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date: 07 August 2020

(p. 347) Index

(p. 347) Index

A
accommodation, 155–58, 161
active deception, 61
adaptations, 4–5
by-products and, 184–86
psychological, 207–9
secondary, 185
adipose tissue, 138
adoption, 73, 248, 296–97, 299
altruism
kin-selected, 36–38, 89
reciprocal, 36–38, 82
American Association of Blood Banks, 295
amygdala, 188, 211, 298–99
ancestral fitness model, 44 [link]
androcentrism, 83, 84 [link] , 87, 93
androgen-dependent traits, 190
animals, nonhuman
comparative evolution of, 100–121
evolution of, 25–26
female sexual reluctance in, 19–20, 236
forced copulation in, 57, 101–4, 106–7, 111, 113
orgasm in primates, 187–88, 191–93, 193 [link]
OSR in, 284–85
oxytocin in, 192, 247
parental investment by, 50
postconception in, 23–25
postcopulation in, 21–23
sexual conflict in, 15–30
sperm competition in, 202–4, 272
anorexia, 138–41, 342
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 211
antigrasping organs, 9
anxiety, 161, 246–47, 249
Arizona Life History Battery, 82, 85, 86
arms races
coevolutionary, 25–26, 236, 333–34, 337
evolutionary, 16, 42, 65, 101, 335–36
sexual, 236, 332
of sperm, 205
artificial insemination, 220–21, 225–26
attachment
mate choice, 247–48
mate value and, 242, 246
neurochemistry of, 247, 249
relationships and, 246–47
sexual conflict and, 249–50
theory of, 73, 161–62, 246
attentional processes, 126
attractive alternatives, 149–52
attractiveness, 62–65, 80–81, 142, 242, 316–17
vitality and, 62, 152
avoidance, 161–62, 246
B
baboons, 102, 136, 188, 285
bat species, 205
bean weevil, 23 [link]
bed bugs, 22 [link]
beetle species, 185
behavioral mimicry, 151–52
biases
cognitive, 9–10, 49
on relationships, 152, 155, 164
bird species, 203–4, 235–36, 260–61
blood pressure, 186, 192, 225
Bobbit, Lorena, 49
body fat, and ovulation, 138
bonobos, 107–8, 114–15
borderline personality disorder, 73
breeding systems, 16–17
bride price, 42, 287, 290, 291
bulimia, 140, 342
by-products
adaptations and, 184–86
hypothesis, of female orgasm, 184, 194, 196
C
casual sex, 51–52
chemistry, vaginal/semen, 217–32
childbirth, 240, 250
child support, 302–14
chimpanzees, 9, 34, 42
coercion and, 104–8, 111–14
sperm competition in, 206
chronic jealousy, 163
Cinderella effect, 263
Clinton, Bill, 54
clitoris, 187–88
clitoridectomy, 195, 342
length of, 188, 194
coercion, 9, 33, 57–60, 195
chimpanzees and, 104–8, 111–14
coercive control, 77–80
direct, 261, 263, 265
evolutionary psychology and, 258–59
female resistance v. male, 218–19
gorillas and, 106–7, 112, 114–15
in humans, 108–15
indirect, 259, 261, 263, 265
orangutans and, 57, 101–4, 106, 109–15
in relationships, 110–11, 245
sexual conflict and, 100–121
sperm competition and, 272–73
status of coercive males, 111–12
coevolutionary arms races, 25–26, 236, 333–34, 337
cognitive biases, 9–10, 49
commitment
moral, 149
in relationships, 152–58, 160–64
sex and, 86, 140
women's perception of men's, 9, 39 [link] , 53, 61, 64, 142
comparative evolution, 100–121
competition. See also sperm competition
female-female, 135–37
intrasexual, 134–47
competitive disadvantage theory, 80–81 (p. 348)
concealed ovulation, 115, 134, 179, 218–20, 295, 342
conception, by rape, 222–23, 335
conditioning aggression, 102
condoms, 221, 223, 224, 225, 227
conflict theories, 75
confluence model, 84
contraceptives, 58, 142, 175, 321
cooperation, 41–42
copulatory plugs, 202, 205
cortisol levels, 192
counterstrategies
female, reproductive, 180
female, to domination, 89, 101–2, 114–15
male, reproductive, 171–72, 178–80, 196, 217–18, 222
Coyne, Jerry, 8
crickets, 202, 228
critical fat hypothesis, 138
cuckoldry
rates of, 8–10
risk of, 113, 207, 259–66
cultural evolution, 115, 342–44
culture of honor (COH), 89–91
current relationship satisfaction, 149, 319
D
damselfly, 204
Darwin, Charles, 15, 46, 283
deception
active, 61
in mating, 49, 60–61, 337–39
online, 63–64
passive, 61–62
self-deceptive behaviors, 337–41
deer species, 185
destiny beliefs, 162
determinism, 8
difference in educational level and time course of sexual motivation in a combined sample of couples aged 30 and 45 years, 244 [link]
differential reproduction, 4
direct coercion, 261, 263, 265
disordered eating behaviors, 86, 86 [link] , 136, 141, 143
divorce, 46, 238, 303, 305
infidelity and, 150, 319–20
rates of, 149, 318
dopamine, 187, 221, 241, 247
double mating, 226, 228
drug-influenced behavior, 337
dual-mating strategy, 234, 242–43, 250
E
eating disorders
anorexia, 138–41, 342
bulimia, 140, 342
disordered eating behaviors, 86, 86 [link] , 136, 141, 143
effective preference, 155
effects of sex, money and paternity on domestic violence, 81 [link]
emotional involvement, 125, 128, 238
emotions
emotional intelligence, 83
evolutionary psychology and, 124
jealousy and, 129–30
error management theory, 53
ethnocentrism, 83, 84 [link] , 87
event-related potentials (ERPs), 73
evolution, 3–4
of animals, 25–26
comparative, 100–121
cultural, 115, 342–44
evolutionary arms races, 16, 42, 65, 101, 335–36
evolutionary causes, of sexual conflict, 16 [link]
evolutionary cognitive neuroscience, 295–301
evolutionary psychology, 4–6, 34
coercion and, 258–59
emotions and, 124
hypotheses derived from evolutionary perspective on why some men refuse or reduce their child support payments, 308 [link]
IPV and, 78–87, 269–70
jealousy and, 124
misconceptions of, 6–8
natural selection and, 34–38, 40–45, 46, 305
of sexual conflict, 8–11
exaptations, 185
executive functioning, 83, 85–87, 86 [link]
exit, 155
experimental manipulation, 185–86
extra-pair copulations (EPCs), 227, 234–35, 259–60, 263
extra-pair paternity, 190, 207, 235, 295–96
F
facial resemblance, 211, 248, 296–99
fait accompli jealousy, 123–30
faked orgasm, 195–96, 335
father absence, 141
female exploitative mating, 35, 35 [link]
female-female competition, 135–37
female orgasm, 184–201, 335
by-products hypothesis of, 184
natural selection and, 184–86
female profit, 39 [link] , 40
female resistance, v. male coercion, 218–19
female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD), 250
female sexual reluctance
in animals, 19–20, 236
mate choice and, 259–61
in women, 242–44, 250
fertility-related changes, 171–72, 174, 175, 179
fishes, 188
fitness maximization, sex differences in, 217–18
fitness model, 39 [link] , 40–41
ancestral, 44 [link]
psychological model and, 44, 44 [link]
Five Factor Model (FFM), 275
fluctuating asymmetry (FA), 190, 193, 241–42
fMRI studies, 175, 297–99
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 220, 222, 335
food gifts, 35, 57
forced copulation
in animals, 57, 101–4, 106–7, 111, 113
FIPC, 271–72
in humans, 259, 261–63, 265, 271–72
forced in-pair copulation (FIPC), 271–72
forgiveness, 128, 155–58
frenulum, 9, 206
frequency, of sex, 237
Freud, Sigmund, 122
friendship jealousy, 122
G
geckos, 186
genetic quality, in mate choice, 234, 236–37, 241
genital herpes, 228
genital mutilation, 335, 342–43
genital vasocongestion, 240
gerbils, 136, 143
given preference, 155
glans clitoridis, 188, 194
glans penis, 9, 188, 194, 206
gorillas, 9, 102
coercion and, 106–7, 112, 114–15
grasping organs, 9
great apes, 101–15
gross cheating, 37–38, 39 [link] , 40–41, 44–47
ground squirrels, 135
growth beliefs, 162
Gulf pipefish, 25 [link]
H
harassment
in apes, 101, 103–6, 115n1
sexual, 53–57, 259, 261
hemipenes, 186
herding, 101, 259, 263–64
heritability, 3–4, 73, 190
herpes virus, 228
heteropaternal superfecundation, 226–27
homicide, 78, 158, 263
IPV and, 273–74
premeditated, 274
(p. 349)
hormonal contraceptives, 58, 142, 175
host–parasite coevolution, 257
hunter-gatherers, 6, 110, 114, 138–40, 191
hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDS), 250
hypotheses, testable, 7–8
hypotheses derived from evolutionary perspective on why some men refuse or reduce their child support payments, 308 [link]
I
idealization
of partners, 152–54
of sexual behavior, 33–34
immune reactions, to semen, 224
implicit theories, 162–63
imprinting, 248
incest, 36, 241, 249
indirect coercion, 259, 261, 263, 265
induced ovulation, 222–23
infant exposure, 265
infanticide
in humans, 259, 261, 265–66
in lions, 19, 134
in primates, 102, 104–7, 135, 265
infatuation, 241–42
infibulation, 195
infidelity
divorce and, 150, 319–20
female, 78, 78, 226–28
jealousy and, 158–60
love and, 122, 125–26
ovulation and, 164
types of, 122, 270
vaginal/semen chemistry and, 217–32
insemination frequency as function of different male mating strategies, 226 [link]
interdependence theory, 149
Internet, 210, 239, 342
intimate partner violence (IPV), 72–99, 337
evolutionary psychology and, 78–87, 269–70
homicide and, 273–74
individual differences in, 274–75
interpersonal theories of, 73–75, 87–89
intrapersonal theories of, 73
rates of, 149
sociocultural theories of, 75–78, 89–92
statistics on, 269
intimidation, 101, 259, 263
intrasexual competition, and sexual conflict, 134–47
investment model, 149
IQ, 85, 263
J
jealousy
chronic, 163
emotions and, 129–30
evolutionary psychology and, 124
fait accompli, 123–30
in friendship, 122
infidelity and, 158–60
male, 9, 78, 228, 269–72, 274, 275
sexual, 112–13, 228, 261
sexual conflict and, 122–33
suspicious, 123–30
Johnson, V. E., 187, 188, 250
Jones, Paula, 54
K
kamikaze sperm, 205–6, 212
killing, of partners, 263, 274
kin-selected altruism, 36–38, 89
L
labia, 187, 195
lanceolate paramere, 22, 22 [link] , 26
land snails, 21 [link]
last male precedence, 228–29, 236
lesbian couples, 191
life history (LH) strategy, 80–87, 82 [link] , 83 [link] , 86 [link] , 87 [link]
life history theory (LHT), 286
lions, 17, 19, 34, 134, 205
love, 148
infidelity and, 122, 125–26
pair-bonding and, 192–93
romantic, 150–51, 152, 161, 164
sex and, 238
love darts, 9, 20–21, 21 [link] , 26
lovesickness, 249
loyalty, 155, 155
luteinizing hormone (LH), 220–22, 335
M
major histocompatibility complex (MHC), 190–91, 193, 241–43
male exploitative mating, 34–35, 35 [link]
male-male conflict, 237, 334
male orgasm, 6, 188–89, 192, 194
male profit, 39 [link] , 40
mammals, 135–36
marital rape, 75
marital status, 54, 303, 305
marriage patterns, 44–45, 304–5, 317–18
masculine characteristics, in men, 171–79, 173 [link] , 190, 316
Masters, W. H., 187, 188, 250
masturbation, 192, 237–38
female, 187, 189–91
male, 11, 205, 210, 223
mate choice
attachment and, 247–48
female, 218
female sexual reluctance and, 259–61
genetic quality in, 234, 236–37, 241
hypothesis on, 184, 189–90, 194
mate expulsion, 315–27
likelihood of mate expulsion across sexual relationship history categories and accessibility scenario, 322 [link]
mate expulsion likelihood decisions across accessibility scenarios, 322 [link]
mate expulsion likelihood decisions across sex of participant and scenario, 321 [link]
mate guarding, 78, 89, 202
by males, 178, 234–35, 263–64
in primates, 101–2, 107, 114–15
sperm competition and, 244–45
mate poaching, 158, 245, 270, 307–9, 316
mate preferences, 62, 177–81, 209–10, 316–17
mate retention, 245–46, 263, 269–79
mate selection, 315–16
mateships, sexual conflict in, 239, 244–45, 269–79
mate value, 235, 240
attachment and, 242, 246
inflation of, 62–64
orgasm and, 241–42
mating, 16–17
cooperative, 34, 35 [link] , 39 [link]
deception in, 49, 60–61, 337–39
double, 226, 228
dual-mating strategy, 234, 242–43, 250
female exploitative, 35, 35 [link]
male exploitative, 34–35, 35 [link]
rape and, 57–60
sexual conflict in, 49–71, 234–37
social exchange and, 33–48
sperm competition and, 228–29
Mead, Margaret, 33
meiosis, 4, 205
memory, 128
menstrual cycle, 136, 160, 164, 171–72, 174–80
mental modules, 6
mice, 41, 136, 205, 228
monarch butterflies, 228
monkeys, 187–88, 191, 211, 284
monogamy, 112, 219, 259, 318–19, 343–44
social, 89, 202, 207, 263, 272
moral commitment, 149
Mormon crickets, 50
motivation
difference in educational level and time course of sexual motivation in a combined sample of couples aged 30 and 45 years, 244 [link]
ovulation and, 240, 242–43 (p. 350)
for sex, 239–40, 333–34
sexual conflict and, 233–56
transformation of, 155
mounting behavior, 20 [link]
murder, 58, 269–79
homicide, 78, 158, 263, 273–74
N
narcissism, 61, 82, 87, 310
National Survey of Families and Households, 75, 305
natural selection
evolutionary psychology and, 34–38, 40–45, 46, 305
female orgasm and, 184–86
reproductive suppression and, 138, 142
sexual conflict and, 3–6, 8, 9, 236
negative reciprocity, 155–56
neglect, 155
nepotistic effort, 82
neurochemistry, of attachment, 247, 249
noncustodial parents, 303–12
nuptial gifts, 35
O
online deception, 63–64
openness to experience, 271
operant conditioning, 73
operational sex ratio (OSR)
in animals, 284–85
female-biased, 285–88
male-biased, 288–90
sexual conflict and, 283–94
oral sex, 221, 227–28
orangutans
coercion and, 57, 101–4, 106, 109–15
ovulation and, 243
orgasm
by-products hypothesis, of female, 184, 194, 196
faked, 195–96, 335
female, 184–201, 335
male, 6, 188–89, 192, 194
mate value and, 241–42
ovulation and, 191–92
ovulation
body fat and, 138
concealed, 115, 134, 179, 218–20, 295, 342
induced, 222–23
infidelity and, 164
motivation and, 240, 242–43
orangutans and, 243
orgasm and, 191–92
sexual conflict and, 171–83
oxytocin, 150
in animals, 192, 247
in women, 186–89, 192, 221
P
pain, physical and psychological, 58–59
pair-bonding, 150, 233, 247
love and, 192–93
panadaptationist myth, 6
Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 303
parasites, 190, 257, 334
parental investment, 39–41, 45–46, 78–80
in animals, 50
asymmetric, 50–51
sex-specific, 234
theory of, 9, 23, 49, 78, 295
partner rape, 257–68
partners. See also intimate partner violence
idealization of, 152–54
killing of, 263, 274
perceptions of, 152–54
passive deception, 61–62
paternal discrepancy, and paternity uncertainty, 8–10, 226, 249, 270, 303
paternal resemblance, and sexual conflict, 295–301
patriarchal social structures, 75–76
patrilocality, 89–90
paycheck withholding, 311
peafowl, 186
penduline tits, 24, 24 [link]
penis
glans, 9, 188, 194, 206
length of, 194–95, 206
shape of, 9, 229, 335
pipefish, 50
pleiotropy, sexually antagonistic, 186
polyandry, 17, 35 [link] , 44–45, 234, 237
polygynandry, 206
polygyny, 17, 44–45, 112, 286–87, 290
pornography, 52, 210, 212, 223, 227, 238, 344
postconception, in animals, 23–25
postcopulation, in animals, 21–23
power and control theories, 75–77
precopulation, 19–21
preeclampsia, 224–25, 225 [link]
preferences
in relationship behaviors, 155
women's masculinity preferences, 171–79, 190
pregnancy maintenance, 221–22
premeditated homicide, 274
primates, 9, 17, 89, 284–85
infanticide in, 102, 104–7, 135, 265
mate guarding in, 101–2, 107, 114–15
pro-relationship behaviors, 155–58
prostaglandin, 220–21, 224
prostitution, 35, 52, 204, 290
psychological model, 42–44
fitness model and, 44, 44 [link]
psychology, 337–42. See also evolutionary psychology
psychological adaptations, 207–9
psychological pain, 58–59
of relationship maintenance, 148–68
psychopathic attitudes, 61, 85–87, 85 [link] , 111, 115
punishment, 101, 259, 263
purdah, 109–10
R
rape, 33 [link] . See also coercion
conception by, 222–23, 335
marital, 75
mating and, 57–60
of men, 59–60
myths on, 83
partner rape, 257–68
rates of, 258
sperm competition and, 204, 245, 263, 272
reciprocal altruism, 36–38, 82
Red Queen hypothesis, 333, 335
refusal rates, 259
relationships
attachment and, 246–47
biases about, 152, 155, 164
coercion in, 110–11, 245
commitment in, 152–58, 160–64
duration of, 238
maintenance of, 148–68
preferences in behaviors in, 155
relaxin, 221–22
religious influence, 45, 46, 109, 332, 342–43
remarriage, 304–5
reproductive interactions, 34–36, 172, 334–35
reproductive suppression
intrasexual competition and, 134–47
natural selection and, 138, 142
self-imposed, 139–41
resource theory, 75
revenge ideology, 86–87, 89–91
rivalry, 122
romantic jealousy. See jealousy
romantic love, 150–51, 152, 161, 164
S
sea horses, 50
secondary adaptations, 185
seed beetles, 23 [link]
self-deceptive behaviors, 337–41
self-esteem, 78, 125, 161
self-evaluations, 152, 161
self-imposed reproductive suppression, 139–41
semen
administration of, 221
displacement of, 9, 204, 206–7, 229, 242, 272
immune reactions to, 224 (p. 351)
insemination frequency as function of different male mating strategies, 226 [link]
relationship between insemination frequency and semen familiarity, 225 [link]
relationship between semen familiarity and risk of preeclampsia, 225 [link]
seminal alkalinity, 223
seminal plasma, 220–25, 229
vaginal/semen chemistry, 217–32
sequestration, 101, 109–10, 259, 263–64
sex. See also operational sex ratio
casual, 51–52
commitment and, 86, 140
frequency of, 237
if and when sex occurs, 52–54
love and, 238
motivation for, 239–40, 333–34
as symbol of communion, 248
sex differences, in fitness maximization, 217–18
sex-specific complaints, 245
sex-specific parental investment, 234
sexual access, 318
sexual aggressiveness, 53
sexual arms races, 236, 332
sexual behavior, idealization of, 33–34
sexual cannibalism, 9
sexual coercion. See coercion
Sexual Coercion subscale of Tactics to Obtain Sex Scale, 261
sexual conflict, 332–33. See also rape
in animals, 15–30
attachment and, 249–50
coercion and, 100–121
evolutionary causes of, 16 [link]
evolutionary psychology of, 8–11
in humans, 3–14
interlocus, 9, 18–19
intralocus, 9, 17–18, 18 [link]
intrasexual competition and, 134–47
jealousy and, 122–33
in mateships, 239, 244–45, 269–79
in mating, 49–71, 234–37
motivation and, 233–56
natural selection and, 3–6, 8, 9, 236
OSR and, 283–94
ovulatory cycle and, 171–83
paternal resemblance and, 295–301
social science and, 73–78, 92–93
sperm competition and, 202–16, 337
spheres of, 331–46
sexual dimorphism, 15, 115, 257, 265, 284, 316
sexual harassment, 53–57, 259, 261
sexual intent, 53–54
sexual jealousy, 112–13, 228, 261
sexually antagonistic pleiotropy, 186
sexually transmitted diseases, 41, 210, 224, 236, 291
sexual proprietariness, 274, 275
sexual satisfaction, 318–19
sexual selection theory, 33–48, 102, 334–35
sexual therapy, 233, 250
skinniness, 142–43
snakes, fear of, 4
social dominance, 136
social exchange
mating and, 33–48
model, 38–40
social learning theory, 72–74
social monogamy, 89, 202, 207, 263, 272
social networks, 104, 112, 259, 343–44
social role theory, 75
social science
sexual conflict and, 73–78, 92–93
standard model of, 4–5
sociocultural theories, 54–57, 65
sociometer hypothesis, 78
sociosexual orientation (SO), 238–39
Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI), 238
soulmate theory, 162
spandrels, 186
special design, 185
sperm
arms races of, 205
displacement of, 204
kamikaze, 205–6, 212
spermalege, 26
sperm competition, 10–11
in animals, 202–4, 272
in chimpanzees, 206
coercion and, 272–73
mate guarding and, 244–45
mating and, 228–29
rape and, 204, 245, 263, 272
sexual conflict and, 202–16, 337
spontaneous abortion, 222, 224–25
stalking, 115n1, 249, 265, 274
status, 62, 136, 152, 158
strategic interference, 54
subtle cheating, 38, 39 [link] , 41–43, 45–47
superior temporal sulcus (STS), 211
surgency, 271
suspicious jealousy, 123–30
T
Tanganyikan goby-cichlids, 25 [link]
testable hypotheses, 7–8
testis size, 202, 206
testosterone levels
in monkeys, 211
in penduline tit males, 24
in women, 175–77, 191, 222
topping-off hypothesis, 223
trade-off theories, 174, 177–78
traditionalism index, 75
transformation, of motivation, 155
trustworthiness, 152–53
twin studies, 73, 247–48, 299
U
umbilicus, 186
unemployment, 75, 273–74, 310
uterine contractions, 187–89
V
vagina, anatomy of, 219–20
vaginal acidity, 223
vaginal/semen chemistry, 217–32
violence. See also intimate partner violence
effects of sex, money and paternity on domestic violence, 81 [link]
violence-disinhibiting risk factors, 75
voice, 155, 155
W
waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), 42, 62, 239, 242, 317
warmth/trustworthiness, 62, 152
water striders, 20 [link]
Z
Zeus bugs, 20 [link]