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date: 11 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article examines the changing relationship between Islam and the state. These changes are analyzed within the context of four broadly defined phases. The first phase covers the years immediately after World War II, when issues of nationalist opposition to imperialism and of Westernizing-reformist efforts to modernize Muslim societies dominated political and cultural discourse. The second phase witnessed the articulation of radical ideologies of societal and political transformation, as the new generation of leaders rejected both foreign control and the old-style, socially conservative local political elites. The third phase involved the rise of political opposition articulated in Islamic terms. The fourth phase began by the end of the twentieth century when new movements and organizations emerged in the face of rhetoric about the “failure of Political Islam.”

Keywords: Islam, politics, Muslims, World War II, political movements, imperialism, social change, political change, political opposition

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