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date: 17 October 2019

(p. 643) Index

(p. 643) Index

Abacha, Sani, 387
Abbas, Mahmoud, 511, 512, 513
Abdalla, Ulil Abshar, 567, 568
Abdel-Ghani, Safwat, 612, 614
Abdi, Abbas, 241
`Abduh, Muhammad, 27, 31, 32–34, 36–37, 130, 162, 220
Abdullah, King of Jordan, 544, 547, 548, 549, 551
Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia, 297
Abdullah, Salih bin, 214
Abdullahi, Khalifa, 204
Abdur Rahman Khan, Amir of Afghanistan , 454–55, 473n4
Abed-Kotob, S., 93
Abou El Fadl, Khaled, 3–20
Abrahamian, Ervand, 182
Abu al-Abbas, 625
Abu al-Futuh, Abd al-Mun ‘im, 480, 495
Abu Bakr mosque, 315
Abu Dharr, 251–52
Abu Sayyaf Group, 350
‘adah, 9, 11
al-`adalah al-ijtima`iyyah, 163
Adams, John Quincy, 264
`Adl wa al-Ihsan, 119, 359–60, 364–65, 366, 371, 535
Adnan, Muhammad, 570
adultery. See zina
Afaq, 361
Affendi, Abdelwahab El-, 3, 73
Afghan Arabs, 316–17
Afghani, Jamal al-Din al-, 27, 31–32, 36–37, 220, 292, 455
Afghanistan, 453–72
and Bin Laden, 633
and the Chechen War, 316
and Durand Line, 473n3, 474n14
and Islamic democracy, 84
and Islamic nationalism, 456–58
and jihadists, 453–56, 474n13
and Marxist revolution, 463–66
and Musahiban dynasty, 459–63
and post-jihad political failures, 467–70
and post-Taliban rebuilding, 470–71
precolonial and colonial periods, 453–56
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 295, 296
and the Soviet Union, 538
Taliban in, 637
training grounds in, 619
and the United States, 83, 242, 273, 314, 559, 585
veteran fighters from, 210, 316, 618, 619, 622, 624
Africa. See Maghreb; North Africa; sub-Saharan Africa; specific countries
African Americans, 265, 267, 272
Agha, Hadji Hadji, 312
ahkam al-Qur’an, 9–10
ahl al-bayt (Prophet’s family), 10
Ahl al-Sunna wa al-‘Jamâ`a, 365
Ahmad, Irfan, 3, 324–39
Ahmad, Khurshid, 146
Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam, 150
Ahmad, Osman Hassan, 450n2
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 191, 198n84, 241, 242, 401, 402, 404, 406, 560
Ahmadi sect, 150
Ahmadiyah, 346–47
Ahmad Khan, Sayyid, 29, 31
Ahmed, Ghafoor, 581
Ahmed, Leila, 453
Ahmed, Qazi Hussain, 331, 584
al-Ahrâm, 47, 48
Ajami, Fouad, 75, 77
al-Akaileh, Abdullah, 552
Akdogan, Yalcin, 428–29
Akhavi, Shahrough, 3, 159–68, 169–79
Akif, Mehmet, 31
‘Akif, Muhammad Mahdi, 101, 484
Al al-Shaykh family, 411
Al-Arian, Abdullah A., 263–77
Alash Orda, 309, 312
Alawi, Ahmad al-, 372
Albani, Nassir al-Din al-, 213. See also Muslim Brotherhood
Albania, 282, 390n6
alcohol prohibition, 18, 45, 49, 228
Algeria, 532–42
and al-Banna’s ideology, 131
and Arab Spring, 540–42
constitution, 304n1
and co-option of Islamist parties, 536–37
elections in, 532
electoral politics in, 533–35
and grassroots Islam, 362–64
independence, 52n4
and Islamic statehood, 356
and Islam in Europe, 286, 287
and Islam in North Africa, 353
and lobbying Islamic agenda, 302
militant groups in, 638
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 37
and the Movement for a Peaceful Society, 476
and nationalism, 353, 354–55
and partisan Islamist agenda, 299
and political Islam, 63
and “post-Islamism,” 367–68, 369, 370, 374–75
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 296, 297
and secularism, 82
and socialist revolution, 356–61
and Sufi resurgence, 371, 372, 373
and terrorist groups, 388
and violence, 538–40
Algiers Charter, 356
Algiers Faculté, 357
Ali, As’ad Said, 572n15
‘Ali, Husayn b., 173
Ali, Muhammad, 263
Aliev, Haci Ali Akram, 315
Aliev, Heidar, 313, 314
Aliev, Ilham, 313
Allah, Shah Wali, 28, 29, 30
‘Allal al-Fasi, 354
Alliance of Civilizations Initiative, 434
All India Muslim League (AIML), 575, 576
All-Muslim Welfare Organization (PERKIM), 592
almsgiving, 223, 224
Al-‘Utaybi, 415
Alwani, Taha Jabir al-, 303
Amal Movement, 523
American Enterprise Institute, 408
American Muslim Alliance (AMA), 268
American Muslim Civic Leadership Institute (AMCLI), 275
American Muslim Council (AMC), 268
American Muslim Political Coordination Council (AMPCC), 271
American Muslims for Palestine (AMP), 275
American Muslim Taskforce on Civil Rights and Elections (AMT), 274
Aminzadeh, Mohsen, 242
amir almu’minin (Commander of the Faithful), 359–60
Amman, Jordan, 639
Amnizade, R. R., 91
analytic philosophy, 248
Anand, Javed, 325
Andijan revolt, 314
Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM), 63, 64, 591–92, 595
Anglo-American secularism, 79–80
Anglo-Muhammadan Courts (India), 20
Animal Rights Party, 283
animism, 341
Ansar, 301
Ansar al-Sunna, 620, 624
Ansari, Hamid al-, 226–27
anticolonial movements, 144–45
anti-Semitism, 53n8
anti-Westernism, 37–38
apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 290–92
apostasy, 18, 149–50, 165, 205, 294, 317, 347, 458, 568, 608, 612–13, 632
Appeal to All Laboring Muslims of Russia and the East, 309
aql (reason), 9, 11, 31, 33–34
‘Aqqad, ‘Abbas al-, 159–60
al-Aqsa Mosque, 60
Arab Feminist Union, 113
(p. 645) Arabism, 212
Arab-Israeli conflict (1967), 605
Arab-Israel War (1948), 141, 508
Arab nationalism, 35, 59, 61, 213, 496, 507, 521. See also pan-Arabism
Arab Socialist Union, 604
Arab Spring
and Algeria, 363
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 292
and democracy, 1, 68
and gender issues, 112
and Hamas, 513
impact in the Maghreb, 352, 540–42
and Islamic democracy, 83
and Islamic politics in the Middle East, 289
in Jordan, 544, 549
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 554
and partisan Islamist agenda, 299–300
and political Islam, 65
and “post-Islamism,” 367, 369
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 297
and shari`ah, 22–24
‘Arafat, A., 93
Arat, Yesim, 117
Arian, Abdullah A. Al-, 3
‘Arif, ‘Abd al-Salam, 161
Arinc, Bulent, 425
Aristotelian philosophy, 162
Arjomand, Said Amir, 255
Armed Islamic Groups (GIA), 362
armed resistance agenda, 298–99
Armenia, 434
Arqam, Darul, 594
al-‘Aryan, ‘Isam, 492
Asad, Muhammad, 165
asbab al-nuzul (occasions of revelation), 10
ash ‘ariyah doctrine, 215
Ashour, Omar, 603, 614n2
‘Askar, Sayyid, 491
Asrar-e Hezar Saleh (Hakamizadeh), 194n7
Assad, Bashar al-, 293, 525
assembly-based democracy, 69–70
Assembly of the Experts, 189, 190, 300
Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa (ASMEA), 75
Association for the Unity and Progress of Islam (AMUPI), 382
Association of Algerian Muslim ‘Ulama’ (AUMA), 37, 354, 357
Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (ICMI), 561
Asy’ari, Hasyim, 568
Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal, 132, 433, 456
Atef, Mohammed, 634
Athenian democracy, 70
At-Tawhid wa al-Islah (Unity and Reform) movement, 535
Aushev, Bashir, 318–19
authoritarianism, 3
and al-Banna’s ideology, 135
and global communications, 420
and Iran, 191
and Iraq, 617
and Islamic democracy, 74, 76–77, 84
and Islamic law, 21
and Khomeini, 193
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 488
and political economy of Islamism, 93, 94, 98, 105
and political Islam, 63
secular authoritarianism in Central Asia, 310–11, 313–15, 320
and sub-Saharan Africa, 382
and Sudan, 442, 449
authority, legal, 16
autocrats, 292–94
Awami League (AL), 324, 333, 334, 335n2, 578–79
‘Awdah, Abdel Qadir, 214
‘Awwa, Muhammad Salim al-, 219, 225, 303, 495
Ayubi, N. N. M., 92
Ayub Khan, Muhammad, 577, 578
Azam, Ghulam, 332–33
Azerbaijan, 308, 309, 312, 313, 314–15, 320n1
Al-Azhar, 222–24, 293–94, 462, 490, 605, 610
Azhar, Shaykh al-, 223
Azzam, Abdullah, 465–66, 620, 631
Ba’asyir, Abu Bakar, 560
Ba’ath party, 621
Babangida, Ibrahim, 387
Badawi, Abdullah, 64, 344, 346
Badis, Abd al-Hamid b., 37
Badran, Margo, 112–23
Badran, Margot, 2
(p. 646) Badr Brigades, 617, 625
Bahrain, 291, 299
Bahy, Muhammad al-, 223
Baitul Muslimin Indonesia (BAMUSI), 566–67
al-Bakhit, Marouf, 548, 553–54
Bakier, Abdul Hameed, 623, 626n1
Baladi, al-Fadhil Al-, 214
Al-Balagh Cultural Society, 226
Bali bombings (2002), 560
The Balkans, 282
Balkhi, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar al-, 170
Banchoff, Thomas, 285
Bangladesh, 324–26, 327, 330–34, 335n9
Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), 333
Bangladesh: The Next Afghanistan? (Karlekar), 325
bangsa moro, 349
Bani Irsheid, Zaki, 553, 554
Bani Sadr, Abu al-Hasan, 196n41, 249
banking, Islamic, 146, 208
Banna, Gamal al-, 65
Banna, Hasan al-, 65, 129–41
background, 129–31
and democracy and shura, 136–40
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 213, 214
and Islam and politics, 134–36
and jihad, 485–86
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 475, 476, 478–79, 480
and political violence, 483–85
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 222
and Qutb’s ideology, 165
and shari`ah and the Islamic state, 131–34
and stereotypes of Islam, 334
and student movements, 591–92
Bapir, Ali, 619, 620
Baqer al-Sadr, Muhammad, 517
Barelvi, Ahmed Reza Khan, 575
Barison Nasional (National Front), 344–45
Barlas, Asma, 120
Barnamij al-Falsafah wa Jil al-Daya` (Ghannushi), 214
Barnier, Michel, 227
Baroso, Jose Manuel, 279
Basaev, Shamil, 308, 317, 318
Al-Bashir, 212
Bashir, Isam al-Din Al-, 301, 303
Bashir, Omar Hasan Ahmad al-, 441, 449
Bashir, Umar Hasa al-, 62
Basmachi revolt, 310, 456, 459
Bayat, Asef, 82, 84, 93, 193–94, 369, 370, 449
Bayt al-Ansar (House of the Helpers), 466
Bazargan, Mehdi, 186, 196n41
Bazzaz, Abd al-Rahman al-, 59
Beeman, William O., 3, 399–408
Behdad, S., 100
Beheshti, Mohammad, 238
Belgium, 281, 284, 285, 287
Ben Ali, Zine El Abidine, 217–18, 220, 293, 353, 361, 366–67, 369, 373, 533–34, 540–41
Ben Badis, Abdelhamid, 354
Bendjedid, Chadli, 362
Bengali nationalism, 332, 348
Bengalis, 578–79
Benin, 381, 387
Benjedid, Chadli, 534–35
Benkirane, Abdelilah, 366
Bennabi, Malik, 213, 214, 217, 220
Berg, Nicholas, 624
Berman, Paul, 324
Berque, Jacques, 170, 171
Berri, Nabih, 518, 523, 525
Beshir, Omar al-, 206
Beslan school siege, 319
“Beware the Enemies of Islam,” 104
Bhutto, Benazir, 469, 583
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, 60, 330, 580–81
Bihi, ‘Abdallah Bayn, 225
Bihishti, Muhammad, 171
Bin Ali, Mohamed, 603
Bin Baz, Abdulaziz, 416, 417, 419
Binder, Leonard, 161
Bin Laden, Osama
coordinating of Islamist groups, 620
establishment of al-Qaeda, 469
and Islamic politics in South Asia, 334, 466
and Kurdish radicalism, 636
and militant Salafism, 27
and al-Qaeda, 631, 632–33
statements by, on al-Qaida, 630
support for, 639–40
and Taliban, 633
and training in Afghanistan, 619
and Turabi’s ideology, 210
Bin-Nafisa, S., 93
Al-Binna’ wa al-Tanmiya (Building and Development) Party (Egypt), 614
Bishri, Tariq al-, 219, 227
Bitter Harvest (Zawahri), 482
Black Nationalism, 263, 265–66
Black Widows, 319
(p. 647) Blanford, Nicholas, 520
Blaydes, L., 93, 95
Bokhari, Kamran, 4, 574–86
Boko Haram movement, 388
Bolkestein, Frits, 279
Bolsheviks, 309
Bosnia, 269, 283
Bossi, Umberto, 284
Botswana, 390n6
Boumediene, Houari, 357, 358, 362
Bourguiba, Habib, 63, 212, 215–17, 293, 360–62, 366, 372, 533
Bouteflika, Abdelaziz, 363, 536
Bremmer, Paul, 621
Brezhnev, Leonid, 463
Briscoe, Phil, 324
British common law, 8
British National Party (BNP), 281
Brooks, David, 399
Brown, Carl, 352
Brown, Nathan J., 489, 492, 494, 547, 553
Bruinessen, Martin van, 561
Brumberg, Daniel, 186, 188
Brunei, 340, 351n1
Brussels, Belgium, 285
Buddhism, 349
Bukhara, 307, 311
Bulaç, Ali, 65
Burke, Jason, 4, 630–40
Burkina Faso, 381, 387
Burma-Myanmar, 340, 348–49
Buroujerdi, Mohamad Hossein, 182–83, 194n11
Bush, George H. W., 268
Bush, George W., 271–72, 399, 470, 559, 632
Bush, Robin, 569
Buti, Shaykh Sa’id Ramadan al-, 213
caliphate, 35, 58, 74, 132–33, 210, 289, 373
Canal Zone, 161
Cantori, Luis, 219
capitalism, 59, 79, 160, 176, 229
Carson, Andre, 274
Casanova, José, 79
Catholic Church, 79, 83, 285, 350
Caucasus, 307, 308, 320n1
Cavanaugh, William, 52n6, 53n9
censorship, 324
Center for Protection of Religious Freedoms, 315
Center for the Dialogue of Civilizations, 242
Center for the Propagation of Islamic Verities, 169
Central Asia, 307–20
and the Chechen War, 316–17
and Dagestan, 317–20
and extent of Russian control, 320n1
Islam’s vitality in, 307–8
and the North Caucasus conflict, 316
and outside influences, 311–12
Russian/Soviet rule, 308–10
and secular authoritarianism, 313–15
and Soviet antireligious policies, 310–11
and Soviet collapse, 312
Central Office of the Honorable Leader’s Representative in the Universities, 253
Centre for Social Cohesion, 324
Centre of Arab Unity Studies, 218
Césaire, Aimé, 175
Chad, 381
Chamber of Deputies (Jordan), 103
Chamran, Mostafa, 517
charity, 207, 223, 364. See also zakat
Charkhi family, 460–61
Chaudhry, Iftikhar Muhammad, 584
Chechen Red Army, 309
Chechen War, 308, 314, 316–17, 321n17
Chechnya, 316–17, 320n1
Cherribi, Sam, 3, 278–88
Christian Democrats, 287
Christians and Christianity
in Egypt, 492–93
Erdogan on universal values, 429
and Islamic democracy, 83
and Justice and Development Party (AK Party), 429–30
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 492–93
as religious minority, 290
and Soroush’s ideology, 256
citizenship, 22, 44, 73, 74, 290
civil contract (‘aqd), 72
Civilized Alternative Party, 365
civil law, 8
civil liberties, 243, 255, 427, 428
civil marriage, 46–49
civil society
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 219
and Iran, 191
and Islamic democracy, 82
and Khomeini’s ideology, 191
and Morocco, 359–60
and Soroush’s ideology, 255
and sub-Saharan Africa, 384, 385–86
and Turabi’s ideology, 207–8, 209
Clark, Janine, 93, 552
“clash of civilizations” thesis, 74–75, 268, 434, 611
class conflict, 172–73, 175
clientalist politics, 105
Clinton, Bill, 269, 270, 271
Coalition of Builders of Islamic Iran, 406, 407
Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq (CPA), 399, 621
codification of law, 20
Cold War, 59, 210, 268, 307, 382, 383, 389
collective reasoning, 134–35, 226
colonialism
British, 161
decolonization, 231, 282
and Islamic democracy, 74, 77, 81
and Islamic reformism, 50–51
and Islam in Europe, 280
and Khomeini, 185
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 144–45
and North African nationalism, 353–55
and North America, 264
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 231
and secularism, 81
and shari`ah, 7, 19–20
and Shari‘ati’s ideology, 176
and sub-Saharan Africa, 380, 390n4, 390n5
See also imperialism
Columbus, Christpher, 263–64
Combined Opposition Parties, 332, 578
common law, 8, 14
communication technologies, 419, 420
communism, 59, 145, 177, 361
Congregation for Reform (Yemen), 476
consensus, 35
conservatism, 35, 181, 187, 357, 368
Conservative Democracy (Akdogan), 428–29
Constituent Assembly, 329–30
Constitutional and Democratic Popular Movement (MPCD), 376n6
constitutions and constitutionalism
and Chechnya, 316
and Islamic democracy, 72–73
and Islamic rule, 304n1
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 346
and Kenya, 386
and Khomeini, 182–83, 186, 189, 191
and Morocco, 365
and Pakistan, 327
and ruling Islamic agenda, 300
and Southeast Asia, 343
consultation. See shura
Consultative Center for Studies and Documentation (Al-Markaz al-Istishari lil-Dirasaat wal-Tawthiq), 524
Coptic Christians, 46–49, 51, 290
Corbin, Henry, 258n2
Council for Good Government (CGG), 269
Council of ‘Ulama’, 359
Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), 268, 273
Court of Justice of the European Communities (ECJ), 279
Crimean Tatars, 309
criminal law, 45, 48–49. See also shari`ah
Crone, Patricia, 75
crusades, 80, 280
cultural assimilation, 226
cultural openness, 243
Cultural Revolution (Iran), 249–50, 251
Cultural Revolution Council (CRC), 249
Dagestan, 312, 317–20, 320n1
Dahl, Robert, 70
dakwah groups, 591–92, 595
Daneshjouan e Khatt e Emam, 239
Danish People’s Party (DPP), 284
Daoud, Muhammad, 461, 462–63, 467
Dar al-`Ulum, 159
Dardri, Yusuf al-, 297
Darqawi order, 372
Darul Arqam (Muslim Converts Association), 591
Darul Islam, 57, 346, 560
Dati, Rachida, 287
(p. 649) Datta, Sreeradha, 335n2
Davis, Nancy J., 103, 493
Davutoglu, Ahmet, 435
da’wah (religious call), 37, 163, 164, 302, 617
Da’wah Party (Lebanon), 518, 520
dawla. See din and dawla
Daylami, `Abd Al-Wahhab Al-, 303
decolonization, 231, 282
Delong-Bas, Natana J., 3, 411–21
Delors, Jacques, 279
democracy and democratization, 68–84
in Afghanistan, 462, 463, 470
and al-Banna’s ideology, 136–40
and al-Jama’a al-Islamiya (Islamic Group), 608
and Anglo-American secularism, 79–80
and the Arab Spring, 1
defining democracy, 70
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 216, 219–20
and grassroots Islam, 362
and “guided democracy,” 343
and Islamic Action Front, 547–48
and the Islamic establishment, 74–75, 75–76
and Islamic Jihad Group (al-Jihad Group), 608
and Islam in Europe, 287
and Islam in South Asia, 325, 329
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 343
Islam’s history with, 72–74
and Khatami’s ideology, 240, 244
and Khomeini, 191, 193
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 148, 152, 334–35
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 35
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 140, 477, 490, 493
and Muslim experience with secularism, 81–83
and Muslim religious toleration, 80–81
and Pakistan, 577–78, 580
points of contention on, 76–78
and political economy of Islamism, 90, 105
and political Islam, 62
and Qaradawi, 23
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 230–31
religion’s history with, 70–72
and religion-state relations, 78–79
and secular authoritarianism in Central Asia, 313
and shari`ah, 23–24
and shura, 136–40
and sub-Saharan Africa, 383–88
and Sudan, 442, 444
trends in the Islamic world, 68–70
and Turabi’s ideology, 206–7
and Turkey, 426–27
Democracy in America (Tocqueville), 71
Democratic Action Committee, 332
Democratic Constitutional Rally (RCD), 366
Democratic Party-Struggle (PDI, later PDI-P), 561, 566–67
Democratic Republic of Congo, 379
demographic trends, 314, 380
Deobandis, 147
Department of Islamic Development, 343–44, 596
deradicalization, 296–97, 603–4, 609–13
dervishes, 292
Desert Storm, 294
despotism, 23, 82
Destourian Socialist Party, 366
development, 349, 364
De Waal, Alex, 208
Al-Dhahabi, Muhammad Hussein, 614n1
dhimmis, 149
dialectic process, 172–73
Diallo, Ayuba Suleiman, 264
Diamond, Larry, 399
dictatorships, 82
dietary restrictions, 228
Dieterich, Renate, 546
Din, Kamal Nur, al-, 491
din and dawla, 57–58, 59–60, 61–65, 66, 374, 456–58
Divine Will, 11, 12, 13, 18, 257
Divine Wrath Brigades, 625
divorce, 286
Djaballah, Abdallah, 536
Djerejian, Edward, 77
Djibouti, 304n1
Dodge, Toby, 622
Doha Agreement (2008), 525, 528n5
Dole, Bob, 270
Dostum, Abdur Rashid, 469
(p. 650) “dual containment,” 187–88
Dudaev, Dzhokar, 316–17
Dukkali, Abu Shu’ayb b. Abd al-Rahman al-, 37
Dupree, Louis, 473n8
Durkheim, émile, 92
Dyab, Ahmad, 491
Dzhabarov, P. I., 312
East Africa, 382
Eastern Europe, 282–82, 285
East Pakistan, 331–32
economic conditions
and the Algerian revolution, 358
and Chechen conflict, 319, 320
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 214
and Islam in Central Asia, 314–15
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 349
and political economy of Islamism, 94–97
unemployment, 314–15, 319
ecumenicalism, 255–56, 303–4
Edip, Halide, 326
Edolat Party, 312, 313
education
in Afghanistan, 455, 456, 457, 460, 461, 469
and Arabization in North Africa, 375n5
and gender issues, 113, 208, 222, 419
and Islamic Action Front, 550
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 31, 33
and Mujahiddin-sponsored schools, 465
and North American immigration, 266–67
in Pakistan, 331
and reformism of Khatami, 238
in Saudi Arabia, 416, 418, 419, 420, 421
and Soviet antireligious policies, 307
and sub-Saharan Africa, 381–82
and Wahhabism, 419
and Western culture, 20
Educational Mobilization Unit (Al-Ta`bi’a al-Tarbawiya), 524
effendiyya, 204
Egypt, 603–14
and Afghan Mujahiddin, 465
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 291, 292
and Arabization in North Africa, 375–76n5
and Arab Spring, 513
and Banna, 131, 484
Christian population of, 492–93
constitution, 304n1
and Coptic Christians, 46–49, 51
deradicatlization in, 603, 604, 609–13
elections in, 477, 493–96, 500n55
and Erdogan, 426
and gender issues, 113, 120, 123n23
and immigration to North America, 266
independence, 52n4
and Islamic democracy, 77
and Islamic feminism, 120
and Islam in Europe, 287
Luxor massacre (1997), 609, 611
militant groups in, 603–14
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 31, 32–34
mosques in, 606
and Nuqrashi assassination, 482
parliament of, 486–88, 490
and partisan Islamist agenda, 299, 300
and political economy of Islamism, 89, 92, 93, 98–100, 104–5
and political parties, 139–40, 352, 613
and postrevolution elections, 22, 24
presidency of, 490
prison life in, 611
and privatization, 101
and Qutb’s ideology, 166
and radical Islamists, 296, 297, 603–4
and redistribution, 103–4
religious revival in, 494, 603–4, 605–6
Revolution of 1952, 222
Revolution of 2011, 3, 23, 224
role of ideology in, 607–9
and secularism, 54n31, 82
and shari`ah, 488–92, 494
and the Six Day War, 494–95, 603–4, 605
socioeconomic setting of, 606
state repression of militants, 611–12
and statist seculareligious agenda, 293–94
and sub-Saharan Islamism, 389
and Sudanese politics, 204
and Sufi resurgence, 373
women in, 490–93
Egyptian Feminist Union, 116
Eickelman, Dale, 76
Eis, Jihad Abu, 546
El-Affendi, Abdelwahab, 440–50
(p. 651) Elcibey, Abul Fazl, 313
electronic networking, 226–27
El-fotouh, Abdel-Moneim Abu, 609, 614
El-Ghobashy, Mona, 497n3
Ellison, Keith, 274
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 71
Emoush, Bassam al-, 552
Enayat, Hamid, 73, 181
The End of History and the Last Man (Fukuyama), 42
England, 8. See also United Kingdom
Enlightenment, 71, 174, 208
Ennahda, 217–18, 220, 363
Enneifer, Ahmida, 213, 214
epistemology, 246, 250–54, 257–58
equality and egalitarianism
and democratization of shura, 139
and French laïcité, 50, 293, 334, 382, 385
and gender issues, 119–20, 121, 216
and modern nation-states, 44
and Qutb’s ideology, 161
and Shari`ati’s ideology, 172
and Soroush’s ideology, 255
Eraslan, Sibel, 117
Erbakan, Necmettin, 425, 432
Erdogan, Recep Tayyip, 82, 424, 425, 426, 428, 429–30, 434–35, 438n16
Eritrea, 381, 389
Ershad, Hussain, 333
Esposito, John, 75, 219
Ethiopia, 381, 384, 389–90, 390n5
ethnicity
and Chechen conflict, 319
ethnic cleansing, 282, 310
and Islam in Europe, 278
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 348–49
Etoile Nord-Africaine, 354
Ettela’at, 195n12
Europe
and Afghanistan, 465
European Charter of Human Rights, 286
Islam and politics in, 278–87
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 34
and Muslim politicians, 280–82
and responses to religious pluralism, 285–86
and secularism, 81
and single-issue parties, 283–84
See also Eastern Europe; specific countries
European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR), 226
European Union (EU)
growth of, 278
and Hamas, 505, 514
and Islam in Europe, 279, 281–82, 287
and responses to religious pluralism, 285
and Turkey, 279, 423, 425, 432–33, 434, 435
existential philosophy, 172
Expansion of the Prophetic Experience (Soroush), 255–56
Expediency Council, 196–97n55
Fadaiyan-e Islam, 194n11
Fadl, Khaled Abou El, 2
failed states, 383, 388–90
Faith-Based and Community Initiative, 272
Falahat, Salem, 554
The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State (Feldman), 81
family law, 8, 48, 49, 119, 224, 385
Fanon, Frantz, 172, 175, 178n2
faqih, 180, 182, 252, 400–401, 409. See also velayat-e faqih; wilayat al-faqih
Farabi, Abu Nasr al-, 237, 307
Faraj, Muhammad ‘Abd al-Salam, 484, 606, 608
Farbeh-tar az eideolozhi (Soroush), 251
Farhan, Ishaq, 545, 550, 552
Al-Farida Al-Ghaiba (Faraj), 608
Faris, Mohammed Abu, 545, 548
Farooque, Mujtaba, 328
far right politics, 280–81, 287
Farsi, Jalal al-Din, 517
fascism, 145
Fatah movement, 513
Fatima, daughter of the Prophet, 10, 178n1
Fatima Al Zahra Shi`a mosque, 315
Fattah, Moataz, 3
Fattah, Moataz A., 289–306
fatwas
contrasted with hukm, 15
and Egyptian Islamism, 611
and Islamic politics in Afghanistan, 455
and Islamic politics in Southeast Asia, 348, 567
and Islamic politics in the Middle East, 293–94
(p. 652) and Islam in North America, 272
and Khomeini’s ideology, 189
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 224, 226, 227, 231
and Soroush’s ideology, 252
and statist seculareligious agenda, 293
Fawzan, Salih al-, 233n44, 415
Fayez, Faisal al-, 548
Faysal, King of Saudi Arabia, 60
Fayyad, Salam, 512, 514
Faza’il-i Balkh (Balkhi), 170
Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan (FATA), 637, 638
Feener, Michael, 567, 568
Feillard, Andrée, 4, 558–71
Feldman, Noah, 76, 81
female genital mutilation, 491, 570, 572n14
feminism, 37, 113–14, 116, 119–21, 122n7
Ferguson, Charles, 627n13
Ferqa ye Esteqlal wa Tajaddud (Party of Freedom and Modernity), 458
Feyziyeh Madreseh, 181, 183
Fiamma Tricolore, 281
Fifth Republic (France), 184
Fighting Islamic Group, 297
al-Fikr al-Jadid (magazine), 160
finality of Islam, 252–53
fiqh
contrasted with shari`ah, 12–16, 52n2
fiqhi positivism,” 253
fiqh madhabs, 289
and gender issues, 115, 118–19
and Khomeini’s ideology, 193
and renewal of Islamic jurisprudence, 228–29, 231
and Shi`i Islam, 258n2
and Soroush’s ideology, 251
Fiqh al-Zakat (Qaradawi), 224
fitra, 11, 33, 134
Five Principles (Pantjasila), 59
“flying imams” case, 274
folk Islam, 311
foreign policy, 74, 80, 83, 269
forfeiture, 44–45, 47–48, 51–52, 54n32
Fortuyn, Pim, 283, 284
Forum Demokrasi, 561
Foundation for the Wounded (Mu’assasat al-Jarha), 524
Fox, Jonathan, 71–72
France
and anti-Semitism, 53n8
and civil law, 8
and EU membership of Turkey, 433, 434
and European colonialism, 280, 354
Fifth Republic, 184
French existentialism, 173
French Revolution, 241
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 213
headscarf controversy, 226
and Islam in Europe, 281, 284, 286, 287
and laïcité, 50, 293, 334, 382, 385
and responses to religious pluralism, 285
and rise of the nation-state, 44
and secularism, 325
and sub-Saharan Africa, 381, 382, 385, 390n4
Freedom and Justice Party, 99, 105, 475, 477, 480, 489, 497
Freedom House, 69
freedom of expression, 286
freedom of religion, 424, 426, 427, 428, 431
Freedom Party (FPO), 281
Freedom Party (PVV), 281
free trade, 99, 100, 101
French Revolution, 241
Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), 533, 542
Front Ilamique du Salut (FIS). See Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)
Front National, 281, 284
Frunze, Mikhail, 309
Fukuyama, Francis, 42, 68
Fuller, Graham, 84
fundamentalism, Islamic, 89, 184, 205, 334–35
fuqaha (Islamic jurists), 22, 72, 118, 180, 182
Gaddafi, Muammar. See Qaddafi, Muammar
Gallab, Abdullahi, 444
Gandhi, Indira, 328
Gandhi, Mohandas, 326, 327
Ganguly, Sumit, 325, 335n2
Garang, John, 444
Garaudy, Roger, 217
Gayushov, Altoy, 315
Gaza Strip, 117, 298, 505, 506–10, 512–14
Gazawat, 308
Gazgireeve, Aza, 318
(p. 653) Gellner, Ernest, 75
Gemayel, Bashir, 518
General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), 361
Gerges, Fawaz, 493
German People’s Union (DVU), 284
Germany, 284, 285, 433, 434, 638
Ghaddafi, Mu’ammar al-. See Qaddafi, Muammar
Ghamari-Tabrizi, Behrooz, 3, 246–59
Ghamidi, Javed Ahmed, 146, 152, 331
Ghana, 387
Ghanimeh, Ziad Abu, 546
Ghannouchim, 325
Ghannushi, Rashid al-, 3, 63, 65, 129, 212–20, 227, 361, 373
Gharaibeh, Ibrahim, 546, 547
Gharbzadegi (Al-e Ahmad), 185
Ghazali, Abu Hamid al-, 29, 217
Ghazali, Moqsith, 568
Ghazali, Muhammad al-, 58, 134, 214, 222, 476
Ghazali, Zainab al-, 116
Ghifari, Abu Dharr al-, 169
Ghuzlan, Mahmud, 101
Gillner, Ernest, 219
glasnost, 312
globalization
and communications, 420
global Islamic groups, 295
and Islam in South Asia, 326
and Pakistan, 331
and political economy of Islamism, 99
and political Islam, 64–65
and al-Qaeda, 640
and Turabi’s ideology, 205
Gnosticism, 247, 255, 258n2
Golan Heights, 522
Golden Age of the Islamic Renaissance, 247
Golpayegani, Safi, 315
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 316
Gordon, Michael R., 399
Gore, Al, 271–72
Gorus, Milli, 425
Gospels, 49
Gräf, Bettina, 3, 222–36
Gramsci, Antonio, 176
Grand Mosque of Mecca, 416
grassroots Islam, 361–62, 362–64, 369
Great Britain
and Afghanistan, 454–56, 473n3, 473n7
and colonial India, 453–54
and European colonialism, 280
and First Anglo-Afghan War, 454
and Hamas, 507
and Islam in Europe, 281, 284–85
and legal legacy, 20
and Third Anglo-Afghan War, 456
Great Occultation, 185
Greece, 280, 284, 285, 434
Green Alliance, 363
Green Movement, 120, 192, 193, 242
Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédiction et le Combat (GSPC), 638
Guardian Council, 73, 187–88, 197n71, 239, 240, 244n6
guest workers, 280, 286
Guevara, Che, 175
guided democracy, 343
Gul, Abdullah, 425, 426, 435–36
Gulf War, 210, 268
Gullen movement, 314
Gunaratna, Rohan, 603
Gurvitch, Georges, 170, 172
Habannaka, Shaykh, 213
Habashneh, Samir, 548
Habermas, Jürgen, 255
Hadad-Adel, Gholam-Ali, 406
Haddad, al-Tahir al-, 220
hadith
and Islamic politics in South Asia, 326
and Islamic politics in Southeast Asia, 568
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 153n12
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 30–31
and Pakistani politics, 330
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 223
and redistribution, 102
and Saudi gender politics, 418
and schools of Islamic jurisprudence, 10
and Soroush’s ideology, 251, 257, 264
and Sufi scholarship, 29
and Turabi’s ideology, 206
Hadj, Messali, 354
Haeri, Abd al Karim, 181, 182
(p. 654) Haider, Jorg, 284
Hajari, Maryam Hasan al-, 226–27
Hajjarian, Said, 241, 242
Hakamizadeh, 194n7
Hakaymah, Muhammed Khalil al-, 636
hakimiyya, 137, 139, 140–41, 147, 150–51, 152
hakimiyyat Allah, 163
Halevy, Efraim, 227
Hallaj, Mansur al-, 173–74
Hamas, 505–14
and Algeria, 536
and armed resistance agenda, 298–99
divisions within, 513
founding of, 505–7
future of, 514
and gender issues, 117
identity of, 506, 507–8
influence of, 505
and Iran, 407
in Iraq, 619
Izz-ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades (IQB) of, 505, 509, 510
and jihad, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512
and Jordan, 551
and Kurdish region, 619
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 476, 485, 505
and peace, 511–12
and PLO, 506
and political economy of Islamism, 92
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 295
resistance and violence associated with, 508–10
suicide missions of, 506, 509, 510, 512
terrorist designation of, 506, 509, 511
and Turabi’s ideology, 210
Hamid, Shadi, 4, 544–55
Hamzawy, Amr, 492, 494
Hamzeh, Nizar, 520
Hanafi, Hasan, 59
Hanafi school of jurisprudence, 17, 28, 45, 311, 454, 473, 575
Hanbali school of jurisprudence, 29, 45, 223
Hanifa, Abu, 54n27
Haniyeh, Ismail, 513
Hanoun, Louisa, 302
Haqq, Mowlana Sami-ul, 469
Haqqani, Jalaluddin, 637
Harakat Al-Jihad, 356
Harakat al-Nahdah, 217, 363
Harakat Mujtama` al-Silm, 363
Harashi, Sulayman Ibn Salih al-, 233n44
Harb, Mona, 525
Hariri, Rafiq al-, 516, 525, 527
Hasan, Zoya, 325
Hasbullah, Wahab, 561
Hashemi, Nader, 2, 68–88
Hashemite Monarchy (Jordan), 4
Hashmi, Taj, 335n2
Hasina, Sheikha, 324, 333
Hassan, Syed Munawar, 584
Hassan II, King of Morocco, 359, 362, 364, 535
Al-Hay’a al-Sahiya al-Islamiya (The Islamic Health Unit), 524
Haz, Hamzah, 560, 562
head coverings, 65, 226, 409n10, 424, 426, 428, 494
Hechter, M. C., 89
Hefner, W. Robert, 570
Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin, 464, 467, 468, 582
Hellenic Front, 284
Hermassi, Elbaki, 360
hermeneutics, 9–10, 11, 184, 246, 247, 255–56, 257–58
Hezb-i Islami, 464
Hezbollah. See Hizbullah
hezbollahi mob groups, 248, 249
Hidden Imam doctrine, 178n1, 184
High Administrative Court (Egypt), 46, 47–48, 51
High Council of Cultural Revolution, 238
Higher Committee for the Coordination of National Opposition Parities (HCCNOP), 552
High State Council, 362
hijab, 114–16, 605. See also head coverings
Hindus, 326–27, 341
hisba, 295, 296
Hishmat, ‘Abd al-Mun’im Gamal, 492
historical determinism, 172
Hizb al-Tahrir al-Islami (Islamic Liberation Party), 213, 295, 314, 373
Hizbi Islami, 467, 468, 474n11, 582
Hizbullah, 516–28
Al-Wathiqa al-Siyaiya li-Hizbullah manifesto, 521–22
armed forces and military doctrine of, 527
(p. 655) institutional infrastructure of, 523–25
integration into Lebanese politics of, 523
and Iran, 520, 525, 527
and Islamic politics in the Middle East, 298
and Israel, 518–19, 521–22, 523, 526–27
and jihad, 523, 528n8, 616
“Open Letter” document of, 519, 521
origins of, 517–19, 528n3
and political economy of Islamic politics, 92, 93
and reformism in Iran, 407
splits and schisms in, 518
suicide missions of, 526
and Syria, 518, 523, 525–27
terrorist designation of, 516, 519, 528n8
and Turabi’s ideology, 210
wilayat al-faqih doctrine of, 516, 518–21
Hizb ul Takfir, 314
Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), 564
Hobbes, Thomas, 53n9
Holy Struggle for Construction, 524
homogenization of Islam, 251
honor crimes, 317, 551
Hoogland, Eric, 409n7, 409n10
Horn of Africa, 379, 381, 388, 389
Hosseini, Ziba Mir-, 114
Houidek, Mesbah, 357
Houthis, 297
How to Kill Alone (Hakaymah), 636
Hroub, K., 508
Hudaybi, Hasan al-, 165, 483
hudud law, 14, 18–19, 22, 301, 346
Hujjat Allah al-Balighah (God’s Conclusive Argument) (Allah), 29
hukumat-i ilahiyah (divine government), 147–48, 149, 151
human rights, 50, 78, 82, 140, 189, 208, 243, 314. See also women and gender issues
Hungary, 281
Hunter, Shireen, 3, 307–23
Huntington, Samuel, 53n10, 74–75, 241–42, 268, 434
huquq al-‘ibad (rights of humans), 17
huquq Allah (rights of God), 17
al-Hurriyat al-`Amma fi al-Dawla al-Islamiya (Ghannushi), 217, 218
Husayn, Imam, 173, 175
Husayniyyah-yi Irshad, 177
Husri, Sati` Al-, 213
Hussein, King of Jordan, 60, 546, 553
Hussein, Saddam, 294, 408, 417, 468, 617, 618, 620, 627n11
Huwaidi, Fahmi, 219
hybrid legal systems, 20
‘ibadat, 16
Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad. See Wahhab, Muhammad b. Abd al-
Ibn `Arabi, 247
Ibn `Ashur, 217
Ibn Hazm, 217
Ibn Ibrahim Al al-Shaykh, Muhammad, 416
Ibn Rushd, 162, 217
Ibn Saud, Abdulaziz ibn Muhammad, 412
Ibn Saud, Abdullah, 415, 417, 420
Ibn Saud, Fahd, 417
Ibn Saud, Faisal, 416
Ibn Saud, Muhammad (d. 1765), 411
Ibn Sina, Abu Ali (Avicenna), 247, 251–52, 307
Ibn Taymiyyah
and al-Banna’s ideology, 132, 141
and development of Wahhabism, 29
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 217
and Islamic reformism, 45
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 149
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 36
and stereotypes of Islam, 334
and violent Wahhabism, 412–13
Ibrahim, Anwar, 63, 64, 82, 560, 592, 594
Ibrahim, Hasanayn Tawfiq, 482
Ibrahimi, Ahmed Taleb, 357
Ibrahimi, Bachir, 357
Ibrahimoghlu, Ilgar, 315
ibtila’, 205
idealism, 253
Idel-Ural Republic, 309
identity politics
and gender issues, 113
and Islam in Europe, 279
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 340–41
and political economy of Islamism, 99
Idris, King of Libya, 355
Ihsan wa Adl Party, 119
‘ijma’, 9–11, 72, 206, 228, 252
(p. 656) ijtihad
and `Abduh, 33
and complexity of Middle East Islam, 90
and democracy, 72
and gender issues, 113
and Khomeini, 181, 193
and misconceptions of Islam, 15–16, 20–21
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 29, 35
myth of closure, 20–21
and reformism, 28
and Shari`ati’s ideology, 175
and Shi`i jurisprudence, 9
and Soroush’s ideology, 247
and Turabi’s ideology, 205
Ikhwan, 213, 215, 482. See also Muslim Brotherhood
illiteracy, 95–97, 96
Illuminationism, 247
Ilyas, Chamim, 568–69
Ilyas, Mawlana Muhammad, 213
Ilyas, Qasim Rasool, 328
Imam Hussein Brigades, 625
Al-Imdad Schools (Madares al-Imdad), 524
immigrants and immigration
guest workers in Europe, 280
and Islamic feminism, 122n7
and Islam in Europe, 283–84, 285–86
and Islam in North America, 265
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 349
and nostalgia for homelands, 286–87
imperialism
and Islamic democracy, 81
and Islamic statehood, 56
and Khomeini, 189
and Khomeini’s ideology, 184
and misconceptions of Islam, 21–22
and nationalism, 56
and secularism, 81
and Shari`ati’s ideology, 176
See also colonialism
indeterminacy, 257
India
British India, 453, 459, 473n7, 575
and decolonization, 282
and Indo-Pakistani war, 579, 580
and Islamic politics in South Asia, 324–26, 326–27, 330–31, 332, 334–35, 453
and Islam in Europe, 286, 287
and Mawdudi, 144
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 31
Mumbai attacks (2008), 639
and transformation of Jama`at-e Islami, 328–29
Indian National Congress, 144, 326
individualism, 173
Indonesia, 558–71
corruption in, 563, 571n6
and decolonization, 282
and democracy, 390n6
and European colonialism, 280
and identity politics, 340–41
and Islamic democracy, 69
and Islamic nationalism, 59
and Islamic political issues, 345–48
and Islamic politics in Southeast Asia, 340
and majority Muslim populations, 342–44
militant groups in, 639–40
and political economy of Islamism, 105
and political parties, 344–45
and the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), 476, 564–65
and secularism, 82
and shari`ah, 24, 566–67, 568, 570
and terrorist attacks of 9/11, 559–60
and Wahid presidency, 561–63
women in, 566
Indori, Rafi Ahmad, 331
Inglehart, Ronald, 286
Ingushetia, 318–19
Ingush Regiment, 318
inheritance laws, 8, 228, 230
Inner City Muslim Action Network (Iman), 275
Inns of Court, 15
Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia (IKIM), 596, 597
instrumentalization of Islam, 231
intercession, divine, 29–30
interest prohibition, 49, 105, 228
Internal Security Act (ISA), 592
International Conference of Islamic Scholars (ICIS), 560
International Crimes Tribunal (ICJ), 333
International Islamic University (IIU), 596
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 99–100, 367, 550
(p. 657) international relations, 175–76
International Union for Muslim Scholars (IUMS), 225–26, 303
Internet, 420
Inter Service Intelligence (ISI), 325
Al-Intiqad (previously al-`Ahd ) Weekly Paper, 524
Iqbal, Muhammad, 29, 31, 213, 220
Iqtidar, Humeira, 331
Iran
and Afghanistan, 464, 465, 468
armed forces of, 518
and Azerbaijan, 314
and constitutionalism, 73
and democracy, 73
elections in, 405–6
and gender issues, 115, 116, 118
and globalization, 64
governmental structures, 401–5
and Hamas, 505, 513
and Hizbullah, 520, 525, 527
and Iran-Iraq War, 186–87, 189, 406
and Iraqi Kurdistan, 618
and Islamic democracy, 77
and Islamic feminism, 120
and legacy of Khomeinism, 190–92
and Malaysian Islamic groups, 594
nuclear capability of, 434
and political economy of Islamism, 105
and privatization, 100
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 295
and reformism, 407–8
and religious minorities, 290
and resistance movements, 176
and ruling Islamic agenda, 300–301
and secularism, 82
theocracy and legitimacy, 400–401
and Turkey, 434
and the United States, 522, 525, 624
Western misconceptions of, 399–400
women of, 409n10
Iranian Revolution, 57, 249–50, 311–12
and Algeria, 358
and end of Cold War, 210
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 215–16
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 342
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 148
and political Islam, 61
and “post-Islamism,” 368
and Shari`ati’s ideology, 175
and sub-Saharan Africa, 383
and Tunisia, 215–16
Iranian Student Confederation, 169
Iran-Iraq War, 186–87, 189, 406
Iraq
and armed resistance agenda, 298
Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq (CPA), 399
constitution, 304n1
disbanding of army, 621–22
Hamas in, 619
independence, 52n4
and Iranian foreign policy, 242
and Iran-Iraq War, 186–87, 189, 406
Iraqi Islamic Party, 476
and Islamic democracy, 77, 83, 84
jihadists in, 616–26
and Khomeini, 185
Kurdish region of, 618–20, 636
Muslim Brotherhood in, 617
Najaf, 517
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 296, 297
and secularism, 82
suicide bombers in, 622, 624
US invasion of, 434, 621
women in, 619, 620–21
Iraqi Islamic Party, 476
Ireland, 280
Isamuddin, Riduan, 635
Islah Party, 98, 117, 367, 370, 536
Islam, Ansar al-, 619, 620
Islam, the Human Being, and Marxism (Shari`ati), 177
Islam and the Secular State (Na`îm), 50
Islamic Action Front (IAF), 544–55
and democracy, 547–48
economic policy of, 549–50
education policy of, 550
establishment of, 544, 545
foreign policy of, 551–52
and Islamic politics in the Middle East, 299
and Israel, 546
and Jordanian Spring, 549
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 476, 544–46
(p. 658) organizational structure of, 552–53
and political economy of Islamic politics, 89, 92, 99, 102
and redistribution, 103
and secular parties, 552
and shari`ah, 545, 549
on status of women, 551
and Zarqawi, 548–49
Islamic Alliance for the Liberation of Afghanistan, 474n11
Islamic Amal (Amal al-Islamiya), 518
Islamic Army in Iraq, 625
Islamic Association of Niger (AIN), 382
Islamic Awakening, 224, 225
The Islamic Awakening between Rejection and Extremism (Qaradawi), 224
Islamic Center Society (ICS) of the Muslim Brotherhood, 548
Islamic Centrist Party, 92
Islamic Charitable Imdad Association (Jam`iyat al-Imdad al-Khayriya al-Islamiya), 524
Islamic Constitution, 57
Islamic Constitutional Movement (Kuwait), 476
Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majiles), 243–44
Islamic Courts Union (ICU), 389
Islamic Da’wah Foundation, 591, 597
Islamic feminism, 119–21, 122n7
Islamic Front for Iraqi Resistance (JAAMI), 625, 626
Islamic Group, 482, 535. See also al-Jama’a al-Islamiya
Islamic Group (Lebanon), 476
Islamic Group of Ali Bapir, 619, 620, 627n7
Islamic Health Unit (Al-Hay’a al-Sahiya al-Islamiya), 524
Islami Chhatra Shibir (ICS), 325
Islamic Jihad Group, 210, 296, 603–14
Islamic Missionary and Training Institute, 597
Islamic Movement of Kurdistan (IMK), 618, 619
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), 313–14
Islamic Party (Great Britain), 284–85
Islamic Party of Azerbaijan (IPA), 315
Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS), 588, 591, 592–93, 594, 596, 597, 598
Islamic Progressive Party, 35
Islamic Rebirth Party, 312, 313
Islamic Republican Party, 186, 196n52
Islamic Republic of Ichkeria, 317
Islamic Republic of Iran, 185. See also Iran
Islamic Republic Party, 249
Islamic Resistance Movement in Iraq, 626n1
Islamic Revolutionary Committees (al-Lijan al-Thawriya al-Islamiya), 518
Islamic Salvation Army (AIS), 297
Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), 63, 295, 297, 357, 362, 532–40, 542, 546
Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), 267, 268, 274
Islamic statehood
and al-Banna’s ideology, 131–34
and Algeria, 356–57
and Islam in North Africa, 355
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 345
and Khomeini, 188
and Libya, 356
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 147–49
and neo-Salafism, 375n1
Islamic Student Association, 237, 250–51
Islamic Tendency Movement. See Mouvement de la Tendence Islamique (MTI)
Islamic Thought Seminar, 214
“Islamic World’s Democracy Deficit” (Freedom House), 69
Islamic Youth League of Malaysia (ABIM), 343
Islamic Youth Movement of Malaysia (ABIM), 591–92, 595
Islami Jama’at-i-Talaba (IJT), 581, 582, 585
Islami Jamhoori Ittihad (IJI), 583
Islamism. See specific groups and movements
Islamistische Partij (Belgium), 284
Islamist Party of Justice and Development (PJD), 363, 364, 370, 374, 375, 376n7
Islami Tehrik, 583
Islamitische Partij Deutschland, 285
Islamization process, 21–22, 302
“Islamology,” 171
IslamOnline.net, 226
Islamophobia, 274
al-Islam wa al-Dimuqratiyah (Bennabi), 217
(p. 659) al-Islam wa al-Nasraniya (`Abduh), 33
Islom Lashkeri, 313
Isma’il, Farid, 491
Israel
ArabûIsraeli conflict (1967), 605
armed forces of, 526
and ecumenical Islamic agenda, 304
and Hamas, 505–14
and Hizbullah, 518–19, 521–22, 523, 526–27
and Islamic Action Front, 546
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 551–52
and Lebanon, 516–23, 526–27
Operation Cast Lead, 510
and Palestine conflict, 83, 84
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 229
and Qutb’s ideology, 160
and religious minorities, 290
and Saudi-sponsored Arab peace initiative of 2002, 512
and the Six Day War, 166, 494–95, 603–4, 605
and suicide bombings, 506, 509, 510, 512, 526
and Turkey, 434
and violence associated with Muslim Brotherhood, 484–85
istihsan, 11
Istiqlal party, 359
istishab, 9
Italy, 281, 284
Itihad party, 139–40
Ittifaq al Muslimin, 309
Izala movement, 383
Izz-ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades (IQB), 505, 509, 510
‘Izzat, Hiba Ra’uf, 227
Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM), 596
al-Jabha al-Islamiya li al-Inqadh, 362
jabr-i tarikh (historical determinism), 172
Jackson, Sherman A., 2, 42–55
Jad, Islah, 117
Jadid movement, 309
jahiliyyah, 149, 166
Jaish-e-Mohammed, 637–38
al-Jama’a al-Islamiya
and assassination of Sadat, 606–7
cease-fire of, 609–10
and democracy, 608
and deradicatlization, 609–13
emergence of, 606
ideology of, 607–9, 610–11
and Islamic politics in North Africa, 365
and Islamic politics in the Middle East, 296
and jihad, 608–9, 613
and Moroccan elections, 535
and religious revival in Egypt, 605
and shari`ah, 608
and socioeconomics of Egypt, 606
al-Jama`a al-Libiya al-Islamiya al-Muqatila, 356
al-Jama`a al-Salafi ya lil-Da`wa wa al-Qital, 362
Jama`at Ahl-i-Hadith, 583
al-Jama`at al-Islamiya al-Musallaha, 362
Jama’at al-Muslimin (Society of Muslims), 614n1
Jamâ`at al-Sirat al-Mustaqîm, 365
Jama`at Ansar al-Sunnah, 297
Jama`at-i Islami (JI), 214, 216, 574–86
and the Chechen conflict, 319
and constitutional politics, 576–79
described, 574–75
and Mawdudi, 144, 146, 147, 151–52
and military dictatorships, 579–83
and nationalism, 57
and North American immigration, 266
origin and purpose of, 575–76
and the political center, 429
and September 11 terrorist attacks, 583–84
and the Soviet-Afghan War, 312, 464, 474
Jama’at of the Central Asian Mujahedin, 314
Jama’at Ulama-i-Hind (JUH), 575
Jama’at Ulama-i-Islam (JUI), 574, 576, 578
Jama`at Ulama-i-Islam-F, 583, 584, 585
Jama`at Ulama-i-Islam-S, 583
Jama’at Ulama-i-Pakistan (JUP), 574, 578, 583
Jamai, Aboubakr, 366
Jama`t Izalat al Bid`a wa Iqamat as Sunna, 383
Jamiati Islami, 464, 468
Jami’at ul-Ulama (Society of Muslim Scholars), 460, 469
Jamiatul-Ulema-e-Hind, 326
(p. 660) Jam`iyat al-Imdad al-Khayriya al-Islamiya, 524
Japanese Americans, 285
Jasmine Revolution, 373
Jawzîyah, Ibn Qayyim al-, 45
Al Jazeera, 226, 227, 420, 637
Jefferson, Thomas, 264
Jemaah Islamiyah group, 341, 346, 560, 590, 594, 639–40
Jeyshullah (Army of God), 315
Jibril, Mahmoud, 373–74
Jihad al-Bina, 524
jihad and jihadists
and Abdulaziz bin Muhammad, 412
and Afghanistan, 453–56, 471–72
Afghan jihadi groups, 464–66, 467
al-Banna on purpose of, 485
attraction of, 415
and authoritarian controls, 617–20
definition of, 616
and deradicatlization, 613
and Egypt, 603–14
and Hamas, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512
and Hizbullah, 523, 528n8, 616
integration of jihadists into society, 613
in Iraq, 616–26
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 147–48
as mobilization technique, 454, 471–72, 472n2
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 482, 484–85
and nationalism, 57
and Pakistan, 574
and political Islam, 3, 4
and al-Qaeda, 616
and Qutb, 163, 165, 618
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 295–97
recruitment of Muslim youths for, 465–66
and Salafism, 365
and Somalia, 389–90
and sub-Saharan Africa, 389
and tsarist Russia, 453
and Tunisian development, 360
and Turabi’s ideology, 209, 210–11
and Wahhabism, 412, 413, 414–15, 420
al-Zawahiri on, 639
See also specific organizations
Jihad Gang, 593
al-Jihad Group. See Islamic Jihad Group
Jihadi-Salafism, 38
Jihadist Martyrs Brigades in Iraq, 625
Jinnah, Fatimah, 152, 330, 578
Jinnah, Mohammed Ali, 576
jizyah, 149
Jobbik, 281
Johnson, Lyndon, 266
Jordan, 544–55
and al-Banna’s ideology, 131
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 291
constitution, 304n1
economy of, 549–50
elections and electoral law in, 545–47, 549, 553–54, 555n2
and Hamas, 551
and Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 551–52
Jordanian Spring, 544, 549
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 476
and partisan Islamist agenda, 299
and political economy of Islamic politics, 92
and political economy of Islamism, 89, 93, 100, 104–5
and “post-Islamism,” 368
and privatization, 101, 102
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 296
and redistribution, 103
religiosity in, 545
and shari`ah, 545, 549
terrorist attacks in, 548
women in, 551
Judaism, 83, 256, 429
judicial reforms, 360
Juergensmeyer, Mark, 325, 484
jumud, 34
Jund al-Islam, 619
June War, 163
Juppé, Alain, 281
jurisprudence. See fiqh
justice, 23, 139, 172. See also shari`ah
Justice and Construction Party, 370, 373
Justice and Development Party (AKP), 423–37
and center-periphery political relations, 427–28
coup attempts against, 432
and EU membership, 423, 432–33
and foreign policy, 433–36
(p. 661) and freedom of religion, 424, 426, 427, 428, 431
and Islamic democracy, 77
and Islamic politics in North Africa, 370
and Islamic politics in the Middle East, 295
and Islamic statehood, 64, 65
and judicial reforms, 431, 432
and militant secularism, 426–27
and partisan Islamist agenda, 299–300
performance of, 430–31
and the political center, 428–30
and political economy of Islamic politics, 89, 102
political ideology of, 425–26
and privatization, 102
reformist agenda of, 423–24, 436
Justice and Spirituality (al-Adl wal Ihsan), 535
“just war” theory, 147–48
Kabardino-Balkaria, 319
Kabir, Bhuian Md Monoar, 335n2
Kabul University, 462
Kadets, 309
Kadhi courts, 386
Kadivar, Mohsen, 191, 241
Kadyrov, Ahkmed, 317
Kadyrov, Ramazan, 317
kafir, 146, 149
kafirs (nonbelievers, heathens), 472n2
Kalin, Ibrahim, 3, 423–37
Kalla, Yusuf, 563
Kandhalvi, Maulana Muhammad Ilyas al-, 575
Karama Party (Egypt), 495, 496
Karbala Brigades, 625
Karimov, Islam, 313
Karlekar, Hiranmay, 325
Karzai, Hamid, 471, 472, 474n14
Kasavyurt agreement, 317
Kashani, Seyyed Abolqasem, 194n11
Kashf al-Asrar (Khomeini), 182, 183
Kashmir, 330
Kasravi, Ahmad, 194n7
Kassim, Mouloud, 357
Kateb, Faiz Muhammad, 458–59
Kawakibi, Abd al-Rahman al-, 220
Kayhan-e Farhangi, 250–51
al-kaynunah al-rabbaniya (divine immanence), 163, 164
Kazakh people, 309
Kazakhstan, 312, 313, 314
Kazim, Safinaz, 116
Keane, John, 69
Kedourie, Elie, 74
Kemal, Seyyid Ahmad, 31
Kenya, 381, 386
Kepel, Gilles, 92, 296, 370
Kerlos IV, pope, 46
Kerry, John, 273
Keyhan, 238
Khadija (wife of Prophet Muhammad), 419
Khalid, Khalid Muhammad, 58
Khalifa, Abd al-Rahman, 553
Khalili, Ahmad al-, 225
Khamenei, Ali, 186, 188, 190, 192, 198n85, 253, 401–2, 404, 407, 520–21
Khan, Amanullah, 456, 457–59, 460
Khan, Ayyub, 60, 330, 332
Khan, Habibullah, Amir of Afghanistan, 455–56
Khan, Hashim, 461
Khan, Imran, 585
Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar, 460
Khan, Liaqat, 332, 576
Khan, Nasrullah, 456
Khan, Suheil, 272
Khan, Wahiduddin, 152
Khan, Yahya, 332
Khan, Zahir , 461, 462
Khatami, Mohammad, 237–44
background, 237
distinctive discourse of, 243–44
and globalization, 64
and Iranian elections, 405–6
and Iranian governmental structures, 402, 404–5
and the Iranian reform movement, 238–42
and the Iranian Revolution, 238
and Khomeini’s ideology, 191
legacy of, 242–43
and political Islam, 64
and Soroush’s ideology, 254
Khatami, Mohammad Reza, 242
Khatami, Rouhollah, 237
Khatamiyyah, 301
(p. 662) Khatmiyya tariqa, 204, 301
Khawarji, 166
Khayyat, Haytham Al-, 303
khilafat, 147, 148
Khomeini, Ahmad, 237
Khomeini, Mostafa, 195n33
Khomeini, Ruhollah
and al-Banna, 129
background, 180–81
and constitutionalism, 182–83
death, 251
exile, 183
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 216
and Gnosticism, 258n2
and Hizbullah, 517–18, 519, 520, 528n3
and Iranian governmental structures, 402
key quotes, 180
and Khatami, 238
legacy of, 190–92
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 148
and political Islam, 61
and “post-Islamism,” 368
and privatization, 100
and revolutionary sentiment, 184–85
and Sharia`ati’s ideology, 171, 177
and Soroush’s ideology, 247–48
and theocracy in Iran, 401
and vali-ye faqih concept, 186–87, 187–90
Khwarazmi, Muhammad Ibn Musa al-, 307
Kimmage, Daniel, 616–17
King Abdullah University for Science and Technology (KAUST), 421
Kirghizstan, 313–14
Kirkpatrick, Jean, 68
Kitab al Asrar (Sadra), 192
Kitab al-Tawhid, 29
Kiyan, 251
Kjaersgaard, Pia, 284
kofar, 293
Kok, Wim, 282–83
Kommando Jihad, 346
kopvoddentax, 281
Kosovo, 282
Kotob, Abed, 486
Krämer, Gudrun, 83
Kramer, Martin, 75
Krekar, Mullah, 619, 620
Kriegel, Blandine, 325
Kufah, 11
kufr (disbelief), 137, 139, 147, 466
Kumpulan Militan Malaysia (KMM), 593, 594
Künkler, Mirjam, 390n6
Kuran, T., 99
Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), 619, 625
Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), 619, 620
kutub al-raqa’iq (moralistic pamphlets), 19
Kuwait, 118, 417
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 291, 292
constitution, 304n1
Islamic Constitutional Movement, 476
and partisan Islamist agenda, 299
Kyarov, Anatoly, 319
Laitin, D. D., 91
Larbaoui, Omar, 357
Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, 637–38
Laskar Jihad, 346
Lauzière, Henry, 36
law, 50. See also shari`ah
The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam (Qaradawi), 223, 224
Layachi, Azzedine, 3, 352–78
Layth, Abu, 297
Lazard, Gilbert, 170
Lebanon, 516–28
armed forces of, 520, 526
and armed resistance agenda, 298
economic deprivation in, 517
Islamic Group, 476
and Islam in Europe, 287
and Israel, 516–23, 526–27
jihad and jihadists in, 616
nationalism in, 521
and political economy of Islamism, 92, 93
and “post-Islamism,” 368
and religious minorities, 290
sovereignty of, 520
and statist seculareligious agenda, 293
and Syria, 526–27
and UN Special Tribunal for Lebanon, 525
See also Hizbullah
Leenders, Reinoud, 525, 527
legal authority, 17–18. See also shari`ah
legal centralism, 43
legal monism, 43–51, 54n32
legal pluralism, 46
(p. 663) Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, 309
Leninism, 176
Le Party des Musulman de France, 284
Le Pen, Jean-Marie, 284
A Letter Concerning Toleration (Locke), 79–80
Leviathan, 53n9
Levitt, Matthew, 554
Lewis, Bernard, 68, 74, 77, 78, 268
Lia, Brynjar, 483
liberal democracy, 70, 151, 252, 383–88
liberalism, 76, 77–78, 119
liberation, personal, 173–74
liberation movements, 248, 299
liberation theology, 247
Liberia, 390n5
Libya
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 291
constitution, 304n1
and democracy, 390n7
independence, 52n4
and Islamic statehood, 355–56
and Islam in North Africa, 353
and nationalism, 60, 354
and partisan Islamist agenda, 299–300
and “post-Islamism,” 367, 368, 369, 370, 374
and postrevolution elections, 22, 24
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 296, 297
and Sufi resurgence, 373–74
and terrorist groups, 389
Liddle, R. William, 571n1
The Life and Death of Democracy (Keane), 69
Ligachev, Yegor, 316
Lijst Pim Fortuyn (LPF), 283, 284
Lilla, Mark, 79
Lim, H., 100
linguistics, 15
Linrung, Tamsil, 567
literacy, 95–97, 96
Livingstone, Ken, 227
lobbying Islamic agenda, 302–3
local Islamic groups, 295
Locke, John, 72, 79–80
logic, 162. See also reason and rationality
London bombings, 230, 285, 635, 637
Luxor massacre (1997), 609, 611
Ma’alim fi al-Tariq (Qutb), 483
Macarius III, pope, 46
Madagascar, 379
Madani, Abbasi, 63, 357
Madani, Muhammad ibn Khalifa al-, 372
Madaniya order, 372
Madares al-Mahdi (Al-Mahdi Schools), 524
Madares al-Mustafa (Al-Mustafa Schools), 524
madhhab (school of law), 14–16, 29, 34
madrasas, 461, 465
Madrid bombings, 285, 635
Mahathir, Mohammad, 63–64, 343–46, 589, 592–94, 597–98
Mahdavi, Mjotaba, 180–99
Mahdavi, Mojtaba, 3
Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad al-, 28, 204, 400
Mahdi, Sadiq al-, 62, 442
Mahdi Army of Moqtada al-Sadr, 617, 625
Al-Mahdi Schools (Madares al- Mahdi), 524
Mahdism, 204
Mahfudh, Sahal, 562, 563, 572n15
Mahmood, Shah, 461
Mahsouli, Sadeq, 198n84
Majali, Abd al-Salam al-, 547
Majelis Mujahadin Indonesia (MMI), 346
Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI), 346, 348
majils, 187–88, 193, 329
Majlis Kebangsaan Halehwal Islam Malaysia, 596
majoritarian rule, 23
Malaviya, Madanmohan, 326
Malaysia, 63, 340, 587–98
constitution of, 587
and co-optation strategy, 595–97
ethnic emphasis in, 587
and federal methods of control, 594–95, 597–98
and globalization, 64
and identity politics, 340–41
Intra-Malay-Muslim Competition, 588–90
and Islamic feminism, 120
and Islamic political issues, 345–48
and majority Muslim populations, 342–44
Malay constitution, 587–88
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, 476
and political economy of Islamism, 105
and political parties, 344–45
and radical violent movements, 593–94
(p. 664) and shari`ah, 24
and student movements, 590–93
and United Malay National Organization (UMNO), 587–93
Malaysian Institute of Islamic Understanding (IKIM), 596, 597
Malaysian Militant Group (KMM), 593, 594
Mali, 385, 389, 390n6
Malik, Abdul, 469
Maliki, Nouri al-, 297, 383
Maliki school of jurisprudence, 28, 45, 215, 379
Malt, Ahmed al-, 486
Manai, Ahmed, 213
al-Manar, 34, 35
al-Manar al-Jadid, 230
Al-Manar Television, 524
Mansour, Hamza, 554
Maqdisi, Abu Muhammad al-, 624
Mardin, Serif, 427
marja-e-taqlid, 400
Al-Markaz al-Istishari lil-Dirasaat wal-Tawthiq, 524
marriage, 46–49, 228, 491
martyrdom, 23, 161, 229
Martyrs Foundation (Mu’assasat al-Shahid), 524
Marv, 307
Masalha, Nael, 547
Mashariqi thought, 216
Mashur, Mustafa, 224
“Masked Dogmatism” (Soroush), 258n3
Maskhadov, Aslan, 318
maslahah (consideration of public interest), 34
Masoud, Ahmad Shah, 464
Masoud, Tarek, 2, 3, 89–111, 475–97
Massignon, Christian, 170
Massignon, Louis, 170
mass media, 226–27, 231
Massoud, Ahmad Shah, 467, 468
materialism, 136, 208–9
Maududi, Syed Abul Aala, 576–77
Mauritania, 381, 382
Mauritius, 390n6
Mawardi, al-, 132, 141
Mawdudi, Abu al-A`la, 3, 48–49, 140, 144–53
and al-Banna, 129, 140
background, 144–45, 326
founding of Jama`at-e Islami, 324
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 214, 216
and Islam as a way of life, 145–47
and Islamic politics in Sudan, 447
and the Islamic state, 147–49
and Islam in South Asia, 324–25, 329, 331
and Pakistani politics, 332
and Qutb’s ideology, 163, 164
and role of non Muslims, 149–50
and stereotypes of Islam, 334
and western modernity, 150–51
Mawdudi, Abu al-`Ala al-, 213
Mawdudi, Mawlana, 591–92
Mawdudi, Sayyid Abul Ala, 575, 576, 578, 584
May 23 Movement, 239
Mazari, Ali, 468
Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 416
Medina, Saudi Arabia, 11
Medvedev, Dmitry, 318
Mehden, Fred R. von der, 3, 4, 340–51, 587–98
Mehdi, Mohammad T., 267
Mejelle, 20
Melville, Herman, 264
Memali Incident (1985), 593, 594
Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT), 622–23
Meseimi, Hayat al-, 551
Messiri, Abd al-Wahhab al-, 219
metaphilosophy, 247
metaphysics, 258n2. See also Sufism
Middle East, 289–304
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 290–92
and armed resistance agenda, 298–99
complexity of Islam in, 289–90
and decolonization, 282
and democracy, 69
and ecumenical Islamic agenda, 303–4
and lobbying Islamic agenda, 302–3
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 36
and partisan Islamist agenda, 299–300
peace in, 435–36
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 294–98
and ruling Islamic agenda, 300–302
and statist seculareligious agenda, 292–94
and Turkey, 435–36
See also specific countries
(p. 665) Middle East Peace Process, 269
migrant workers, 160
Mikaelian, Shoghig, 4, 516–28
Milestones (Qutb), 165, 483
militancy, 229
Militant Clerics’ Socieity, 405
Militant-Salafism, 27, 38
military rulers. See specific leaders and countries
Miller, Judith, 494
Milosevic, Slobodan, 282
Milton-Edwards, Beverley, 3–4, 505–14
al-minhaj al-islami (Islamic way), 163, 164
Ministry of Religious Affairs (Tunisia), 360
Mir Arab Madrassa, 311
Mirghani, Mohammed Osman al-, 204
Mirza, Iskander, 577
Misrawi, Zuhairi, 567, 572n11
Mitchell, Richard, 478
Mixed Courts (Egypt), 20
modernity and modernization
and Afghanistan, 456, 461, 462, 472
and Algeria, 358
and democracy, 68, 71
and gender issues, 119
and the Iranian Revolution, 186
and Islamic democracy, 74, 78
and Islamic nationalism, 60
and Khatami’s ideology, 244
and Mawdudi, 145, 326
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 27–38
and Nahdatul Ulama, 558
and political Islam, 61
and Qaradawi, 222, 231
and radical nationalism, 59
and secularism, 81–82
and shari`ah, 7, 19–22
and Tunisia, 360–62
and Turabi’s ideology, 204–5
and Turkey, 427, 429, 431, 433
and Western influence, 150–51
Mohamad V, King of Morocco, 58, 359
Mohamad VI, King of Morocco, 364, 365, 371, 541
Mohammed, Khaled Sheikh, 634
Mohtashami, Ali-Akbar, 517, 523, 528n3
Mo`in, Mostafa, 242
Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization, 196n52
monarchism, 182, 184, 185
Mongol invasions, 80
monopoly powers, 50
Montazeri, Hossein-Ali, 189, 198n85
Montazeri, Mohammad, 237, 517
Moore, Barrington, 191
Moorish Science Temple, 265
moral law, 33–34
Moro, Abdelfattah, 214
Morocco
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 291
and Arab Spring, 540, 541
constitution, 304n1
and co-option of Islamist parties, 537
elections in, 532, 535–36
emergence of Islamist movement in, 542
and grassroots Islam, 362
independence, 52n4
and Islamic feminism, 120
and Islamic politics in North Africa, 359–60, 364–66
and Islamic statehood, 356
and Islam in Europe, 286, 287
and Islam in North Africa, 353
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 37
and nationalism, 60, 353, 354
and political economy of Islamism, 105
and political Islam, 65
and “post-Islamism,” 367–68, 369, 370, 374–75
and religious minorities, 290
and religious political parties, 352
and Sufi resurgence, 371, 373, 374
and violence, 539, 540
Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), 350
Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), 350
Morsi, Mohammed, 65, 92, 99–100, 614
Mosaddeq, Mohammed, 182–83, 195n12
Mossad, 227
Motahhari, Morteza, 247–48, 252
Mourou, Abd al-Fattah, 218
Mousavi, Mir Hossein, 82, 187, 238, 242, 406
Moussa, Amro, 495
Moussa, Muhammad Abdel-Halim, 610
Moussalli, Ahmad, 3, 129–43
Mouvement de la Tendence Islamique (MTI), 63, 216–17, 361, 533, 534, 538
(p. 666) Mouvement Populaire Démocratique Consitutionnel (MPDC), 535
Movement for a Peaceful Society (Algeria), 476, 536
Movement for Restoration of Democracy, 582
Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJWA), 389
Movement of Islamic Action of Iraq, 625
Movement of Society for Peace (MSP), 299, 363, 367
Movement of Society of Peace and Islah, 370
Mozambique, 379, 384
mu’amalat, 16, 19
Mu’assasat al-Jarha (Foundation for the Wounded), 524
Mu’assasat al-Shahid (Martyrs Foundation), 524
Mubarak, Hosni, 94, 95, 211, 224, 299, 475, 477, 480, 486
Mudawwana, 119
Mughal Empire, 144
Mughni, Haya al-, 118
Mughniyé, Imad, 527
muhajirin (Muslim refugee-warrior), 465
muhajreen, 464
Muhammad, Elijah, 265
Muhammad, Husein, 568, 570
Muhammad, Mian Tufail, 580
Muhammad, Prophet, 8, 10, 18, 32, 57, 334, 440
Muhammad, Warith Deen, 267, 269
Muhammadiyah, 345
Muhammad’s Youth, 480
Muhawarat al-muslih wa al-muqallid (Rida), 34
mujaddid, 28
Mujaddidi Naqshbandiya, 29
mujahadin, 210, 312, 465, 467, 468, 474n12
Mujaheddin-e Khalq, 408
al-Mujahid (el-Moujahed), 175
Mujani, Saiful, 571n1
Mujiburrahman, Sheikh, 332, 333
mujtahid, 28, 175, 400, 409n4
al-Mujtama` al-Tunisi: Tahlil Hadari (Ghannushi), 217
mukus, 8
Mumbai attacks (2008), 639
munasaha, 297
Munson, Z., 92
Muqarabat fi al-`Almaniyya wa al-Mujtama` al-Madani (Ghannushi), 219
Mursi, Muhammad, 475, 477, 495
Musaddiq, Muhammad, 169
Musahiban dynasty, 459, 460–63, 473n5
Musavi, Mir-Hossein. See Mousavi, Mir Hossein
Musawi, Abbas al-, 517
Musawi, Hussein al-, 518
Musawi, Sayyed Abbas al-, 518–19, 523
Musharraf, Pervez, 331, 583
Muslim (magazine), 326
Muslim American Society (MAS), 268–69
Muslim Brotherhood, 475–97
and Afghani youth, 462
and al-Banna, 130–31, 131–32, 134, 140
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 291
and Arabization in North Africa, 375–76n5
and Arab Spring, 554
and the caliphate, 132–33
charity arm of, 548
described, 475–77
and education, 550
and elections, 106n5, 493–96, 500n55
founding of, 475
and gender issues, 116, 120–21, 208
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 217
governance of, 480–81
and Hamas, 505
and immigration to North America, 266
and Iraq, 617
and Islamic democracy, 73, 77
and Islamic reformism, 48
and Islam in North Africa, 356
and Islamist-Salafism, 27, 37
and Jordan, 544–46, 547–49
and Morocco, 364
and Muslim Youth, 464
and nationalism, 56
organizational strength of, 475
organizational structure of, 477–81
and partisan Islamist agenda, 299
political arm of (Freedom and Justice Party), 475
and political economy of Islamism, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 98–100, 105
and political Islam, 62–63, 65
and political moderation, 481–93
and “post-Islamism,” 370
(p. 667) priorities of, 585
and privatization, 101, 102
and Qaradawi, 222, 223, 224, 225
and Qutb, 160, 165
recruitment, 478–80
and redistribution, 103–4
and religious revival, 606
and ruling Islamic agenda, 301
scope and roles of, 475
and the Soviet-Afghan War, 312
and Sudan, 443
tensions within, 496–97
and Turabi, 206–7, 208
and violence, 608–9, 613
and Yemen, 441–42
and zakat, 107n38
Muslim commonwealth, 209
Muslim law, 8–9. See also shari`ah
Muslim League, 144, 327, 576, 578, 582
Muslimov, S., 311
Muslim Politics (Eickelman and Piscatori), 76
Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC), 268
Muslim Public Service Network (MPSN), 275
Muslim Sisters, 116
Muslim Spiritual Boards, 311
Muslim Students Association (MSA), 266–67
Muslim Women’s Society, 116
Muslim Youth (al-Shabab al-Muslem), 518
Muslim Youth (Jawanani Musalman), 462, 463, 464
Mustafa, Shukri, 614n1
Al-Mustafa Schools (Madares al-Mustafa), 524
Mutahhari, Murtada, 174
Mutahiddah Majlis-i-Amal (MMA), 583–84, 585
Mu’tazilis, 33–34
Muttaheda Majlis-e-Amal (MMA), 331
Muzadi, Hasyim, 560, 562, 569
Muzadi, Muchith, 569
Myanmar. See Burma-Myanmar
mysticism, 181, 255, 292. See also Sufism
Mzali, Mohamed, 216
Nabulsi, Sulayman al-, 545
Nachtwey, J., 93
Nader Khan, Muhammad, 459–61, 473n5, 473n6
Nadwi, Abu al-Hasan al-, 213
Nadwi, Abullais Islahi, 328
Naguib, Muhammad, 160
Nahdah Party, 63, 105, 361, 367, 370, 373, 534, 536–38, 540–42
Nahdatul Ulama (NU), 558–71
and Bali bombings (2002), 560
and competing parties, 564–65
establishment of, 558
identification of Indonesians with, 571n1
ideological tensions in, 565–67
and Islamic politics in Southeast Asia, 344, 345
and modernity, 558
and pluralism, 567–69
and shari`ah, 566–67
and terrorist attacks of 9/11, 559–60
and Wahid presidency, 561–63
Nahhas, Mustafa al-, 483
Na`im, Abdullahi an-, 50, 51, 65, 113
Na’ini, Mohammad, 400
Najaf, Iran, 183, 195n33
Najeebullah, Mohammad, 467, 468
Najib, Tun Razak, 346
Nalchik uprising, 319
Namangani, Jumma, 313, 314
Napoleonic Code (1804), 20
Nasar, Mustafa bin Abd al-Qadir Setmarian (Abu Musab al-Suri), 634, 635–36
naskh (abrogation), 10
Nasr, Vali, 82, 153n2
Nasrallah, Hassan, 518, 523, 525, 528, 617
Nasser, Gamal Abdel
and al-Banna, 131
and Algerian revolution, 358
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 212–13
imprisonment of Islamists, 101
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 483
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 222–23
and Qutb’s ideology, 160, 165
secular/nationalist emphasis of, 604, 605
and statist seculareligious agenda, 293–94
National Alliance, 284
National Assembly, 331
National Association of the Zawyas, 372
National Awami Party, 578
National Coalition to Protect Political Freedom (NCPPF), 270
National Congress (NCP) in Sudan, 442
(p. 668) National Congress of the Chechen People, 317
National Council of ‘Ulama’ (MUI), 567
National Council on Islamic Affairs, 267
National Covenant (Egypt), 58
National Democratic Party (Egypt), 494, 610
National Democratic Party (NPD), 284
National Democratic Rally (RND), 363, 376n6
National Democrats (Sweden), 281
National Forces Alliance, 373–74
National Front (France), 281
National Front for the Salvation of Libya, 373
National Front Party, 373
National Islamic Front (NIF), 3, 62, 206, 299, 441–42, 443, 447
nationalism
in Afghanistan, 455, 456, 461
and al-Banna’s ideology, 134
Arab nationalism, 521
and Hamas, 507
and the Iranian Revolution, 186
and Islamic democracy, 79
and Islamic radicalism, 58–61
and Islamic statehood, 56
and Islam in Central Asia, 311, 312
and Islam in Europe, 281
and Islam in North Africa, 353–55
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 340
in Lebanon, 521
in Malaysia, 590
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 38
nation-states, 42–52, 43–44, 50–51, 50–52, 79, 231
in Pakistan, 579
and political Islam, 56–58, 65
and Qutb’s ideology, 159–60
and sub-Saharan Africa, 381–82
National Liberation Front (FLN), 63, 356, 362, 363
National Origins Act, 265
National Outlook Movement of Turkey, 425
National Salvation Party, 117
National Salvation Revolution in Sudan, 440–41
National Unionist Party (NUP), 204
National Union of Popular Forces (UNFP), 359
Nation of Islam, 265, 267
natural law, 33
Navab Safavi, Mojtaba, 194n11
Nawawi, Muhammad, 568
Nawid, Senzil, 458
Nazarbaev, Nursultan, 313
The Neglected Duty (Faraj), 608
neoconservatism, 191–92
Neo-Destour Party, 354
neofundamentalism, 466, 470
neoliberalism, 1, 191, 227
neo-Salafism, 367, 372, 375n1
Netanyahu, Benjamin, 227
Netherlands, 280–87
Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (NIOD), 282–83
New Religious Pluralism (Banchoff), 285
New World Order, 219
New York Times, 270, 274, 399, 493–94
nifaz-i Shari`ah, 147
Niger, 384, 385
Nigeria, 118, 387
Nimeiri, Gaafar, 206, 442–46, 449
1920 Revolutionary Brigades, 625, 626n1
nizam-i mustafa, 147
Nizam-i-Mustafa Tehrik (Movement for the System of Muhammad), 581
nizam-i zindagi, 145
Nomani, Manzur, 326
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 207, 219, 233n32
non-Muslims, 149–50, 224, 290. See also pluralism, religious
nonviolent Islamic groups, 295
Nord, Liga, 281
Norris, Pippa, 286
North Africa, 352–75
and decolonization, 282
and grassroots Islam, 361–62
and Islam in Europe, 281, 284
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 36–37
and “post-Islamism,” 367–74
and the Sanusiya movement, 30
See also specific countries
North American Islamic Trust (NAIT), 267
North American Muslims, 263–76
background of, 263–65
and civil rights activism, 267–72
and impact of September 11 attacks, 272–75
(p. 669) and Islamic feminism, 123n18
modern Islamic community, 266–67
prospects for, 275–76
and westernizing influence, 59
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 282, 295, 434, 621
North Caucasus, 308, 316
Northern League, 284
Northern Nigeria, 388
North Ossetia, 319
North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), 559
Nouri, Ali Akbar Nategh, 239
Nouri, Fazlollah, 182
Al-Nour Radio Station, 524
Numayri, Ja`far, 62
Nuqrashi, Mahmud Fahmi al-, 482
Nuri, Ali Akbar Nateq, 254
Nuri, Fazlollah, 400
Nur Party, 92, 105
Nursi, Said, 314
Nyerere, Julius, 386
Obama, Barack, 274–75, 399, 434, 471
Objectives Resolution, 329–30
Ocalan, Abdullah, 438n16
oil resources, 240
Oklahoma City bombing, 269
Olesen, Asta, 454
oligarchy, 198n84
Omar, Mohammed, 468–69, 633
Onians, Charles, 494
Organization of 1965, 483
Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), 60, 210, 274–75, 342, 387
Organization of the People’s Mujahedin, 249
Orthodox Egyptian Coptic Church, 46–49, 51
Oslo peace process, 507, 511, 512
Osman, Fathi, 215
Osman, Omar, 266
Ottoman Empire, 30, 31, 36, 144, 210, 265, 281, 327
Ozal, Turgut, 425, 429, 438n16
Pahlavi, Reza (son of deposed shah), 408
Pahlavi dynasty, 181
Pakistan, 574–86
and Afghan jihadi groups, 464, 465
and Bangladesh, 331–33, 335
constitutionalism and civil war, 576–79
constitution of, 152
creation of, 575–76
drone strikes in, 637
Federally Administered Tribal Areas of, 637, 638
and gender issues, 118
and immigration to North America, 266
independence, 52n4
Inter Service Intelligence Directorate (ISI), 464, 465, 467, 469
and Islamic politics in South Asia, 324, 325–26, 328
and Islamic statehood, 60
and Islam in Europe, 286, 287
and Mawdudi, 144, 146, 152–53, 327
military dictatorship, 579–83
and minority rights, 149
and Mujahiidin, 465, 474n12
and non-Muslim minorities, 149–50
and Omar’s Taliban movement, 468–69
Peshawar, 464, 466, 474n11, 630
and political Islam, 62
and al-Qaeda, 638–39
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 295
religious education in, 214
and secular authoritarianism in Central Asia, 314
and September 11 terrorist attacks, 583–84
and the Soviet-Afghan War, 312
suicide bombers in, 639
support for the Pashtun, 467–68
Taliban in, 637
and transformation of Jama`at-e Islami, 329–31
tribal areas, 637, 638
Pakistan Democratic Movement, 332
Pakistan National Alliance (PNA), 581
Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), 60, 332, 578, 580–81, 582
Palestine and Palestinians, 92, 229, 484–85, 505–14
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 210, 505, 506, 507–8, 511, 514
Palestinian Authority (PA), 505, 507, 513, 514
Palestinian Security Forces (PSF), 510
pan-Arabism, 212–13, 356, 604. See also Arab nationalism
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, 476
Parawansa, Kofifah Indar, 563
parliamentary systems, 152, 313, 343
Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS), 57, 63–64, 345–47, 588–90, 591–93, 594, 596–97, 598
Partij voor de Vrijheid, 281
partisanship, 139–40, 299–300
Party of Freedom (PVV), 283
Party of Islam, 312, 315
Party of Justice (PK), 564
Party of Justice and Development (PJD), 89, 535–37, 539–40, 541, 542
Party of National Awakening (PKB), 561, 562, 563, 566
Party of Unity and Development (PPP), 561
Pasha, Ahmad Taymur, 130
Pasha, Isma`il Sidqi, 140
Pasha, Muhammad Ali, 32
Pashtu language, 461
Pashtun tribes, 454–60, 467, 469, 471
Pashtu Tulana (Pashtu Academy), 461
patriarchal ideology, 112–16, 118–21, 123n23
Patriot Act, 273
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), 619
Pearl, Daniel, 639
People of the Book, 47, 49
Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan, 463–64, 465, 466, 467
People’s Mojahedin Organization, 189
Pepinsky, T., 103
perestroika, 312, 315
Permanent Committee of Ifta’, 419
Perry, E. J., 91
Personal Status Regime, 49, 216, 220
Pertubuhan Kebajakan Islam Se-Malaysia (PERKIM), 592
Petraeus, David, 626
Philippines, 340, 348–49, 350
philosophy, 162, 181, 289
pilgrimage, 37
Pipes, Daniel, 75
piracy, 389–90
Piscatori, James, 76
Platonic philosophy, 162
pluralism, religious
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 290
and complexity of Middle East Islam, 90
and ecumenical Islamic agenda, 303
and Indonesia, 567–69
and Iraqi Kurdistan, 618
and Islamic democracy, 80
and Islam in Europe, 278, 285–86
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 345, 346
and Khomeini’s ideology, 192
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 140
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 224, 230–31
and Saudi Arabia, 413
and Soroush’s ideology, 254, 255–56, 257
and Turkey, 426
Poe, Edgar Allan, 264
Poland, 281
political economy, 2, 89–105
and economic platforms of Islamist parties, 97–100
and institutional support for Islamism, 94–97
and privatization, 100–102
and redistribution, 102–4
and socioeconomic supports for Islamism, 90–93
political Islam
and al-Banna’s ideology, 133
defined, 1, 375n1
and globalization, 64–65
impact in the Maghreb, 352–53
and Qutb’s ideology, 159
and the state, 56–66
and sub-Saharan Africa, 388–90
and Sufi resurgence, 370–74
political parties
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 292
and Islam in Europe, 287
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 344–45
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 148
platforms of, 97–100
and political economy of Islamism, 97–100
See also specific party names
political rights, 118
“Politics as a Vocation” (Weber), 243
polyarchy, 70
polytheism, 29, 137
Popper, Karl, 248
(p. 671) Popular Arabic and Islamic Conference (PAIC), 210
populism, 21, 183, 184, 192, 330
positive law, 228
positivism, 253
post-Cold War era, 83
postcolonial era, 81–82, 353, 380–83
post-Islamism, 353, 367–74
postpositivism, 248
poverty, 92, 94, 95–97, 104–5, 107n38, 319, 349
Powell, Colin, 620
Preachers Not Judges (Hudaybi), 483
precedents, 14
predestination, 257
premodern Muslim states, 44–45
privatization, 100–102, 105
Prodi, Romano, 279
progressivism, 60
property rights, 100
proselytism, 210, 226–27
Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), 476, 564–65
Protestantism, 43, 79, 285
Pruzan-Jorgensen, Julie E., 119
purification, 192
Puritanical-Salafism, 27, 37–38
Pusat Penyelidekan Islam Malaysia, 596–97
Pushkin, Alexander, 320n6
Qaddafi, Muammar, 227, 294, 353, 355–56, 369, 372–74, 389, 390n7, 560
qadhf (defamation), 18
Qadianis, 150
Qadi justice, 7, 9
Qadiriya order, 30
al-Qaeda (al-Qa’ida), 630–40
and Afghanistan jihad, 474n13, 621
and al-Jama’a, 611
base membership of, 633–34, 635
and Bin Laden, 631, 632–33
declining support for, 639–40
establishment of, 469, 632
expansion of, 470
four main phases of, 631–32
goals of, 632
and Hamas, 508
ideology of, 632, 635, 636
infrastructure of, 637
in Iraq, 4
and Islamic Jihad Group (al-Jihad Group), 607
and Islamic politics in Central Asia, 314
and Islamic politics in North Africa, 367
and Islamic politics in the Middle East, 295–96
and Islam in North Africa, 363
and jihad, 616
in the Maghreb, 297, 388–89, 638
and Malaysian Islamic radicals, 594
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 149, 152
media production of, 637
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 482
network of, 630, 631, 632, 634, 636
origins of, 463, 467
and Pakistan, 574, 585, 638–39
present state of, 636–40
al-Qa’ida in Iraq (AQI), 623–26
resurgence of, 471
and secular authoritarianism in Central Asia, 313
and Taliban, 637
and terrorist attacks of 9/11, 470
vanguard of, 632
Western European recruits for, 637–38
and Zarqawi, 548–49, 624, 628n15
Qaedat al-Jihad (the Base of Jihad), 607
Qajar dynasty, 181
Qaradawi, Yusuf al-, 222–32
background, 222
and democracy and pluralism, 230–31
and ecumenical Islamic agenda, 303
and electronic networking, 226–27
and gender issues, 230
and Ghannushi, 214
and legal authority, 49
and moderation, 229
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 476, 484
and North American immigration, 266
on punishment for adultery, 54n27
and renewal of Islamic jurisprudence, 228–29
support for revolutions, 23
on use of violence, 229–30
Al-Qaradawi Center for Islamic Moderation and Renewal, 226
Qaradawi.net, 226
al-Qarafi, 217
(p. 672) Qasim, Tal’at Fu’ad, 608
Qassem, Shaykh Na’im, 519–20
Qatar, 223, 231, 304n1, 413, 513
Qatar Foundation, 226, 233n32
Qayyim, Ibn al-, 29
qisas, 19
al-Qiyam al-Islamiya, 357, 358
qiyas, 9, 10–11
Qom, Iran, 195n12
quietism, 183–84, 193, 194n11
Qur’an
and al-Banna’s ideology, 131
and the caliphate, 133
and democracy, 72
and democratization of shura, 139–40
and ecumenical Islamic agenda, 303
and equality, 138–39
and gender issues, 113, 114
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 214
and hudud penalties, 18
and Islamic feminism, 120
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 144, 145, 148
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 27, 29, 35–36
on non-Muslim minorities, 149, 150
and oaths of office, 264
and Pakistani politics, 330
and People of the Book, 47
and political economy of Islamism, 105
Pushkin on, 320n6
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 222
and Qutb’s ideology, 164
and redistribution, 102
and schools of Islamic jurisprudence, 9–10
and shari`ah, 10, 11
and social justice, 135
and Soroush’s ideology, 252, 256
and state rule over religion, 187
and Turabi’s ideology, 205, 206
Qur’anic Preservation Society (QPS), 214
Qutb, Muhammad, 213
Qutb, Sayyid, 159–67
and al-Banna, 129, 140
and Algerian revolution, 358
and Azzam, 631
background, 159–61
and Egyptian Islamism, 609
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 213, 214, 215, 216
and Iraqi jihadists, 618
and Islamic reformism, 49
and the Islamic state, 131
and Islamic statehood, 56
and Islam in South Asia, 324
and Mawdudi’s ideology, 149
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 476, 483, 485
and political Islam, 61
and privatization, 100
and social thought, 161–66
and stereotypes of Islam, 334
and student movements, 591–92
Rabbani, Burhanuddin, 464, 474n10
racism, 53n8, 160
radical Islamism, 56, 58–61, 292, 294–98, 320, 325, 341
Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi, 82, 191, 238, 241, 245n8, 245n16, 403–4, 523
Rahim, Abdu, 331–32
Rahimi, Mohammad Reza, 198n84
Rahman, Abu Abdul, 619
Rahman, Omar Abd al-, 607
Rahman, Tengku Abdul, 590
Rahnema, Ali, 171
Rain Foundation, 242
Ramadan, 223
Ramadan, Tariq, 227
al-Rashidun, 10
Rassemblement Constitutionel Démocratique (RCD), 218
Rastakhiz Party, 185
Rationalizing Jihadi Actions in Egypt and the World (Al-Sherif), 611
Rauf, Hiba, 116
Rawls, John, 255
Raysuni, Ahmad al-, 227, 303
Razak, Abdul Tun, 343
Raziq, Ali Abd al-, 57–58
Reagan, Ronald, 465
reason and rationality, 11, 32, 162, 215, 247, 256, 258n2, 457
Refah Party, 117
reformism, 42–52
and Ghannushi, 220
(p. 673) and ijtihad, 28
of Islamic jurisprudence, 228–29
and Islamic nationalism, 60
and Khatami, 238–42
and Modernist-Salafiya movement, 27, 30–31, 35
and nation-states, 50–52
and “post-Islamism,” 368
and Qaradawi, 222, 227–28
and Shari`ati, 169
and Soroush, 250
and Sufi resurgence, 371
Reformist Group of Krekar, 619
refugees, 318
regional Islamic groups, 295
Renaissance and Virtue Party (PRV), 365
Renaissance Movement Party, 89
renewal, 28, 30–31. See also revivalism; Salafist movement
Renewal Movement (Pembaharuan), 567, 568
republicanism, 186, 193
Republican Party (US), 68
Republican Party in Turkey, 428
Republic of North Ossetia, 319
The Restless Universe, 247–48
revelation, 10, 31, 33
revivalism, 27–38, 252. See also Salafist movement
Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), 160
Revolutionary Guard (Iran), 191, 193, 197n71, 217, 248
revolutionary Islam, 59–60, 257
Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, 169, 177, 182, 185, 195n12, 456–57
Rida, Muhammad Rashid, 27, 34–36, 37, 130, 220
ridda (apostasy), 18
Rifa’i, Samir al-, 549
Rights of Non-Muslims in Islamic State (Mawdudi), 48–49
Rizk, Yunan Labib, 482
Robinson, Robert V., 103, 379, 493
Rois, Kiai Dimyati, 563
Romano, David, 4, 616–26
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 71
rowshanfikrs (enlightened Muslim thinkers), 457
Roy, Olivier, 370, 640
Rubin, Michel, 399
ruhanis (traditionalist religious functionaries), 457
ruling Islamic agenda, 300–302
Rumi, 255
Rushdie, Salman, 189, 324
Russia, 307, 453, 505. See also Soviet Union
Russo-Iranian Wars, 320n1
Rwanda, 379
Saad-Ghorayeb, Amal, 520
Sabahi, Hamdin, 495, 496
Sadat, Anwar
assassination attempts made by, 482–83
assassination of, 165, 484, 606–7, 613
and emergence of Islamic movements, 604
identification with Islam of, 605
and Islamic politics in the Middle East, 294, 296
and the Muslim Brotherhood, 101, 476, 484
and number of mosques in Egypt, 606
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 223
and the Six Day War, 166
Sadeghi, Zohreh, 237
Sadr, Baqir As-, 217
Sadr, Muqtada al-, 399, 617, 625
Sadr, Musa al-, 237, 517–18, 528
Sadra, Mulla, 192, 247–48, 258n2
Sadri, Ahmad, 237–45
Sadri, Mahmoud, 3, 237–45
Saeed, Abdullah, 2, 27–38
Saeed, Hafiz Mohammad, 331
Safadi, Ayman al-, 553
Safarov, Polad, 315
Safire, William, 399
Sahel, 379, 388, 638
Sahnoun, Ahmed, 357
sahwah shaykhs, 417
Said, Edward, 507
Said, Hammam, 545, 554
Sa’id, Jawat, 213
saint veneration, 29–30, 371
Sait, S., 100
salaf, 35–36
Salafi Nur Party, 495
(p. 674) Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), 388
Salafist movement, 27–38
and apolitical Muslimhood agenda, 290, 292
defined, 375n2
and ecumenical Islamic agenda, 304
and Egyptian Islamism, 607–9
and Ghannushi’s ideology, 215
and Islam in Central Asia, 314–15, 318, 319
and Islam in North Africa, 354–55, 532
and Islam in Southeast Asia, 341–42
and Morocco, 359–60, 364–65
neo-Salafism, 367
and “post-Islamism,” 368
and Qaradawi’s ideology, 231, 233n44
and radical militant Islamist agenda, 295
and Soroush’s ideology, 251
and statist seculareligious agenda, 294
and Sufi resurgence, 371, 372
Salih, Muhammad, 313
Salih, Shaykh Adib al-, 213
Salloukh, Bassel F., 4, 516–28
Sanhuri, ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-, 228
Sanusi, Muhammad b. Ali al-, 28, 29, 30
Sanusiyya Sufism, 30, 60, 354, 355–56, 367
sariqa (alcohol prohibition),<