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date: 11 July 2020

Abstract and Keywords

A central tenet in a free society is the freedom to choose how to conduct one’s life and manage one’s property, with the responsibility to see that these same freedoms are ensured for others. Considerable effort must be expended to enable freedom of choice among a population, particularly in contentious circumstances, and especially in open systems, such as agriculture. The emergence of conventional agriculture, which relies on the heavy use of synthetic, agrochemical inputs required that concessions/compromises be made, largely by organic farmers, to enable conventional and organic agriculture to co-exist. The advent of genetically modified (GM) crops presents unique co-existence issues, particularly in light of the natural ability of transgenic organisms to hybridize, reproduce, and spread in the environment. Means by which the integrity of organic, conventional and GM farming systems might be assured in order to preserve and ensure farmer and consumer choice is discussed.

Keywords: gene flow, admixing, adventitious presence, introgression, genetically modified (GM) crops, non-GMO, traceability, seed segregation, identity preservation, agricultural paradigms

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