41
female-concentrated vocations, men in, 490–91
feminism/feminization; see also women
and inequities, 501–4
social class, counseling and, 504
feminist counseling, 429–31
classism and, 430–31
therapeutic roles and practices, social justice reformulations of, 429–30
fencing, race/ethnicity and, 399–401
financial barriers to substance abuse treatment, 250
Five Year Plan to End Homelessness, 171–72
fluid intelligence, 104–5; see also intelligence
Food and Drug Administration, 37–38
fotonovelas, 265–68
frustration, 10–12
G
gay Black men and White men, sexual interactions between, 449–51
gay marriage, 5–6
gender
dysphoria, 448–49
identity terminology, sexual orientation and, 447–48
impact on psychological assessment, 240
and sexism, 499
role conflict, 483–84
role norms, 484
-transgressive sexual minorities, 447–48
veteran demographics by, 168
gender identity disorder (GID), 448–49
gender role strain (GRS) paradigm, 482–84
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 349–51
Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), 350
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), 351–52
Geriatric Suicidal Ideation Scale (GSIS), 356–57
geropsychology, 339–64; see also psychology
experience, 341
expertise, 341–42
exposure, 341
GET SMART, 359
Ghandi, Mahatma, 373–74
Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, 104–5
Gottfredson’s theory, 454–56
Grant and Per Diem (G&PD), 171–72
grant-makers, 437–40
greed, 3–5
grieving/adjustment to late-life changes, 351
assessment of, 351
interventions for, 351
Guiding Older-Adult Lifestyles (GOAL), 359
gym, membership to, 449–51
H
health care, exosystem, 331
Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV), 171–72
health disparities, 185–86
bisexual women, 457–58
lesbian women, 457–58
health psychology, 185–96; see also psychology
assessment, 189–90
health and social class, pathways between, 187–89
homelessness and, 192–94
interventions, 190–92
life span developmental models, 188–89
stress and coping models, 187–88
Healthy Management of Reality, 50–52
heterosexual-homosexual sexual orientation identity, 460–62
Hinduism, 373–74
cast system, 373–74
Hispanics, 411–13
historical narrative, as backdrop, 23–26
Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Status, 239–40, 491–94
Hollingshead Index of Social Position, 68, 201–5
home-based psychological services, to older adults, 343
Home Health Profile Project, 359
homeless children, 431–32
homelessness, 192–94
and access to substance abuse treatment, 251–52
homelessness veterans, 169–70
Veterans Affairs services for, 171–72
homeless people, general types of, 411–13
Homeless Veterans Rehabilitation Program (HVRP), 176–79
homonormativity, 449–51
honor culture, 533–39; see also culture
hospice, 343
hostility, 14–15
Housing Act of 1934 396–98
human capital, 6–8, 415–17, 482; see also capital
human rights resolution, 24–26
“Hunger Banquet,” 436–37
Huntington’s disease, 345–49
Hurricane Katrina, 146, 152–54, 159–60
Hurricane Rita, 146
I
identity intersections model, 126–27, 451–52
Identity Tolerance, 452–54
illness, interpretation of, culturally adapted therapy and, 551–52
Illness Management and Recovery (IMR), 353–54
illness self-management programs, for serious mental illness, 353–54
immigrants, 470–71
and international status, 469–74
patterns, changes in, 411–13
and social class, 515–25
status and access to substance abuse treatment, 252
Improving Services for Older Adults, 341–42
incarceration veterans, 169–70
income, 3–5, 546–47
defined, 232
as outcome variable, 60–61, 65–66
personal, 65–66
psychological assessment of, 232–39
of veterans, 169
Index of Social Position, 186–87
India, immigrants from, 517
individual-level discrimination, 473–74
individual subsystem, 318, 319, 320–22
risk factors of, 320–21
individual system, 147, 156
inequity(ies), 428–45
feminization and, 501–4
poverty and, 469
(p. 562) Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), 106–7
Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA), 109–10
ingratiation, 14–15
institutional-level discrimination, 473–74
intellectualized anger, 10–12
intelligence
crystalized, 104–5
fluid, 104–5
Interactive Televideo Communications (IATV), 263
interchangeability, 72
internalized classism, 62, 243–44, 305, 415–17, 482; see also classism
defined, 131–33
religion, role of, 375–76
international individuals, 473–74
international issues, 466–80
barriers to seeking mental health treatment, 475–76
case of Juan Smith and his family, 474–75
clinical considerations and recommendations for counselors, 475
counselors working with immigrant populations, 301
objective versus subjective social class, 468–69
poverty and inequality, 469
social class, overview of, 467
social class, socioeconomic status, and classism, 467–68
international students, 471
International Telecommunications Union (ITU), 260–62
interpersonal psychotherapy, 43–46, 49–53
for personality disorders, 355
interpersonal psychotherapy, for late-life depression, 352–53
interpersonal violence, 530–31, 533–37; see also violence
intersectional invisibility, 451–52
intersectionality, 72
intersectionality theory, 387–88
intervention(s)
attachment, 285–86
based on ecological model, 156
cocreated therapeutic, 440
for cognitive decline/dementia, 348–49
for dementia, 348–49
for depression, 351
disaster crisis. see disaster crisis intervention
for grieving/adjustment to late-life changes, 351
health psychology, 190–92
for late-life anxiety, 350–51
for late-life depression, 352–53
for late-life substance abuse, 359
for late-life suicidal ideation, 357
online community, 265–68
parenting, 285–86
personality disorders, in older adults, 355
for serious mental illness, 353–54
intimate partner violence, 530–31, 533–37; see also violence
intrapsychic classism, 8; see also classism
Islam, 372–73
Islamic fatalism, 372–73
Islamic work ethic (IWE), 372–73
J
Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), 68–70
Johnson, Dwayne, 3–5
Judaism, 370–72
justice
environmental, 190–92
Islamic work ethic, 372–73
juvenile, 330, 331–32
justification, 10–12
juvenile justice; see also justice
exosystem, 331–32
issues and family social capital, 330
K
K-12 schools, 293–95
Kennedy, John F.
Community Mental Health Act of 1963, 343
knowledge of social class, 121
L
lack of insurance and access to substance abuse treatment, 250–51
Ladder, The, 452–54
language problems, of immigrants, 517–20
late-life anxiety, 349–51; see also anxiety
assessment of, 350
interventions for, 350–51
late-life depression, 351–53
assessment of, 351–52
interventions for, 352–53
late-life substance abuse, 357–59
assessment of, 358–59
interventions for, 359
late-life suicidal ideation, 355–57
assessment of, 356–57
interventions for, 357
protective factors of, 357
risk factors of, 355
latency model, 188–89
lateral classism, 8, 62, 133–35, 243–44, 305, 415–17, 482; see also classism
Latino Americans
aggressive behavior of, 527–29
ethnic identity of, 533–37
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT), 446–65
capital accumulation paradigm, application of, 449–51
career-related literature, social class implications in, 454–56
case example, 459–60
culturally competent counseling, 460–62
health issues related to social class in, 457–58
historical barriers to counseling, 448–49, 458–60
intersections of identity, models of, 451–52
lesbian perspectives on social class, 456–57
recommendations for research, 462
sexual identity development models, 452–54
sexual orientation and gender identity terminology, 447–48
social class terminology, 448
lesbian perspectives, on social class, 456–57
life span developmental models, 188–89
lifestyle, 468–69
linking human systems approach, 155–57
Lioness (documentary), 173–74
local culture, adapting to, 411–13
Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test, 96–98
Los Angeles, immigrants in, 411–13
lower income women, 501–4
lower-middle class, 515–16
low-income rural women, 417–22
low-skill jobs, immigrants and, 517–20
“Lunchtime Mind-Openers,” 436–37
Luther, Martin, 367–68
Lux School for Industrial Training for Girls, 24–26
M
MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, 68–70
machismo, 533–37
macrosystemic effects, 146–49
on economic status, 148–49
interventions based on, 156
mental health professionals, social privilege of, 149
(p. 563) male code, 483
Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R), 484, 489–90, 494–95
male sex role identity (MSRI) paradigm, 482–84
marginalization, 5–6
Marx, Karl, 60–62, 368–69
masculinity, 481–97
conformity to norms, 484
contemporary issues, 485–87
in female-concentrated vocations, 490–91
future directions of, 494–95
gender role conflict, 483–84
gentlemanlike, 485–87
health issues, 488–89
historical perspective of, 484–85
implications for practice, 491–94
implications for research, 494
implications for training, 491
literature review, 484–87
male code, 483
and multicultural issues, 487–88
substance abuse and, 489
traditional ideology of, 484
vocational behavior, 489–91
mass media, 153–54
mass trauma, 146
materialism, 7–8
affluent families, 280–81
impact of, on elite Whites, 402–3
in people’s lives, 551
Social Class Worldview Model and, 374–75
and subjective well-being, 133–35
materialistic value orientation (MVO), 368–69
means of interpersonal functioning (MIF), 120–21
measurement, 59–78
Duncan’s Socioeconomic Index, 68
Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Status, 239–40, 491–94
Hollingshead Index of Social Position, 68, 201–5
Index of Social Position, 186–87
Job Content Questionnaire, 68–70
levels of, 73
Parent Support Index, 417–22
Possible Selves Questionnaire, 417–22
psychological assessment, 239–40
Scale of Suicidal Ideation, 356–57
Scale to Assess Worldview, 310–11
Standard of Living Index, 232–39
Vocational/Educational Expectations Scale, 417–22
Vocational/Educational Self-Efficacy Scale, 417–22
Work Volition Scale, 89–90
Work Volition Scale—Student Version, 89–90
Worry Scale, The, 350
Medicaid, 46–48, 263, 345
medical hospitals
services to older adults, 342–43
medical model
as foundation of empirically validated treatments, 39–41
practices, 436–37
Medicare, 340–41, 344–45
Part A, 344–45
Part B, 344–45
mental health, of parents, 278–79
Memantine, for dementia, 348–49
mental health professionals, social privilege of, 149
mental health services, 429–31
mental health services, for older adults, 342–44
community mental health centers, 343
home-based psychological services, 343
hospice, 343
medical hospitals, 342–43
nursing homes, 344
payment for, 344
private/group practice, 344
psychiatric hospitals, 342–43
senior centers, 343–44
mental health treatment, seeking
barriers to, 475–76
mental illness, in older adulthood, 345–59
cognitive decline/dementia, 345–49
grieving/adjustment to late-life changes, 351
late-life anxiety, 349–51
late-life depression, 351–53
late-life substance abuse, 357–59
late-life suicidal ideation, 355–57
personality disorders, 354–55
serious mental illness, 353–54
“men who have sex with men” (MSM), 268–69, 452–54, 457–58
meritocracy, 499
Merrill, George, 24–26
mesosystem, 147, 156, 307–8, 319, 329–31, 394–95
social class impact on, 329–30
social capital in, 329–30
resilience in, 329–30
meta-analysis, 63
methodological considerations, 71–73
interchangeability, 72
intersectionality, 72
measurement levels, 73
research design, 71–72
Mexcican Americans
youth violence, 530
Michigan Alcohol Screening Test—Geriatric (MAST-G), 358–59
microaggression(s), 430–31, 473–74; see also aggression
classist, 430–31
microsystem, 147, 156, 307–8, 318–19, 322–29, 394–95
community, 327–29
family, 322–24
peers, 324–25
school, 325–27
middle class, 546–47
Americans, 413–14
middle-class Whites, 401–2
Midwest, immigrants in, 411–13
Military Cultural Competence, 179–80
Military Health History Pocket Card, 175–76
military values, 173–75
basics of, 173–74
health and, 174–75
help-seeking and, 174–75
Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory III (MCMI-III), 353
Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), 348
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), 353
minority groups, cultural norms of, 150–52
modern classism theory (MCT), 415–17, 482
monogamous marriage/partnership, 452–54
Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), 348
MoodGym, 262–63
mood-stabilizers, for serious mental illness, 353–54
Motivational Interviewing (MI), 359
MSNBC.com, 3–5
multicultural counseling, 405–6, 429–31; see also counseling
awareness, 405–6
classism and, 430–31
competencies, 523–24
knowledge, 405
skills, 406
research, 429–30
therapeutic roles and practices, social justice reformulations of, 429–30
multiculturalism, 59–60
multiple relationships, 422–24
N
Namenda. see Memantine
Nam-Powers Occupational Status Score, 68
National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI), 38–39
National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO), 343
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Study of Early Child Care, 106–7
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 155–57
Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program, 43–46
National Labor Relations Act of 1935, 396–98
National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), 475
National Longitudinal Couples Survey (NLCS), 530–31
National Network for Youth (NN4Y), 192–94
National Nursing Home Survey (2004), 344
National Survey of Veterans (1992), 172–73
National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 529–30
Native Alaskans
aggressive behavior of, 527–29
adult violence, 530
sexual aggression, 531
youth violence, 529–30
natural growth tendencies, 85–88
Naturalization Act of 1790, 396–98
neglect, 146
neighborhood(s)
poverty and, 532–33
affluence and body image, 201–5
neoliberalism, 396–98
New York, immigrants in, 411–13
services to older adults, 344
O
Obama, Barack, 91–95
obesity, 199–200
objective social class versus subjective social class, 468–69
occupation, 3–5, 67–68; see also career; work
aspirations of, 91–95
blue collar, 67–68
defined, 67–68
demands, of parents, 279–80
expectations of, 91–95
prestige of, 67–68
psychological assessment of, 232–39
white collar, 67–68
occupational attainment, in schools, 296–99
occupational selection
social class role in, 26–27
counseling for, 27–29
occupational self, 296–99
Office of Minority Health, 155–57
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, 146
older-adult(s/hood), 340–41
mental health services for. see mental health services, for older adults
mental illness in. see mental illness, in older adulthood
in poverty, 340–41
Omnibus Budget and Reconciliation Act of 1987, 345
online community intervention, 265–68
case study, 267–68
online counseling, 262–65; see also counseling; Internet
benefits of, 262–63
boundary violations, 264
credibility of, 264–65
future directions of, 269–70
relational disconnection, 263–64
online research
methods, 268–69
recommendations for, 270
operationalization
of classism, 70
of social class, 65–71
of socioeconomic status, 65–71
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), 171–73
Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), 171–73
opportunities, 330–31
oppression, 5–6
social class, 399–401
optimism, 137
ostracism, 8
Otis-Lennon Intelligence Test, 96–98
P
Pacific Islanders, aggressive behavior of, 527–29
pain and classism-based trauma, 15–16
Palo Alto Health Care System Domiciliary Service, 176–79
Homeless Veterans Rehabilitation Program, 176–79
Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act, 146
parental educational attainment, 295–96
parenting, 273–91; see also fathering/fatherhood
affluence of, 280–81
authoritarian styles of, 277–78
counseling/clinical implications, 286
employment demands of, 279–80
future directions of, 287
intervention, 285–86
mental health of, 278–79
race/ethnicity and, 281–85
social class impact on, 275–76
warmth of, 278
Parent Support Index, 417–22
Parkinson’s disease, 345–49
Parsons, Frank, 24–26
participants
identification of, 63–64
screening of, 63–64
participatory action research (PAR), 268–69, 387–88
projects, 440
youth, 432–34
passing, race/ethnicity and, 399–401
Peer Health Education Project (PHEP), 491–94
peers, 324–25
resilience, 325
risk behaviors of, 325
perceived discrimination and access to substance abuse treatment, 253
personal income, 65–66; see also income
personality disorders, in older adults, 354–55
assessment of, 354–55
interventions for, 355
Person-in-Culture Interview, 239–40
pharmacotherapy, for late-life anxiety, 350–51
physical capital, 137–38, 219–21; see also capital
physical importance, of social class, 165–66
Positive Attitudes toward Learning in Schools (PALS), 306–8
positive psychology, 131–43; see also psychology
creativity, 136–37
future directions of, 141
(p. 565) implications for research, 138–39
implications for therapy, 140–41
implications for training, 139–40
optimism, 137
physical health, 137–38
resilience, 135–36
socioeconomic status, 133–36
subjective well-being, 133–35
Possible Selves Questionnaire (PSQ), 417–22
postsecondary transition, of schools, 295–96
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
defined, 13–14
empirical support for treatment, 50–52
poverty, 192–94; see also socioeconomic status
and attachment, 276–85
culture of, 219–21, 325
defined, 232
and disability, 221–22
and inequality, 469
impact on college counseling, 434–37
impact on community-based counseling, 437–40
impact on school setting, 431–32
and neighborhood, 532–33
older adults in, 340–41
in rural persons, 411–13
urban, 411–13
in US women, 501–4
power, 5–6, 61–62
defined, 232
practice, implications of
for body image/eating disorders, 210–12
in cognitive/psychosocial assessment, 111–14
in masculinity, 491
in schools, 299
in vocation psychology, 98–99
in Whiteness, 405–6
predestination, 368–69, 370–72
prejudice, 473–74
defined, 22–23
social class, 22–23
prestige, 61–62
defined, 232
of occupation, 67–68
priming, 71–72
principle of seniority, 396–98
“private fathering,” 485–87
private/group practice
services to older adults, 344
privilege, 550
defined, 232
economic, 5–6, 550
implations in social justice practice, 29–30
social, of mental health professionals, 149
social class, 94–95
White, 394–95
problem solving, 321
professional-managerial class, 401–2
prolonged exposure, 52–53
promotoras, 265–68
property relationship, 468–69
Prophet Muhammed, 372–73
protective factors
defined, 317
resilience and, 321
protective factor–type models, 318
Protestant work ethic (PWE), 368–69, 370–72, 385–87, 415–17
psychiatric hospitals, services to older adults, 342–43
psychological assessment, 229–46
factors impacting, 240–41
future directions of, 245
historical perspectives of, 230
implications for counseling, 244–45
scales and measures, 239–40
socioeconomic status, indicators of, 232–39
psychological correlates, of social class, 381–83
psychological first aid (PFA), 154–55, 160–61
psychological importance, of social class, 165–66
psychological model, of social class, 380–81
psychology
geropsychology. see geropsychology
health. see health psychology
historical and social location of, 24–26
positive. see positive psychology
vocational. see vocational psychology
psychosocial assessment, 108–10
approach to case conceptualization, 112–14
behavioral observations and clinical interview, 112–14
importance of, 108
methods of, 109–10
research considerations in, 111
results and clinical implications, 112–14
social class and, 108–9
training/practice considerations in, 111–14
psychosocial functioning, 104–5
psychotherapeutic theory, 429–30
psychotherapy, 38–39, 118–30
client contributions to, 124–25
defined, 118–21
dyadic contributions to, 125–27
educational and training implications, 127–28
future directions of, 127–28
implications in race-ethnicity, 389–90
systemic contributions to, 127
therapist contributions to, 121–24
“public fathering,” 485–87
purposive sampling, 487–88
Q
questioning, 10–12
Qur’an, 372–73
R
race(ism), 3–5, 9–18, 219–21, 379–93, 473–74, 548–49; see also ethnicity
and attachment, 281–85
confounding of, 198–99
defined, 527–29
and dementia, 345–49
impact on psychological assessment, 240–41
implications for counseling, 389–90
implications for psychotherapy, 389–90
implications for research, 388–89
microaggressions, 430–31, 473–74
and parenting, 281–85
psychological correlates of, 384–85
psychological models of, 383–84
-related stress, 487–88
social class interactions with, 385–87
racial discrimination and violent behavior, 531–32
randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 37–38, 43–46, 49–50
rating scales, 109–10
Ravens Progressive Matrices, 105–6
Reasons for Living Inventory-Older Adult (RFL-OA), 356–57
referent group, 468–69
refugees, 471
rehabilitation, 218–28
future research, 225–26
practice, considerations for, 224–25
reinvestment, 10–12
relational-cultural therapy, 429–30, 440
relational disconnection, of online counseling, 263–64
relationships
client contributions to therapy, 125–26
multiple, 422–24
social class, classism and, 547–48
relaxation training
for late-life anxiety, 350–51
for late-life depression, 352–53
religion, 365–78
Christianity, 368–69
Hinduism, 373–74
Islam, 372–73
Judaism, 370–72
research implications in, 376
role in counseling, 375–76
role in Social Class Worldview Model, 374–75
traditions of, 368–74
(p. 566) religiousness, 160
reminiscence therapy (RT), for grieving/adjustment to late-life changes, 351
Report of the APA Task Force on Socioeconomic Status (American Psychological Association), 63
research
cognitive/psychosocial assessment, 111
considerations for body image/eating disorders, 210–12
design, 71–72
implications in classism-based trauma, 550–51
implications in empirical support for treatment, 49–50
implications in positive psychology, 138–39
implications in race-ethnicity, 388–89
implications in religion, 376
implications in schools, 299
implications in Whiteness, 403–4
implications in social justice practice, 30–31
online, 268–69
on other identities, developing, 549–50
participatory action, 268–69, 387–88
targeted variables in, 64
research
implications in masculinity, 491
participatory action, 432–34
resilience, 135–36
community, 155–57, 159–60
defined, 317
family, 322–24
future research of, 319–20
in mesosystem, 329–30
peers, 325
as protective factor, 158–59, 321
schools, 326–27
resistance culture, 533–37; see also culture
Resolution on Poverty and Socioeconomic Status (American Psychological Association), 24–26, 63
risk behaviors, defined, 318
risk factors, defined, 317–18
ROAD Project, 440
rural areas
background on, 411–13
cultural characteristics of, 411–13
rural communities, role of social capital in, 417–22
rural populations, 411–27
case examples, 424–25
modern classism theory, 415–17
perspectives on socioeconomic status and social class, 413–17
research involving rural residents, 417–22
rural persons and social class, 417–22
social class, 414–15
Social Class Worldview Model, 415–17
social class and counseling rural residents, 422–24
rural poverty, 411–13
rural residents, value structure of, 411–13
rural settings and access to substance abuse treatment, 251
S
salience, 468–69
Scale of Suicidal Ideation (SSI), 356–57
Scale to Assess Worldview (SAWV), 310–11
schizophrenia, 353–54, 448–49
scholarship, future directions for, 544–55
school(s), 325
career development in, 296–99
as cultural communities, 311–12
future directions of, 300–1
implications for practice, 299–300
implications for research, 299
implications for training, 300
joining forces for, 312
occupational attainment in, 296–99
postsecondary transition of, 295–96
resilience, 326–27
risk factors, 325–27
social capital, 330
social class at, 306
school counseling, 303–15; see also counseling
community and cultural context, understanding, 311
counselors and teachers collaboration, 308–9
ecological asset-mapping, 309
family values and dynamics, exploring, 311
future directions of, 301
impact of poverty on, 431–34
practice, recommendations for, 432–34
social justice perspectives in, 307–8
worldview, examination of, 310–11
school counselors, 431–32
collaboration of, 308–9
perceptions and perspectives of, 305–6
role of, 306–8, 431–32
worldview, examination of, 310–11
school engagement, 293–95
affective, 293–95
behavioral, 293–95
cognitive, 293–95
script theory, 527–29
Second Life, 265–68
selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
for late-life anxiety, 350–51
for late-life depression, 352–53
self-awareness of social class, 121–23
self-creation, 93–94
self-efficacy, 89–90, 417–22
and access to substance abuse treatment, 253
career, 96–98
self-esteem, 381–83, 384–85
and body image, 198–99, 201–5
Sen, Amartya, 516–17
senior centers
services to older adults, 343–44
sense of purpose, 321
serious mental illness (SMI), 353–54
assessment of, 353
interventions for, 353–54
Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944, 396–98
sexism, 9–18, 219–21
benevolent, 485–87
gender and, 499
sex role preference, 484
sexual aggression, 531; see also aggression
sexual identity development models (SIDMs), 452–54
sexually transmitted infection (STI), 457–58
sexual objectification, 501–4
sexual orientation
application of, to counseling, 458–60
and gender identity terminology, 447–48
social class and, historical barriers to counseling based on, 448–49
skills of social class, 123–24
social capital, 6–8, 219–21, 415–17, 482; see also capital
cultural experience of, 222–24
economic experience of, 221–22
family, 330
in mesosystem, 329–30
role in rural communities, 417–22
schools, 330
theory, 152–53
social class, 104, 293, 380–83, 414–15, 428–29, 467, 474–75
across life span, 545–46
(p. 567) in career development, 82–84
in combination with other identities, 548–49
confounding of, 198–99
definitions of, 166–67, 186–87
distinguished from socioeconomic status, 231
historical perspectives of, 230
indicators of, 232–39
interactions with racial-ethnic identity, 385–87
knowledge, 121
linking with cognitive assessment, 106–7
objective versus subjective, 468–69
operationalization of, 65–71
oppression, 399–401
physical importance of, 165–66
prejudice, 22–23
privilege, 94–95
and psychosocial assessment, 108–9
psychological correlates of, 381–83
psychological importance of, 165–66
psychological model of, 380–81
relational model of, 61–62
and relationships, 547–48
role in access and choice, 26–27
role in counseling research, 62–64
at schools, 306
self-awareness, 121–23
skills, 123–24
subjective, 68–70, 474–75
terminology, 448
theory, 60–61
typology, 242
social class and classism consciousness (SCCC) model, 3–5, 8–9, 10–12
social class–aware counselors, 436–37
social class–related losses following immigration, 521–22
social class self-consciousness, 8–9; see also social class and classism consciousness (SCCC) model
Social Class Worldview Model (SCWM), 3–5, 6–8, 26–27, 60–61, 81–82, 85–88, 91–95, 131–33, 166–67, 243, 304–6, 381–83, 415–17, 448, 460–62, 468–69, 482
classism, 8
defined, 104
domains of, 468–69
economic cultures, 6–8
religion, role of, 374–75
social cognitive career theory (SCCT), 82–84, 85–88, 417–22, 491–94
social competence, 321
Social-Economic Grouping of Occupations, 230
social exclusion and trauma, 14–15
social fluidity, 472–73
social inequalities and violent behavior, 532
social interaction theory, 527–29
social justice, 59–78
defined, 22–23
oriented practice in counseling, implementation of, 22–23
perspectives, in school counseling, 307–8
reformulations, of therapeutic roles and practices, 429–30
social justice, in disaster response, 157–60
community resilience, 159–60
resilience, as protective factor, 158–59
risk and protective factors, 158
social learning theory, 527–29
social location, 23–26
of counseling, 24–26
of psychology, 24–26
social psychology study, 417–22
social rejection and trauma, 14–15
social security, 344
Social Security Act, Title 18 of, 344–45
social space, 93–94
social status, defined, 232
social stratification, 379–80, 546–47
psychological outcomes of, 387–88
Society of Clinical Psychology, 37–38
sociocultural balance model, 537–39
socioeconomic disadvantage, defined, 317
socioeconomic status (SES), 35, 41–43, 59–78, 197–98, 293, 304–6, 413–17, 467–68
and attachment, 276–85
capital, 242–43
and disordered eating behaviors, 206–8
distinguished from social class, 231
ecological, 234–39
historical perspectives of, 230
indicators of, 232–39
individual, 234–39
interaction on body image, 198–200, 201–5
macrosystemic effects on, 148–49
operationalization of, 65–71
optimism and, 137
physical health and, 137–38
resilience and, 135–36
role in counseling research, 62–64
subjective, 131–35
of veterans, 64, 65–71, 168–70
sociopolitical development, 91–95
Sotomayor, Sonia, 91–95
Southeast, immigrants in, 411–13
spirituality, 160
Standard of Living Index, 232–39
status attainment model, 295–96
status position saliency, 10–12
STEEP Project, 285–86
stereotyped threat, 104–5, 111
stereotyping, 131–33
strain
discrepancy, 482–84
dysfunction, 482–84
trauma, 482–84
stratification paradigm (SP), 482
stress and coping models, 187–88
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID), 110
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders—Clinician Version (SCID-CV), 353
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-II Personality Disorder, version 2.0 (SCID-II)
for personality disorders, 354–55
student perspective, valuing, 305
classism, role of, 305
subjective social class, 68–70, 474–75
versus objective social class, 468–69
subjective well-being (SWB), 133–35
substance abuse, 247–59
access to treatment, contextual factors impacting, 250–52, 256
access to treatment, intrapsychic factors impacting, 252–53, 256
as public health problem, 248
relationship with social class, 249–50
treatment, purpose of, 248, 253
substance abuse, late-life, 357–59
assessment of, 358–59
interventions for, 359
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 144–45
Sufism, 372–73
suicidal ideation, late-life, 355–57
assessment of, 356–57
interventions for, 357
protective factors of, 357
risk factors of, 355
Suicide Prevention Program (Department of Veterans Affairs), 179–80
Sunnah, 372–73
supportive employment (SE), 171–72
systemic barriers to women, 506
systemic contributions to psychotherapy, 127
T
targeted variables, in research, 64
Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 37–38
teasing and trauma, 13–14
(p. 568) telehealth, 190–92
telepsychology, 190–92
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, 65–66, 171–72
tentatively decided-crystallizing preferences, 417–22
therapist attitudes toward women, 504–6
therapist–client interaction, 41–43
therapist contributions to psychotherapy, 121–24
social class knowledge, 121
social class self-awareness, 121–23
social class skills, 123–24
therapy, culturally adapted, 551–52
Third World countries, 517–20
three-stratum theory, 104–5
tolerable level boundary, 93–94
traditional masculinity ideology, 484
training, implications of
in body image/eating disorders, 210–12
in cognitive/psychosocial assessment, 111–14
in empirical support for treatment, 52–53
in masculinity, 491
in positive psychology, 139–40
in psychotherapy, 127–28
relaxation, 350–51, 352–53
in schools, 299
in social justice practice, 30–31
in vocation psychology, 98–99
in Whiteness, 404–5
transitional indecision, 417–22
transportation issues and access to substance abuse treatment, 251
trauma(s)
classism-based. see classism-based trauma(s)
as diagnostic category, 13–14
strain, 482–84
triple quandary, 384–85
U
Ugly Laws, 218–19
unawareness, 10–12
underclass, 515–16
underemployment, 90–91
Whites, 399–401
undocumented immigrants, 522
unemployment, 90–91
Whites, 399–401
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 118–21
United States
economic cultures, 6–8
economic diversity in, 165
migration to, 515–16
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 127
upper-middle class, 515–16
upward classism, 8, 62, 243–44, 305, 415–17, 482; see also classism
upward mobility, 385–87
bias, 548
urban and rural areas, differences in cultural values between, 411–13
urban Appalachians, 415–17
urban poverty, 411–13
US Census Bureau, 293, 530
US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health, 144–45
US economy, immigrants’ participation in, 516–17
US labor markets, immigrants and, 517–20
US society, social class categories of, 515–16
V
Vascular dementia (VaD), 345–49
veterans, 164–84
assessment of, 175–76
culture, military core values and, 173–75
demographics, 168
low-income, health services utilization by, 172–73
treatment issues with, 176–80
veterans, socioeconomic status of, 168–70
educational attainment, 168–69
employment, 169
homelessness, 169–70
incarceration, 169–70
income, 169
Veterans Health Administration (VHA), 167–73
Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), 179–80
violence, 13–14, 526–43
acceptance, cultural differences in, 533–37
adult, 530
among ethnic minorities, treatment for, 537–39
current theoretical models, 527–29
defined, 527–29
ethnic differences in rates of, 529–31
ethnic minority status and, 531–32
family, 530–31
interpersonal, 530–31, 533–37
intimate partner, 530–31, 533–37
poverty and, 532–33
racial discrimination and, 531–32
social inequalities and, 532
theory, subculture of, 527–29
youth, 529–30
Vocational/Educational Expectations Scale (VEES), 417–22
Vocational/Educational Self-Efficacy Scale (VESES), 417–22
vocational behavior, social class and, 489–91
general vocational issues, 489–90
men in female-concentrated vocations, 490–91
Vocational Development Inventory, 96–98
vocational psychology, 24–26, 84–91; see also psychology
implications for training and practice, 98–99
job loss, 90–91
job satisfaction, 90–91
underemployment, 90–91
unemployment, 90–91
work, perceptions and meaning of, 85–88
work volition, as measurable construct, 89–90
W
warmth, of parents, 278
wealth, 61–62, 65–66, 546–47
defined, 232–39
Weber, Max, 60–62, 368–69
critique of Islam, 372–73
weight and body image, 201–5
well-being, subjective, 133–35
Wellness Recovery and Action Plan (WRAP), 353–54
White(s/ness), 5–6, 394–410
elites, 402–3
implications for research, 403–4
implications for training, 404–5
implications in practice, 405–6
invention of, 396–98
LGB communities, 449–51
middle-class, 401–2
privilege, 394–95, 396–98
property of, 396–98
psychological wages of, 395–96, 398–99
sexual interactions between gay Black men and, 449–51
trashism, 399–401, 548–49
underemployment of, 399–401
unemployment of, 399–401
white collar jobs, 67–68
women, 498–514; see also feminism/feminization
bisexual, health disparities in, 457–58
client-related psychological barriers to, 506
future directions, 509
heterosexual, 457–58
implications for practice, 508–9
implications for research, 508
and inequities, 501–4
lesbian, health disparities in, 457–58
low-income rural, 417–22
nonheterosexual, 457–58
racism and, 500–1
(p. 569) sexism and, 499, 500–1
social class, classism and, 499–500
status of, within Islamic countries, 372–73
suffrage movement, 219–21
systemic barriers to, 506
therapeutic interventions, 506–9
therapist attitudes towards, 504–6
vulnerability to trauma, 149–53
work; see also career; occupation
locus of control, 89–90
loss of, 90–91
meanings of, 85–88
perceptions of, 85–88
psychology of. see psychology of working
satisfaction, 90–91
volition, as measurable construct, 89–90
workforce, immigrant participation in, 516–17
working class, 515–16
working-class individuals, 434–36
working-class men, 485–87, 490–91
working poor, 515–16
Work Volition Scale (WVS), 89–90
Work Volition Scale—Student Version (WVS-SV), 89–90
World Health Organization (WHO)
Global Program for Emergency Preparedness and Response, 146
world is just, the, 10–12
Worry Scale, The (WS), 350
Wounded Warrior Project, 179–80
www.GenerationPulse.org, 267
challenges and ethical issues, 268
intervention, theoretical basis of, 267–68
X
xenophobia, 473–74
Y
youth participatory action research (YPAR), 432–34
youth violence, 529–30; see also violence
Z
zone of acceptable alternatives, 93–94