- Series Information
- The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice
- List of Contributors
- Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice
- Crime and Criminal Justice
- Crime Trends
- Evidence-based Crime Policy
- Crime Prevention
- Treatment and Rehabilitation
- General Deterrence
- Reparation and Restoration
- Reassurance, Reinforcement, and Legitimacy
- Drugs and Crime
- Race, Ethnicity, and Crime
- Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Immigrants and Crime
- Guns and Crime
- Work and Crime
- Police Organization
- Police and Crime Control
- Community and Problem-Oriented Policing
- Legitimacy and Lawful Policing
- Juvenile justice
- Mandatory Penalties
- Capital Punishment
- Jails and Pretrial Release
- Probation and Community Penalties
- Drug and Other Specialty Courts
- Women’s Prisons
- Parole and Prisoner Re-entry
Abstract and Keywords
This article begins with a discussion of key concepts of deterrence. Section II turns to empirical research on general deterrence. It considers the deterrent effect of the penultimate and ultimate legally prescribed sanctions, imprisonment, and execution. Section III discusses the deterrent effect of police, and reviews studies of aggregate police presence in addition to police deployment strategies. Section IV evaluates the strength of the evidence for perceptual deterrence, and the interplay of sanctions, perceptions, and behavior among individuals. The article concludes with some general remarks, a cautionary message about the limits of deterrence as a crime-control policy, and recommendations concerning future deterrence-based inquiry.
Robert Apel is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. His research interests include the economy, crime control policy, and the life course.
Daniel S. Nagin is Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics at the Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University. His research focuses on the evolution of criminal and antisocial behaviors over the life course, the deterrent effect of criminal and noncriminal penalties on illegal behaviors, and the development of statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data.
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.