- The Oxford Handbook of Food, Politics, and Society
- List of Contributors
- How is Food Political? Market, State, and Knowledge
- Science, Politics, and the Framing of Modern Agricultural Technologies
- Genetically Improved Crops
- Agroecological Intensification of Smallholder Farming
- The Hardest Case: What Blocks Improvements in Agriculture in Africa?
- The Poor, Malnutrition, Biofortification, and Biotechnology
- Biofuels: Competition for Cropland, Water, and Energy Resources
- Alternative Paths to Food Security
- Ethics of Food Production and Consumption
- Food, Justice, and Land
- Food Security, Productivity, and Gender Inequality
- Delivering Food Subsidy: The State and the Market
- Diets, Nutrition, and Poverty: Lessons from India
- Food Price and Trade Policy Biases: Inefficient, Inequitable, Yet not Inevitable
- Intellectual Property Rights and the Politics of Food
- Is Food the Answer to Malnutrition?
- Fighting Mother Nature with Biotechnology
- Climate Change and Agriculture: Countering Doomsday Scenarios
- Wild Foods
- Livestock in the Food Debate
- The Social Vision of the Alternative Food Movement
- Food Values Beyond Nutrition
- Cultural Politics of Food Safety: Genetically Modified Food in France, Japan, and the United States
- Food Safety
- The Politics of Food Labeling and Certification
- The Politics of Grocery Shopping: Eating, Voting, and (Possibly) Transforming the Food System
- The Political Economy of Regulation of Biotechnology in Agriculture
- Co-Existence in the Fields? GM, Organic, and Conventional Food Crops
- Global Movements for Food Justice
- The Rise of the Organic Foods Movement as a Transnational Phenomenon
- The Dialectic of Pro-Poor Papaya
- Thinking the African Food Crisis: The Sahel Forty Years On
- Transformation of the Agrifood Industry in Developing Countries
- The Twenty-First Century Agricultural Land Rush
- Agricultural Futures: The Politics of Knowledge
Abstract and Keywords
From Fair Trade to Organic certification, the ethical labeling of food represents a growing phenomenon in the twenty-first century. The proliferation of labeling initiatives in recent years has provoked debate on the effectiveness of this form of voluntary, market-based regulation. Advocates understand ethical food labeling as a way of safeguarding environmental, labor, and health standards in food production that are unprotected by the state by empowering consumers as political actors. Conversely, critics view ethical food labeling as an elitist system plagued by problems of transparency, accountability, scalability, and consumer misinformation—ultimately an inadequate substitute for stronger state regulation. This chapter provides an overview of ethical labeling standards for food, outlining the claims made by proponents, the critiques that have been raised, and the relevant research, focusing particularly on Fair Trade and Organic standards.
Emily Clough is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Government at Harvard. She studies comparative politics and the political economy of development, with a special research focus on private governance and child labor. Prior to graduate school, Emily graduated from Swarthmore College with a degree in political science and sociology/anthropology, and spent five years in the NGO world, working in the areas of conflict resolution, development, and fair trade. Her research has been in Brazil, Ghana, and India. In her spare time, Emily enjoys dance, food, and travel of all kinds.
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