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date: 16 September 2019

(p. 861) Index

(p. 861) Index

Action Plan for Organic Food and Farming, 746, 750n15
Activism. see anti-GMO activism
Act on Organic Farming of 1987, 746
Africa. see also smallholder farmers
AGRA initiative, 141
agricultural development historically, 5, 9, 13, 137–39
agricultural development strategies, 106, 109, 204
agriculture reforms, 140–42, 494
agrifood industry (see agrifood industry)
anti-GMO activism, 52
biofortification in, 159t, 161–62
biotechnology introduction in, 90–91
capital flight, 137
cash-crop export farming, 137–38
colonial, postcolonial influences, 137–39
conflict impacts, 136–37
conservation agriculture in, 117–18, 121
contract enforcement, 137
crop diversification, 110–13, 120
crop residue composting, 118
debt issues, 138
demography, 133–35
economic reforms, 140
ethnic diversity, 135–37
Fair Trade certification, 631–32, 639n13
farm productivity gender differences, 280–87, 281–85t
food crisis (see Sahel (Africa))
food/health relationships, 73
food insecurity, 129
food price spikes, 275
food production per capita, 130
food subsidies in, 311, 314
foreign aid, 138–39, 144–45
geography, 133–35
GMOs in, 48–50, 52, 72, 142–44
Golden Rice, 48, 91, 92, 161–65, 166n1, 167n10, 394, 708
governance issues in, 129–30, 132–38, 143–44
HIV/AIDS, 490–91
illiteracy, 131
industrialization, 138
inheritance laws, 289
integrated pest management (IPM), 114, 115, 143
intercropping, 113–15
irrigation systems, 131, 134
land acquisitions in, 830–31, 834f, 837n4, 838n14, 838n17
landownership, 278–79
land reform, 255, 265, 266
local ecological knowledge, 492
malnutrition in, 112, 410t, 411, 425n4
market access, 107, 108, 118–19
NGO-sponsored PES programs, 466
packaged goods market share, 805–6
pests, diseases, 115–17, 134–35
political power protection, transfer, 260, 264–65
population growth, 133, 134
poverty trap, 27, 130–31
preferred supplier direct relationships, 813–14
property protection, 137
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f
rule of law in, 137
rural infrastructure, 132–34
Sahel (see Sahel (Africa))
soil degradation in, 456, 458, 463
structural adjustment policy, 139, 140
taxation, 138–40
technology deficits, 131, 141–42
(p. 862)
tools access, 280
transnational agrarian movements, 730
urban bias in, 132–33
Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA), 72
wild foods in, 476, 478–80, 483, 485–86t, 488, 490–92
women as food producers, 130–31, 276–77f, 276–78
Africa Biofortified Sorghum Project, 162
Agamben, G., 778
Agricultural technology. see biotechnology
Agrifood industry
accelerated, determinants of, 810–12
cash & carry chains, 803
clustering, 815–16
consolidation, 805–8
development strategies, 796
dis-intermediation, 802, 813
drivers, 796–800, 816n1
farmers, impacts on, 814–15
follow sourcing, 802
food processing, 797–800, 803–8, 812–14, 816n1
innovation, 808, 815–16
liberalization, 801–3, 805–6, 810
marketing strategy adaptation, 811–12
modernization, 796, 798–99, 811–15
packaged foods, 803–4
policy/program drivers, 797, 798, 804–5, 808–9
privatization, 805–6, 809–12
procurement systems, 799, 811, 814
public private partnerships (PPP), 810–11
regulations, 800–801, 807
resource-providing contracts, 814
reviews of, 796
small/medium scale enterprise (SME), 805–7, 812–14
state-owned enterprises (SOE), 809–11
store format adaptation, 811–12
supermarkets, 809–11, 813, 816n3
supply-chain efficiencies, 811
symbioses, 796, 797, 808, 813–14
transformation generally, 795–96
wholesale/logistics sector, 796–803, 812–14
Agroecological intensification (AEI)
benefits, 202–3, 458–59
implementation, 119–22, 142–43
principles, 108–10, 203–6
Agroecology, 728–29, 732nn16–17
A Hlanze, xxx, 490
AlaAT (alanine aminotransferase), 70
Alderman, H., 421
Algae biofuels, 193
Alix-Garcia, J., 466
Allergens, 88, 601–3
Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), 141
Allyl methyl trisulfide, 79t
Almond, D., 414
Alpha-carotene, 77t, 86
Alsever, J., 628
Alston, J. M., 670
Alternative food movement, 6, 536–39. see also organic agriculture; organic food movement
Altieri, M., 219
Ambedkar, B. R., 538–39
Amin, A., 787
Anderson, K., 25, 91, 372, 373, 374, 666
Andreoni, J., 461
Anriquez, G. À., 279
Anthocyanidins, 77t, 86
Anti-commons, 398
Anti-GMO activism
biofortification, 163, 167n10
eating as political act, 532
in Europe, 667, 683
food safety, 567–70, 572–73
food sovereignty, 52–55
motivations, 767–68
papaya, 762–67
scientific misconduct, 606–8, 610n16, 709, 767
transnational collective action, 729–30, 732n18
in United States, 579
(p. 863)
Antinutrients, 86–88
Appadurai, A., 548
APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator), 112
Arabidopsis thaliana, 71
Arcadia Biosciences, 70–72
Arctic apple, 67–68
Arjó, G., 607
Asia. see specific countries by name
Aspergillus fumigatus, 87
Atrazine, 693
Australia
allergens in GMOs, 603
biotechnology licensure, 397
income support measures, 370
intellectual property rights, 383
land acquisition in, 831, 832, 834f, 838n6, 838n19
nonagricultural ecosystems management, 480t, 481
papaya ring spot virus, 757
species divergence, 433–34
water rights, 466
Avatar, 532–33
Azospirillum, 209
Barfoot, P., 671, 679
Barker, D., 414
Barrett, C., 453
Barrows, G., 673, 679
Barthes, 546
Baumgartner, H., 401
Bayham, F. E., 477
Becchetti, L., 632, 639n13
Beer, J., 528
Behrman, J. R., 416
Belasco, W. J., 646
Béné, C., 789
Berg Report, 785
Berlant, L., 772
Bernauer, T., 667
Berry, W., 239, 523–30, 534. see also eating as political act
Beta-carotene, 77t, 85, 91
Beta glucan, 77t
Better Bananas for Africa Project, 162
Bhalla, S., 806
Bharucha, Z. P., 11, 488
Bhatia, B. M., 304
Bièvre, D. B., 400
Bifidobacteria, 82
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 91, 141, 162
BioCassava Plus Project, 162
Biofortification
controversies, 162–65, 167n9
described, 150, 165, 166n1, 244
feasibility, 155–56
food ethics, 244–45
impacts, cost-effectiveness, 156–61, 158–59t, 160f, 166
programs, 161–62
rationale, 153–55, 165–66, 166n2
Biofuels
algae, 193
biomass resources, 185–87
climate change, 455, 464
corn ethanol, 187–89, 826–27
cropland resources (global), 182–83
energy conservation, 194–95
energy resources, usage, 183–85
food production vs., 181–82
fossil fuels, 184–85, 188, 194, 195
fracking, 184
grass, cellulosic ethanol, 189–90, 194
impacts, 188–91, 194, 685n4
land acquisitions, 823, 825–27
land-food nexus, 256
mandates, 188, 193–94
oil palms, 192–93
peak oil, 184–85
rapeseed, canola biodiesel, 191–92
solar energy resources, usage, 184, 188
soybean biodiesel, 190–91
subsidies, 188, 191, 195
water resources (global), 183
Biological Open Source (BiOS), 397
Biopesticides, 579.see also pesticides
Biotechnology. see also GMOs
abiotic stress, 68–69
absisic acid (ABA), 72
agrarian lifestyle, 436–38
agriculture history, 443–45
agronomic traits, 67–68
AlaAT (alanine aminotransferase), 70
(p. 864)
allergens, 88, 601–3
antinutrients, 86–88
barriers to introduction of, 52–55, 57–59, 89–92
biodiversity, 437
carbon sequestration, 73
challenges facing humans generally, 431–32
chromosome architecture, 439–40
climate change, 68–73
cultivation statistics, 67
diffusion of, 14–15, 33n48
dilemmas, solutions generally, 65–67
distributive justice, 12, 21–22, 33n48, 447–49
“DUS” system, 444
ethics, 25–26
genetic engineering, 13–14, 445–47
genetic homology, 439–40
genetic modification as objective, 591–93
greenhouse gases, 69–70, 73
heritage plant varieties, 438
homeodomain leucine zipper proteins (HDZip), 72
horizontal gene transfer, 441
humans as unnatural species, 434–35
hybrid crops, 443
innate technology, 68
intellectual property rights, 16–17, 32n34
inter-species gene transfer, 440–41
material interests vs. ideas, 7–8
metabolic engineering, 79–80
minichromosome vectors, 80–81
modern varieties (MVs), 46–49
Mother Nature’s replacement rule, 432–34
multiple-transgene direct DNA transfer, 80
mutation breeding, 443–44, 591–93
natural living paradigm shift consequences, 435–38
nitrogen uptake efficiency, 69–70
North-South development, 22, 26–29
nutritional benefits, 73–76, 74–76t
plant breeding, 441–44, 591–93, 595t
principles, 205
proprietary genes misconception, 438–43
Red Queen hypothesis, 437
regulation of (see regulation of GMOs)
risk assessment, 21
RNA interference, 68, 80, 82, 87, 89
safety standards, 14, 20, 25
soil adaptations, 73
species barrier misconception, 438–43
submergence tolerance, 72
suicide seeds, 20, 32n42
sustainability, 67–68, 73, 435–38, 441
synteny, 439
technological challenges, 76–81, 77–79t
transcription factors, 71–72, 80, 82, 86, 594, 595t
unexpected outcomes, 79–80
water stress tolerance, 70–72
Bittman, M., 17, 644
Blend, J. R., 625, 635
Blumwald, E., 71, 72
Blyth, M., 22
Bolsa Familia, 269, 322
Borlaug, N., 532
Borras, S. G., 256, 730
Borras, S. M., 824, 832, 838n12
Boström, M., 616
Bouis, H., 416
Bové, J., 566–68
Bowman v. Monsanto Co, 390
Brand, U., 403n30
Brashares, J. S., 490
Brazil
allergens in GMOs, 603
biofortification in, 158–59t, 160
biofuels in, 188
biotechnology in, 16, 22, 44
Bolsa Familia, 269, 322
climate change, 398, 515–16
collective action, 728, 729
farmers’ rights/seeds, 387
food processing in, 805–7, 813–14, 816n1
food subsides in, 269, 322
GMOs in, 143, 664, 763
land acquisitions by, 256, 831–32, 834f
land reforms, 269
livestock, livestock products, 506, 509–11, 518, 677
meat consumption in, 295n2
as model, 140–41
papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), 757, 760–61
(p. 865)
patents, 387, 393
procurement systems, 799
public investment in, 16, 135, 377, 800–802
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f
supermarkets in, 816n3
transgenics in, 47, 70
Brookes, G., 671, 679
Brown, L., 459
Bt crops. see under GMOs; specific country by name
Bullshit (the movie), 689–90
Burgess, M., 25
Burke, E., 528
Butelli, E., 86
Butt, T. A., 456
Caffeic acid, 78t
Calcium (dietary), 85
CAMBIA, 397
Cambodia
SRI implementation in, 208, 215–16
wild foods in, 483t
women as food producers, 276–78, 276–78f
Canola biodiesel, 191–92
Carberry, P. S., 112
Carbohydrates, 75t, 82–83
Cardaci, A., 453
Cargill, 239
Carlson, S. R., 80
Carotenoids, 75t, 77t, 86
Carson, R., 534–36, 692–93
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, 14, 20, 25, 569, 574–75, 582
Cassin, J., 466
Catechins, 77t
Cellulosic ethanol biofuels, 189–90, 194
Certification. see labeling and certification
Chakrabarty, Diamond v., 53, 389
Chapela, I. H., 690, 699
Charles, D., 536
Chassy, B. M., 80
Chay, K., 414
Chi, F., 209, 210
China. see also GMOs
agrarianism, 239–40
agricultural activities impacts, 459
agrifood industry (see agrifood industry)
biogas plants in, 464
Bt cotton, 395
Bt rice, 58–59, 61n4, 67
cropland availability, 183
farm productivity gender differences, 280, 285t, 286–87
food processing, 799–800
food subsidies in, 318
GM crop adoption rate, 695
land acquisitions by, 831f, 832–33
landownership, 278–79
land reform, 50, 255, 264, 267–68
livestock management, 510–11
meat consumption, 275, 295n3
meat production, 508
organic foods consumption, 740
phytase maize, 67, 87
plant varieties patent protection, 393, 395, 399
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f, 376, 377f
retailing, 799–800, 809–11
SRI implementation in, 215
transnational agrarian movements, 730
wild foods in, 478, 484t
women as food producers, 276–78, 276–78f
Christiaensen, L., 421
Clarkson, K. W., 418
Climate change
agricultural activities impacts, 457–60
agricultural investments, 456–60, 463–64
atmospheric CO2 levels, 456
biofuels, 455, 464
biotechnology, 68–73
Brazil, 398, 515–16
carbon sequestration, 457–58
complementarities, 453–54
deforestation, 457–59, 461–64, 463f
Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), 461–64, 463f, 467
environmental poverty traps, 462
expertise, epistemic brokerage, 23
food price spikes, 455
food security, 454–57
food security/gender inequality, 275, 295n3
full-costing, 454, 463f, 464–68
households response, 457
(p. 866)
impacts, predictions, 455–57
intellectual property rights, 398–400
land acquisitions, 826
methane production, 457
organic food movement, 460, 749
payments for environmental services (PES), 454, 465, 466
polluter pays principle (PPP), 454, 465
poverty impacts, 454–60
rainfall patterns predictions, 456
soil degradation, 456, 458, 461–64, 463f
sustainability, 460, 467
synergies, 453
temperature change predictions, 456
transgenics, 73
water usage, 457, 459
wild foods, 489
Clough, E., 6, 24
Cloward, R. A., 729
Club of Rome, 784, 787
Coase, R., 465
Cockburn, J., 374
Codex Alimentarius, 5, 422, 596
Cole, M. A., 461
Collaborative Crop Research Program (CCRP), 116
Collagen hydrolysate, 77t
Collier, P., 137, 140
Collingham, E., 778
Commission on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CPGR), 384
Commodification
corporate imperialism, 44–45, 49, 51–52, 54–55, 142, 163, 567
ethical consumerism, 655–56
food ethics, 235–36, 396
Sahel (Africa), 779–80, 782–83
Community-supported agriculture (CSA), 656–57, 718
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 77t
Connolly, E. L., 85
Conservation agriculture, 117–18, 121, 208, 218–19
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 383, 385
Convention on Biological Diversity (CDB), 14, 385, 386, 401, 402n2
Conway, E. M., 33n53
Conway, G., 13
Cooper, A., 670
CORE-Organics I/II, 746, 750n14
Corn ethanol, 187–89, 826–27
Costantino, M., 632, 639n13
Costanza, R., 458
Cotula, L., 828–29
Counihan, C. N., 546
Cowlishaw, G., 490
Cramton, P., 466
Culas, R., 461
Cunha, M., 315
Cyanidin, 77t
Daewoo Logistics, 822
Daidzein, 78t
Davis, M., 778
Deaton, A., 329, 339, 357n22, 416
Declaration of the Rights of Peasants—Women and Men, 722
Deere, C. D., 262
Deininger, K., 256
de la Fuente, A., 457
Delgado, C., 510–11
Demeter International, 743, 750n10
Deolalikar, A. B., 416
De Schutter, O., 835
Devare, M. H., 49
Devereux, S., 778, 790n2
Dey, J., 286
Diallyl sulfide, 79t
Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 53, 389
Dikotter, F., 778
Distributive justice, 12, 15–17, 21–22, 31n29, 32n34, 33n48, 447–49
Dithiolthiones, 79t
Dobermann, A., 213, 214
Doimo, A. M., 729
Doré, T., 120
Doss. C. R., 290
Douglas, M., 21
Downs, A., 667
Drakakaki, G., 85
Dreze, J., 329, 339, 357n22, 776–77
DroughtGard maize, 71–72
Dunn, E. C., 557 (p. 867)
Dupont, 83
Earth Summit, 54
Eating as political act. see also ethical consumerism
agrarian ideal, 523–26
birth-control technology, 527, 531
community, 526–27
coping/resilience, 529–30
culture-borne instructions, 527–28
dehumanization, 531–32
development, progress (Western), 539–40
ecofeminism, 531
environmentalism, 533–36
food knowledge/politics generally, 6, 10, 30n15–16, 523
frontier spirit of science, 528–29
heroic Third World peasants, 530–33
ideology of limits, 528–30
infant mortality, 531
knowledge/reason relationship, 527–28
labeling and certification, 615–16, 638nn1–2
local is best principle, 526–27
mechanization of agriculture, 525–26
personal values, 531
pesticides, 534–36
progressivism, 539–40
propriety, 528–29
romanticization, 531–32
scientific-technological solutions, 527–28
slavery/racism, 529–30
sociocultural limitations, 529–30
socioeconomic order, 525
stoop labor, 540
tobacco controversy, 524–25
tradition in agricultural practices, 527–28
eBay studies, 626
Écoropa, 565
Edible Insects, 4
Ehrlich, P., 532
Elfenbein, D. W., 626
The End of Food (Roberts), 12
Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), 461–64, 463f, 467
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 692, 693
Epicatechin, 78t
Ereaut, G., 455
Esping-Andersen, G., 30n8
Ethical consumerism. see also eating as political act
agency, 647–48, 654
commodity substitutionism, 659
community building, 656–57
counter cuisine, 646
definitions, 646–47, 660n2
ecological citizenship, 648, 649, 651f, 654–58
eco-shopping, 653–55, 658–60
Fair Trade, 619–21, 625–35, 639n11–13, 658, 659, 719
fetishized approaches, 647–48
food commodification, 655–56
food politics generally, 644–49, 660n1
food politics typology, 649–53, 651f
frugal vs. mass consumption, 651f, 652–53
infrastructures of provision, 648
organic food movement, 648, 654, 658, 659
political perspectives, 651f, 652
purchasing power, 659
sacrifice, simplicity, 648, 651f, 652, 655
social justice/change, 651f, 654, 655, 657, 659
sustainability, 651f, 654
transformation efficiency, 648
Ethics. see food ethics
European Union (EU)
Action Plan for Organic Food and Farming, 746, 750n15
Act on Organic Farming of 1987, 746
anti-GMO activism in, 667, 683
co-existence policy, 701–4
comparative innovative advantage, 681–84
CORE-Organics I/II, 746, 750n14
Eurobarometer survey, 162–63
European Biotechnology Directive, 391
food safety, 14, 564–70, 582
Fortuna potato, 90
GM crop adoption rate, 695
land acquisitions, 829, 831f, 839n22
meat production, 508
milk consumption, 508
MOn810 maize, 702
organic agriculture in, 746, 750nn13–15
organic foods consumption, 740, 742
packaged goods market share, 805–6
(p. 868)
plant varieties patent protection, 390–95, 402n2, 402n11, 403n22, 444
precautionary principle, 14, 54, 589–90, 679
preferred supplier direct relationships, 813–14
public policy, 666–67, 670
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f
Transcontainer Project, 706–7
Union for the Protection of New Varieties (UPOV), 390–93, 392t, 402n11, 444
voter model, 666–70, 680–84 nn1–2
wild foods in, 492
Ewen, S. W., 605
Fairhead, J., 256
Fairlie, S., 246–47
Fair Trade certification, 619–21, 625–35, 639n11–13, 658, 659, 719
Falkner, R., 667
Farmer, P., 774
Farmers’ Confederation, 567
Farm subsidies
agricultural reform, 375–77
agriculture's role historically, 363–64
domestic reforms, 376
household consumption, 374
incentives distortion, 364–72, 365–71f
income inequality impacts, 373–75
nominal rate of assistance (NRA), 365–66f, 365–72, 369–71f
policy biases, 362–63
poverty impacts, 373–75
real GDP, 374
real unskilled wage, 374
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 365–66, 367–68f, 369, 376, 377f
trade reform, 375
welfare effects (global), 372–73
welfare reduction index, 370–72, 371f
Farquhar, J., 557
Feder, E., 267
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 693
Fedoroff, N., 26
Fentahun, M. T., 492
Ferulic acid, 78t
Fiber (dietary), 77t, 82–83
Fiedler, J. L., 160
Fischer, xxx, 846
Flavanols, 77t, 86
Flavanones, 78t
Flavones, 78t
Flavonoids, 77–78t, 86
Flavr Savr tomatoes, 578–79
Fodha, M., 461
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 383–86, 421–22
Food Diversity Index (FDI), 334, 334f, 356–57nn15–17
Food ethics
abolitionism, 237–39
activism, 248
agrarianism, 239–40, 247
alienation, 233
animal abuse, 235, 238–39
animal welfare, integrity, 243, 246–47
autonomy, 241, 242
biofortification, 244–45
co-existence, 242–43
commodification, 235–36, 396
concepts, 240–43
consumer concerns, 241
consumers/scientists relationship, 236–37
ethical consumerism, 248
ethical matrix approach, 237–38
ethical traceability, 242
food choice, 241, 242
food security, 234, 240
food sovereignty, 45, 52, 54–55, 91, 142, 242, 721–30
foundationism, principalism, 237–39
greenhouse gases, 246, 247
history, 232–34
industrialism, 239–40
informed food choice, 242
intellectual property rights, 236
labeling and certification, 242, 615–21, 618f, 637, 638nn1–2
malnutrition, 234, 240, 243–45
meat eating, 245–48, 275, 295n3
overweight, obesity, 233
(p. 869)
pluralism, 238, 240
pragmatism, 247
scientific misconduct, 606–8, 610n16, 709
sustainability, 234–35, 238
tools, 231–32
value-oriented positions, 238–39
vegetarianism, 245–48
Food for Peace Program, 420
Food knowledge/politics generally
advocacy networks, 26
agrarian reform, 9
agricultural protectionism, 5
bans, legal restrictions, 5
cognitive screening, 23, 30n15
cultural wisdom, values, 3–4, 29n1
distributive justice, 12, 15–17, 31n29, 32n34
double movement, 9
economic questions, 8–10, 30n8, 30nn15–16
ethics, 25–29
expertise, epistemic brokerage, 23
famine causes, 9–10, 30n8
food riots, 15–16
ideas as central to, 22–26, 33nn52–54
institutionalization, 24–25
intellectual property rights, 16–17, 32n34
interdependencies, 11
junk food legislation, 17–19, 32n36
livestock effect, 11–12, 30n16, 31n18
market hegemony, 9–10, 30n8
moral economy, 9
moral justifications, 5
normative vs. empirical, 4
production limitations, 12
production techniques, 12–15, 31nn22–23
strategies, tactics, 23–24, 33nn52–53
sustainability, 11
tradition as mechanism, 11–12, 31n18
urban bias theory, 15, 27, 132–33
welfare state, 9, 30n8
what is produced, 10–12, 31n18
Food labeling. see labeling and certification
Food meanings
as blessing from God, 549
consequences, 549–50
eating habits, changing, 556–58
flavor/money trade-offs, 552–56
generosity, 548–50
as kinship, acceptance, 546–47
moral decline, 552–56
perceptions, relationships generally, 545–46, 556–58, 558n4
separation, 547, 550–52, 558n6
sharing, 548–50
social status, 551–52, 558n6
solidarity, 547–50, 558n7
vegetarianism, 556–57
Food safety
allergens, 88, 601–3
anti-GMO activism, 567–70, 572–73
biopesticides, 579
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 562, 564–66, 572, 575
Bt176 corn, 566–69
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, 14, 20, 25, 569, 574–75, 582
comparative sequence analysis, 602
compositional analysis, 598–601
concepts, perceptions of, 587–88
DNA modification as objective, 591–93
domestication syndrome, 591
dose-response curves, 603–4
E. coli O157, 572, 574
European Union (EU), 14, 564–70, 582
Flavr Savr tomatoes, 578–79
food ethics, 236
food knowledge/politics generally, 5–7, 14, 29n3
France, 564–70, 582
GMO classification, 563
GMO safety, desirability, 563
GMO salience, definition, 563
GMOs concepts, definitions, 593–96, 595t, 610n7
GM rice, 574–75
Ice-Minus, 577
Japan, 5, 14, 570–76, 582
labeling and certification, 567–76, 578–81
labels in marketing, 588
media manipulation of public perceptions, 606–8, 610n16
monarch butterflies, 580
-omic profiling, 601
organic food movement, 587–88
(p. 870)
politicalization, institutionalization, 563, 571–72, 577
rat studies, 603–6
rDNA in crops historically, 589–91, 610n4
recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH), 578
risk factors generally, 608–9
scientific misconduct, 606–8, 610n16, 709
standards generally, 562–63
StarLink corn, 573, 575, 580, 699–700
stigmatization, 565, 568–70, 580
substantial equivalence principle, 14, 571–72, 578, 598–601
traceability, 567–76, 578–81, 697
transgenics, 589–90, 596–98, 608–9
United States, 14, 576–82
whole food feeding studies, 604–5
Food security
agricultural development strategies, 107–8
agroecological intensification (AEI) (see agroecological intensification (AEI))
climate change, 454–57
food ethics, 234, 240
intellectual property rights, 396–97
livestock, 505–6
malnutrition, 409, 411
Sahel (Africa), 775–79, 788, 790nn2–4
subsidies (see subsidies)
United States, 27–28
wild foods, 475–76
Food security/gender inequality
climate change, 275, 295n3
credit access, 288–94
factors affecting generally, 274–75, 274f, 295nn2–3
farm productivity gender differences, 280–87, 281–85t
foodgrain production, exports, 274–75, 274f
gender-specific production constraints, 278–80, 295n4
grant-cum-credit schemes, 289, 292
group farming, 290–92
information access, 280, 281–85t, 286, 290
inheritance laws, 288–89
land, assets access, 288–94
landownership, 278–79
price spikes, 275
productivity, increasing, 288–93
Public Land Bank (PLB), 289
tools access, 280, 281–85t, 286, 290–94
women as consumers/managers, 287–88, 293–94, 295n10
women as producers, 130–31, 276–77f, 276–78
Food sovereignty
anti-GMO activism, 52–55
GMOs, 45, 52, 54–55, 91, 142, 242, 721–30
land acquisitions, 836, 838n12
transnational collective action, 45, 52, 54–55, 91, 142, 242, 721–30
Food stamps, 320–22, 418–20, 426n5
Fortuna potato, 90
Fossil fuels, 184–85, 188, 194, 195
Fowler, C., 387
Fraker, T. M., 419
France, 564–70, 582
Franco, J., 256, 824, 832, 838n12
Freeman, R. B., 633, 636
Friedman, M., 633
Friends of the Earth, 53, 144, 565, 580
Friends of the Earth Japan, 574
Fructans, 78t, 82–83
Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), 78t
Fruition Seeds, 697
Fukuda-Parr, S., 696
Functional 2ndry metabolites, 75–76t
Fusarium culmorum, 210
The Future of Food, 690
Gaiha, R., 358n50
Gajaseni, J., 763–64
Gamma linoleic acid, 77t, 84
Gandhi, M., 537–39
Garcia, D. K., 690
Gehlhar, M., 796
Gender inequality. see food security/gender inequality
Gene Revolution, 13–14, 16, 43–44. see also biotechnology; GMOs
Genistein, 78t (p. 871)
Ghosh, S. K., 359n58
Gibson, D., 419
Giddens, A., 60
Gliessman, S. R., 219
Glover, D., 52, 218
Glucosinolates, 78t, 86
GMOs. see also biotechnology
anti-GMO activism (see anti-GMO activism)
Arctic apple, 67–68
birth of, 14, 43–44
Bt Brinjal (aubergine), 56–58, 61n3, 554–55
Bt corn, 446, 566–69, 580, 672t, 673
Bt176 corn, 566–69
Bt cotton, 55, 68, 395, 672t, 763
Bt maize, 90, 672t, 673, 691, 701–2
Bt protein crops, 47, 48, 56
Bt rice, 58–59, 61n4, 67, 574–75
comparative innovative advantage, 681–84
concepts, definitions, 593–96, 595t, 610n7
consumers, economic value of GMOs to, 674–75 nn3–4
controversy, 19–22, 32n40–42, 33n48, 52–56, 162–65, 167n9
corporate imperialism, 44–45, 49, 51–52, 54–55, 142, 163, 567
crop yields, 48, 70–72, 446, 673
DNA modification as objective, 591–93
DREB, 71–72
DroughtGard maize, 71–72
ecological concerns, 44–45, 49, 51–52, 55, 163
Flavr Savr tomatoes, 578–79
food safety, 55, 56, 92, 562–63 (see also food safety)
food sovereignty, 45, 52, 54–55, 91, 142, 242, 721–30
Frankenfoods, 54
gateway GMO crops, 766–67
Golden Rice, 48, 91, 92, 161–65, 166n1, 167n10, 394, 708
herbicide tolerance, 48, 68, 672t, 679
intellectual property rights, 53, 92
IR20 rice, 46–47
knowledge economy, 52–53
labeling and certification, 47, 54, 618–19
media manipulation of public perceptions, 606–8 nn16
open-pollinated varieties (OPVs), 57
papaya, 89
PARP modification, 72
pest resistance, 47–48, 68
phytase maize, 67, 87
potatoes, 68, 87–88, 90, 701–2
precautionary approach, 54
principles, 205
public opinion, 53–54
rDNA in crops historically, 589–91, 610n4
regulation of (see regulation of GMOs)
risk/benefit analysis, 45–46, 55–56, 59–60, 88–89
Roundup Ready soybeans, 70
scientific misconduct, 606–8, 610n16, 709
StarLink corn, 573, 575, 580, 699–700
stealth seeds, 14–15, 21, 55, 698–700, 763
terminator gene, 54–55
transgenic hybrids, 57
transgenics (see transgenics)
Godfrey, K., 414
Goklany, I. M., 458
Golden Rice, 48, 91, 92, 161–65, 166n1, 167n10, 394, 708
Goldman, A., 816n3
Gonsalves, C., 708
Gonsalves, D., 708, 759, 761
Gonzali, S., 86
Gopalan, C., 356n9
Gordon, J., 82
Gosling, P., 460
Goul Anderson, J., 638n3
Graff, G. D., 667
Grafton, R. Q., 466
Grand Challenges in Global Health, 162
Grass, cellulosic ethanol biofuels, 189–90, 194
Graziano da Silva, J., 91
Greenpeace, 53, 54, 59, 61n4, 144, 167n10, 762–67
Greenpeace France, 565–67
Greenpeace Japan, 574
Green Revolution. see also biotechnology; GMOs
benefits, 49–50
(p. 872)
controversy, 49–52
corporate imperialism, 51–52
ecological concerns, 51–52
history, 13, 16, 31n23, 43–46, 108, 383
impacts, 112, 142–43, 304–5, 458, 465, 532
methodological biases, 50–51, 60
private vs. public sector roles, 394–95
social inequality, 50–51
technology vs. social reform, 50, 60
tradition, cultural values, 52
Gressel, J., 49
Griffin, K., 264
Grossman, G., 461
Grossman, M., 411
Gubbels, P., 779–80
Gujarati, D. S., 555–56
Gunning, J. W., 137
Haber-Bosch process, 692
Haddad, L. J., 416
Hager, H., 492
Hardt, M., 721, 727
HarvestPlus Challenge Program, 161–62
Hashimoto, R., 572
Haugen, H. M., 388
He, J., 461
Heimat, 526–27
Herring, R. J., 31n29, 32n42, 52, 56, 690, 698
Hibberd, Ex parte, 389
Higano, Y., 464
Himanshu, 350, 351
Hiscox, M. J., 635
Hobbes, T., 442, 477
Hochman, G., 667
Hole, D. G., 460
Holley, D., 525–26
Holling, C. S., 788, 789
Hooghe, M., 651
Hunger and Public Action (Drèze/Sen), 776
Hutchison, W. D., 90
Hydroxycinnamates, 77t
India. see also GMOs
acute respiratory infection (ARI), 342
affluence/dietary patterns, 342–44, 357–58nn37–38, 358nn41–42
agricultural development in, 132, 142, 460
agriculture, taxation of, 372
agrifood industry (see agrifood industry)
alternative food movement, 536–39
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY), 345, 359n56
banking correspondents, 314
as beef exporter, 30n16
biofortification in, 158t, 160
Bt Brinjal (aubergine), 56–58, 61n3, 554–55
Bt cotton, 55, 68, 395, 689, 698
calorie intake, 329–30, 330t, 332, 336, 337, 353, 353–55f, 356n6, 356n11, 357nn24–26
caste affiliation/dietary patterns, 333, 335
child undernutrition, 340–42, 341t, 357n36
composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF), 341–42, 341t
demand theory/dietary patterns, 336–38, 357nn22–29
dietary diversity, 333–34, 334f, 356–57nn12–17
dietary transition, 327–28, 332–34, 334f, 352, 356nn2–4, 356–57nn 10–17
eating out patterns, 334–36, 357nn19–21
efficiency-wage hypothesis, 339–40
Engel curves, 353, 353–55f
expenditure elasticity, 333, 337–39, 356nn12–13, 357n29
export restrictions, 827
Fair Trade certification, 631–32
fat intake, 329–31, 331–32t, 333, 337–38, 355, 355f, 356n9, 357nn28–29
Food Corporation of India, 303, 304, 350
Food Diversity Index (FDI), 334, 334f, 356–57nn15–17
food expenditure elasticities, 416–17
food meanings (see food meanings)
food processing, 799–800
food situation historically, 532
food subsidies in (see subsidies)
GM crop adoption rate, 695
Golden Rice, 48, 91, 92, 161–65, 166n1, 167n10, 394, 708
group farming, 290–92
illegal food subsidy diversions, 308, 314–15, 346, 350
infectious diseases susceptibility, 342
(p. 873)
inheritance laws, 288–89
land acquisitions, 827, 831f, 838n19
landownership, 278–79
land reform, 255
low-income elasticities of demand, 416
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), 293
milk production, 511
National Food Security Act, 303, 310, 349, 358n52
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), 348–49, 352–53, 358nn46–49
noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), 328, 342–44, 352, 357–58nn37–38, 358nn41–42
nutrient intake, 328–34, 330–32t, 334f, 356–57nn5–17
obesity/dietary patterns, 342–44, 357–58nn37–38, 358nn41–42
organic agriculture in, 742
Pink Revolution, 30n16
plant varieties patent protection, 392, 393, 395, 399
Plant Variety Protection and Farmers Rights (PVPFR) Act, 392
poverty level definitions, 347t
poverty-nutrition trap, 339–40, 352
protein intake, 329, 330, 331t, 332, 336–37, 353, 354f, 357n27
public distribution system (PDS), 303–5, 307–8, 310, 324n1, 325nn5–6, 350
Public Land Bank (PLB), 289
real income transfers, 345–47, 358nn44–45
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f, 376, 377f
retailing, 799–800, 809–11
Right to Food Act, 32n36, 349–51, 358–59nn52–56, 359nn57–58
rural dietary patterns, 336–37, 357nn24–28
rural nutrient intake, 329–32, 330–31t, 356n7
Self-Help Groups (SHGs), 293
soil microorganisms benefits, 209
SRI implementation in, 214, 215
Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), 345–50, 352–53, 347t, 358nn44–49
undernutrition, 338–39, 352, 356n7, 357nn30–33
urban dietary patterns, 337–38, 357n29
urban nutrient intake, 329–32, 330–32t
wild foods in, 476, 483, 484t, 486t, 488, 492
women as food producers, 276–78, 276–78f
Indoles, 78t
Indonesia
agrifood industry (see agrifood industry)
biofuels in, 192
genetic improvement via SRI, 212, 222n1
land acquisition in, 832
packaged goods market share, 805–6, 809–10
soil microorganisms benefits, 209
SRI implementation in, 215
INSTAPA project, 162
Integrated pest management (IPM), 114, 115, 143, 218
Intellectual property rights. see also patents
anti-commons, 398
biotechnology, 16–17, 32n34
climate change, 398–400
Commission on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CPGR), 384
Common Heritage principle, 384–85
conservation, 383–85
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 383, 385
Convention on Biological Diversity (CDB), 385, 386, 401, 402n2
crop origin, distribution historically, 382–83, 402n2
described, 381
enforcement of provisions, 400–401, 403n30
farmers’ rights principle, 385, 387–88
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 383–86
food ethics, 236
food knowledge/politics generally, 16–17, 32n34
food security, 396–97
genetic diversity concerns, 383
GMOs, 53, 92
International Board on Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), 383
(p. 874)
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGR), 386–88, 402n2
International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources (IUPGR), 384–86
Nagoya Protocol, 401
open source models, 397
plant genetic resources legal status, 382–87, 402n2
Plant Patent Act, 389
plant variety, patent protection laws, 388–94, 398–400, 402n11
regime complex, 400–401, 403n30
regulation of GMOs, 671, 681, 684–85
resolution 3/91, 387
resolution 5/89, 387
seed reuse/sharing, 387, 389–95, 402n11
SRI, 216
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 53, 381, 385–86, 391–93, 392t, 396
transgenics, 47–48, 54–58, 70, 73, 394–98
International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD)
applications, 851–55
background, 845–47, 857nn4–5
GMO assessment, 848–51
goals, 848
limitations, 855–56
organic food movement, 747
participants, 847–48, 857n10
reflexive institutions, 854–55
systematic reflexivity, 856
International Board on Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), 383
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 835
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), 718, 740, 747–48, 750n17
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGR), 386–88, 402n2
International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources (IUPGR), 384–86
Inulins, 78t, 82–83
Iron (dietary), 85, 87
Iron biofortification, 158t
Isoflavones, 78t
Isothiocyanates, 78t
Jaarsveld, A. S., 476
James, C., 33n48, 695
Japan
agrarianism, 239–40
food safety, 5, 14, 570–76, 582
GMOs in, 5, 14, 570–76, 582
land acquisitions in, 838n16
land reform, 255
plant varieties patent protection, 399
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f, 376, 377f
wild foods in, 486t
Jasanoff, S., 563
Jasanoff and Martello, xxx, 846
J.E.M. Ag Supply, Inc. v. Pioneer Hi-Bred Int’l, Inc., 389–90
Jensen, R. T., 318
Jha, S., 308, 312
Johns, T., 483
Johnston, B. F., 364
Johnston, J., 6, 638n1, 648, 732n11
Johnston, S., 758
Jordan, 484t
Jospin, L., 566
JR Simplot, 68, 87
Juan, M., 18
Juma, C., 91
Juppé, A., 566
Just, R. E., 670
Kamanga, P., 494
Kaschula, S. A., 491
Kashi brand, 622, 624–25
Kassie, M., 117
Kay, C., 256
Keith, D., 850
Kellogg, 622
Keynes, J. M., 22
Khera, R., 346
King, A., 784
Klintman, M., 616 (p. 875)
Kloppenburg, J., 382, 396
Knowledge politics, 844–45, 851–57, 857n1
Kochar, A., 358–59n55
Kollman, K. L., 666
Korea
agrifood industry (see agrifood industry)
farm productivity gender differences, 280, 285t, 286–87
land acquisitions (see land acquisitions)
land reform, 50, 255
plant varieties patent protection, 399
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f, 376, 377f
retailing, 799–800
Korthals, M., 243
Kraft, 622
Krueger, A., 461
Kuhnlein, H., 487
Kumar, R., 359n58
Kurzer, P., 670
Labeling and certification
animal welfare concerns, 617
child labor, 616–17, 619
consumer demand, 623–27
consumer motivations, 621–27, 635–37
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), 633
credibility, 634, 637
critiques, 623–25, 628–29
eating as political act, 615–16, 638nn1–2
effectiveness, 621
environmental problems, 617, 630
Fair Trade, 619–21, 625–35, 639n11–13, 658, 659, 719
food ethics, 242, 615–21, 618f, 637, 638nn1–2
food knowledge/politics generally, 24–26, 33n54
food safety, 567–76, 578–81
food safety labels in marketing, 588
GMOs, 47, 54, 618–19
health concerns, 617–18
impacts, 636–38
labor conditions, developing countries, 616–17, 625, 626
legal standards, 24–26, 33n54, 618–19, 618f
in marketing, 588
organic food movement, 260, 619, 622, 629–30, 633, 634, 694, 741, 743
pesticides, 629–30
private systems, 635–36
production process, 627–33, 639nn11–14
proliferation, fatigue, 624
Proposition 37, 669
research, 625–27, 629–33, 639nn11–13
self-perpetuation imperative, 634
social desirability bias, 625–26
stringency, 620–21, 637
third-party certifiers, 633–35, 637, 639nn15–16
traceability, 567–76, 578–81, 697
transparency, 634
voluntary regulation, 619–20, 630, 635–36
Lactobacillus, 78t
Laffan, J., 796
Lal, S., 553–54
Land acquisitions
agrarian change, 824
agro food-energy complex, 824, 835
alternative perspective, 834–35
background processes, 825–28, 838nn8–13
biofuels, 823, 825–27
characterization, 824–25, 838nn6–7
climate change, 826
code-of-conduct approach, 835, 839nn24–25
commodities speculation, 826
effects of, 822–23, 837nn1–4
energy scarcity, 838n15
financialization, 826
food crisis 2007–2008, 827, 838n12
food sovereignty approach, 836, 838n12
host countries, 830–33, 834f, 839nn20–23
investment, productivity growth, 826
investors/investments, 828–30, 831f, 838nn14–19
market capitalism perspective, 833–35
political-economic stability, 824
political economy, 823–24, 836–37, 837n5, 839n26
population dispossession, displacement, 822, 833, 839n20, 839n23, 839n26
right to food approach, 835–36
security issues, 822–23, 839n23
smallholder farmers, 835–36, 839n26
(p. 876)
Land-food nexus
autonomy, 254, 255
biofuels, 256
capacity, 254, 255
class-consciousness, 260–61
(re)concentration, 267–68
counter-reform, 267
distribution, 256, 264–65
ethnic sensitive land policy, 262
food price spikes, 253–54
foreignization, 256
gender-sensitive land policy, 262
green grabbing, 256
historical perspectives (land policy), 261–62
inequality formalization, 266
land policy (market-oriented), 257–59
land policy (pro-poor), 257, 259–63, 269
land reform dynamics, 263–68
land reform generally, 254–57, 259, 268–69
livelihood-enhancing land policy, 263
non-(re)distribution, 265–67
perverse redistribution, 268
plurality of subgroups, 261
political power protection, transfer, 260, 264–68
politics of control, 253–54, 258–59
poverty, 257–58
productivity increasing land policy, 262–63
property rights, 257–61, 265, 269n2
redistribution, 255, 256, 260, 264, 447–49
resettling, 267
restitution without redistribution, 266–67
reverse redistribution, 267–68
social relations, 258–59
titles (property), 258, 260–61, 268
water grabbing, 256
wealth protection, transfer, 260, 264–68
Land Matrix database, 837n3, 838n8, 839n26
Larsson, T., 694
Latin America. see also Brazil; Mexico; Philippines
agriculture reform in, 377
agrifood industry (see agrifood industry)
biofortification impact, cost-effectiveness, 158–59t
biofortification in, 158–59t, 160
biofuels in, 192
conditional cash transfers, 293
Fair Trade certification, 631–32
food expenditure elasticities, 416–17
food production in, 130
food subsidies in, 311, 321–22
gender-sensitive land policy, 262
GMOs, 143
inheritance laws, 288–89
land acquisitions in, 256, 830–33, 834f, 838n14
landownership, 278–79, 295n4
land reform, 255, 266–67
livestock management, 510–11
malnutrition in, 410t
MCAC (Movimiento Campesino a Campesino), 718
meat consumption, 275, 295n3
organic agriculture in, 745
organic foods consumption, 740
overnutrition/undernutrition dual burden, 411
packaged goods market share, 805–6
plant varieties patent protection, 391, 393, 395
preferred supplier direct relationships, 813–14
reforestation PES, 466
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f
retailing, 810
social movements, 729
total household income, 488
wild foods in, 486t, 488, 492
women as food producers, 276–78, 276–78f
Laulanié, H. de, 206, 208, 222n2
La Via Campesina (LVC), 45, 142, 256, 268–69, 719–30, 731n5, 732nn6–15, 836
Leach, M., 107, 121, 256, 786
Lebanon, 484t
Lee, D., 453
León, M., 262
Levedahl, W., 419
Levinson, A., 461
Lewis, A., 364
Lewontin, R., 19
Lignans, 78t
Limits to Growth, 784 (p. 877)
Lipids, 74t, 77t, 83–84
Lipton, M., 15, 27, 132
Livestock, livestock products
agriCulture historically, 506–7
animal abuse, 235, 238–39
animal welfare, integrity, 243, 246–47
Brazil, 506, 509–11, 518, 677
climate change, 515–17, 520n6
economies of scale, 509–10
egg production (global), 508
food industry impacts, 510
food security, 505–6
genetic biodiversity, 512–13
greenhouse gas emissions, 514m 520nn3–4
industrialization, 509–13
inequality in production, 508–10
low productivity, limited use areas, 512
management, 509
meat eating, 245–48, 275, 295n3
meat production (global), 507–8
methane emissions, 514, 520n4
milk consumption, 508
organic agriculture, 516
public policy, 517–19, 518t
regulation of GMO impacts, 676
smallholder farmers, 509–12, 519
sustainability, 510–11
water usage, 515, 520n5
as wild food, 479t, 481
zoonotic diseases, 513–14
Lobell, D. B., 458
Local Food Plus, 644
Lomborg, B., 463
Lotade, J., 625
Loureiro, M. L., 625
Lubeck, P., 782
Luetchford, P., 622, 631
Lutein, 77t
Lycopene, 77t, 86
Lynas, M., 680
MacKendrick, N., 6, 638n1, 732n11
Magna, V., 8
Maharashtra Seed Company, 68
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), 293
Mahyco-Monsanto Biotech (MMB), 55, 57
Mali, U., 550–52, 557–58
Malnutrition. see also nutritional status
in Africa, 112, 410t, 411, 425n4
anthropometric indicators, 408
behaviors, knowledge in, 424
body mass index (BMI), 408
competing objectives in addressing, 418–23, 426n5
conditional cash transfer programs, 416
critical window focus, 413–14, 423–24
dietary shifts effects, 417
fetal, 413–14
food aid programs, 420–21, 425
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 421–22
food delivery, distribution, 418–23, 426n5
food ethics, 234, 240, 243–45
food expenditure elasticities, 416–17
Food for Peace Program, 420
food for work schemes, 416
food security, 409, 411
food stamps, 320–22, 418–20, 426n5
GDP growth/poverty reduction effects, 417
income effects, 416–17
iodine deficiency, 408, 409
Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division (NCPD), 421–22
nutrition production function, 411–17, 425n4
overweight, obesity, 409–11
public policy strategies, 414–23, 426n5
shadow cost of time, 414–15
Special Program on Food Security (SPFS), 422
subsidies impacts, 415–16
substitution effects, 415–16
terminology, 408–9
thrifty phenotype concept, 414
undernutrition, 408–11, 410t, 413–14
unintended consequences, 424–25
vitamin A deficiency, 408, 409
World Bank principles, 422–23
Malthus, T., 431, 507
Martin, A., 631–32
Martin, J., 517
Martin, W., 374
Martínez-Torres, M. E., 720, 721, 729 (p. 878)
Mason, J., 237
Matlon, P., 782
MCAC (Movimiento Campesino a Campesino), 718
McHughen, A., 6
McMichael, P., 45
McNamara, P. E., 419
Meat eating, 245–48, 275, 295n3
Mehta, A., 312
Mehta, L., 256
Mehta, R. A., 86
Mellor, J. W., 364
Methyl bromide, 693
Mexico. see also Latin America
agrifood industry (see agrifood industry)
biofortification impact, cost-effectiveness, 159t
Bt maize, 699
forestry, hydrology PES programs, 466–67
junk food legislation, 17–19, 32n36
PROGRESA program, 321–22
transgenic crops in, 699
Meyerhoefer, C. D., 412, 415, 419
Micheletti, M., 646
Micronutrients Project, 150, 166n1
Middle East, 280, 368f, 484t, 591, 730, 782, 829, 838n15
Millennium Development Goals, 4, 29n2, 376
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 106
Miller, N. H., 318
Minerals, 76t, 84–85
“Minimum Human Rights Principles Applicable to Large-Scale Land Acquisitions or Leases,” 835
Moms Against GMOs, 4
Mongolia, 316t, 484t
Monsanto, 24, 45, 53, 68, 70, 83, 239, 395, 398–400, 578, 677, 749n4
Monsanto Co, Bowman v., 390
Montenegro, M., 732n10
Mooney, P., 387
Moore, B. Jr., 15
Mortierella, 84
Mouffe, C., 855, 856
MSG, 588
Muir, J., 534
Mukerjee, M., 778
Munro, W. A., 24, 52, 53
Mustapha and Meagher, xxx, 783
Mutation breeding, 443–44, 591–93
Nagoya Protocol, 401
Naidoo, K., 167n10
Naim, M., 14–15
Naked Juice, 622
NAM-B1, 82
Nanda, M., 742
Nandy, S., 341, 342
Naqvi, S., 80
Narayan, K., 550
National Food Security Act, 303, 310, 349, 358n52
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), 348–49, 352–53, 358nn46–49
Negri, A., 721, 727
Nehru, J., 537
Nelson, V., 631–32
Nepal, 279, 286, 483, 484t, 491–93
Nestle, 239
NGOs, 53, 144
Nicholson, L., 80
Nkonya, E., 463
No! GMO Campaign, 573–74
Norton, B., 243
Novartis, 566, 567, 569
Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 54
Nutritional status. see also malnutrition
agronomic traits enhancement, 155
biofortification (see biofortification)
deficiency statistics, 150–51, 151f
disability-adjusted life years (DALY), 151, 157, 160f, 166n2
Dollars per DALY, 157
economic losses, 152
food distribution, 153
fortification, supplementation, 153
global burden of disease, 152, 152f
marketability, 155, 160–61
micronutrient deficiencies, 149–52, 151–52f
Micronutrients Project, 150, 166n1
Oates, W. E., 670, 673
Obama, B., 145, 524 (p. 879)
Obama, M., 739
Oerke, E.-C., 113, 115
O’Grada, C., 776
Ohniko-Tierney, E., 546, 563
Oil palms biofuels, 192–93
Oils, fatty acids, 74t, 77t, 83–84
Okanagan, 67–68
Olken, B., 312
Omega-3 fatty acids, 77t, 84
Omvedt, G., 532
Oreskes, N., 33n53
Organic agriculture
benefits, 748–49, 750n18
biodynamic principles, 743, 750n10
livestock, 516
material incentives, 744–45, 750n11
product purity, 702–3
regulation of GMO impacts, 676
research on, 742–43, 750n14 746 750n14
SRI vs., 743
transgenics, 691, 694
Organic food movement
birth of, 739–40, 749n1
challenges, 744–45, 748, 749
climate change, 460, 749
concepts, definitions, 741, 748
ethical consumerism, 648, 654, 658, 659
food safety, 587–88
frame-bridging capacity, 741–42, 749n4
institutional opportunities, 745–47, 750nn12–15
International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD), 747
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), 718, 740, 747–48, 750n17
international NGOs, 747–48
labeling and certification, 260, 619, 622, 629–30, 633, 634, 694, 741, 743
market for, 740
as mobilizing frame, 740–45, 749nn3–4, 750nn10–12
as model, 747–48, 750n16–17
Origin Agritech, 87
Ortiz, xxx, 690
Ortiz-Garcia, S., 699
Paarlberg, R., 52
Paige, J., 15
Palestinian Authority, 484t
Panitch, L., 732n9
Papaya
anti-GMO activism, 762–67
cross-pollination, 766
as food crop, 756–57
Greenpeace challenges to, 762–65
impacts/Thailand, 764–67
media access, savvy, 767–68
papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), 757, 760–61
patents, 766
property rights, 766
segregated international markets, 766
stealth seeds, 14–15, 21, 55, 698–700, 763
transgenic, development of, 758–59
transgenic, introduction/Hawaii, 759–60, 768
transgenic, introduction/Thailand, 760–65
virus resistance, 755–56
Parenti, C., 774
Parikh, K., 307
Parmalat, 806
Patel, R. C., 723, 726
Patent Act, 390
Patents. see also intellectual property rights
Brazil, 387, 393
China, 393, 395, 399
European Union (EU), 390–95, 402n2, 402n11, 403n22, 444
India, 392, 393, 395, 399
Japan, 399
Korea, 399
Latin America, 391, 393, 395
papaya, 766
Plant Patent Act, 389
plant varieties protection, 390–95, 402n2, 402n11, 403n22, 444
regulation of GMOs, 671, 681, 684
transgenics, 696, 708
United States, 388–94, 396, 402n11, 444
Patzek, T. W., 189–90
Peccei, A., 784
Peña Nieto, E., 18
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), 5 (p. 880)
PepsiCo, 622
Pesticides
biopesticides, 579
eating as political act, 534–36
labeling and certification, 629–30
smallholder farmers, 113–14
transgenics, 692–94, 708
Pest management
GMO resistance, 47–48, 68
integrated pest management (IPM), 114, 115, 143, 218
smallholder farmers, 113–17, 134–35
wild foods, 480t
Phenolics, 78t
Philippines
anti-GMO activism, 767
biofortification in, 158–59t
crop yields in, 446
food subsidies in, 312, 312f
GMOs in, 46, 143, 162, 446
land acquisition in, 832–33
land reform, 261–62, 266–68
low-income elasticities of demand, 416
packaged goods market share, 805–6, 809–10
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f
Phytase maize, 67, 87
Phytate, 87
Phytochemicals, 76, 77–79t, 85–86, 88
Phytoestrogens, 78t, 86
Pieroni, A., 492
Pigou, A., 465
Pimentel, D., 25, 181, 189–90, 195n1
Pimentel, M., 181
Pingali, P. L., 51
Pinstrup-Andersen, P., 458
Pioneer Hi-Bred Int’l, Inc., J.E.M. Ag Supply, Inc. v., 389–90
Piven, F. F., 729
Plant breeding
biotechnology generally, 441–44, 591–93, 595t
cis, intra-genic transformation, 595t
genetic modification as objective, 591–93
grafting, 595t
mutation breeding, 443–44, 591–93
smallholder farmers, 113, 116–17, 120
small RNA technologies, 595t
technologies, 595t
transcription factor modification, 595t
transient expression, 595t
in vivo/in vitro mutagenesis technologies, 595t, 598
Plant Patent Act, 389, 390
Plant stanols/sterols, 78t, 84
Plant Variety Protection Act, 390, 402n11, 444
Plant Variety Protection and Farmers Rights (PVPFR) Act, 392
Polanyi, K., 8–10, 16, 28
Political consumerism, 6–7. see also eating as political act; ethical consumerism
Pollan, M., 3, 6, 17, 23, 28, 29n1, 518, 523, 524, 534, 644, 740
Porras, I., 466
Portney, P. R., 670, 673
Posey, D., 478
Poverty and Famines (Sen), 785
Prakash, A., 666
Prasartsee, V., 761, 764–65
Prebiotics/probiotics, 78t
Prebisch, R., 363
Premchand, M., 552
Pretty, J., 11, 488
Pritchett, L., 417
Proanthocyanidins, 79t
Proteins, amino acids, 74t, 81–82
Public distribution system (PDS), 303–5, 307–8, 310, 324n1, 325nn5–6, 349
Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA), 397
Pusztai, A., 605
Pylypchuk, Y., 419
Qaim, M., 671, 674
Quercetin, 78t
Quinoa, 119
Quist, D., 690, 699
Quisumbing, A. R., 286, 421
Rainforest Alliance, 622
Rajoelina, A., 822
Ralston, K., 419
Ramanujan, A. K., 549 (p. 881)
Ramaswami, B., 308, 312
Ramesh, J., 57–58
Ramkumar, P., 30n16
Randall, D., 455
Ranney, C. K., 419
Rapeseed, canola biodiesel, 191–92
Rausser, G., 666
Raustiala, K., 403n30
Ravalomanana, M., 822
Ravenswaay, E. O. V., 625, 635
Reardon, T., 24, 796
Rebaudo, F., 116
Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH), 749n4
Regan, T., 237, 238, 247
Regmi, A., 796
Regulation of GMOs
agricultural input suppliers, economic value to, 672t, 677–78
attribute-price comparing consumers, 675
attribute-sensitive consumers, 675
companies, economic value to, 671, 672t
comparative innovative advantage, 681–84
competing input suppliers, economic value to, 678
consumers, economic value to, 672t, 674–75, 685nn3–4
economic value by interest group, 671–74, 672t, 684–85
environmentalists, impacts on, 679–80
farmers, economic value to, 671–73, 672t, 676–77
GM seed suppliers, economic value to, 672t, 677–78
intellectual property rights (see intellectual property rights)
labeling and certification (see labeling and certification)
literature review, 665–67
livestock, impacts on, 676
media, impacts on, 680, 683
organic operations, impacts on, 676
patents, 671, 681, 684
political economy generally, 664–65
precautionary principle, 14, 54, 589–90, 679
price-sensitive consumers, 675
Proposition 37, 669
regulated economic agents impacts, 666
retailers, economic value to, 672t, 676
start-up companies, economic value to, 678
voter model, 666–70, 680–84, 685nn1–2
Resveratrol, 78t, 86
Richard, P., 461
Rifkin, J., 577
Right to Food Act, 32n36, 349–51, 358–59nn52–56, 359nn57–58
Roberts, P., 12, 455
Rodell, M., 536
Rodrik, D., 628
Ronald Laboratory, 72
Rosset, P. M., 720, 721, 729
Roundup Ready soybeans, 70
Russia
anti-GMO activism, 607
climate change, 515
crop diversity, 382–83
food processing, 799–800
intellectual property rights, 383
land acquisition by, 256, 831f
livestock, 506, 509, 515
preferred supplier direct relationships, 813–14
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f
retailing, 799–800, 809–10
transnational agrarian movements, 730
Sahel (Africa)
challenges facing, 774, 776, 783–86
commodification, 779–80, 782–83
entitlement as commodity bundle, 776–78, 790nn3–4
food, food aid as weapon, 778–79
food imports, 782
food insecurity, 779–83, 780f, 790nn5–6
food provisioning dynamics, 774–75
food security, 775–79, 788, 790nn2–4
global climate change, 786–87
history, 775–79, 790nn2–4
hunger, malnutrition statistics, 773–76, 782, 790n1
market functions, 778
models, 783–86
oil political economy, 782
policy failures, 778
(p. 882)
political accountability, 778
poverty effects, 775, 776, 779
poverty rates, 781–82
price spikes, 774–75
resiliency, 786–90
Sharia states, 782
social risk management, 786–90
staple food prices, 780–81
wealth distribution, 780, 780f
women's conditions, 782
Sahlins, M., 531
Sahn, D. E., 25, 29n2, 412, 415
Saito, K. A., 295n4
Sala-i-Maartin, X., 417
Sanford, J., 758
Sanger, M., 531
Saponins, 78t
Sassi, M., 453
Schiff, M., 138
Schlenker, W., 458
Schlüter, P., 746
Schultz, T. W., 364
Schurman, R., 24, 52, 53
Schwartz, P., 455
Scientific misconduct, 606–8, 610n16, 709
Scoones, I., 256
Scott, J., 15, 786
Seddon, D., 16
Seed reuse/sharing, 387, 389–95, 402n11
Segnit, N., 455
Sen, A., 238, 350, 351, 423, 776–77, 785
Serageldin, I., 91
Séralini, G.-E., 606–8
Sexton, S., 673, 679, 685n3
Seyfang, G., 648
Sheehy, J. E., 214
Shepherd, M., 460
Shiva, V., 31n22, 45, 52, 142, 523, 530–34, 567, 689–90
Shome, S., 6
Silent Spring (Carson), 535–36, 692
Silent Violence (Watts), 779, 782, 786
Singer, P., 237, 243
Slow Food movement, 718
Smallholder farmers. see also Africa
agricultural development strategies, 107–8
agriculture intensification, 105–6
agriculture reforms, 140–42
agroecological intensification (AEI) (see agroecological intensification (AEI))
anti-GMO activism, 762–67
best-fit solutions, 120–21
component interactions, 111–12
conservation agriculture, 117–18, 121
crop diversification, 110–13, 120
cropping systems design, 112
ecoagriculture, 115–16, 142–43
fertilizer usage, 109
green manures, 118
host genetic diversity, 116
innovation platforms, 121
integrated pest management (IPM), 114–15, 143
intercropping, 113–15
land acquisition effects on, 835–36, 839n26
livestock, 509–12, 519
market access, 107, 108, 118–19
mimic hypotheses, 112
modeling benefits, 116
perennials benefits, 111
performance trajectories, 106–7
pest, disease management, 113–17, 134–35
pesticides, 113–14
plant breeding, 113, 116–17, 120
polycultures benefits, 110–11, 114, 211
push-pull system, 114–15, 121
soil, water management, 117–18
sustainable intensification, 108
transgenic resistance, 116–17
wild food interactions, 481
Smith, K., 526
Smithfield’s, 806
Smyth, N. F. B., 635
Snapp, S. S., 109
Social justice/change, 651f, 654, 655, 657, 659
Solar energy resources, usage, 184, 188
Somkhuan, M., 764
Somnasang, P., 489, 491, 492
Soto, H. de, 257
Soybean biodiesel, 190–91
Soybean protein, 78t
Srinivas, R., 16
Srinivasan, T. N., 356n6
Starbucks, 628
StarLink corn, 573, 575, 580, 699–700 (p. 883)
Stealth seeds, 14–15, 21, 55, 698–700, 763
Stedile, J. S., 267
Stein, A. J., 164
Steiner, R., 740, 743
Stern Report, 69, 455
Stigler, G. J., 674
Stilbenes, 78t
Stinchcombe, A., 15
Stockholm Resilience Center, 788
Stoft, S., 466
Stolle, D., 651
Strauch, A. M., 489
Strauss, J., 411
Subramanian, S., 416
Subsidies
biofuels, 188, 191, 195
cash vs. in-kind transfers, 302, 312–23, 312f, 316t, 317f, 325nn9–13
community mobilization, 323, 325n13
controversies in, 301–3
coverage, 310–11, 325n8
delivery, 307–8, 309f, 312, 325nn5–6
effectiveness studies, 320–23
farm (see farm subsidies)
feasibility of cash transfers, 313–14
food security rights approach, 309–10, 325n7
food stamps, 320–22, 418–20, 426n5
free market model, 302
fungibility of cash transfers, 315–18, 317f, 325nn9–10
illegal diversions, 308, 314–15, 346, 350
inflation, 319
malnutrition impacts, 415–16
market price, 319–20
opposition to cash transfers, 322–23, 325n12
paternalism, 314–15, 316t, 322
price fluctuations, 319, 325n11
procurement, 306–7, 324nn2–3, 325n4
public distribution system (PDS), 303–5, 307–8, 310, 325nn5–6, 349
self-selection, 318
social pacification, 322–23
statism model, 302
Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), 345–50, 352–53, 347t, 358nn44–49
targeting, 302, 305–6, 308
vested interests, 322, 325n12
Substantial equivalence principle, 14, 571–72, 578, 598–601
Sulfides, 79t
Sulphoraphane, 78t
Summers, L. H., 417
Svedberg, P., 341, 342, 345
Swaminathan, M. S., 57, 216
Swift, J., 786
Swinnen, J., 666
Syngenta, 671, 677, 815, 849, 850
System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
conservation agriculture, 208, 218–19
crop yields, 212–14, 222n1
evidence, 206–7
gains comparison, 211–13, 222n1
genetic improvement, 212, 222n1
implementation, 204, 214–21, 222n2
integrated pest management (IPM), 218
intellectual property rights, 216
knowledge control, benefit, 219–20
methods, recommendations, 207–8
new plant types (NPTs), 212, 222n1
organic agriculture vs., 743
paradigm change resistance, 213–14, 216–21, 222n2
pollution economic costs, 221, 222n3
polycultures benefits, 110–11, 114, 211
principles, 204–8
rationale, 221–22, 222n3, 464
research evaluation, 220
research investments, 219
site-specific nutrient management (SSNM), 213
soil microorganisms, 208–11
Szuter, C. R., 477
Taiwan
GMOs in, 89
land reform, 255, 264
papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), 757
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 376, 377f
Tannins, 77t, 79t
Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), 345–50, 352–53, 347t, 358nn44–49
Tarrow, S. G., 718, 731n4, 744
Taylor, P., 784 (p. 884)
Thailand
anti-GMO activism in, 762–65
biofuels in, 192
biotechnology in, 761, 765
deforestation in, 489
organic agriculture in, 739, 742, 743
packaged goods market share, 809–10
papaya in (see papaya)
wild foods in, 484t, 486t
Thies, J. E., 49
Thiols, 79t
Thomann, L., 400
Thomas, D., 411
Tilley, H., 783
Tilman, D., 189, 190
Timmer, C. P., 796, 826
Timmer, P., 24
Tobiasen, M., 638n3
Townsend, M. S., 419
Traceability, 567–76, 578–81, 697
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 53, 381, 385–86, 391–93, 392t, 396
Transcontainer Project, 706–7
Transcription factors, 71–72, 80, 82, 86, 594, 595t
TransFair USA, 628
Transgenics. see also biotechnology; GMOs
adventitious presence, 700–702, 705–6
agri-industrial paradigm, 690, 691, 709n5
biodiversity reduction, 699–700
climate change, 73
co-existence, 694, 695–97, 696f
co-existence policy, 701–4
controversies, 689–90, 709n2
conventional agriculture, 691, 692
farming systems, 691, 709n5
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 693
food safety, 589–90, 596–98, 608–9
gene flow, 690, 695–98, 696f, 705–6
genetic use restriction technology (GURT), 706
GM crop adoption globally, 695
humans as vectors, 698–700
insecticides, 694
intellectual property rights, 47–48, 54–58, 70, 73, 394–98
multinational corporations, 704–5, 711n54
neighboring farms, gene flow to, 697–98
nitrogen uptake efficiency, 70
oilseed rape, 701–2, 706
organic agriculture, 691, 694
papaya (see papaya)
patents, 696, 708
pesticides, 692–94, 708
pharmaceutical-producing plants, 707
recoverable block of function (RBF), 706
seed purity, 696
StarLink corn, 573, 575, 580, 699–700
stealth seeds, 14–15, 21, 55, 698–700, 763
terminology, 691
traits incorporated into, 47–48
Transcontainer Project, 706–7
Transnational collective action
agroecology, 728–29, 732nn16–17
anti-GMO activism (see anti-GMO activism)
autonomy, 722, 725–31, 732nn12–15
community-supported agriculture (CSA), 656–57, 718
defensible lifespaces/defensibility, 722, 725–30, 732nn12–15
defensible values, 722–25, 732nn8–11
democracy, 722, 725–30, 732nn12–15
Fair Trade, 619–21, 625–35, 639n11–13, 658, 659, 719
food sovereignty, 45, 52, 54–55, 91, 142, 242, 721–30
gender equality, 724–25, 730, 732n12
guarantor of rights, 723–24, 732nn9–11
inefficiency, undesirability, 725–27
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), 718, 740, 747–48, 750n17
La Via Campesina (LVC), 45, 142, 256, 268–69, 719–30, 731n5, 732nn6–15, 836
MCAC (Movimiento Campesino a Campesino), 718
new subjectivities, 721, 732n7
peasants, definitions, 720–21, 731n5, 732nn6–7
self-determination rights, 722, 723, 732n8
types, 718–19
(p. 885)
Traxler, G., 674
Trewavas, A., 89
Tuma, E., 264
Turkey, 484t, 782, 801
Uauy, C., 82
Udry, C., 286, 783
Unilever, 239, 805, 849
Union for the Protection of New Varieties (UPOV), 390–93, 392t, 402n11, 444
United States
acreage in production, 691
African foreign aid, 139, 145
anti-GMO activism in, 579
biocontainment, 705–6
biomass resources, 185–86
co-existence policy, 701–4
comparative innovative advantage, 681–84
consumers, economic value of GMOs to, 674–75 nn3–4
corn ethanol, 187
crop yields, 71
food security, 27–28
Food Stamp Program, 320–22, 418–20, 426n5
food subsidies in, 311
GM crop adoption rate, 695
GMOs, 562–63, 576–82 (see also GMOs)
grass, cellulosic ethanol, 189–90
human vectors, 699
irrigation, 71
land acquisitions, 826, 829, 831f, 839n22
meat production, 508
per capita biomass consumption, 186
Plant Patent Act, 389, 390
plant variety, patent protection, 388–94, 396, 402n11, 444
public policy, 666–67, 670
relative rate of assistance (RRA), 368f
soybean biodiesel, 190–91
substantial equivalence standard, 14, 571–72, 578, 598–601
urbanization, road area, 183
water entitlements trading, 466
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 835
Uphoff, N., 31n23, 121, 218
Urban bias theory, 15, 27, 132–33
Valdes, A., 138
Valenzuela, E., 372, 373
Vandergeest, P., 743
Van der Mensbrugghe, D., 372, 373
Van der Ploeg, J. D., 720, 721
Vanek, S., 109
Vanhonacker, W., 816n3
Vavilov, N., 382–83
Vegetarianism, 245–48
Veldwisch, G. J., 256
Venter and Cohen, xxx, 222
Ver Ploeg, M., 419
Via Campesina, 10
Victor, D. G., 403n30
Vietnam
agrifood industry (see agrifood industry)
Bt rice in, 48
food processing, 799–800
food subsidies impacts, 415–16
land reform, 255, 265
meat production, 508
retailing, 799–800, 809–11
SRI implementation in, 215
wild foods in, 483, 484t
women as food producers, 276–78, 276–78f
Villarooel, M., 457
Vilsak, T., 704
Vistive, 83
Vitamin A biofortification, 159t. see also Golden Rice
Vitamins, 75t, 84–85
Voter model, 666–70, 680–84 nn1–2
Voting with your dollar. see eating as political act; ethical consumerism
Walton, J., 16
Wambugu, F., 91
Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA), 72
Watson, D., 11
Watson, R., 846, 851
Watts, M., 9, 779, 786
Weapons of the Weak (Scott), 15
White, D. M., 489
Whole Foods Market, 648, 653, 654, 657
Whole grains, 77t
Wildavsky, A., 21
Wilde, P. E., 419 (p. 886)
Wild foods
animals, raising, 479t, 481
availability, use drivers, 488
benefits, 476, 494–95
biodiversity, 475, 489
climate change, 489
domestication historically, 477–78
economic value, 488
fire use, 480t, 481
food security, 475–76
forest management, conservation, 493–94
habitat amendment, creation, 480t
harvesting, hunting, 479t
hidden harvest, 481–82, 482t
HIV/AIDS, 490–91
knowledge, understanding, 481
land use, 489–90
local ecological knowledge, 491–92
market expansion, 492–93
nonagricultural ecosystems management, 478–82, 479–80t, 482t
non-timber forest products (NTFPs), 476, 483
nutrient additions, 479t
nutritional value, 487
pest management, 480t
planting, 479t
policy support, 493, 494
socioeconomic change, 492–93
species diversity, 482–87, 483–86t
sustainable intensification, 494
unsustainable harvesting, 490
water management, 480t
Wilkerson, I., 525
Wilkinson, J., 256, 796
Willenbockel, D., 455
Wolf, E., 15
Wolfowitz, P., 139
World Food Program, 774
Wrangham, R., 233
Xiang, N., 464
Xu, F., 464
Yamano, T., 421
Yang, J., 778
Young, T. E., 82
Younger, S. D., 415
Yuan Long-ping, 216
Zaghdoud, O., 461
Zeaxanthin, 77t
Zilberman, D., 667, 670, 671, 673, 679, 685n3
Zinc biofortification, 158–59t