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date: 16 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Probation remains the most common form of correctional supervision. Well over half of sentenced offenders, over four million at any one time in recent years, are under the control of probation agencies. This article discusses probation and community penalties. Section I provides a brief history of the evolution of probation since 1970. Section II discusses the scale of probation. Section III offers a brief survey of knowledge concerning the effectiveness of community penalties in widespread use. Section IV discusses possible futures for probation.

Keywords: probation, community penalty, correctional supervision, criminal offenders

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