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date: 15 December 2019

(p. 571) Index

(p. 571) Index

A
Aarnio, K., 53
Abramovitz, A., 532
absorption–imagination, 381
acceptance, of pretend play, 235
access to affect-laden thoughts, 406
accommodation, 18, 48, 163, 244, 391, 395, 396
Acosta, E. E., 88
Acredolo, L., 267
Adams, M. A., 554
adaptation to reality, 163
Addis, D. R., 314, 319
adherence, 47, 554, 556–558, 559n3
Adler, S. M., 227
adolescent transitions and parasocial relationships, 258–259, 264–265
adoption and attachment outcome study, 542
children from high-risk families, harvesting imagination in, 546
early versus later adoption, 544
maltreatment upon imagination, longer-term influences of, 545–546
moves in late adoption to secure representations, 544–545
parental attachment representations, 545
security from one parent across family, spreading effect of, 545
story stem assessment profile, 543–544
unresolved mourning in, 545
adult(s/hood)
awareness of children's play, 13–14
counterfactual thinking, 333–334
dehumanization of children, 283
imaginary relationships in, 259
media exposure on, 439–440
memory for imaginations, 94–97
perceiver triggers in, 279–280
role in play–narrative distinction, 220–221
studies, for future thinking–memory relationship, 313–314
target triggers in, 277–279
use of paracosm play, 496–497
Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), 541
Adventure Into the Jungle, 220
aesthetics in worldplay, 432–434
affect
cultural organization of, 239–241
negative, 395
positive, 23, 181, 406, 407, 518, 522, 526, 532
transformation of, 406
affective perspective of creativity, 406–407
affiliation, 71, 144, 265
age
of pretenders, 234–235
trends significance, in realization judgments, 100–101
agency, 394
Albertson, K., 168, 179
Alexander, K. J., 202
alternative causal power, 44
altruism, 390, 394, 397–398
competitive, 397
preference for, 397
reciprocal, 397
Altschul, S., 518
Altshuler, J. L., 367
Alvarez-Dominguez, J., 230
Amabile, T. M., 392, 406, 410
Amabile collage test, 410–411
ambiguity, tolerance for, 394
amount of pretend play, 233–234
Amsel, E., 336
Amso, D., 330
Amsterdam, B., 290
amygdala activation, pretend play and, 141–142
Anderson, A. H., 65
Anderson, D. R., 441, 445, 446
animal capacities, 459–463
animal play, 471
animals, imagination in
background of, 470–473
future directions of, 481
modern views on, 473–481
imagining how, 478–481
imagining that, 475–478
simple images, 474–475
anomy, 397
anthropological perspective of social creativity, 397–398
anthropomorphism, 6, 263, 272–284, 564–565
behavior influenced by, 283–284
defined, 273
triggering, 273–280
anthrosophy, 149
anxiety-reducing interventions, 9
Apperly, I. A., 169, 170, 281, 328
appropriateness, 380, 403–404, 406, 469
archeology, 463–464
Arlitt, A., 447
arousal hypothesis, 441, 446–447
as-if, 12, 13, 32, 48–50, 54, 83, 84, 86, 89, 104, 116, 138, 147, 165, 166, 194n7, 213, 215–217, 220, 221, 239, 241, 276, 277, 291, 379, 440, 442, 459, 460, 470, 473, 479, 481, 490, 500, 502, 505, 507, 509, 510, 516, 552, 556
Asperger syndrome (AS), 500
mental imagery in, 502, 504
Asscher, J. J., 35
assertiveness, 241, 394
assimilation, 18, 19, 24, 48, 163, 243, 244, 380, 391, 395, 396
asthma, 551, 553, 554, 556, 557
Atance, C. M., 305–311, 311, 316–320
atonia, 475
attachment relationships and pretend narratives, links between, 541–542
attachment theory, 261
attention
cultural organization of, 241–242
open, 241, 242
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), creativity and, 381, 411, 412
(p. 572) augmented positive affect, 406
autism, 9
atypical, 500
creativity in, 507–512
defined, 499
high-functioning, 500
imagination development and, 499–513
mental imagery in, 501–505
pretense in, 505–507
savantism, 503
Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R), 505
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), 505
autobiographical memory, 293, 317
autonoetic consciousness, 289, 313
autonomous ego functions, 18
autonomy, 20, 254–255, 258, 264, 391
availability hypothesis
role in children's reality–imagination distinction, 83–84, 139
Averill, J., 146–147
B
Baby Einstein, 144
Backward Digit Span, 169
Baker, N., 168
Bamberg, M., 203, 204
Bandura, A., 19, 88, 143
Bar, M., 309
Barber, T. X., 490
Bargh, J. A., 144
“Barnaby,” 14
Barnett, I., 520
Barney and Friends, 24
Baron-Cohen, S., 55, 504, 505, 508, 511
Barrett, J. L., 35, 66, 67, 289, 297, 299
Barton, E., 524, 525
basic conditional reasoning, 331
Bateson, G., 231, 233, 243
Batson, C. D., 280, 281
Bauer, P. J., 307
Bavin, E., 199, 205
Bayes's rule, 346
Bayesian causal learning, 343, 344
Bayes nets, 345–347
in cognitive development, 350–352
Beagles-Roos, J., 445
Beck, S. R., 202, 328, 330, 332, 334, 336–338
Beeghly, M., 404
Beentjes, J. W., 446
behavior, influenced by anthropomorphism/mind perception, 283–284
behavioral account to pretend play, 189–192
difficulties for, 190–192
behavioral creativity, 390
behavioral paradigms, for episodic future thinking measurement, 307–309
Being, 34
beliefs, 187, 188, 193
peculiar, and magical thinking, 54–55
in magical beings/cultural myths, 61–72
Benson, J. B., 312
Bergson, H., 390, 395
Bergstrom, B., 69
Bering, J. M., 39
Berk, L. E., 167–168
Berlyne, D. E., 18, 20
Berndt, R., 238
Bernstein, I. S., 461, 462
Berretta, S., 409
Best, D. L., 310
Bhavnani, R, 408
bibiliotherapy, 534
bildat, 228
Binet, A., 392
Bjorklund, D. F., 39
Bland, K., 370
blicket detector, 350–352
Bloch, M. N., 227
Block, J. H., 167
Bloom, P., 79
“Bobo doll” studies, 88
Bob the Builder, 13
Bock, J., 228, 231, 234
Boden, M., 389
Boerger, E. A., 63–65, 67, 71, 84
Bogdan, R. J., 480
Bolton, D., 55
bonding behavior, 397
Boston, M., 539
bottom up processing, 381
Boucher, J., 508
Bouldin, P., 64, 85
Bourchier, A., 66, 68, 81–84
Bourdieu, P., 397
Bowerman, M., 334
Bowlby, J., 261
Boyatzis, C. J., 71
Boyer, P., 31, 52–53, 66, 69
Branscombe, N. R., 332
Bretherton, I., 177, 230, 233, 404
Brice-Heath, S., 222
Bridgers, S., 354
bridging behavior, 397
Bristol, A. S., 563
Broch, H. B., 229
Broks, P., 55
Brooks, A. S., 459
Brown, E., 115
Bruner, J., 21, 218, 385, 426–428, 540
Brunsdon, V. E. A., 330
Buchbinder, M., 553
Buchsbaum, D., 354
Buckner, R. L., 315–316, 318
Bugnyar, T., 477
Bühler, K., 18
Burger, L. K., 197
Burnett, H. G., 510
Burns, P., 337
Busby, J., 296, 298, 307–310, 313, 315, 321
Butler, L. D., 381
Butterfill, S. A., 281
C
Caillé, A., 398, 399
California v. Raymond Buckey et al., 113
Call, J., 309
Callanan, M. A., 37
Calvert, S. L., 442
Cameron, C. A., 63, 84
Candy Land, 12
Candy Witch, 51, 63, 64, 71, 116
Carey, S., 32
Carlson, S, M., 162, 165, 167, 168, 170, 255, 330, 354, 370, 493
Carlsson, I. M., 404
Carpendale, J. I., 364
Carpenter, M., 143
Carrick, N., 65, 66, 83, 116
Carriere, S. A., 372
Carroll, D. C., 315–316, 318
Carroll, D. J., 169, 170, 328, 330
Casey, E. S., 473
Cassell, S., 519
Catharsis, 517
Caughey, J., 268
causal connectors, 203
causal graphical models, 345–347
causal induction, 344
causal inference, 344
causal learning, 7
Bayes nets, 345–347, 350–352
in childhood, 352–353
counterfactual thinking and, 347–350
future directions of, 355–356
and imagination, 342–355
pretense role in, 353–354
probabilistic modeling of, 343–347
role in magical thinking, 50
Ceci, S. J., 39, 115, 120, 121
Centner, T., 228
Champion, T., 198–200
Chand, I., 406
Chandler, M. J., 364
Chang, C., 200
Chapman, L. J., 43
character speech, 203
Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), 505
Cheney, D. L., 461
Chethik, M., 516, 518, 527n1
Cheyne, J. A., 372
CHILDES database, 78
child psychotherapy, history of, 539–540
child psychotherapy, pretend play in
functions of, 516–517
future directions, 526
improving play skills, 520–521
intervention strategies, 524
interventions with low socioeconomic populations, 521–522
mechanisms of change, 517–518
methodological considerations, 525
(p. 573) negative emotions in, processing of, 518–519
outcomes examined, 525
play intervention protocol, developing, 525–526
play intervention studies and anxiety, 519–520
play training, essential components of, 524
populations with developmental disabilities, 522–524
treatment length, 524–525
children/childhood. See also individual entries
abilities beyond reality–imagination distinction, 87–89
causality in, 352–353
confusion at reality–imagination distinction, 81–86
emotions, role of, 82–83
individual differences in, 84–86
situational factors, 83–84
counterfactual in, 352–353
creativity in, 407–411
dehumanization of, by adults, 283
memory for imaginations, 94–97
source monitoring framework and, 95–108
narratives, flux and flow in, 212–222
perceiver triggers in, 275–277
play preferences, 206
playgroups, cultural organization of, 237–239
representation, of pretend play, 186–195
social networks, imaginary companions in, 257–258
success at reality–imagination distinction
fiction–reality distinction, 79–80
pretense–reality distinction, 76–79
suggestibility, 4, 105–106, 113–122
target triggers in, 274–275
understanding of mental flow, 371–372
child witness, 126–135
Christiano, B. A., 181
chronic illness, 550, 554
Chutes and Ladders, 12
civility, 24, 283
Claridge, G., 55
Clark, C. D., 61, 63, 68, 72
Clarke, A. C., 44
Claxton, L. J., 312, 313
Clayton, N. S., 473, 477, 478
Clifton, R. K., 312
clinical assessment, imagination use in, 8–9
clinical differences, in creativity/pretend play, 411–412
closeness
of counterfactuals, 333, 334, 338
of relationships, 258, 259
Cobb, E., 422, 423
cogito ergo sum, 288
cognition
metacognition, 7, 262, 381–382
social cognition, development of, 344
cognitive-affective theory, of imaginative play, 18
cognitive behavioral therapy, 367
imagery in, 531–532
cognitive cueing, 361, 362
cognitive factors, role in episodic future thinking, 315–317
cognitive flexibility, 5, 164
cognitive maps, 476–477
cognitive perspective of creativity, 405–406
cognitive processing system, play theory development within, 18–20
cognitive realm and social creativity, 393–394
Cohen, D., 383, 419–421, 541
Cohen, J., 361
Cole, M., 213
Cole, T., 261
Coleridge, S. T., 470, 471
Collard, R. R., 312
collective creativity, 390
Collins, P., 445
Colltheart, M., 370
Commonwealth v. Corbett, 129–131, 132
Commonwealth v. R.P.S., 133
communication, pretend play as, 192–194
communion, 394
companionship, 182, 252, 256, 258, 261, 266
competitive altruism, 397
conative realm and social creativity, 394
Conger, E. E., 442
consensual assessment technique, 392, 410
conservation, role in mental flow, 368–369
consistent worlds, 417
construal level theory, of psychological distancing, 165
constructed games, 431
constructed languages, 429
contagion, 46–48
behavioral, 47
moral, 47
physical, 47
context, 491
continuing bonds, 256, 259–260, 266
continuity–discontinuity, in image relationships formation, 267
continuity of the self, in time, 289, 292–293, 298
convergent thinking and social creativity, 393–394
cooperation, 24, 267, 391, 398, 457, 522, 525
coping, 555, 557, 559
Cops and Robbers, 16
Coram Family Adoption Service, 542
Corballis, M. C., 307, 315, 316, 320, 456
Correia, S. P. C., 309
Corriveau, K. H., 63
counterfactual reasoning, developmental change in, 128
counterfactual scenarios, reality–imagination distinction for, 90
counterfactual thinking, 7, 325–339, 381
backward, 352
and causal relationships, 347–350
in childhood, 352–353
downward, 333
future directions of, 338–339
influenced by reality, 332–335
in personal narratives, 202
about reality
early studies, 326–329
ignoring reality, 329–330
real world and counterfactual world, relating, 330–332
reality influenced by, 335–337
role in learning causal knowledge, 343
upward, 333
counterfactual world and real world, relating, 330–332
Cox, V., 32, 39, 71, 79, 80
Craft, A., 405
Crago, M., 198
Craig, J., 504, 508, 509
Craig-Unkefer, L., 523
Creative Imagination Scale, 384
creativity, 7–8, 379–385, 455–456, 563–564. See also imagination
affective perspective of, 406–407
assessment of, 8
in autism, 507–512
behavioral, 390
in children, 407–411
cognitive perspective of, 405–406
collective, 390
defined, 404, 405, 438–439
group differences in, 411–413
humanistic perspective of, 405
magical thinking and, 52
media exposure on. See media exposure on creativity
moral, 390
personal, 7
psychodynamic perspective of, 405
relationship with pretend play, 8, 403–413
and role-play/object substitution, 181–182
social creativity development, individual differences in, 387–399
credulity, 32, 49, 63–65, 72, 85, 86, 114
Crilly, M., 337
Crisp, R., 253
Cristi-Vargas, R., 330, 331
Csikszentmihalyi, M., 405, 406
(p. 574) cultivation, of pretend play, 235
cultural commitment to subjunctive experience, 241–242
cultural differences
in creativity, 412–413
in pretend play, 224–226, 412–413
quantitative, 233–235
culturally constructed activity, pretend play as, 224–244
affect, cultural organization of, 239–241
attention, cultural organization of, 241–242
children's playgroups, cultural organization of, 237–239
cultural commitment to subjunctive experience, 241–242
ethnographic record, 226–230
future directions of, 242–244
interpretive pretense versus inventive pretense, 230–233
pretend play mediation, socialization for, 235–236
cultural myths, beliefs in, 61–72
child characteristics affecting, 62–65
entity factors affecting, 65–68
environmental factors affecting
distal effects, 70–72
proximal effects, 68–70
future directions of, 72
cultural support, for magical thinking, 51
culture(s)
mind perception triggered by, 282–283
narrative development across, 196–197
personal narrative development across, 197–203
Cuneo, C. N., 202
curtailment, of pretend play, 235
cybernetic communication model, 391
D
Dainiel, C., 519
Dalla Barba, G., 313, 318
Daly, M. J., 339
Damisch, L., 54
Damrad-Frye, R., 203, 204
D'Angelo, E. J., 516
Dansky, J. L., 175, 181, 521, 522
Darley, J. M., 280, 281
Darwin, C., 459, 471
Davis, A., 66, 68
Davis-Unger, A. C., 168
Dawkins, R., 31
Day, L. C., 418, 430, 433
daydreaming, 12, 14, 22, 25, 167, 180, 325, 359, 360, 381, 383, 404, 419, 423, 427, 429, 431, 468, 490, 491, 529–531, 561, 565
Dearsley, P., 55
decontextualization, 176
deductive syllogistic reasoning, 326
deficit hypothesis, 260
dehumanization, 6, 282
of children, by adults, 283
de la Roche, M., 428
delay of gratification, 167, 168, 171, 179, 297, 310, 311, 316
de León, L., 205
De Lisi, R., 312
DeLoache, J. S., 88, 144, 150
delusion, 8, 55, 471
Descartes, R., 288, 469–471
design, 457–459
thinking, 457
worlds, 457
desire, 193
developmental changes
in counterfactual reasoning, 128
and internal representations for perceptual experiences, 96
and reality–imagination distinction, 90
developmental studies, for future thinking–memory relationship, 314–315
developmental theory of equilibrium, 395
Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO), 505
Diamond, A., 329, 330
diary companions, 258
Dias, M. G., 169, 329
Diaz Soto, L., 227
Didion, J., 43
Dierker, L. C., 64, 66, 83
DiLalla, L. F., 80, 81, 182
Dillion, J. A., 384
Dimensional Change Card Sort, 168
Dinstein, I., 566
disbelief, 63
discrete behavioral states, 492
Disneyland, 235
disorderly play, 21–22
displacement hypothesis, 441, 444
Dissanayake, C., 291
dissociation, 255, 381
future directions of, 496
nonpathological, 490
context, 491
control, 491
discrete behavioral states, 492
imaginary companions, 492–493
imaginary places, 494
maturation, 491
personified objects, 494
play identities, 493–494
role-play, 492
statistical approaches to, 491
normative, 381
pathological, 489–490
context, 491
control, 491
discrete behavioral states, 492
imaginary companions, 492–493
imaginary places, 494
maturation, 491
personified objects, 494
play identities, 493–494
role-play, 492
statistical approaches to, 491
pathological versus normal, 9
pathological versus nonpathological, 490–491
Dissociative Experiences Scale, 494
dissociative identity disorder (DID), 489, 491
and childhood imaginary companions, link between, 9
divergent thinking and social creativity, 393–394
Dixon, D., 168, 179
Dodge, K. A., 390, 391
Doherr, L., 367
dominance, 49, 244, 394
Dong, A., 8
do operator, 347–350
Dora the Explorer, 144, 442
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, pretend play and, 142
Doucette, J., 63, 84
Dow, G. A., 307
Down syndrome, 506
Dragon People, The, 218
dreams, 468
Driesenga, A., 35
dual representation, 165–166
Duke, S., 35, 362, 363, 367, 368
Dunn, J., 167
Dying, talking about, 554
E
early childhood, image companions of, 256–258
Easter Bunny, 62, 80, 120
Ebdon, P., 310
Eckblad, M., 43
Edel, M. M., 227
Edwards, C. P., 227, 230, 234
effectance motivation, 279–280
effective surprise, 385
egalitarianism, 257, 264, 397
egocentrism, 19, 104, 163, 279–281, 382
ego resiliency, 167
ego strength, 381
Eifermann, R. R., 235
Eisbach, A. O., 366
Eisenberg, A. R., 197
elaborative worlds, 417
Elder, J. L., 176, 177
Elias, C. L., 167–168
Elkonin, D., 21
Ellis, R., 146
Ellis, S., 425
Emery, N. J., 473, 477, 478
emotion(s)
between real and imagined experiences, 562–563
negative, 395
positive, 395
(p. 575) role in children's reality–imagination distinction, 82–83
role in mental flow, 369–370
emotional information content, as predictor of suggestibility/fantastical thinking, 121
emotional realm and social creativity, 394–395
emotional valence, 7
associated with fantasy, 4
emotive imagery, 532
empathising-systemising (ES) theory of autism, 510–511
empathy, 145, 252, 278, 280, 292, 394, 395, 511, 518, 561
enactment misattribution, 101
Engel, S., 206, 230
entity factors, affecting beliefs about fantastical beings/cultural myths, 65–68
environmental factors
affecting beliefs about fantastical beings/cultural myths
distal effects, 70–72
proximal effects, 68–70
affecting social creativity, 395–396
episodic future thinking (EFT), 7, 293, 294
conceptualization of, 305–306
defined, 305
development of, 306–307
cognitive factors, 315–317
memory development, 306–307
sociocultural factors, 317–318
future of, 311–313, 321
future-oriented process in, 310–311
imagination and, 318–321
methodological approaches to measuring
behavioral paradigms, 307–309
comparative studies, 309–310
verbal paradigms, 307
relationship with memory
adult studies, 313–314
developmental studies, 314–315
in young children, 305–321
episodic memory, 293, 294, 313–316, 318, 320, 476, 478
development of, 306–307
equilibration, 48
equilibrium, developmental theory of, 395
Erikson, E. H., 18, 20
essentialism
psychological, 50
role in magical thinking, 50
Estes, D., 77, 79
ethnographic records, pretend play in, 226–230
Evans, E. M., 35, 39, 367
event
knowledge, as suggestibility/fantastical thinking predictor, 118–120
plausibility, 318–319
temporal dimension of, 319–320
everyday settings, illness and imagination in, 554–556
evolution of imagination, 453–464
animal capacities, 459–463
creativity, 455–456
design, 457–459
inventiveness, 455–456
mental time travel, 456–457
what is not available to the senses, imagining, 453–455
executive function (EF)
components of, 5
defined, 161–172
and episodic future thinking, link between, 316
relationship with imagination, 161–171
clinical evidence of, 166–167
correlational evidence of, 167–168
educational evidence of, 170
experimental evidence of, 168–170
future research of, 170–171
Piaget's view of, 163
practical implications of, 170
Vygotsky's view of, 163–164
and role-play/object substitution, 179–180
expectation(s)
defined, 311
in infancy, 311–312
experimental studies of imaginative play, 20–21
extended self, 289
temporally, 297
Eysenck, H., 381
F
factor analysis, 491
Fagen, R., 233
fairy tales, 32–33, 35
Falter, C. M., 502
fancy versus imagination, 471
fantastical beings, beliefs in, 61
child characteristics affecting, 62–65
entity factors affecting, 65–68
environmental factors affecting
distal effects, 70–72
proximal effects, 68–70
future directions of, 72
fantastical thinking
emotional information content as predictor of, 121
event knowledge as predictor of, 118–120
individual differences in, 117–118
interview context and, 114–116
parental influences as predictor of, 120–121
fantasy, 520
blends of, 424–425
orientation, 64
predisposition, 180
proneness, 490
fantasy/reality transfer, 562–563
fantasy–reality distinctions, 3–5, 62, 64, 65, 532
Farber, B., 526
Farver, J. A. M., 230
Fazio, L. K., 88
Feeney, A., 337
Fein, G. G., 175, 239, 408
Feitelson, D., 409
Fenson, L., 197
Fernyhough, C., 370
Ferrell, J. M., 333, 335–337
fictional characters, 260
fictional narratives, 33–34
fantasy in, 4
oral
comparison with personal narratives, 203–205
development of, 203–205
future directions of, 206–208
fictional stories. See fictional narratives
fictional worlds, 137–152
in educational contexts, 147–152
future directions of, 152
media, watching, 143–145
moving pictures, watching, 143–145
neuroimaging of, 141–143
pretending, 138–143
problem, 137–138
reading, 145–147
fiction–reality distinction, 79–80
fiction writing, 495–496
fidelity, assessing, 525
Field, T., 238
figure disembedding, 502
Finding Nemo, 79
Finke, R. A., 406
first six years, media exposure on, 439
Fivush, R., 197, 316
flagging account to pretend play, 192
Flavell, E. R., 78, 361, 362, 364, 365, 367, 368
Fletcher-Flinn, C. M., 455
Flowers, J. H., 501
flow of mental life, 359–373
children's understanding of, 371–372
conservation, role of, 368–369
emotions, role of, 369–370
future directions of, 373
imagination and, 370–371
introspective abilities of, 367–368
language, role of, 368–369
linking thoughts to other mental events, 361–362
real-world implications of, 366–367
stream of consciousness, 360–361
uncontrollability of thinking, 362–364
uniqueness of thinking, 364–365
flux and flow, in children's narratives, 212–222
methodological note, 213–214
(p. 576) focal stress events, 518
Foehr, U., 439
Folsom, J. K., 418, 425–428, 431–433
foresight, 456, 461, 463
Fortes, M., 226–229, 231
Forys, S. K. S., 238
frames of mind, 203
Franklin, M., 216, 217
Freedheim, D. K., 518
Fresco, D., 526
Freud, A., 18
Freud, S., 12, 17, 19, 214, 237, 530
Freyberg, J., 522
Friedman, O., 562
Friedman, W. J., 313, 314
friendships, 256
Frith, C., 507–509
Frith, U., 502
Frog, Where Are You?, 203
Frog Stories, The, 203
Fromhoff, F. A., 197
Fulmer, A., 267
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), of pretense, 142
functional perspective, social problem solving in, 390–391
future-oriented prudence, 310
future thinking
conceptualization of, 305–306
development of, 306–307
cognitive factors, 315–317
memory development, 306–307
sociocultural factors, 317–318
future of, 311–313, 321
future-oriented process in, 310–311
imagination and, 318–321
methodological approaches to measuring
behavioral paradigms, 307–309
comparative studies, 309–310
verbal paradigms, 307
relationship with memory
adult studies, 313–314
developmental studies, 314–315
semantic, 306
in young children, 305–321
G
Gaensbauer, T. J., 519
Galasso, L., 65, 82, 518
Galda, L., 139
Ganea, P. A., 88
Garbin, C. P., 501
Gardner, H., 79, 80
Garven, S., 116
Garvey, C., 234, 238
Gaskins, S., 227, 234, 235, 239, 241, 564
Gaudin, T., 396
Gelman, S. A., 50, 62, 70
Gerhardt, J., 295
German, T. P., 141, 142, 189, 326, 328, 329, 334, 352
Gerstadt, C. L., 162, 329
ghosts, 48, 49, 55, 63, 67, 275
Ghost Writer, The, 221
Gibson, B. M., 477
gift, 398, 399
Giles, D. C., 258
Gill, P., 447
Gillespie, A., 299
Gilmore, J. B., 16
Gilpin, A., 69
Giménez, M., 36, 53
Giménez-Dasí, M., 35
Gleason, T., 23
Glick, J., 128
Glickman, S. E., 461
Glymour, C., 345
goblins, 48
God, children's believeness about, 34–36, 38–40, 54
Go Fish, 12
Goldschmidt, G., 382
Goldstein, T., 262, 382, 383
Gollnisch, G., 146–147
Golomb, C., 65, 82, 164, 518
Göncü, A., 227, 234, 237
Goodman, G. S., 120, 311
Goodwyn, S., 267
Goody, E. N., 235
Goonetilleke, M. D. J., 227
Gopnik, A., 61, 296, 350, 352, 354
Gordon, D. A., 64, 65, 70, 71
Gordon, F. R., 361, 364
Gorer, G., 229
Gould, S. J., 21
Grandin, T., 503, 508, 510
Grass/Snow task, 167, 168
Gray, J., 197
Gredlein, J. M., 336
Green, F. L., 78, 361, 362, 364, 367
Greenfield, P. M., 445
Gregor, T., 229
grieving, 259
Group Attachment Based Intervention (GABI), 546–548
Groos, K., 15, 17, 471
group differences, in creativity/pretend play, 411–413
Grych, T., 546
Gryg, C., 330
Guajardo, N. R., 310, 327–329
Guerrero, S., 35
guided imagery, 531, 552
guided imagination, 145–147
Guilford, J. P., 392
Gumpel, T. P., 495, 496
Guthrie, C., 334
Guthrie, S. E., 565
Guttentag, R. E., 333, 335–337
H
Hagmayer, Y., 348
Haidt, J., 565
Haight, W., 238
Haith, M. M., 311
Hall, D. G., 87
Hall, G. S., 418, 425
Hamel, R., 439
Han, J. J., 200
hand-crafted items, 430–431
Hapkiewicz, W., 65
Happé, F., 188, 502
Harmer, S., 115
Harris, P. L., 4, 11, 35, 36, 53, 61, 63, 65–66, 69, 78, 81–83, 85, 115, 128, 139, 165, 166, 168, 176, 177, 180, 192, 215, 220, 244, 262, 318, 320, 326, 327, 329, 332, 334, 338, 339, 352, 420, 424, 428, 492, 505, 506, 519, 540
Harrison, L., 444
Hart, R., 422
Hartmann, H., 18
Hartmann, W., 522
Hassabis, D., 318, 320
Haste, H., 390
Hawkins, J., 128
Hazan, C., 311
Hazlitt, W., 292
Healthy Hoops, 556
Healy, D., 563
hedges, 203
Heider, F., 277
Heimberg, R., 526
Heine, S., 225
Heinrich, B., 477
Heinrich, J., 225
Hellendoorn, J., 523
Hen-Gal, S., 9
Hengst, J. A., 202
Henricks, T., 22
Herman, J., 167
Hermelin, B., 501–503, 508, 510
Hernández Blasi, C., 39
Herrera, G., 507
Hertsgaard, L. A., 307
Hickling, A. K., 62, 70
Higgins, E. T., 242
high-functioning autism (HFA), 500
mental imagery in, 502, 503
Hilgard, J. R., 490
Hilger, S. M. I., 229
Himmelweit, H., 444
Hix, H. R., 330
historical narratives, 33–34
Hobhouse, L., 472–473
Hodges, J., 542
Hodges, S. D., 495–496
Hoff, E. V., 205, 257–258, 261, 410
Hogbin, H. I., 227–229, 232
Hogwarts, 235
Hollingworth, L. S., 418, 429, 430
Holtz, B. A., 366
Hong, Y. J., 329
hope, 187
hospital/camp, illness and imagination in, 550–554
(p. 577) Huggy-Puppy intervention (HPI), 533, 534
Hubbs, L., 70
Hudson, J. A., 295, 317
Hughes, C., 167
humanistic perspective of creativity, 405
Hunt, U., 418, 424, 432
Hurlburt, R. T., 502
Hurry, A., 545
Hutt, C., 227, 408
Hutt, S. J., 227
Huttenlocher, J., 242
hypothetical reasoning, 128
I
idiosyncratic metaphor, 508
idle speculation, 325
illness and imagination, 550
in everyday settings, 554–556
in hospital/camp, 550–554
imagination-based intervention, controlled study of, 556–558
illusion of independent agency, 255
imagery, 97. See also imagination
in cognitive behavioral therapy, 531–532
emotive, 532
guided, 531, 552
kinesthetic, 97–98, 104
rational emotive, 531
simple, 474–475
imaginable exposure, 534
imaginary companion(s), 255, 409–411, 491
in children's social networks, 257–258
of early childhood, 256–258
and early social cognition, 263–264
and mental flow, 370–371
of middle childhood, 256–258
and middle childhood peer relationships, 256–258
pathological association, 492–493
as relationship partners, 256
relationship variations in, 257
Imaginary Friends Questionnaire, 493
imaginary places, 494
imaginary relationships, 251–268
autonomy, 254–255
basis in reality, 253–254
conceptualization of, 265–266
continuity–discontinuity in, 267
defined, 252–253
future directions of, 265–268
across life span, 255–260
adolescence, parasocial relationship of, 258–259
adulthood, 259–260
diary companions, 258
early childhood imaginary companions, 256–258
middle childhood imaginary companions, 256–258
as processing tool, 262–263
quality of, 255
as social affordances, 260–262
in social development, 263–265
social imagination, 268
imaginary worlds, 409–411
aesthetics in worldplay, 432–434
blends of fantasy, 424–425
creation of, 417–435
documenting narratives, 427–432
constructed games, 431
constructed languages, 429
drawings, 429–430
hand-crafted items, 430–431
histories, 431–432
maps, 429–430
minimal scaffolds, 428–429
multiple, interrelated documents, 432
poems, 431–432
portals, 429–430
written stories, 431–432
early research of, 417–420
future directions of, 434–435
history of, 417–420
plausibility, modeling and constraints of, 425–427
play as learning laboratory, 423–424
imagination. See also creativity; imagery
absorption–imagination, 381
box, 98
causality and, 342–355
child witness and, 126–135
cognitive control and, 5
comparative study of, 8, 468–481
defined, 196, 318, 500–501
distinguished from fancy, 471
distinguished from mental time travel, 318
distinguished from reality. See reality–imagination distinction
emergence of, 463–464
episodic future thinking and, 318–321
evolution of, 453–464
game, 531
guided, 145–147
magical thinking and, 52
and mental flow, 370–371
moral, 390
neural correlates of, 565–566
other, 6
and personal creativity, 379–385
primary, 471, 472
propositional, 97
relationship with executive function, 5
reproductive versus productive, 470
role in storytelling, 5–6
secondary, 471, 472
and self, 6, 288–300
social, 268
use in clinical assessment, 8–9
utopian, 390
imagination-based interventions
controlled study of, 556–558
with children, 529
cognitive behavioral therapy, 531–532
guided imagery, 531
imagery in therapy, 530–531
neurology of imagination, 530
and new approaches in psychotherapy, 534–535
psychoanalytic historical perspective, 529–530
psychotherapeutic interventions, 532–534
imaginative behavior models, 440
imaginative content
creating, 443
media exposure to, 440, 441–442
producing, 443
imaginative devices, 508
imaginative play, 11–25
adaptive role of, on later preschool years, 23–25
cognitive-affective theory of, 18
disorderly, 21–22
in early preschool years, 22–23
early theories of, 14–16
empirical studies of, 14–16
experimental studies of, 20–21
observational studies of, 20–21
orderly, 21–22
psychoanalytic theories of, 17–18
systematic theory of, 20–21
imaging, impact on children's real-world behavior, 146–147
imagining how, 478–481
imagining that, 475–478
indignation, 394
individual differences
among children's reality–imagination distinction, 84–86
in fantastical thinking, 117–118
in social creativity development, 387–399
in suggestibility, 117–118
individuality of the self, 289, 290–292
infancy
expectations in, 311–312
future-oriented behaviors in, 312–313
planning in, 312–313
infant–caregiver attachment, securing, 541
information-processing approaches, 391
inhibitory control, 5, 161, 162, 563–564
and episodic future thinking, link between, 316
and perceived autonomy, link between, 255
role in counterfactual thinking, 329–330
insight, 477
intellect model, 390
intending, 187, 193
intensifiers, 203
interpersonal negotiation strategies (INS) model, 391–392
(p. 578) interpretive pretense, 126, 230–233, 234, 242
interpretive theory of mind, 360
intersubjectivity, 237
intervention, 342
interview context
and fantastical thinking, 114–116
and suggestibility, 114–116
intimacy, 238, 252, 255, 256, 258, 419
introspective abilities, of mental flow, 367–368, 369
inventive pretense, 230–233, 234, 242, 455–456
Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings, 117–118
J
Jackowitz, E. R., 176
Jackson, H. J., 532
Jackson, J. P., 177
Jackson, L. J., 320
Jackson, L. K., 310, 311, 316
Jacobs, E. L., 442
James, W., 147, 283, 359, 360, 476
Jang, K. L., 490
Janicki, D., 71
Jarrold, C., 506
jealousy, 394–395
Jellema, T., 510
Jensen de López, K., 229
Jersild, A. T., 23
Jersild, C. L., 23
Johnson, C. N., 63, 66, 81, 139
Johnson, J., 168, 179
Johnson, P. A., 519
Johnson, S. E., 228, 231, 234
Johnny on the Pony, 12
Joseph, C., 565
K
Kafai, Y., 443
Kahneman, D., 40
Kaiser, A., 523
Kaland, N., 502
Kalish, C. W., 62, 70
Kamil, A. C., 477
Kant, I., 470, 472
Kanwisher, N., 318
Kaplan, B., 164
Kasari, C., 523, 525
Katz, C., 228, 229
Kavanaugh, R. D., 78, 192, 215, 506
Keehn, E. B., 495, 496
Keen, R., 312
Kelemen, D., 565
Kenyatta, J., 227
Kerns, T. Y., 445
Kessel, F., 237
Kessen, W., 225
Kidd, E., 410
Kim, A. L., 63
Kim, A. S. N., 316
Kim, Y. T., 523
kindergarten, 15, 148
kinesthetic-visual matching (KVM), 478–481
King, N. J. T., 532
Kipp, K., 368
Kirkham, N., 330
Kirkpatrick, L. A., 261
Kitayama, S., 283
Klein, S. B., 313, 318
Klinger, E., 16, 19
Klockow, L. L., 546
Knell, S., 517
knowing and pretending, connection between, 189
knowledge
acquisition, 161, 367
relationship with executive function, 162–163
personal, 427
role in magical thinking, 50–51
transfer, 562–563
and pretend play, 140
Kochanska, G., 162
Koenig, M., 53
Kohányi, A., 495–496
Kohlberg, L., 384, 390
Köhler, W., 473, 477, 478, 481
Koocher, G., 516
Krell, R., 553
Kuczaj II, S. A., 339
Kuersten, R., 78, 82, 164
Küntay, A., 204
Kvavilashvili, L., 310
L
Labov, W., 196–198
Lagattuta, K, H., 533
Lancy, D. F., 227, 235
Lane, J. D., 35
Lang, P. J., 145
Lang, R., 524, 525
Langone, J., 524
language
acquisition, 344
constructed, 429
and episodic future thinking, link between, 316–317
role in executive function–imagination relationship, 171
role in mental flow, 368–369
Lautrey, J., 395, 396
Lazarus, A. A., 532
Leacock, E., 227, 229
Lee, K., 63, 67, 84
Leets, L., 261
Leevers, H. J., 128
Legare, C. H., 564
Lehman, E. B., 366
Leichtman, M. D., 115, 119
Lem, S., 418, 430, 433
Lemmon, K., 297, 298
Leslie, A. M., 53, 137, 138, 141, 165, 166, 188, 189, 459, 505
Less is More task, 169
Leuner, H., 531
Levels of Consciousness model, 162–163
Levering, B., 422
LeVine, B., 229, 233
LeVine, R., 229, 233
Lewin, K., 12, 21
Lewis, C. S., 418, 424–425, 426
Lewis, H., 523
Lewis, V., 508
Li, A., 447
Liberman, N., 165
Lillard, A. S., 76, 77, 144, 151, 166, 175, 188, 213, 215, 220, 455
Lindeman, M., 53
Lindsay, D. S., 120
linking thoughts to other mental events, 361–362
conservation, role of, 368–369
introspective abilities of, 367–368
language, role of, 368–369
real-world implications of, 366–367
Lionni, L., 418, 430
Litt, C. J., 22
Livesley, W. J., 490
Locke, J., 289, 292, 299
Loftus, E. F., 39
Lombardino, L., 523
London Parent-Child Project, 542
long-term potentiation, 140
Lopez-Mobilia, G., 69
Luria, A. R., 12, 19, 21, 162, 213
lying, 126
Lynn, S. J., 490
Lyon, T., 65
M
Ma, L., 69, 144
MacArthur Foundation, 421
MacKeith, S. A., 23, 383, 419–421
Mackenzie, B. D., 472
Madronal-Luque, R., 55
magical beings, beliefs in, 61–72
child characteristics affecting, 62–65
entity factors affecting, 65–68
environmental factors affecting
distal effects, 70–72
proximal effects, 68–70
future directions of, 72
magical belief and magical thinking, relationship between, 45–46
magical thinking, 4, 42–57
causality, search for, 50
children's believeness in, 32–33, 36–37
contagion, 46–48
and creativity, 52
critiques against, 43–44
cultural support for, 51
defined, 43
development of
integrated account of, 49–50
Piaget's view of, 48–49
Subbotsky's coexistence view of, 49
(p. 579) distinguished from religious thinking, 53
distinguished from superstition, 53–54
future of, 56–57
imagination and, 52
knowledge, role of, 50–51
Nemeroff and Rozin's view of, 45
our view of, 45
and peculiar beliefs, 54–55
Piaget's view of, 44–45
and psychopathology, 55–56
relationship with magical belief, 45–46
relationship with pretend play, 52
and religious thinking, similarities between, 52–53
similarity, 46, 47–48
tendency to essentialize, 50
Magical Thinking Questionnaire, 55
magic by participation, 44
between actions and things, 44
between objects, 44
of purpose, 44
between thoughts and things, 44
Maguire, E. A., 318, 320
Mahanti, A., 447
Mahindadasa, K. J., 227
make-believe play, 14–19, 21, 23, 24, 32–34, 38, 40, 79, 94, 95, 105, 163, 164, 166, 178, 192, 194–195n9, 215, 228, 383, 411, 417–431, 433–435, 490, 500, 503, 520, 540. See also pretend play
Malone, D. M., 524
Malpass, J. S., 116
Mannering, A. M., 78
Manosevitz, M., 23, 70
map-making activity, 231
maps, 429–430
Mar, R. A., 316
Mares, M.-L., 88
Maretzki, H., 235
Maretzki, T. W., 235
Markey, F. V., 23
Markman, A. B., 63, 64, 71, 84
Markus, H., 283
Markwith, M., 47
Marriott, C., 115
Marrow, A. J., 21
Marsh, E. J., 88
Martin, R., 289
Martini, M., 227, 234, 238, 240, 241
Mary the Color Blind Scientist, 95
Masefield, J., 97
Masih, V. K., 23
mastery, play and, 12, 13, 15–20, 37, 139, 140, 163, 228, 232, 517, 518, 541, 545, 556, 562
Mathur, R., 257
Mattingly, C., 552, 555
maturation, 491
Mauss, M., 398, 399
Mayer, M., 203
Mayes, L., 541
Mayr, E., 43
McBrearty, S., 459
McCabe, A., 198, 203
McCarty, M. E., 312, 313
McCauley, C. R., 47
McColgan, K., 314
McCormack, T., 314, 337
McCune-Nicolich, L., 238
McDermott, K. B., 314
McEwan, I., 138
McHugh, M. P., 258
McLerran, A., 418
McMartin case, 113, 114, 121
Mead, G. H., 232, 236, 243
Mead, M., 32, 36
mechanisms of change, identifying, 517–518
media
influence on children's real-world behavior, 143–145
influence on play, 14, 24
lean back versus lean forward, 8
media exposure on creativity, 438–448
adolescence, 439–440
first six years, 439
future directions of, 448
middle childhood, 439–440
stimulation hypothesis
being the character, 442–443
exposure to imaginative content, 440, 441–442
imaginative behavior models, 440, 442
producing and creating content, 443
production techniques, 440–441
reduction hypothesis
arousal hypothesis, 441, 446–447
displacement hypothesis, 441, 444
passivity hypothesis, 441, 447
rapid pacing hypothesis, 441, 447–448
visualization hypothesis, 441, 444–446
medial prefrontal cortex, pretend play and, 142
Meins, E., 361, 370
Meline, C. W., 444
Meltzoff, A. N., 308, 309, 313
memory
autobiographical, 293
episodic, 293, 294, 313–316, 318, 320, 476, 478
development of, 306–307
for information, Source Monitoring Framework and, 94–108
action goals, 102–103
action sequences, 101–102
actor identity, 102
age trends significance, in realization judgments, 100–101
anticipations, 103–105
developmental differences in, 99–100
future research of, 107–108
lessons learned from, 107
processes and products, 97–98
spontaneous embellishments, 105–107
theoretical framework, 98–99
prospective, 310
relationship with future thinking
adult studies, 313–314
developmental studies, 314–315
Mennin, D., 526
mental imagery, 326, 405, 457, 468, 470–473, 475, 476, 481, 509–512
in autism, 501–505
mentalist account to pretend play, 187–189
mental rotation, 475, 476
in autism, 502
mental time travel, 7, 289, 305, 456–457, 561
distinguished from imagination, 318
into the future, 308
in personal narratives, 202–203
Meringoff, L. K., 445
Messer, D. J., 310
metacognition, 7, 262, 381–382
meta-representation, 454–455
Michaels case, 113, 121
Michotte, A., 50
middle childhood
image companions of, 256–258
media exposure on, 439–440
peer relationships, image companions and, 256–258
Miller, G., 221
Miller, J. N., 282
Miller, P. J, 197, 198, 202, 238, 239, 241
Mills, P., 326, 352
Milos, M., 520
mind perception
behavior influenced by, 283–284
triggering, 282
in adulthood, 277–280
by culture, 282–283
mind wandering, 7, 255, 359, 371–372, 381, 382, 561
miniaturization, 518–519:
minimally counterintuitive (MCI), 66, 67
minimal scaffolds, 428–429
miracles
children's believeness in, 34–37
ontological lulling process and, 37–40
mirror self-recognition, 290–292, 460, 479
relationship with pretend play, 291–292
Mischel, W., 168
Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, 24
Mistry, J., 227
Mitchell, P., 326, 327, 330
Mitchell, R., 426
Moehlmann, B., 69
(p. 580) Moe the troll task, 188–189
Monopoly, 12
monsters, 16, 63, 70, 82, 115, 253, 533
Montessori, M., 150
Montessori education, 150–152
Moore, C., 297–299, 316
Moore, M., 407, 526
moral creativity, 390
moral development, 390, 564–565
moral imagination, 390
Morison, P., 79, 80
Moses, L. J., 330
Mosier, C., 227
Mothers and Fathers, 16
motivation
effectance, 279–280
sociality, 280
Mottron, L., 504, 508, 509
Mottweiler, C. M., 181, 182
movement estimation, 475–476
moving pictures, watching, 143–145
influence on children's real-world behavior, 143–145
neurobiology of, 144–145
Mulcahy, N. J., 309
Mullineaux, P. Y., 182
multiple, interrelated documents, 432
multivariate perspective to social creativity, 393–395
Muris, P., 533
N
Nachmanovitch, S., 425
Nagel, T., 297
Nakamura, K., 204
narrative(s), 5–6
associations between play and, 207–208
boundaries of, 217
development across cultures, 196–197
fictional oral narratives, 203–205
future directions of, 206–208
personal narratives, 197–203
documenting, 427–432
constructed games, 431
constructed languages, 429
drawings, 429–430
hand-crafted items, 430–431
histories, 431–432
maps, 429–430
minimal scaffolds, 428–429
multiple, interrelated documents, 432
poems, 431–432
portals, 429–430
written stories, 431–432
experience, spheres of, 214–216
fictional, 33–34
flux and flow in, 212–222
historical, 33–34
and play, relationship between, 214, 539
what if
construction of, 218–219
sphere of, 216–217
what is
construction of, 218–219
sphere of, 216
narrative imagination, accessing, 539
adoption and attachment outcome study, 542
children from high-risk families, harvesting imagination in, 546
early versus later adoption, 544
maltreatment upon imagination, longer-term influences of, 545–546
moves in late adoption to secure representations, 544–545
parental attachment representations, 545
security from one parent across family, spreading effect of, 545
story stem assessment profile, 543–544
unresolved mourning in, 545
child psychotherapy, history of, 539–540
in making sense of real-life experience, 540
from inter-subjectivity to theory of mind and reflective functioning, 540–541
pretend narratives and attachment relationships, links between, 541–542
Narrative Thought, 21
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), 148
Naveh, I., 522
negative affect, 395
negative emotions and creativity, 395
negative qualifiers, 203, 204
Negron, L., 227
Neisser, U., 289, 290
Nelson, K., 234, 238, 294, 295, 316
Nemeroff, C., 45, 47
neural correlates of imagination, 565–566
neurobiology, of watching moving pictures, 144–145
neuroimaging, of pretense, 141–143
neurology of imagination, 530
Neusner, J., 52
New Jersey v. Michaels, 113
N'gbala, A., 332
Nichols, S., 98, 189, 328, 329
Nicolopoulou, A., 206, 207
Nielsen, M., 291, 292
No Child Left Behind Department of Education program, 24
nonpathological dissociation, 490
context, 491
control, 491
distinguished from pathological dissociation, 490–491
imaginary companions, 492–493
imaginary places, 494
maturation, 491
personified objects, 494
play identities, 493–494
role-play, 492
Nordstrom, C., 396
Norenzayan, A., 225
normative dissociation, 381
novelty, 15, 20, 23, 237, 290, 380, 389, 403, 406, 420, 425, 438, 469
O
Oakes, L. M., 37
object substitution, 408
creativity and, 181–182
defined, 175
development of, 176–177
executive function and, 179–180
future directions of, 182–183
language development and, 176, 178–179
personality and, 180–181
social understanding and, 180
observational studies of imaginative play, 20–21
O'Connor, E., 337
O'Connor, N., 501
Okuda, J., 314
Old Maid, 12
Olson, A. M. R., 67
Olson, D. R., 166
“One Hundred Children at Play,” 13
O'Neill, D. K., 296, 305–307, 311, 318, 319
onomatopoeia, 203
openness to affective states, 406
openness to experience, 394
Opie, I., 15–16, 17, 19–20
Opie, P., 15–16, 17, 19–20
Oppenheim, A., 444
orderly play, 21–22
originality, 380, 381, 384–385
ostracism, 144
other
imagining, 6
person's needs, triggering, 280–281
Over, H., 143
overinclusive thinking, 381, 412
Overton, W. F., 177
Ozonoff, S., 282
P
Pace v. State, 133
Paley, W., 275
paracosm play, 8, 23, 75, 354, 383, 419–421
adults use of, 496–497
pathological association, 494–496
Paradigmatic Thought, 21
Paradise, R., 241
Paradise Institute, 95
parasocial relationship, 178, 254, 256, 261, 262, 266, 440, 443
of adolescence, 258–259
(p. 581) and adolescent transitions, 264–265
defined, 258
parental attachment representations, 545
parental encouragement and children's belief in fantastical beings, 70, 71
parental influences, as predictor of suggestibility/fantastical thinking, 120–121
parent–child interaction therapy, 517
parent–child relationships, 256
parent–child storytelling styles, 205–206
parenting styles, impact on social creativity, 395–396
Paris, J., 490
Park, M., 555
Parker, C. E., 461
Parker, J., 328, 329
Pasquini, E. S., 35
passivity hypothesis, 441, 447
pathological dissociation, 489–490
context, 491
control, 491
discrete behavioral states, 492
distinguished from nonpathological dissociation, 490–491
imaginary companions, 492–493
imaginary places, 494
maturation, 491
personified objects, 494
play identities, 493–494
role-play, 492
statistical approaches to, 491
Patterson, M. J., 384
Pea, R. D., 128
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 169
Pearl, J., 345, 347, 348
“Peanuts,” 14
Peck, J., 238
peculiar beliefs and magical thinking, 54–55
Peg Tapping, 169
People v. Smith, 133
perceiver triggers, 273–274
in adults, 279–280
in children, 275–277
Pederson, D. R., 176, 177
Pellegrini, A., 139
Peller, L. E., 239
Pepler, D. J., 405
performance artists, 495
performative narratives, 199
Perner, J., 306, 320, 328, 330–332, 337
perseverance, 394
persistent worlds, 417
personal creativity, 7, 379–385
action, 384–385
development of, 382–383
discretion, 380, 381
distance from reality, 381
effective thought, 384–385
intentions, 380
measurement, 384
originality, 384–385
pretend play and, 383–384
personal identity, 288–289
personality
and creativity, link between, 394
and role-play/object substitution, 180–181
personal knowledge, 427
personally significant worlds, 417
personal narratives across cultures
comparison with fictional oral narratives, 203–205
development of, 197–203
altered interpretations in, 201
blending fact with fiction in, 201–202
counterfactuals in, 202
evaluation in, 200–201
future mental time travel in, 202–203
future directions of, 206–208
personified objects, 257, 494
perspective-taking and social creativity, 393
pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-Nos), 500
Pesco, D., 198
Pestalozzi, J. H., 148
Peterson, C., 198, 200, 203
Peterson, D. M., 326, 327, 330
Pezdek, K., 445
Phelps, K. E., 68, 69, 82, 139, 215
phenylketonuria (PKU), 162
phobias, treatment for, 534
physical environment, impact on social creativity, 396
Pickard, M. B., 88
picture-naming approach, 290
place-play, 422, 423
Plaisted, K. C., 509
Planet Opposite, 169
planning, 472–473
Plato, 13, 14
play
animal, 471
-based programs, controlled investigation of, 556–558
-based rituals, 556
behavior, 16
defined, 16
and development, association between, 148–149
disorderly, 21–22
identities, 493–494
imaginative, 11–25
as learning laboratory, 423–424
make-believe, 14–19, 21, 23, 24, 32–34, 38, 40, 79, 94, 95, 105, 163, 164, 166, 178, 192, 194–195n9, 215, 228, 383, 411, 417–431, 433–435, 490, 500, 503, 520, 540
orderly, 21–22
paracosm, 8, 23, 75, 354, 383, 419–421, 494–496
place-play, 422, 423
preferences, of children, 206
pretend. See pretend play
psychoanalytic theories of, 17–18
role-play. See role-play
schematic, 480
skills, improving, 520–521
symbolic. See symbolic play
therapy, 534
Playing Horses, 16
Playing Road Accidents, 16
Playing School, 16
playmates, 256
Play Scale, 384
Playworld, 139
poems, 431–432
Polanyi, M., 427
Polar Express, 235
politeness, 147, 283
Pons, F., 35
Poole, D. A., 120
Pope, S., 368
portals, 429–430
positive affect, 23, 181, 406, 407, 518, 522, 526, 532
augmented, 406
positive emotions and creativity, 395
postconventional thought, 382
Povinelli, D. J., 306
Power, T. G., 230
Pratt, C., 64, 85
Prawat, R. S., 65
Prentice, N. M., 23, 64, 65, 70, 71
preschool educational contexts, pretending in, 147–152
pretend narratives and attachment relationships, links between, 541–542
pretend play, 5–6, 16, 163, 194n9, 554, 556. See also make-believe play
and amygdala activation, 141–142
in autism, 505–507
in child psychotherapy, 516–527
children's representation of, 186–195
behavioral account to, 189–192
flagging account to, 192
mentalist account to, 187–189
clinical issues associated with, 9
cognitive flexibility and, 5
as communication, 192–194
counterfactual thinking, 7
cultural differences in, 224–226
quantitative, 233–235
as culturally constructed activity, 224–244
(p. 582) defined, 175
distinguished from reality, 76–79
fantasy in, 4
group differences in, 411–413
influence on children's real-world behavior, 138–141
inhibitory control and, 5
interpretive, 230–233, 234, 242
inventive, 230–233, 234, 242
knowledge transfer and, 140
in making sense of real-life experience, 540
from inter-subjectivity to theory of mind and reflective functioning, 540–541
pretend narratives and attachment relationships, links between, 541–542
mediation, socialization for, 235–236
neuroimaging of, 141–143
and personal creativity, 383–384
in preschool educational contexts, 147–152
relationship with creativity, 8, 403–413
relationship with executive function, 161–171
clinical evidence of, 166–167
correlational evidence of, 167–168
educational evidence of, 170
experimental evidence of, 168–170
future research of, 170–171
practical implications of, 170
relationship with magical thinking, 52
relationship with mirror self-recognition, 291–292
relationship with narrative, 5–6
role in causal relationships, 353–354
self-regulation and, 5
socioeconomic status impact on, 396, 411–413
and theory of mind, associations between, 140
priming, 144, 147, 169, 371, 475
primitivism, 43
Prince and the Pauper, The, 14
Principe, G. F., 67, 71, 118, 119, 409
Privette, G., 409
problem ranking, 393
production techniques, 440–441
productive imagination, 470, 472
propositional imagination, 97
proprioception and vision, contingency between, 291
prosocial behavior, 389–390
prospection, 305
prospective memory, 310
Prossner, G. V., 227
pseudo-friends, 264
psychoanalytic historical perspective, 529–530
psychoanalytic theories of play, 17–18
psychodynamic perspective of creativity, 405
Psychodynamic therapy versus psychoanalytic therapy, 526n1
psychological distancing, 164–165, 262
construal level theory of, 165
psychological essentialism, 50
psychological perspective to social creativity, 393–395
psychopathology and magical thinking, 55–56
psychotherapeutic interventions, 532–534
Putnam, F. W., 492, 493, 495, 496
Putnam, R., 397
Q
Quas, J. A., 65, 66, 83, 117, 118
Quon, E., 315, 317
R
Rae, W., 519
Rafetseder, E., 330, 331, 337
Rakoczy, H., 78
rapid eye movement (REM), 475
rapid pacing hypothesis, 441, 447–448
rational actor theory (RAT), 397
rational choice theory (RCT), 397
rational emotive imagery (REI), 531
Raum, O., 227
Read, M., 227
reading, 145–147
“reading the mind in the eyes” test, 141
reality
counterfactual thinking about
early studies, 326–329
ignoring reality, 329–330
real world and counterfactual world, relating, 330–332
counterfactual thinking influenced by, 332–335
distance from, 381
distinguished from fantasy, 3–5, 62, 64, 65
influenced by counterfactual thinking, 335–337
reality–imagination distinction, 75–90
children's abilities beyond, 87–89
children's confusion at, 81–86
emotions, role of, 82–83
individual differences in, 84–86
situational factors, 83–84
children's success at
fiction–reality distinction, 79–80
pretense–reality distinction, 76–79
for counterfactual scenarios, 90
developmental change, 90
development of, 80–81
differences among different imaginative abilities, 89–90
future directions of, 89–90
origins of, 89
Source Monitoring Framework for, 86–87
realization judgments, 99
age trends significance in, 100–101
real world and counterfactual world, relating, 330–332
reasoning
basic conditional, 331
counterfactual, 128
deductive syllogistic, 326
hypothetical, 128
reciprocal altruism, 397
reciprocity, 259, 260, 264, 266, 391, 392, 397, 398, 521
recreational worldplay, 383
recursion, 456
reduction hypothesis
arousal hypothesis, 441, 446–447
displacement hypothesis, 441, 444
passivity hypothesis, 441, 447
rapid pacing hypothesis, 441, 447–448
visualization hypothesis, 441, 444–446
Rees, W. E., 389
Reese, E., 182
regret, 7, 325, 333, 335–339
reification of subjective, 49–50
Reilly, J. S., 128
Reiss, S., 520
Reissland, N., 76
relationship simulation, 263
relief, 7, 261, 335–337, 339
religion, 564–565
religious relationships, 259
religious thinking
distinguished from magical thinking, 53
and magical thinking, similarities between, 52–53
Remote Associates Test, 381
repetition, 203
representational activity, 194
representational competence, 166
reproductive imagination, 470, 472
resilience, 258, 559
Révész, G., 472
Reynolds, J. F., 228
Reynolds, S., 367
Rhemtulla, M., 87
Rhue, J. W., 490
Ribot, T. A., 390, 471
Richert, R. A., 35, 77, 88
Rideout, V., 439
Riggs, K. J., 202, 326, 327, 329, 330, 337
right superior temporal sulcus, pretend play and, 142
Riskind, R., 70
risk taking, 394
Roberts, D., 439
Roberts, J. M., 230
Robins, A. L., 181
Robinson, E. J., 326–328, 330
Rodriguez, M. L., 168
Roese, N. J., 335
Rogers, C., 410
Rogers, P., 410
(p. 583) Rogers, S., 523
Rogoff, B., 212, 221
role-play, 9, 140, 141, 238
creativity and, 181–182
defined, 175
development of, 177
executive function and, 179–180
future directions of, 182–183
language development and, 176, 178–179
pathological association, 492, 494–496
persona or engaging in, adoption of, 253
personality and, 180–181
social understanding and, 180
Rollett, B., 522
Romanes, G. J., 469, 471
Root-Bernstein, M., 383, 410, 494
Root-Bernstein, R., 383, 410, 494
Rosen, C. E., 521
Rosengren, K. S., 51, 62, 67, 70, 71
Ross, D., 143
Ross, G. S., 409
Ross, S. A., 143
Roth, I., 508
Rothman, H., 523
Rozin, P., 45, 47, 48
Rubin, K. H., 405
Rubin, R. B., 258
Ruffman, T., 306
rumination, 359
Runco, M. A., 380, 406, 445
Russ, S. W., 181, 384, 406, 407, 518, 526, 527n1
Russell, J., 296–297
Ruth, Babe, 16
S
Sadeh, A., 9
Salomon, G., 447
Saltz, E., 168, 179
Samuels, A., 65, 80, 83
Sanders, B., 64, 66, 83
Sanner, J., 519
Santa Claus, 4, 35, 45, 48, 51, 61–63, 67, 68, 70, 71, 80
savantism, 503
Saxe, R., 318
Sayfan, L., 533
Scarry, E., 95
schematic play, 480
Schiller, F., 14
Schneider, W., 361
Schooler, J. W., 372, 381
Schulz, L. E., 351
Schutz, A., 215
Schwalen, C. E., 63
Schwartzman, H. B., 21, 226, 232, 237
Schweder, R., 214
Scott, F. J., 504, 508, 510
Scribner, S., 128
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), 55
secondary representation, 454, 460
secular hypothesis, 48–49
secure representations, late adoption in, 544–545
seeing as, 469–470, 473, 477, 481
Segal, M., 238
Seidman, S., 234, 238
selective retention, 406
self/selves, 261
continuity of, 289, 292–293
extended, 289
imagination and, 6, 288–300
individuality of, 289, 290–292
mind noncurrent events involving, 293–295
past and present selves, coordinating, 295–296
present and future selves, connecting, 296–298
temporally extended, 297
in time
binding, 298
connecting, 295
self-awareness, 290, 423
self-control, 145, 163, 164, 166, 168, 170, 283, 480
self-development, imagination and, 6
self-disclosure, 258
self-esteem, 145, 252, 258, 264, 266, 393, 518
self-knowing, 289, 293
self-knowledge, 289
ecological, 290
interpersonal, 290
self-projection, 316, 318
self-recognition
delayed, 295–296, 298
mirror, 290–292, 460, 479
relationship with pretend play, 291–292
self-reflection, 262
self-regulation and pretend play, 5, 262
self-representation, 294
visual, 290–291
Selman, R. L., 390, 391
semantic future thinking, 306
sense-making, of adults, 278–279
sequential model, 391
Sesame Street, 143, 144, 254
Seyfarth, R. M., 461
Shah, A., 502
Shah, P., 381
Sharon, T., 62, 64, 80, 119
Shawber, A. B., 78, 167, 493
Sheppard, E., 504
Shin, Y. L., 230
Shiro, M., 205
Shmukler, D., 522
Shore, C., 168, 179
Shtulman, A., 32, 71
Shure, M. B., 390
shyness, 180, 181, 394
siblings, 256
Siegel, C. H., 519
Siegler, R. S., 213
Sifonos, C. M., 384
Sigel, I. E., 164–166, 262
Sigman, M. D., 501, 505
Silberg, J., 494
Silvey, R., 23, 418, 419, 432
Simcock, G., 292
similarity, 46, 47–48, 274–275, 277–278
Simmel, M., 277
Simon, T., 392
Simonton, D. K., 384, 394
simple imagery, 474–475
Simpson, M. J. A., 480
Sims City, 23
simulation, 305
Singer, D. G., 3, 22, 64, 178, 179, 423, 438, 518, 564
Singer, J. L., 3, 19, 22, 64, 167, 178, 179, 423, 438, 518, 564
sisterhood, 232
skepticism, 37, 188
Skolnick, D., 79
Skolnick-Weisberg, D., 354
Sloman, S., 348
Smalley, D., 336
Smallwood, J., 372, 381
Smilansky, S., 19, 521
Smilek, D., 372
Smith, A., 478
Smith, E., 118, 119
Smith, G. J. W., 404
Smith, M., 257
Smith, P. K., 231
Snow, D., 76
Snyder, A. W., 502
Sobel, D. M., 350, 352, 422, 510
sociability, 180, 267, 394, 395
social affordances, imaginary relationships as, 260–262
social capital, 397
social cognition, development of, 344
social creativity
anthropological perspective of, 397–398
defined, 388
development, individual differences in, 387–399
assessment of, 392–395
reasons for studying, 388–389
dimensions of, 389
environmental factors affecting, 395–396
multivariate perspective to, 393–395
psychological perspective to, 393–395
sociological perspective of, 396–397
within social development, 390–392
social development
imaginary relationships in, 263–265
social creativity within, 390–392
social imagination, 268
sociality motivation, 280
social problem solving
in functional perspective, 390–391
Selman's mixed approach to, 391–392
in structural perspective, 391
(p. 584) social understanding and role-play/object substitution, 180
sociocultural factors, role in episodic future thinking, 317–318
sociodramatic pretend play, 24, 149, 168, 206, 207, 408–409, 521
influence on children's real-world behavior, 139–140
and theory of mind, associations between, 140–141
socioeconomic status (SES)
impact on creativity, 396, 411–413
impact on pretend play, 396, 411–413
sociological perspective of social creativity, 396–397
Sodian, B., 361
Somers, J. U., 23
Sommerfeld, R. D., 397
Sorensen, J., 53
source monitoring, 4
Source Monitoring Framework (SMF)
and memory for information, 94–108
action goals, 102–103
action sequences, 101–102
actor identity, 102
age trends significance, in realization judgments, 100–101
anticipations, 103–105
developmental differences in, 99–100
future research of, 107–108
lessons learned from, 107
processes and products, 97–98
spontaneous embellishments, 105–107
theoretical framework, 98–99
for reality–imagination distinction, 86–87
Special Beings, children's believeness about, 34–35
speculating, 126
about truth–lie competency, 127–131
Sperber, D., 273
Sperry, L. L., 198
spiritual relationships, 259
Spivack, G., 390
SpongeBob, 253
spontaneous embellishments, and source monitoring of memory for information, 105–107
Spreng, R. N., 316
Sprung, M., 330, 331, 368
stimulation hypothesis
being the character, 442–443
exposure to imaginative content, 440, 441–442
imaginative behavior models, 440, 442
producing and creating content, 443
production techniques, 440–441
Sroges, R. W., 461
Stahmer, A., 523
Stanislavsky, K., 139
Steele, M., 542
Steinkogler, B., 330, 331
Stevenson, R. L., 430, 431
Stich, S., 98, 189
Stockdale, D. E., 519
Storm, B., 520
“story form” desensitization, 532
story stem assessment, 539, 540, 541–542
case example, 547–548
future directions, 548
Story Stem Assessment Profile, 543–544
storytelling, 539
imagination role in, 5–6
Strange, D., 120
Stratego, 12
Stravinsky, I., 420, 427
Strayhorn, J., 519
stream of consciousness, 360–361
conservation, role of, 368–369
introspective abilities of, 367–368
language, role of, 368–369
real-world implications of, 366–367
stream of thought, 359
Strickland, D., 534
Strong, B. L., 442
structural perspective, social problem solving in, 391
Subbotsky, E. V., 32, 45, 49, 51, 52, 54, 82, 84, 215, 220
Suddendorf, T., 8, 292, 296, 298, 307–310, 313, 315, 316, 320, 321, 455, 456
suggestibility, 4, 105–106, 113–122
emotional information content as predictor of, 121
event knowledge as predictor of, 118–120
individual differences in, 117–118
interview context and, 114–116
parental influences as predictor of, 120–121
Sulloway, F. J., 395
supernatural power, 44
superstition, 53–54
surnits, 68
surprise, 384–385
effective, 385
Sutherland, S. L., 562
Sutton-Smith, B., 21, 22, 230, 234, 238, 405, 407, 563
symbolic play, 15, 18, 19, 242, 551, 555
symbolic representation, 169
symbolic thought, 162–163, 170
sympathy, 394, 478
systematic theory, 20–21
Szpunar, K. K., 314
Szur, R., 539
T
Tahiroglu, D., 494, 565
Talwar, V., 63, 84
target triggers, 273
in adults, 277–279
in children, 274–275
taxonomic analysis, 491
Taylor, M., 22, 65, 78–80, 83, 167, 177, 181, 182, 196, 255, 260, 354, 370, 383, 493–496
Taylor, T., 464
temporally extended self, 297
tenancies, 228
testimony of children, 4–5
relationship with imagination, 5
Test of Creative Thinking—Drawing Production, 411
theory of mind, 187, 273, 274, 281–283, 366
and episodic future thinking, link between, 315–316
and pretend play, associations between, 140–143
thinkering, 425
thinking
overinclusive, 381
uncontrollability of, 362–364
uniqueness of, 364–365
Thomas, M., 502
Thomas, N. J. T., 469, 474, 481
Thompson, C., 297
Thomson, P., 495, 496
Thorp, D., 523
thought suppression, 359
Tikotzky, L., 9
Tinklepaugh, O. L., 472
Titchener, E. B. T., 103
Tomasello, M., 78, 212
Tomkins, S. S., 20, 518
Tools of the Mind program, 150
Tooth Fairy, 45, 48, 51, 61, 63, 67, 70–72, 118
“tooth pulling” narratives, 199–200
top down processing, 381
topic-associating narratives, 199
Tower of Hanoi task, 310–312
transcendence, 385
transformation of affect, 406
transitional object, 22
Trawick-Smith, J., 524
Trionfi, G., 182
trip task, 307
Trope, Y., 165
Troseth, G., 144
trust, 18
basic, 20
truth, defined, 131
truth–lie competency
inquiry, 129–131
referential ambiguity in, 131–133
speculating about, 127–131
Tucker, M., 146
Tullos, A., 63, 65, 71
Tulving, E., 305, 306, 313
Turk, C., 526
Turkle, S., 442
Turley-Ames, K. J., 327–329
Turnbull, C., 227
(p. 585) Turner, M., 424, 428
Turner, R., 253
Tversky, A., 40
U
Udwin, O., 522
uncontrollability of thinking, 362–364
conservation, role of, 368–369
introspective abilities of, 367–368
language, role of, 368–369
real-world implications of, 366–367
Ungerer, J. A., 505
uniqueness of thinking, 364–365
conservation, role of, 368–369
introspective abilities of, 367–368
language, role of, 368–369
real-world implications of, 366–367
Unusual Uses Task, 8, 404, 407, 409–411
Upchurch, J., 519
utopian imagination, 390
V
Vaden, V. C., 36, 66, 69, 71
Valkenburg, P. M., 444, 446
van der Voort, T., 444, 446
van Manen, M., 422
Van Reet, J., 68, 81
Vandenberg, B., 409
variety of pretend play, 234
Vega-Lahr, N., 238
verbal paradigms, for episodic future thinking measurement, 307
Vibbert, M. M., 445
video deficit, 144
Vince, P., 444
Vinson, B., 523
virtual reality (VR), 446, 503, 507, 534–535
vision and proprioception, contingency between, 291
Viskontas, I. V., 563
visualization hypothesis, 441, 444–446
visual self-representation, 290–291
vocational worldplay, 383
von Uexküll, J., 472
Vygotsky, L. S., 5, 21, 137, 138, 163–164, 166, 170, 179, 232, 243, 404, 505, 540
Vyse, S. A., 64
W
Wachsmuth-Schlaefer, G. H., 546
Wagley, C., 227
Waldmann, M. R., 348
Waldorf school, 149–150
Waletzky, J., 196, 197, 200
Walker, A., 496
Walker, S., 52–53
Wallach-Kogan test, 408
Walton, K., 95
wanting, 187
Ward, T., 384
War Games, 12, 16
Washburn, D. A., 472
Watkins, M., 95
Watson, J. M., 314
Watson, M. W., 80, 81, 176
Watson-Gegeo, K. A., 227
weak central coherence (WCC) hypothesis of autism, 509, 510
Wechsler Intelligence Scales, 502
Weisberg, D. P., 336, 337
Weisberg. D. S., 65
Wellman, H. M., 35, 77, 79
Werner, H., 164, 214–216
Wetherly, J., 367
what-if mechanism (WIM), 98, 107–108, 216–217
distinguished from what-is mechanism, 6, 21, 216, 217, 407
narrative constructions of, 218–219
adults role in, 220–221
what-is mechanism, 216, 217
distinguished from what-if mechanism, 6, 21, 216, 217, 407
narrative constructions of, 218–219
adults role in, 220–221
what is not available to the senses, imagining, 453–455
White, A., 167
White, H. A., 381
White, R. E., 168
White, R. W., 20
Whiting, B. B., 230
Whittall, S., 115
Wiener, N., 391
Wilbert, J., 227, 228
Williams, T., 444
Wilson, D., 273
Wilson, F., 23
Wilson, S. C., 490
Winner, E., 382, 383
Winnicott, D. W., 22, 214, 239, 529
Wisniewski, E. J., 424
witches, 31, 37, 40, 48, 63
Witherington, D. C., 76, 77
Wolery, M., 524, 525
Wood, J. M., 116
Woolf, V., 96–99
Woolley, J. D., 32, 39, 45, 51, 53, 62–64, 66, 68–71, 79–82, 84, 89, 119, 139, 215
Worchel, R., 519
Wordsmith, 144
worldplay, 383, 417, 420–422
aesthetics in, 432–434
foundations, 422–423
recreational, 383
vocational, 383
Wright, C., 472
written stories, 431–432
Wundt, W., 471
Wyman, E., 78
Y
Yawkey, T. D., 23, 230
Yeates, K. O., 391
young children, future thinking in, 305–321
Z
Zelazo, P. D., 162, 165
zone of proximal development, 138
Zusne, L., 46, 49–50, 53
Zweig-Frank, H., 490