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date: 10 December 2019

Index

Index

Note: Page numbers followed by “ f  ” and “t ” denote figures and tables, respectively.

(p. 563) A
academic and practitioner collaboration, 6, 234–37
Achieving Success Identity Pathways, 107
Ackerman, S. J., 349
Adams, P., 63
Addams, Jane, 4, 37, 53–54, 54
Adessky, R. A., 146, 151, 157
Adler, A., 37, 52
Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory, 247
Adult Self-Expression Scale, 250
advanced-level team members, 234
affective direction, 339
affirmative counseling, for sexual minority, 441
Africa
HIV/AIDS program in, 471
I-CARE program in, 470–71
African Americans, 88, 96, 109
age of ubiquity, 12, 13, 14, 37, 287, 559
Agras, W. S., 146, 195
Ahluwali, M. K., 93
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 37
Allen, R., 37
alliance
cohesion and, 139–40
group member, 140, 225
supervisory, 371–72, 378
therapeutic, 5, 138, 159, 555–56
altruism, 122, 458
American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT), 371
American Board for Group Psychology (ABGP), 75
American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), 75
American College Personnel Association (ACPA), 70
American Counseling Association (ACA), 68, 111, 350. See also Association for Specialists in Group Work
Code of Ethics, 69, 446
Counselors for Social Justice, 102
Divisions for Social Justice of, 68, 102
American Group Psychotherapy Association (AGPA), 3, 13, 59, 66, 75, 169, 182
Core Battery-R of, 299
International Journal of Group Therapy of, 37, 54, 67, 278
on multicultural group work, 84
Practice Guidelines for Group Psychotherapy of, 47–48, 84, 256, 441
professional standards, 348, 352, 359
Transcoop measures, 174, 175t, 178
American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA), 69
Code of Ethics, 70
American Multicultural Counseling and Development Association, 105
American Psychological Association (APA), 40, 59, 64, 75, 102, 350, 365
Division of Addictions of, 14
Division of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy, 14, 58, 64
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 66, 70, 77, 446–47
Group Section of the Division of Psychoanalysis of, 14
guidelines, 439–41
multicultural group work guidelines of, 110
Society of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy, 3, 74
American School Counselor Association (ASCA), 102, 420–21
American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama (ASGPP), 53
analysis. See levels of analysis
analysis step, of PGTM
collaboration, 315
interconnection, 7, 314–15
meaning making in, 7, 315–16
social system maintenance, 7, 315
sustainability, 7, 316
Anderson, D., 83, 90, 94, 95, 106
Anderson, L. F., on leader function, 333
Anderson and Robertson, on leader function, 333
Angelone, E. O., 157, 171, 173
Antony, M. M., 150
Asch, S. E., 22
Asia, 88, 472–75
Asian Americans, 90, 94
assessment, of group counseling, 6
challenges, 245–48
group process and, 249–51, 254–56
guides, 248t
interpersonal skills and, 250
interpersonal styles, 250
measures interdependence in, 246
for member preparation and screening, 248–54
motivation and, 249
needs, 245–49
outcomes and, 251–54
postgroup, 251
Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, 380
Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development, 89–90
Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW), of ACA, 3, 12, 39, 58, 105, 182, 365
Best Practice Guidelines, 74, 441
classification system of, 43–46
on group types, 4, 13, 301, 311
on multicultural group work, 84, 360
Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers, 40, 58, 182, 349, 373, 441
standards of, 40, 42–43, 66
training standards, 73–74, 348, 352, 357, 359
(p. 564) Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups (AASWG), 74, 349, 365
assumptions, in group work, 5
atheoretical research design process, 6
Atieno Okech, J. E., 6
attitude and values, 29–30
Australia, 471–72
authoritarian leadership style, 335
autonomy, 67–68, 419, 432
Aviram, R. B., 140
Azim, H., 209
B
Baars, B. J., 31
Bajt, 64–65
Baker, T., 227
Baldwin, S., 158
Bales, R. F., 38, 184, 192
on leader function, 326
Bales and Slater, on leader function, 326
Ball, S., 437
Ballinger, L., 96
Balsam, K. F., 439
Bandura, A., 352
Bargal, D., 95
Barlow, Sally H., 6, 37, 46–47, 232
barrier-breaking groups, 107
basic assumption dependency group, 183
basic assumption fight-or-flight group, 183
basic assumption pairing group, 183
Basic Empathy Scale, 250
basic skills training groups (T-groups), 38, 39, 55, 208
Bates, Johnson and Blaker, 292–93
on leader function, 332–33
Bates, M., 292–93
on leader function, 332–33
Bauman, S., 7, 43
Baumeister, R. F., 28
Baxter, P., 268
Beck, A., 188–90, 192, 197, 212
Beck Anxiety Inventory, 249
Beck Depression Inventory, 109, 252
Beck progressive stage model, 188–90, 192, 197
beginner-level team members, 233–34
behavioral factors, of personal development, 291–92
behavioral health settings, 8, 403–6
Bemak, F., 66, 91, 93, 95, 103
Benne, K. D., 25, 38
Bennett, B. E., 77
Bennis, W. G., 184–86, 197
Bennis and Shepard progressive stage model, 184, 197
counterdependence-fight subphase, 185
dependence-flight subphase of, 185
disenchantment-flight, 186
enchantment-flight subphase, 185–86
interdependence and personal relations, 185
resolution-catharsis subphase, 185
Berg, R. C., 44, 46
Berman, A., 352, 356
Bernard, J. M., 371, 375, 376
Berne, E., 38, 53
“best fit” technique, of PGTM, 317
Best Practice Guidelines, of ASGW, 74, 441
best practices, 14
guidelines, 4, 47–48, 71, 73t, 74, 75, 84, 256, 441
performing, 311, 318t
performing techniques, 321–24t
planning, 11, 311, 318t
processing, 311–13, 319t
Betan, E. F., 64
Betz, R. L., 42
Bieling, P. J., 150
Bieschke, K. J., 94
Bion, W., 38, 56, 183–84, 192
bisexuality, 439–40
Blaker, K. E., on leader function, 332–33
blended group, 350–51
Blickle, G., 61
Bliese, P. D., 138
Bloch, S., 123
on therapeutic factors, 123t
Bloom, B. S., 77, 372
Blumberg, A., 38
Bogardus, E. S., 21, 32
Boland-Prom, K. W., 77
Bolyard, K. L., 88
Bormann, B., 174, 176
Bosman-Clark, J., 365
Bostick, D., 421
boundaries, 4, 24–25
Bowlby, J., 56
Bowman, N. A., 92–93
Brabender, V., 5, 67, 189
Bradford, L., 38
Bridbord, K., 307
brief group therapy and treatment (BGT), 152, 487
comparison, 491t
criteria for, 488–89
defining, 490–91
evidence favoring, 500–502
experimental paradigm model, 502–3
future directions for, 505–6
process research in, 503–4
screening for, 494–95
as time-limited, 9
training leaders for, 504–5, 560
for trauma reactions, 12
brief group therapy and treatment (BGT) phases
preparation, 493–95
termination, 498–500
transition, 495–97
treatment, 497–98
Brinson, J., 95
Brossart, D. F., 132, 195
Brown, N., 7, 42, 46, 356, 360–61
Browne, A., 152
Brucato, T., 95
Bryan, J., 421
Bryant, R. M., 84
Buchanan, T., 65
Budman, S. H., 145
Bully Busters prevention program, 463–64
Burchill, C., 196
Burlingame, G. M., 5, 13, 37, 40, 44, 66, 138, 174, 232, 265, 299, 348–50
on cohesion, 142, 146, 154, 154t, 155, 157
Burrow, T., 37
Butler, T., 132, 141
C
Caldwell, L., 95
California Psychological Inventory, 249
California Psychotherapy Alliance Scales-Group (CALPAS-G), 140, 143–44, 150, 151
Callanan, P., 307
Campbell, C., 140
Campbell Collaboration Reviews of Interventions and Policy Evaluations, 226
Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW), 68, 69
Code of Ethics, 71
Guidelines for Ethical Practice, 71
Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), 68
Code of Ethics for Psychologists, 71
Capuzzi, D., 46, 307, 311
caring, 300, 458
Lieberman, Yalom and Miles on, 429
Cartwright, D., 23–24, 25, 38, 141
on leader function, 326
Cartwright and Zander, on leader function, 326
Casemore, R, 61
case study, 240–41
research, 268–69, 279–80
Cashwell, C. S., 47
Cass, V. C., 443
Castonguay, L. G., 146, 195, 361
catharsis, 122, 458
Center for Epidemiological Study Depression Scale, 339
CENTRAL, 226
change process. See key change process
(p. 565) chaos/complexity theory, 6, 194
dissipativeness in, 193
irreversibility in, 193
nonlinearity in, 193
self-organization in, 193
sensitivity in, 193
charismatic expertness, 296
Charmaz, K., 269
Chau, P., 155
Chen, M. W., 42, 44, 46, 85
Cheung, S., 128
children: 1st to 5th grade stage, of psychosocial development
future directions in, 422
group therapist considerations and, 420
sample group model of, 420–22
China, 472–73
Chojnacki, J. R., 445
Christensen, T. M., 280
Christner, R. W., 407–8
Chung, R. C., 91, 93, 95, 103
Chung, R. Y., 86, 90
Ciardiello, S., 107
Cleland, C., 223
Clemence, A. J., 349
client
mandated, 152–53, 411
outcomes, supervision and, 372
relationship, 71
status and behavior, outcome assessment and, 252–53
Client Resistance Scale, 340
clinical populations, substantive themes by, 224t
closed groups, 24–25
Cochrane, A., 207
Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews, 226
Cochrane Library, 207
Code of Ethics
of ACA, 69, 446
of AMHCA, 70
of APA, 66, 70, 77, 446–47
of CASW and CPA, 71
of NASW, 65, 71
of National Board of Certified Counselors, 70
Code of Ethics for Psychologists, of CPA, 71
cognitive-behavioral group, 201, 406. See also group-mediated cognitive-behavioral counseling
cognitive-behavioral movement, 48
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 149–51, 152, 155, 375, 402, 407–8
for PTSD, 401
cognitive direction, 339
cognitively focused group, 350
Cohen, A., 11, 316
cohesion, 4, 5, 23, 94, 108, 122, 208, 213, 225, 458, 555–56
alliance and, 139–40
Burlingame on, 142, 146, 154, 154t, 155, 157
closed, open groups and, 25
Durkheim on, 26
evolution of, 138
group climate and, 141, 165–66
group identity and, 140–41
group process and, 26–27, 144–46
groupthink and, 153
health of group and, 26
history of, 5
horizontal and vertical, 138
inhibition by leader, 156–57
IPV and, 150
Kivlighan, M., on, 139, 165
leader contributions to, 154–56
Leszcz on, 137–40, 146
Lewin on, 26
Lilly on, 139, 165
measurement of, 142–44, 143t
member contribution to, 157–58
negative consequences of, 153–54
outcome and, 146–47, 147–49t, 149–53, 172
perceived, 139
personhood of leader and, 298
promotion, Dinkmeyer and Muro on, 327
research on, 158–59, 556
self-esteem and, 140–41
social loafing and, 153
socioemotional, 139
task, 139
universality and, 141–42
Yalom on, 137–40, 139, 146
cohort differences, 8, 442–43
coleadership, 379
Coleman, H. L. K., 93
collaboration, 7
academic and practitioner, 6, 234–37
creativity and, 387
mutual help groups and, 518
in PGTM, 7, 314, 315
in research teams, 6, 233–34
collectivism, in non-Western society, 21
college stage, of psychosocial development, 424–26
future directions, 426
group therapist considerations and, 425
sample group models, 425–26
college/university counseling centers. See counseling centers, college/university
Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology (CRSPPP), 76
community
action groups, 12, 13
development, 12
groups, 20
organizations, 4, 57
community-based participatory action research (CBPR), 113
community-based research, for social change, 108
Competencies for Counseling Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered (LGBT) Clients), 442
compromising tools, 226–27
computer simulations, for training, 13
comunidades eclesial de base (CEBs), 480–81
conceptual context of qualitative research, 274–75
Conditionality Scale, of TBS, 339
confidentiality, 12, 64–66, 70, 71, 249, 363–64
conflict and rebellion stage of group development model, 198–99
conflict resolution
Dinkmeyer and Muro on, 327–28
Ho’oponopono, 479–81
Marae-based Hui-resolving conflict, 478–79
Trotzer on, 332
Congruence/Empathy, of TBS, 339
consensual validation, 186
consolidating function, Trotzer on, 329
Constantine, M. G., 84
context dependent models
age groups in, 188
settings for, 187–88
contextual boundaries, 268
contextual context, 274–75
contingency model, 326, 348
continuum models, 45–46
Conyne, R., 9, 37, 40, 41, 44–45, 47, 66, 89, 287, 294, 349, 364, 373
on group climate, 299
on group counseling, 312
group work grid of, 13
on personhood of leader, 292
Cook, E., 364
Cooley, C. H., 29
Cooper, P., 421
Copper, C., 141
Corazzini, J., 150
Corbin, J., 269
Core Battery-R, of AGPA, 299
core knowledge, in group counseling, 4, 73–76
counseling ethics documents, 69–70
ethics concurrence, 71–72
psychology ethics documents, 70–71
social work ethics foundations, 71
Corey, G., 36, 39, 42–43, 46, 138, 155, 307
on group techniques, 310–11
Corey, M., 39, 307
correlational research, 240
Corsini, R. J., 41, 54
on group work eras, 52
on therapeutic factors, 194
Côté, L., 8
Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP), 73, 349–50, 352, 357, 359, 365
(p. 566) Counseling and Learning through Small-Group Discussion (Driver), 38
counseling centers, college/university, 8, 408–10
challenges for, 409–10
history of, 408
prevention groups in, 409
psychoeducation group in, 408–9
Counseling Competencies for Sexual Minority Clients, 441
counseling ethics documents, 69–70
counseling groups, 4, 12, 13, 311, 350, 455. See also group counseling
cognitive-behavioral, 201, 406
counseling training standards, 72–74
Counselors for Social Justice, of ACA, 102
countertransference, 374–75, 429
creative groups and process, 386–87
creativity, in groups, 7–8, 383–85, 559
advantages of, 393
barriers to, 392
collaboration and, 387
creative process, 386–87
expressive media and, 388–90
future directions in, 392–94
importance and benefits of, 387
innovative, 384
inventive, 384
online resources for, 394t
research on, 387–92
SCAMPER for, 389–92
credibility, 277–78
Creswell, J. W., 266, 267
Critical Incidents Questionnaire, 96
crossed relationships, 92
Crouch, E., 123
on therapeutic factors, 123t
Crowe, T. P., 150
Crutchfield, L. B., 95
cultural assumptions, in group work, 85–88
cultural competencies, sexual minority and, 441–42
cultural diversity guidelines, 90–91
cultural factors, of personal development, 290–91
culturally sensitive intervention, 94–95
cultural values, 5, 89–90
culture, 291, 330. See also indigenous groups; multicultural competency models; multicultural competent leaders; multicultural group work
collectivistic, 21
emic and etic, 89
intervention and, 12, 555
leadership and, 359–61
-specific group, 84–85
Curative Climate Instrument (CCI), 142, 168
Curative Factors Scale, 142
cyclic model, 5, 201
D
D’Andrea, M. J., 89–90, 93, 291
Daniels, J., 93
data collection, in needs assessment, 247–48
David Empathy Scale, 250
Davidson, B., 195
Davies, D. R., 299
Davis, J., 4, 37, 54, 55
decision-making models, 4, 78
defiant leader, 188
DeLucia-Waack, J. L., 5, 31, 42–43, 88–90, 92–94, 307, 374, 421
Deming, W. E., 4, 56
democratic leadership style, 335
Denzin, N. K., 260
depression, 150, 152, 207
online group for treatment of, 522–23
descriptive research, 240
development. See group development
developmental model of supervision, 376
development years (1900-1939), 10
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 353
didactic teaching models, 352
Dierick, P., 127, 128
Dies, R. R., 145, 150–51, 195, 292, 349, 366
differentiation, 172, 188–89
DiFranks, N. N., 65
Dinger, U., 172
Dinkmeyer, D. C., on leader function, 327–28
Dinkmeyer and Muro
on cohesion promotion, 327
on conflict resolution, 327–28
on guiding, 328
interaction and, 327
on programming vs free discussion, 328
on summarizing, 327
Dion, K. L., 138
disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), 208
disaster group. See trauma/disaster (TD) groups
dissipativeness, in complexity theory, 193
distance facilitated group, 351
diversity, 5, 12, 83
competence, 374
cultural guidelines for, 90–91
group, types of, 85–86t
leadership and, 359–61
sexual minority and, 440
Division of Addictions, of APA, 14
Division of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy, of APA, 14, 58, 64
Divisions for Social Justice, of ACA, 68, 102
domestic violence. See intimate partner violence
Donigian, J., 84, 88, 89, 90, 290
Dowden, A. R., 107
Dreikurs, R., 53
Drescher, K. D., 9
Driver, H., 38
Dryden, W., 225
dual relationships, 64
Dunbar, R. I. M., social brain hypothesis of, 24
Duncan, J. A., 45, 66
Dupuy, P., 265
Durkheim, E., 20, 22
Dvir, V., 157
Dwyer, L., 124
dyadic relationships, 28, 29
dyadic supervision, 376–77
Dyche, L., 97
Dye, Allan, 40, 45
dynamic intrapsychic mechanisms, 22
dynamics, 8
encouraging and processing, 379
family, 289
group process assessment and, 255–56
in prevention groups, 459–60
sexual minority members and, 448–49
E
early adolescence stage, of psychosocial development
future directions, 423
group therapist considerations and, 422
sample group models, 422–23
early career stage, of psychosocial development, 426–27
future directions, 427
group therapist considerations, 426
sample group models, 426–27
early explosion years (1940-1969), 10
ecological concepts, 312f
education, sexual minority and, 440
Ellens, B. M., 65
emic culture, 89
emotion, group influence on, 22
emotional leader, 188
emotional stimulation, 458
Lieberman, Yalom and Miles on, 328
personhood of leader and, 300
Empathy Quotient, 250
empirically supported treatments (ESTs), 210–11, 212f
empirically validated treatments (EVTs), 210
empowering students for social justice (ES2J), 107
empowerment, 103, 108–9
groups, in schools, 13
empowerment groups for academic success (EGAS), 108
encounter groups, 38, 57, 328
(p. 567) Encounter Groups: First Facts (Lieberman/Yalom/Miles), 39
Endler Multidimensional Anxiety Scales, 249
energizer leadership style, 336
engagement, 172, 189, 278
English as a second language (ESL), 430
entitativity, 4, 27
Erikson, E., 8, 416–34
established career stage, of psychosocial development, 427–29
future directions, 429
group therapist considerations, 427–28
sample group models of, 428–29
Esyenck, H. J., 227
ethical behavior in group counseling, 4, 62, 554–55
confidentiality, 363–64
in observation, 363
in supervision, 379–80
training needs for, 362–63
ethical decision-making models, 77–78
Ethical Guidelines for Counseling Supervisors, 380
ethical practice, 11–12, 361–64
experiential training group and, 362
guidelines, 14
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, of APA, 66, 70, 77, 446–47
ethics, 4. See also Code of Ethics; moral and ethical development in group counseling
concurrence, 71–72
documents, 67–71
education, 63–64, 66, 76
in groups, research on, 65–67
international codes of, 61
leader bias and, 447
member bias and, 447
observation and, 363
online groups, 520, 522–23, 529
research on, 64–65
social work foundations and, 71
supervision and, 379–80
training and, 362–63
virtue, 67
ethnographic research, 267–68, 280
ethnography, 241
etic culture, 89
Etringer, B. D., 150
eurocentric view, of group work, 89
Evans, K. M., 88
evidence-based medicine (EBM)
5 A’s of, 208
scientific method and, 208–12
evidence-based practice (EBP), 226–27
controversies and dilemmas in, 226
model, 212t
evidence-based practice of psychology (EBPP), 212f
scientific method and, 208–12
evidence-based research, 348–49
evidence bases, for group practice, 6, 13, 212f, 556
compromising tools for, 226–27
synthesizing tools for, 225–26
themes for, 224t
exclusion, self-esteem and, 28–29
executive function, 460
Lieberman, Yalom and Miles on, 329
personhood of leader and, 300
existential factors, 122, 459
experiential group, 7, 354, 357–58
activities, 386
training, 358–59
experiential learning, 357
activities, 310t
experimental paradigm model, 502–3
exploratory factor analysis, 339
ex post facto designs, 239–40
extant group research
differential effectiveness of, 213
historical perspective of, 213, 219
methodological concerns of, 219, 223, 225
outcome, 212
process, 212
relevant themes of, 213
extended baseline design, 253–54
F
Facebook social network, 521–22, 527–28
facing retirement stage, of psychosocial development, 429–31
future directions, 430–31
group therapist considerations, 429–30
sample group models, 430
Fallon, A., 66, 67
Fals-Stewart, W., 265
family
dynamics, 289
reenactment, 122, 458
fatherhood groups, 427
feedback, 377, 378
formative, 372
process, 199, 298–99
Feiner, S., 366
feminist group work, 108
Fenton, M., 352–53
Fiedler, F. E., on contingency model, 326
fight-or-flight pairing, 459
final stage, of group development, 310–11
FIRO: A Three-Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior (Schutz), 38
Fisher, C. B., 61
Fitzgerald, D., 210
Fleming, A., 92
Flock social network, 529
Flowers, V. J., 155
Fly. B. J., 64
Fontao, M. I., 124
formation stage of group development model, 197–98
formative factors, of leader, 288–95
formative feedback, 372
Forsyth, D. R., 4, 294
Forti, R., 66
foundational factors, personhood of leader and, 299–301
Fowers, B. J., 62–63
Foy, D. W., 9
Francis, R. D., 61
Freitas, F. J., 372
Freud, S., 22, 30, 52, 183, 185
Frey, L. R., 265, 266, 295
Fristad, M., 316
Fuhriman, A., 37, 66, 132, 138, 141, 232, 350
Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Questionnaire, 339
functional factors, of personhood, 297–99
Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale, 38, 57, 250, 326
future directions, 553–62
for BGT, 505–6
for children: 1st to 5th grade stage of psychosocial development, 422
college stage, of psychosocial development, 426
for creativity, in groups, 392–94
for early adolescence stage, of psychosocial development, 423
for early career stage, of psychosocial development, 427
for established career stage, of psychosocial development, 429
for facing retirement stage, of psychosocial development, 430–31
group climate and, 178
for group counseling, 13–14, 48, 59
of group development, 201–2
of group-level analysis, 31–32
in group settings, 411
of high school stage, of psychosocial development, 424
of infant stage, in psychosocial development, 418
for international group counseling, 482–83
of retirement and beyond stage, of psychosocial development, 432
of toddler stage, in psychosocial development, 419–20
G
Gang Membership Inventory, 247
GAP (goals and process) model, 43
Gavazzi, S., 316
(p. 568) Gazda, G. M., 4, 41, 43, 45, 59, 67
Gehlert. K. M, 94
Geier, J. G., 292
Gelberg, S., 445
Gellman, R. A., 421
Gelso, C. J., 232–33
general ethics practice, research on, 64–65
general research models
interdisciplinary research, 237–38
introduction to, 231–32
practitioner-researcher collaboration, 6, 234–37
programmatic research, 241–42
qualitative research, 240–41
quantitative research and, 238–41
research design selection, 241
research training, 232–33
team approach to research and, 233–37
generating groups, 31
generational poverty, 96
Gersick, C. J. G., 194
Gestalt orientation, 23, 307–8
on entitavitity, 27
Gibb, J., 38
Gibson, S. A., 445
Gillam, S., 293
Gillaspy, J. A., 140
Ginter, E. J., 67
Gladding, Samuel T., 7, 44, 46, 89, 91, 106, 336, 422
on cohesion, 139
Glaser, B., 269, 279
global group work, 560
global perspective
on international group counseling, 470–83, 560
research from, 9, 472–76
goal attainment, 30–31
goals and process model. See GAP
Golant, M., 133–34, 340
Goldfine, D. C., 132, 172
therapeutic factors ratings of, 130, 131t
on universality, 195
Golembiewski, R., 38
Goodyear, R. K., 371, 375, 376
Google Scholar, 226
Graduate Interdisciplinary Training (GIT) project, 112
graduate students, research skills training for, 6
Graham, M. A., 111
Great Britain, individualism in, 21
Great Psychotherapy Debate, 227t
Greenberg, P., 419
Greene, L. R., 129, 134, 354
Grenyer, B. F., 150
Grothjahn, M., 354
grounded theory, 241, 264, 280–81
research, 269–70
group. See also training; specific groups
assessment challenge in, 245–48
blended, 350–51
cognitively focused, 350
composition, for sexual minority, 443–45
creativity in, 7–8, 294t, 383–94, 559
decision influence of, 22
distance facilitated, 351
diversity, 5, 12, 83, 85–86t, 90–91, 359–61, 374, 440
as ecological system, 11
emotion influence by, 22
fluctuation, 25
functioning, 339
heterogeneity in, 83–84
individual connection with, 20
legal issues with, 4, 76–77
member action influence from, 22–23
nature of, 4, 23–27
perception of, 20–21
reality of, 20–23
settings, 8, 399–411
significance of, 20, 27–31
socialization theory, 26
socializing effect of, 29
spontaneity in, 7–8
subgroup in, 26
support, 351
task-roles in, 26
types of, 350–52, 351t, 373
understanding of, 554
group activity therapy (GAT), 424
groupality, 21, 32
Group Atmosphere Scale (GAS), 142–43, 151, 168
Group Attitude Scale, 142, 151
group climate, 10, 133, 178, 208, 389, 555–56
cohesion and, 141, 165–66
Conyne on, 299
defined, 165, 166t
group development and, 172–73, 195
group process and, 171–72
group relationships and, 173–74, 176
measures, 167–68, 167t
negative relationship and, 177
outcome and, 170–71
overlap with group constructs, 165–67
patient perception of, 225
positive bond and, 176–77
relationship variables in, 5
research, 170–73
session agenda and, 172
Group Climate Questionnaire (GCQ), 5, 132, 141, 151, 170–73, 178
Group Climate Questionnaire-Long Form (GCQ-L), 168
Group Climate Questionnaire-Short Form (GCQ-S), 164–65, 168–69, 169t, 195–96
group cohesion. See cohesion
Group Cohesion Questionnaire, 151, 152
Group Cohesion Scale-Revised (GCS-R), 143
Group Cohesiveness Questionnaire, 151
Group Cohesiveness Scale (GCS), 144, 152
group composition, 8, 23
group counseling, 12, 43–44, 47, 232, 312, 350. See also therapeutic factors
assessment of, 6, 245–56, 248t
barriers against, 14
basic premises of, 553–62
cohesion in, 5
consensus of, 46–48
core knowledge and skills in, 4, 69–76
definition of, 10, 40–46
ethical behavior in, 4, 62, 362–64, 379–80, 554–55
future directions for, 13–14, 48, 59
historical influences on, 37–40
history of, 4, 10
independent type, 42–45
international, 8–9, 469–83
interpersonal problem solving and, 61, 201
as intervention, 19
across life span, 8, 433t
mainstreaming, 561–62
marginalized perspectives of, 265–66
methodological challenges to study of, 263–64
moral and ethical development in, 62–67
overlapping continuum of, 45–46
partially undifferentiated type, 41–42
peer, 422–23
qualitative research and, 263–66, 278–81
research needs of, 264–65, 562
with sexual minorities, 8, 436–49, 560
sexual prejudice implications for, 437
social justice and, 5, 102–6
undifferentiated type, 41–42
group counseling supervision, 372
countertransference and, 374–75
diversity competence, 374
group theme and, 373–74
group type and, 373
parallel process in, 374
(p. 569)
supervisee anxiety in, 374
supervisor support and, 374
group-delivery formats, 14
group development, 5–6, 10, 13, 39, 61, 556–57
Bion assumption group model, 183
complexity theory, 193–94
contemporary models, 193–94
cyclical approaches to, 192–93
final stage, 310–11
future directions of, 201–2
group climate and, 172–73, 195
initial stage, 310
Lewin on, 184, 190–92
life-cycle models, 192
planning stage in, 301–2
progressive stage models, 184–92
punctuated equilibrium model, 194
reality of, 194–95
significance of, 195–96
stage theory of, 139
therapeutic factors in, 194–95
transition stage, 310
working stage, 310
Group Developmental Observation System (GDOS), 195
group development model, 196–202
conflict and rebellion stage of, 198–99
formation and engagement stage of, 197–98
integration and work stage of, 199–200
intimacy and unity stage of, 199
termination stage of, 200–201
group dynamics. See dynamics
Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 40, 58
Group Environment Scale (GES), 142, 168
group ethics. See ethics
group health, cohesion and, 26
Group Helpful Impacts Scale (GHIS), 128
group identity, cohesion and, 140–41
group influence, 23
group-level analysis and, 31
group leader. See leader
group leadership. See leadership
group-level analysis, 22–23, 208
for cohesion, 26
future directions of, 31–32
group influence and, 31
human behavior and, 20
individual vs., 220–22t
momentum of, 32
research study responsibility for, 31
therapeutic factors and, 127
group-level intervention, 497
group-level process, 21, 29, 38
self and, 30
group-mediated cognitive-behavioral (GMCB) counseling, 430
Group/Member/Leader Cohesion Questionnaire (GCQ), 143
group outcomes. See outcome
group power, interdependence and, 25
Group Practice and Research Network, 13, 76
group process, 4. See also process
cohesion and, 26–27, 144–46
group climate and, 171–72
therapeutic factors and, 133–34
group process assessment, 249–51
group dynamics and stages, 255–56
group leadership and, 255
therapeutic factors in, 254
group psychology, 52
themes, 223t
Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy, 40, 58
group psychotherapy, 41. See also psychotherapy groups
review articles, 214–18t
themes, 223t
topics by decade, 223t
Group Psychotherapy Evaluation Scale, 250
Group Psychotherapy Intervention Rating Scale (GPIRS), 348–49
Group Questionnaire (GQ), 174, 176
group research. See research
Group Section of the Division of Psychoanalysis, of APA, 14
Group Selection Questionnaire, 196
group significance, 20
attitude and values, 29–30
goal attainment, 30–31
identity, 30
isolation and rejection, 28–29
loneliness, 28
need to belong, 28
social support, 29
group specialty association. See also specific associations
advanced credentials, 75
best practices guidelines, 4, 47–48, 71, 73t, 74, 75, 84, 256, 441
counseling training standards, 72–74
integration and application of standards, 75–76
interdisciplinary group practice guidelines, 75
psychology group guidelines, 74–75
social work group practice standards, 74
training standards of, 11, 72–76, 72t, 348–52, 357, 359
group-specific guidelines and principles, 441
group techniques, 307, 319–24, 321–24t, 459
Corey on, 310–11
defining, 308–9
ecological concepts, 312t
group development and, 310–11
guiding approaches to, 309–12
PGTM, 7, 311–18
Group Techniques: How to Use Them More Purposefully, 309
group theme, supervision and, 373–74
group therapist
children: 1st to 5th grade stage considerations, 420
college stage considerations, 425
early adolescence stage considerations, 422
early career stage considerations, 426
established career stage considerations, 427–28
facing retirement stage considerations, 429–30
high school stage considerations, 423–24
infant stage considerations and, 417
retirement and beyond considerations, 431
toddler stage considerations and, 418–19
group therapy, defining, 489–90
Group Therapy Questionnaire, 253
Group Therapy Survey, 96
groupthink, cohesion and, 153
group training standards, 72t
group work, 47, 554
assumptions in, 5
cultural assumptions in, 85–88
eras, Corsini on, 52
eurocentric view of, 89
grid, of Conyne, 13
history of, 52–59
in medical setting, 406
multicultural, 5, 83–85, 91–96, 104, 110, 360
origins of modern, 4
outcomes, 557
prevention, 453–54
in school, 408
systems definition of, 3
technology in, 65
Groupwork: An Interdisciplinary Journal for Working with Groups, 61
Group Work Experts Share Their Favorite Activities: A Guide to Choosing, Planning, Conducting, and Processing, of ASGW, 88
group-work paradigm, 301
person, 7
process, 7
product, 7
Guba, E. G., 261, 272, 279
guidelines, 110
best practices, 4, 47–48, 71, 73t, 74, 75, 84, 256, 441
ethical practice, 14
interdisciplinary group practice, 75
for leadership, 11, 40, 42–43, 66, 74
for multicultural group work, 5, 83–85, 91–96, 104, 110, 360
operationalization for sexual minority group, 440–41
psychology, 74–75
for sexual minority group counseling, 439–42
(p. 570) Guidelines for Ethical Practice, of CASW, 71
Guidelines for Ethics, of NRCGP, 75
guiding, Dinkmeyer and Muro on, 328
H
Hage, Sally M., 5, 84
Hagen, R., 171
Halverson, R. R., 138
Hand, L., 145, 146
Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Clients, 438
Handbook of Counseling Psychology, 3, 9
Handbook of Group Counseling and Psychotherapy, 90
Handbook of Social Work with Groups, 237
Hansen, J. C., 42, 44, 45, 78
Hanson, P., 89
Hartung, P. J., 104
Harvard Community Health Plan Mental Health Research Program, 144
Hawkins, D. M., 444–46
Health Maintenance Organization Act (1973), 235
Helms, J. E., 92, 105
helpfulness, perceived, 127–29, 134
here-and-now interaction, 11, 331
hermeneutic phenomenology, 266
heterogeneity, 83–84
heterosexism, 437
high school stage, of psychosocial development, 423–24
future directions of, 424
group therapist considerations and, 423–24
sample group models, 424
Hilbert, A., 157
Hill, W. F., 38
Hill Interaction Matrix (HIM), 38
Hill Interaction Matrix-B (HIM-B), 250
Hilsenroth, M. J., 349
Hines, C. E., 146, 195
historical context
of extant group research, 213, 219
of social justice approach in group counseling, 104–5
historical influences, on group counseling, 37–40
history, of group counseling, 4, 5, 10
development years (1900-1939), 10
early explosion years (1940-1969), 10
settling in years (1970-1989), 10
standardization and further expansion to age of ubiquity years (1990-present), 10
history, of group work
modern era (after 1930), 54–59
origins (before 1899), 52–53
pioneer (1900-1930), 53–54
HIV/AIDS, 438, 439
program, in Africa, 471
research, IDM and, 235–36
spiritual coping groups for, 428
support groups, 404–5
Holmes, S. E., 10, 123–24, 125, 299
on therapeutic factors, 242
homogeneity, 124, 154
entitativity and, 27
homophobia, 436–37
homosexuality, 439–40
Honoring Occupational and Personal Empowerment (HOPE), 109
Ho’oponopono conflict resolution, 479–81
hope, instillation of, 122
horizontal cohesion, 138
Horne, A. M., 8, 67, 292
Horney, 22
Hornsey, M. J., 124, 158
Horowitz, L., 354
Hospital counselors, 19
Howard, K., 107, 223
Hull House, 37, 53–54
Hulse, D., 232
Hulse-Killacky, D., 280, 290
human behavior, group-level analysis and, 20
human potential movement, 10, 38, 56–57
I
Iacuzzi, C. M., 66
I-CARE, 470–71
identification, 122
step, of PGTM, 311–14
identity, 30
development model, 443
group, cohesion and, 140–41
racial-cultural identity, of leader, 291
self-esteem and, 30
Imel, Z., 158
impersonal leadership style, 336
implementation and evaluation step, of PGTM, 317–18
incest survivors group, 464–65
independent type, of group counseling, 42–45
indigenous groups, 477–82
CEBs, 480–81
Ho’oponopono resolving conflict, 479–81
Marae-based Hui-resolving conflict, 478–79
mentor couples family education program, 481–82
Morita therapy, 477–78
individual
counseling, supervision of, 371–72
group connection with, 20
perception of, 20–21
individualism, in U.S. and Great Britain, 21
individualist roles, 26
individuality, of member, 12
individual-level analysis, 22, 31
for cohesion, 26
group vs., 220–22t
individual therapy
narrative approaches to, 107
outcomes, 6
infant stage, in psychosocial development, 416–18
future directions in, 418
group therapist considerations, 417
sample group model of, 417–18
information, 458
informed consent, 12, 66
initial stage, of group development, 310
innovative creativity, 384
inpatient facility, 410–11
Institute for Development Management (IDM),in Botswana, Africa, 235–36
Institute for Social Research, 55
integration and work stage of group development model, 199–200
intellectual development, 63
interaction
Dinkmeyer and Muro on, 327
here-and-now, 11, 331
Trotzer on, 329, 332
interconnection, 7, 314–15
intercultural learning group, 84, 85
interdependence, 4
entitativity and, 27
group potential for, 25
group power and, 25
measurement in group, 246
relations, 185–86
interdisciplinary group practice guidelines, 75
interdisciplinary research, 6, 237–38
International Counseling, Advocacy, Research and Education (I-CARE), 470–71
international ethics codes, 61
international group counseling, 8–9, 469, 483
in Africa, 470–71
in Asia, 472–75
in Australia, 471–72
in Europe, 475
for indigenous groups, 477–82
in Latin America, 475–76
in Middle East, 476–77
International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 37, 54, 67, 278
internet support groups. See online groups
interpersonal intervention, 190, 497, 554
interpersonal leadership style, 337
interpersonal learning, 122, 458
interpersonal problem solving, 61, 201
Interpersonal Reactivity Index, 250
interpersonal skills, measurements for, 250
interpersonal styles, measurements for, 250
interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA), 278–79
intervention, 497 (p. 571)
culturally sensitive, 94–95
culture and, 12, 555
expert, 6
group counseling as, 19
interpersonal, 190, 497, 554
preventive, 8
timing of, 498
Trotzer on, 329, 332
interviewing, of key informants, 247
intimacy and unity stage of group development model, 199
intimate partner violence (IPV), 428
cohesion and, 150
secondary prevention group for, 464
intraclass correlations (ICCs), 225
intrapersonal leadership style, 337
intrapsychic intervention, 497
inventive creativity, 384
involuntary groups, 494
irreversibility, in complexity theory, 193
Isaacs, D., 210
isolation and rejection, 28–29
isomorphy, 190
Ivey, A. E., 44, 46
J
Jack, S., 268
Jackson, 189
Jacobs, E. E., 42, 95
Jacobson, M., 108
Jagers, R. J., 109
Janis, L. L., 153
Japan, 473–74
Jauquet, C.A., 172
Jensen, M. A., stage theory of group development, 139
Jensen-Scott, R. L., 88
Jim, J., 86, 94
Johnson, C. D., on leader function, 332–33
Johnson, D., 357
Johnson, F., 357
Johnson, J., 138
Johnson, J. A., 44
Johnson, J. E., 66, 152, 158, 166, 299
Jones, J., 307, 309–10
Journal for Nervous and Mental Disease, 278
Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 40, 58, 65, 66, 278, 406
Journal of Adolescent Research, 247
Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama, and Sociometry, 53
Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 278
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 247
Joy: Expanding Human Awareness (Schutz), 38
Joyce, A. S., 139, 145, 209
Judge, A. B., 232
Jung, C., 22, 56
Juntunen, C. L., 109
K
Kaczkowski, H., 352–53
Kalodner, C. R., 8, 409–10
Kapetanovic, S., 13
Kapila, S., 237
Karau, S. J., 153
Kaul, T. J., 138
Kazdin, A., 211, 227
Keim, J., 8
Keith-Spiegel, P., 64, 67
Kenny, D. A., 130
Kesselring, J., 196
Kessler, R., 12
key change process
group climate for, 5, 10, 133, 141, 165–68, 166t, 167t, 170–77, 195, 208, 225, 299, 389, 555–56
group development and, 5–6, 10, 39, 139, 172–73, 183–96, 201–2, 310–11, 556–57
therapeutic factors and, 5, 6, 8, 10, 39, 121–34, 122t, 123t, 126t, 131t, 132f, 194–95, 254, 407, 418, 448, 457–59, 555
key informants, interviewing of, 247
Kim, H. H., 96
Kim, J., 5
Kincade, E. A., 409–10
Kincade, K. A., 88
Kindaichi, M. M., 84
King, E., 350
Kipnes, D. R., 139, 144
Kipper, D. A., 385
Kitchener, K. S., 62, 63, 64, 67
Kitchener, K. W., 78
Kivlighan, D. M., Jr., 5, 10, 123–25, 132–33, 157, 171–73, 213, 227, 299, 379
on cohesion, 139, 165
on leader function and style, 338–39
on therapeutic factors, 242
therapeutic factors ratings of, 130, 131
on universality, 194–95
Kivlighan, M., 227
Klaw, E., 12
Kleiner, J., 307
Kleist, D., 48
Knauss, L. K., 66
knowledge, 7, 360
core, 4, 69–76
Koocher, G. P., 67, 211
Kottler, J. A., 40–41, 46, 72, 138
Kransberg, M. B., 442–43
Kraus, K., 307, 311
Krieg, F. J., on leader function, 333
Krogel, J., 176
Kwan, J., 155
Kwok, A., 155
L
Laing, R. D., 56
laissez-faire leadership style, 335, 336, 338
Lakin, M., 66
Lang, P. R., 64
Lao Tse, 52
Lasky, G. B., 66
Laszloffy, T. A., 88
Latin America, 475–76
Latino, 87, 88, 95
outreach prevention program for, 108–9
Lawe, C. F., 292
leader. See also group therapist
behaviors, 66, 133, 555
bias, 447
caring, 300
cohesion contribution from, 154–56
cohesion inhibition by, 156–57
defiant, 188
effective, for sexual minority, 446–48
emotional, 188
emotional stimulation, 300
executive function of, 300
formative factors of, 288–95
generation by prevention group, 457
group climate and, 556
group supervision of, 377–78
meaning attribution of, 300–301
member relationship, 297
multicultural competent, training of, 88–91
personal development, 7
personal traits of, 294–95
positive valence of, 11
preparation, 91
professional development of, 7, 288–95
racial-cultural identity of, 291
role of, 11, 25
scapegoat, 188
sexual orientation, 8, 445–46
supervision with, 376–77
supervisor relationship, 7
task, 188
training, 5, 557
training, for BGT, 504–5, 560
leader function, 7, 11, 325–37, 334t
Anderson and Robertson on, 333
Bales and Slater on, 326
Bates, Johnson, and Blaker on, 332–33
Cartwright and Zander on, 326
Dinkmeyer and Muro on, 327–28
future research on, 343–44
Krieg on, 333
Lieberman, Yalom and Miles on, 328–29
Lippitt on, 335–36
LPC measure and, 326
maintenance functions, 326
practice implications on, 344
research on, 338–41, 341–42t, 343–44
Scheidlinger on, 333
Schutz on, 326–27
task functions, 326
training implications and, 344
Trotzer on, 331–32
White on, 335–36, 338
(p. 572) leadership, 197, 379
activities, 6
contingency model, 348
culture and diversity, 359–61
diversity and, 359–61
evidence-based research and, 348–49
experiential learning groups and, 357–59
group process assessment and, 255
guidelines for, 11, 40, 42–43, 66, 74
multicultural competency models and, 360
online groups and, 520, 522–23, 529–30, 531t
personal growth groups and, 359
prevention groups and, 460–61
situational theory on, 255, 337, 348
standards, guidelines and principles for, 11, 40, 42–43, 66, 74
style model of, 348
teaching and training, 7, 558
teaching art and science of, 356–57
teaching models, 352–56
theories and models of, 347–48
therapeutic factors and, 133–34
training standards, 11, 72–76, 72t, 348–52, 357, 359
transformational, 348
Leadership Behaviors Questionnaire, 339, 340
Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Descriptor (LEAD), 255
leadership styles, 7, 338t, 558
authoritarian, 335
democratic, 335
energizer, 336
impersonal, 336
interpersonal, 337
intrapersonal, 337
laissez-faire, 335, 336, 338
manager, 336
provider, 336
research on, 338–41, 341–42t
situational leadership theory and, 255, 337, 348
Stogdill on, 337
Learning through Discussion (Hill), 38
Leary, M. R., 28–29
Lease, S. H., 339
least preferred coworker (LPC) measure, 326
LeBon, G., 182–83
LeCompte, M. D., 267
Leddick, George R., 4
Lee, C. C., 103
legal issues, with groups, 4, 76–77
Leonard, P., 111
Leong, F., 95, 96
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT), 106, 110, 436, 560
group research, 438–39
individuals, 88
social justice groups and, 109
Leszcz, M., 121, 125, 134, 376–77
on cohesion, 137–40, 146
levels of analysis, 21
group-level, 22–23, 26, 31–32, 127, 208, 220–22t
individual-level, 22, 26, 31, 220–22t
multilevel, 23
Lewin, K., 4, 23, 37–38, 53, 55, 55, 212, 294, 354, 357
on cohesion, 26
on group development, 184, 190, 192
on leader style, 335, 338
Lieberman, M.A., 39, 57, 128, 133–34, 168, 340, 343
Curative Factors Scale of, 142
on leader function, 315, 328–29
Lieberman, Yalom and Miles
on caring, 329
on emotional stimulation, 328
on executive functioning, 329
on leader function, 328–29
on meaning attribution, 329
life-cycle model, 5, 192
life-span, 12, 560. See also psychosocial development
developmental model, 376
group counseling across, 8, 433t
Lilly, R. L., 173
on cohesion, 139, 165
Lincoln, Y. S., 260, 272, 279
Linkedin social network, 529
Lippitt, R., 53, 55
on leader function and style, 335–36, 338
Livesley, W. J., progressive stage model of, 189–90, 192–97
loneliness, 28
Lorentzen, S., 151, 157, 174
M
MacKenzie, K. R., 40, 133, 141, 145–46, 168, 172, 348
on conflict, in groups, 170
on group development, 192–93
progressive stage model of, 189–90, 192, 197
on therapeutic factors, 194
MacKenzie and Livesley progressive stage model, 189–90, 192, 197
MacNair-Semands, R., 67, 105
macro level, 6, 23, 208
Mallinckrodt, B., 157, 232
managed health care settings, 235, 403–6
manager leadership style, 336
Marae-based Hui-resolving conflict, 478–79
marginalized populations, 110
of women, 105
Marmarosh, C. I., 5, 150, 156
Maslow, A. H., 22, 289
Mason, M., 5
Maxwell, J. A., 262–63, 265, 274–77
McCallum, M., 145, 146, 209
McClendon, D. T., 5
McWhirter, E. H., 8, 103, 295
McWhirter, J. J., 8, 409
McWhirter, P. T., 8
meaning attribution, 11, 300, 458
Lieberman, Yalom and Miles on, 329
personhood of leader and, 300–301
meaning making, 7, 315–16
Meara, N. M., 62, 67
measurement
of cohesion, 142–44, 143t
of group climate, 167–68, 167t
interdependence in group, 246
for interpersonal skills and styles, 250
of therapeutic factors, 130–33
Transcoop, of AGPA, 174, 175t, 178
medical settings, 403–6
educational groups in, 404–5
group work in, 406
Medline, 226
member
actions, group influence on, 22–23
alliance, 140, 225
bias, 447
boundaries and, 24
contribution to cohesion, 157–58
generation by prevention group, 457
goal accomplishment, 6
individuality, 12
leader relationship, 297
outcomes, 379
outcomes for, therapeutic factors and, 124, 128–29
perception, of therapeutic factors, 125, 130, 134
preparation and screening in assessment, 248–54
prevention group and, 457
recruitment of, 12
relationship, 4
selection, of sexual minority, 442–43
selection of, 91–92, 297
sexual minority, 8, 448–49
stability of, 196
team, 233–34
mental health
groups, 407
intervention, 6, 19
mentor couples family education program, 481–82
Merchant, N. M., 91, 92, 96–97, 265
Merta, R., 350, 359
Messer, Stanley, 211
meta-analysis, group vs. individual, 220–22t
methodological congruence, 273–74
micro level, 6, 23
Middle East, 476–77
Miles, Joseph R., 5, 39, 57, 153, 168, 213, 273
(p. 573) Miles, M. B., 128
on leader function, 328–29
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, 249, 252
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, 249
mirroring, 449
modeling, 330, 458
modern era (after 1930), of group work, 54–59
Deming, 56
human potential movement, 56–57
Lewin, 55, 55
research and evaluation in, 57–59
Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, 55–56
World War II veterans treatment, 54–55
moral action, implementation of, 63
moral and ethical development in group counseling, 62–67
ethics in groups research, 65–67
general ethics practice research, 64–65
intellectual and moral development, 63
moral and ethics education, research and recommendations for, 63–64
moral and ethics education, 63–64
Moreno, J. L., 4, 21, 25, 37, 53, 156, 279, 385
Morgan-Lopez, A. A., 265
Morita therapy, 477–78
Morran, D. K., 6, 296
Morrow, S. L., 108, 270–71
Moss, E., 373, 377
Mullen, B., 141, 223
Mullison, D., 132
on universality, 194–95
multicultural competency models, 360
developing and communicating, 360–61
multicultural competent leaders, training of, 88–92
multicultural group work, 5, 83, 104
ASGW on, 84, 360
basic definitions of, 84
guidelines, of APA, 110
guidelines for leading, 91–96
types of, 84–85
Multifactor Leader Questionnaire, 255
multilevel analysis, 23
process examination by, 23
Muro, J. C., on leader function, 327–28
Murphy, L., 376–77
music therapy, 108
mutual help groups, 9, 12, 351, 511, 519, 561
change and, 515
collaboration and, 518
defining, 512–13
helpers in, 515–16
means of helping in, 513–15
professional practice and, 516–18
technology and, 516
MySpace social network, 528–29
N
narrative approaches
to individual therapy, 107
to social justice groups, 111
National Association of Social Workers (NASW), 68, 69, 350, 365
Code of Ethics, 65, 71
National Board for Certified Counselors, Code of Ethics, 70
National Center for Veterans Analysis and Statistics, 400
National Registry of Certified Group Psychotherapists (NRCGP), Guidelines for Ethics, 75
National Training Laboratory in Group Development (NTL Institute), 55
Native American, 87, 88, 95
nature of group, 4
boundaries, 24–25
cohesion, 26–27
entitativity and, 27
interdependence, 25
relationships, 23–24
structure, 25–26
needs assessment, 249
data collection in, 247–48
existing data and observation in, 247
group goals and process in, 246–47
interviewing key informants, 247
need to belong, 28
negative relationship, group climate and, 177
Newmeyer, M. D., 7
Next Step Plan (NSP), 424
Ning social network, 529
No Child Left Behind, 423
nonindependence, 127
nonlinearity, in complexity theory, 193
nonmaleficence, 68
non-Western society, collectivism in, 21
Norcross, J., 211, 225
norms, 26, 29–30
culturally sensitive group, 93
number needed to harm (NNH), 211
number needed to treat (NNT), 211
nurturant attractiveness, 295–96, 339
O
observation
ethical concerns and, 363
nonindependence of, 225
teaching model, 355, 355t
Oei, T. P. S., 124, 152
Ogrodniczuk, J. S., 145, 170–71, 209
Ohlsen, M. M., 44, 45, 292
Olguin, D. L., 8
online groups, 9, 13, 561
for alcohol abuse treatment and support, 523–24
for depression treatment, 522–23
ethics, 520, 522–23, 529
Facebook, 521–22
future of, 530, 532
leadership, 520, 522–23, 529–30, 531t
process, 520, 522–23
range and distribution of, 524–30
research on, 9, 14, 524–26
social networking sites, 524–29
support group for caretakers, 520–21
open groups, 14, 24–25
operationalization guidelines, sexual minority and, 440–41
oppression, 8
of women, 105
organization groups, 13
origins era, of group work, 52–53
outcome
client, supervision and, 372
cohesion and, 146–47, 147–49t, 149–53, 172
extant group research, 212
group climate and, 170–71
in group counseling, 6
group-level process and, 21
for group members, therapeutic factors and, 124, 128–29
group work and, 557
individual therapy, 6
member, 379
research, 213
outcome assessment, 251
client status and behavior in, 252–53
extended baseline design, 253–54
health and development in, 252
posttest-only design, 253
pretest, posttest design, 253
random assignment wait list control group design, 254
well-being and, 252
Outcome Questionnaire (OQ), 209
outsider, entitativity perception by, 27
overlapping
continuum, of group counseling, 45–46
group climate and, 165–67
P
Pack-Brown, S. P., 92, 95
Page, B. J., 9
Pandya, V., 93, 280
Paquin, J. D., 5
paradigms, 302
experimental model of, 502–3
group-work, 7, 301
qualitative research and, 261–62
research, 262t
(p. 574) parallel process
in group counseling supervision, 374
relationships in, 92
parent-child attachments, 417
partially undifferentiated type, of group counseling, 41–42
Patton, M. J., 132, 195
peer group counseling, 422–23
perception
of individual and group, 20–21
member, of therapeutic factors, 125, 130, 134
by outsider, of entitativity, 27
patient, of group climate, 225
ranked, in group counseling, 125–26
social, dispositionality and, 21
Perez, R. M., 438
performing
for group, 311, 318t, 321–24t
in professional development, 301–2
Periodic Health Examination classification system, 213
Perls, F., 4, 38, 47, 53
person, in group-work paradigm, 7, 301
personal development, of leader, 7
behavioral factors, 291–92
cultural factors, 290–91
formative factors of, 288–95
psychological factors, 289–90
systemic factors, 290
personal growth groups, 359
personal relations, 185
personhood, of leader, 6–7, 287–303, 289f, 558
caring and, 300
charismatic expertness and, 296–97
cohesion and, 298
in context, 288
elements of, 289
emotional stimulation, 300
executive function and, 300
formative factors of, 288–99
foundational factors, 299–301
functional factors of, 297–99
importance of, 288
leader communication and feedback, 298–99
meaning attribution and, 300–301
member selection, 91–92, 297
multidisciplinary convergence and, 301
nurturant attractiveness and, 295–96
portraits of, 292–94
positive leader-member relationship, 297
pregroup preparation, 11, 297
professional development and, 301–2
research, 295–301
structure use by, 298
Peters, J. J., 152, 153, 159
Pettifor, J. P., 61, 68–69
Pfeiffer, J., 307, 309–10
phenomenological research, 266–67, 278–79
Phipps, L. B., 170
Pincus, A. L., 146, 195
pioneer era (1900-1930), of group work, 53–54
Addams in, 53–54, 54
Davis in, 54, 55
Pratt in, 53
Piper, W. E., 139, 144, 145, 170–71, 209
Pistrang, N., 86, 94
planning
for group, 11, 311, 318t
in group development, 301–2
positive bond, group climate and, 176–77
positive valence, of leader, 11
positivism, 261, 265
postgroup assessment, 251
Posthuma, B. W., 46, 336
postpositivism, 261, 281
posttest-only design, 253
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 400–401, 428–29
potentially harmful treatments (PHTs), 361
Practice Guidelines for Group Psychotherapy, of AGPA, 47–48, 84, 256, 441
practice implications, on leader function, 344
practitioner and academic collaboration, 6, 234–37
Pratt, J., 4, 37, 41, 53, 207
pregroup preparation, 11, 297
preparation
leader, 91
for member, in assessment, 248–54
phase, in BGT, 493–95
pregroup, 11, 297
pretest, posttest design, 253
prevention, 10, 13, 61
categorizing, 454–56
group work, 453–54
interventions, 8
outreach, for Latino, 108–9
prevention groups, 8, 12, 151, 452–65, 560
advantages of, 456
classifications of, 8
in counseling center, university, 409
examples of, 462t
group dynamics and, 459–60
IPV, 464
Latino outreach, 108–9
leadership, 460–61
member and leader generation by, 457
multiple sources in, 456
primary, 8, 29, 454–55, 461–63
role of, 451–54
in school setting, 407
secondary, 8, 454–55, 463–64
social action advocacy groups, 465
tertiary, 8, 454–55, 464–65
therapeutic factors and, 457–59
Prilleltensky, I., 105, 108
primary prevention group, 8, 29, 454–55, 461–63
multicultural communication skills group, 463
SAAFP, 461–62
Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers, of ASGW, 84, 88, 374, 441, 447
problem-focused groups, 20
process. See also key change process; qualitative research process
atheoretical research design, 6
best practices, 311–12, 319t
creative, 386–87
dynamics and, 255–56, 379
extant group research, 212
feedback, 199, 298
in group counseling, 6, 301
in group-work paradigm, 7
multilevel analysis of, 23
orientation, 9
research, in BGT, 503–4
stages, 9
training group model, 354, 354t
variables, 121
processing
dynamics, 379
in group, 311–13, 319t
in professional development, 301–2
professional development
of leader, 7, 288–95
personhood of leader and, 301–2
training for, 559
professional ethics codes, ethics documents principles, 67–69
professional practice, 288
mutual help groups and, 516–18
Professional Standards for Group Counseling, of ASGW, 58
Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers, of ASGW, 40, 58, 182, 349, 373, 441
programmatic research, 6, 241–42
progressive relationships, 92
progressive stage model, 5, 184–92
Beck model, 188–90, 192–97
Bennis and Shepard model, 184–86, 197
comparison among, 191–92
context dependent models, 187–89
MacKenzie and Livesley model, 189–90, 192, 197
major contemporary, 188–91
systems-centered group therapy, 190–91
Tuckman model, 186–88
protective mechanisms, 448–49
provider leadership style, 336
psychodrama, 53, 385
(p. 575) psychoeducation groups, 4, 10, 12–13, 20, 43, 201, 208, 311, 373, 422, 455
in counseling center, university, 408–9
in medical setting, 404–5
social justice and, 106–9
psychogenicism, 22
psychological factors, of personal development, 289–90
psychological first-aid (PFA) group, 9, 538–41
advantages and limitations of, 542t
psychological group, 27
psychology, 22
ethics documents, 70–71
group guidelines, 74–75
psychometrics, 6
psychopolitical validity, 108
psychosocial development, 8, 416–34, 560
children: 1st to 5th grades stage in, 420–22
college stage, 424–26
early adolescence stage, 422–23
early career stage, 426–27
established career stage, 427–29
facing retirement stage, 429–31
high school stage, 423–24
infant stage in, 417–18
retirement and beyond stage, 431–32
toddler stage and, 418–20
Psychotherapy Adaptation and Modification Framework, 96
Psychotherapy Debate, 227t
psychotherapy groups, 4, 10, 12–13, 41–44, 192, 311, 350
cohesion in, 5
research on, 14
themes of, 223t
topics by decade, 223t
psychotherapy model of supervision, 375
PsycINFO, 226, 308
punctuated equilibrium model, 5–6, 194
purpose
development, 274
in professional development, 301
of qualitative research, 262–63, 264t
purposeful group techniques model (PGTM)
analysis step of, 314–16
“best fit” technique, 317
collaboration in, 7, 314
context in, 7, 311–12
identification step, 311–14
implementation and evaluation step, 317–18
interconnection in, 7, 314–15
meaning making in, 7, 315–16
review step of, 316–17
social system maintenance in, 7, 315
sustainability in, 7, 316
purposeful sampling, 273
Putnam, R., 31
Q
Q-sort, 122–23, 125, 130, 254
qualitative research, 6, 123, 260–70, 271t, 558
case study, 240–41
case study research, 268–69, 279–80
characteristics of, 6
conceptual context of, 274–75
description of good, 270, 272–73
ethnographic research, 267–68
ethnography, 241
general research models, 240–41
grounded theory, 241, 269–70
group counseling and, 263–66, 278–81
Maxwell on, 262–63
methodological congruence in, 273–74
paradigms and worldviews and, 261–62
phenomenological research, 266–67
purpose of, 262–63, 264t
strengths and limitations of, 262–63
trustworthiness of, 272–73
qualitative research process
conceptual context, 274–75
credibility in, 277–78
method choice, 275–77
purpose development, 274
question development, 275
quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), 208
quality circle groups, 12
quality-management groups, 4
quantitative research, 6
correlational research, 240
descriptive research, 240
ex post facto designs, 239–40
quasi-experimental designs, 239
single-subject designs, 239
true experimental designs, 239
quasi-experimental designs, 239
R
racial/ethnic group, 84
racial identity theory, 12, 105
random assignment wait list control group design, 254
randomized controlled treatments (RCTs), 210–12, 226–27
Rapin, L. S., 4, 90
rapprochement, 211
reality, of group, 20–23
redundancy, 273
Rees, J.R., 4, 56
reflexivity, 272
regressive relationships, 92
relational self, 30
relationship, 23, 177t, 178
client, 71
crossed, 92
dual, 64
dyadic, 28, 29
enhancement group, 464
equation for, 24
group climate and, 5, 173–74, 176, 177
leader to member, 297
member, 4
parallel, 92
progressive, 92
regressive, 92
research, 276
sexual minority, 440
strength of, 24
supervisory, 7, 559
types of, 24
variables, in group climate, 5
religion, 84
remediation, 10, 13, 61
research, 13–14, 557–58. See also general research models; qualitative research; qualitative research process; quantitative research
on cohesion, 158–59, 556
community-based, for social change, 108
on creativity in groups, 387–92
design selection, 241
extant group, 212–13, 219, 223, 225
on general ethics practice, 64–65
from global perspective, 9, 472–76
group climate, 170–73
group practice integration with, 256
interdisciplinary, 6
on leader function and style, 338–41, 341–42t, 343–44
LGBT group, 438–39
methods, general, 6, 231–42
needs, of group counseling, 264–65, 562
on online groups, 9, 14, 524–26
outcome, 213
paradigms, 262t
personhood and, 295–301
process, in BGT, 503–4
programmatic, 6
on psychotherapy groups, 14
relationship, defining, 276
responsibility of group-level analysis, 31
social justice groups and, 106–10
on spontaneity in groups, 387–91
supervision, 379–80
on supervision, 559
team approach to, 6, 233–37
on therapeutic factors, 5, 555
training and, 6, 14, 232–33
research-supported group treatment (RSGT), 13
resource
mobilization, 332
multiple, in prevention groups, 456
retirement and beyond stage, of psychosocial development, 431–32
future directions, 432
group therapist considerations, 431
sample group model, 431–32
(p. 576) review step, of PGTM, 316–17
right from the start (RFTS) group, 418
Risk Intimacy Inventory, 340
Ritter, K., 8
Riva, Maria T., 7, 66, 297
Robbins, R. N., 152–53
Robertson, S. E., 187
on leader function, 333
Roether, H. A., 152, 153, 159
Rogers, Carl, 4, 38, 57, 57
role-play, 389
Rose, S. R., 86, 340–41
Rosenberg, S., 22
on therapeutic factors, 194
Rubel, D. J., 6
rules-keeping, Trotzer on, 332
Rybak, C. J., 42, 44, 46
S
Salazar, C., 88, 89
sample group model
children: 1st to 5th grade stage and, 420–22
college stage and, 425–26
early adolescence stage and, 422–23
early career stage and, 426–27
established career stage, 428–29
facing retirement stage, 430
high school stage and, 424
infant stage and, 417–18
retirement and beyond stage, 431–32
toddler stage and, 419
saturation, 269
SCAMPER, creativity and, 389–92
scapegoating, 156
scapegoat leader, 188
Schechtman, Z., 157, 188
Scheidlinger, S., on leader function, 333
schools, 8, 37
CBT in, 407–8
counseling groups in, 333
empowerment groups in, 13
group work in, 408
mental health groups in, 407
prevention group in, 407
psychoeducational group in, 407
setting, for group, 406–8
Schutz, W., 38, 57, 192
on leader function, 326
Schwartz Moravec, M., 6
scientific method
EBM and, 208–12
EBPP and, 208–12
screening, for BGT, 494–95
secondary prevention group, 8, 29, 454–55
Bully Busters Program, 463–64
domestic violence, 464
Secondlife social network, 529
The Second Twenty Years at Hull House (Addams), 54
self
collective, 30
-determination, 108
group-level process and, 30
relational, 30
self-awareness, 122
exclusion and, 28–29
of racial identity, 12
self-esteem, 298
cohesion and, 140–41
exclusion and, 28–29
identity and, 30
self-help groups. See mutual help groups
self-organization, in complexity theory, 193
sensitivity, 211
in complexity theory, 193
Sensitivity Training and the Laboratory Approach: Reading about Concepts and Applications (Golembiewski/Blumberg), 38
session agenda, group climate and, 172
settings, of groups, 8
behavioral health, 403–6
counseling centers, university, 408–10
inpatient facilities, 410–11
managed health care, 403–6
medical, 403–6
offenders and mandated clients, 411
schools, 406–8
Veterans Administration Setting, 399–403
settling in years (1970-1989), 10
sexual minority, group counseling with, 8, 436–49, 560. See also lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered
affirmative counseling and, 441
APA practice guidelines, 439
cultural competencies, 441–42
diversity issues, 440
education, 440
effective leadership in, 446–48
group composition, 443–45
group dynamics and members for, 448–49
group-specific guidelines and principles, 441
guidelines, 439–42
heterogeneous group, 444–45
homogeneous group, 444
homosexuality and bisexuality attitudes and, 439–40
leader sexual orientation, 445–46
member selection in, 442–43
operationalization guidelines, 440–41
relationships and families, 440
sexual prejudice, 436–38
sexual orientation, 84
of leader, 8, 445–46
sexual prejudice, 436–38
group counseling implications, 437
orientations and identities, 437
shame, 449
Shapiro, J. L., 9
Sheats, P., 25, 38
Shechtman, Z., 128, 340
Shephard, D. S., 40–41, 46
Shephard, H. A., 184–86, 197
Sherif, M., 22, 25
significance, of group, 20, 27–31
Silverman, P. R., 9
simulation teaching model, 352–54, 353t
Singh, A. A., 93, 108
single-subject designs, 239
situational leadership theory, 255, 337, 348
skills, 4, 360
based teaching models, 355–56
based training, 362
Slater, P. E., on leader function, 326
Slavson, S. R., 32, 37, 58, 208, 293
social action advocacy groups, 465
social activists, 457
social advocacy movement, 104
social brain hypothesis, of Dunbar, 24
social categorization, 30
social change, community-based research for, 108
social class/status, 84
social exchange theory, 25
social identity theory, 21, 30, 140
social isolation, 9, 22–23
socializing technique, 459
social justice, 84, 208, 261
advocacy, 111
approach, to group counseling, 5
defining, 103
group counseling and, 7, 103–4
psychoeducation groups and, 106–9
social justice groups, 4, 12–13, 57
implications of, 110–13
LGBT in, 109
narrative approaches to, 111
obstacles to, 110
research and, 106–10
theoretical foundations for, 106
training models for, 111–12
social loafing, 153
social loneliness, 28
social networking, 9, 24, 29, 524–29
Facebook, 527–28
Flock, 529
Linkedin, 529
MySpace, 528–29
Secondlife, 529
Twitter, 527
social perception, dispositionality and, 21
social phobia, 150–51, 152
social psychology, 14, 37
research, 124
social role model of supervision, 376
(p. 577) social support, 29
social system maintenance, 7, 315
social work
ethics foundations, 71
group practice standards, 74
Society for Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy, of APA, 3, 74
Group Practice and Research Network of, 76
socioemotional cohesion, 139
sociometry, 21
specificity, 211
spiritual and trauma (ST) group, 9, 541, 549
core group values of, 545
rationale for, 543–45
session overview of, 545t, 546–48
therapeutic goals of, 544–45
treatment model of, 544
spiritual coping groups, HIV/AIDS and, 428
spiritual healing, 95
spontaneity, in groups, 7–8, 196, 385–86, 559
future directions in, 392–94
importance and benefits of, 387
online resources for, 394t
research on, 387–91
standardization and further expansion to age of ubiquity years (1990-present), 10
standards, for leadership, 11, 40, 42–43, 66, 74
Standards for Social Work Practice with Groups, 74
Statement of Ethical Principles and Standards, of ACPA, 70
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, 249
“The Statistical Analysis of Data from Small Groups” (Kenny), 130
stereotyping, 30
Stockton, R., 6, 172, 232, 296
Stogdill, R. M., 348
on leadership style, 337
Strauss, A., 269, 279
Strauss, B., 174, 176, 348
The Strong African American Families Program (SAAFP), 461–62
structure, of group, 4, 25–26
durability and, 25
norms and, 26
structured experiences, 7, 308, 319
Pfeiffer and Jones on, 309–10
structured group, 6
style, of leadership, 7, 336–41, 341–42t, 348, 558
style model, of leadership, 348
subgroup, 26, 185
substance abuse, 150
treatment and support, online group for, 523–24
substance-abuse day-treatment programs (SADPs), 401–2
substantive themes by clinical populations, 224t
Sue, S., 94, 97
suicide, Durkheim on, 20
Sullivan, D. F., 41
supervisee
anxiety, 374
cognitive complexity of, 372
research on, 559
supervisor leading group with, 377
supervision
client outcomes and, 372
ethical considerations in, 379–80
of group counseling, 7, 370–80
by group of leader, 377–78
of individual counseling, 371–72
with leader, 376–77
positive supervisory alliance in, 371–72, 378
research, 379–80
research on, 559
skill development and, 379
supervision, models of, 375–78
developmental model, 376
psychotherapy model, 375
social role model, 376
supervisor
leader relationship, 7, 559
responsibility of, 7
supervisee leading group with, 377
support, 374
support group, 351, 404–5
for LGBT individuals, 443
online, for caretakers, 520–21
supportive group therapy, 400–401
sustainability, 7, 316
symbolic interactionists, 269
Symptom Checklist-90 Revised, 249, 252
syntality, 21, 32
synthesizing tools, 225–26
system change, 13
systemic factors, of personal development, 290
systems-centered group therapy, 190–91
systems theories, 375
T
Tarrant, J., 10, 171
task cohesion, 139
task group, 12, 13, 311, 455
task leader, 188
task-oriented behaviors, 11
task-roles, in group, 25
Taube-Schiff, M., 150, 151
Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, 38, 55–56
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom), 372
teaching leadership, 7
strategies for, 364–465
teaching models, 7
didactic, 352
observation, 355, 355t
process and therapy, 354, 354t
simulation, 352–54, 353t
skills based, 355–56
team approach, to research, 6
advanced-level team members, 234
beginner-level team members, 233–34
teamwork, 21
value of, 557
technology in group work, 65
in mutual help groups, 516
telephone groups, 431–32
Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, 252
termination, 189
orientation, 9
phase, of BGT, 498–500
stage of group development model, 200–201
tertiary prevention group, 8, 454–55
incest survivors group, 464–65
relationship-enhancement group, 464
T-Group Theory and Laboratory Method: Innovation in Re-education (Bradford/Gibb/Benne), 38
Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy (Yalom), 39, 329
therapeutic alliance, 5, 138, 159, 555–56
therapeutic factors
Corsini on, 194
leadership and, 133–34
therapeutic factors, in group counseling, 6, 10, 39
altruism, 122, 458
beneficial, 128
Bloch and Crouch on, 123t
catharsis, 458
change profile for, 132f, 133
cohesion, 458
factor analyses of, 126t
family reenactment, 458
group development and, 194–95
group-level analysis and, 127
group process and, 133–34
group process assessment and, 254
individual level and, 129–30
interpersonal learning, 122, 458
as key change process, 5
Kivlighan and Goldfine ratings of, 130, 131t
Kivlighan and Holmes on, 125–26
measurement of, 130–33
member perception of, 125, 130, 134
outcomes for group members and, 124, 128–29
prevention and, 8, 457–59
ranked perception of, 125–26
recent literature on, 124–25
research on, 5, 121–24, 555
Yalom on, 121–23, 122t, 128, 130, 132, 134, 194, 242, 407, 418, 448
(p. 578) Therapeutic Factors Inventory, 142
therapeutic goals, of ST groups, 544–45
therapeutic groups, 4, 164, 455
Three-Factor Group Questionnaire, 143
three-factor model of therapeutic relationships in group, 176–78, 177t
Tilin, F., 195, 196
time-limited groups, 9, 152
toddler stage, in psychosocial development, 418–20
future directions in, 419–20
group therapist considerations, 418–19
sample group model of, 419
Total Quality Management, 56
training
ethical needs in, 362–63
implications for leader function, 344
leader, 5, 557
leaders, for BGT, 504–6, 560
models for social model groups, 111–12
of multicultural competent leaders, 88–91
needs, 365
needs commonalities, 351
in organizations, 19
for professional development, 559
research and, 6, 14, 232–33
standards, 11, 72–76, 72t, 348–52, 357, 359
videos and computer simulations for, 13
transcendental, empirical phenomenology, 266
Transcoop measurement, of AGPA, 174, 175t, 178
transformational leadership, 348
transformational psychopolitical validity, 108
transition phase, of BGT, 495–97
transition stage, of group development, 310
trauma/disaster (TD) groups, 9, 12, 13, 561
history of, 535
PFA amd, 538–41
rationale for, 534–35
RCTs of, 537t
ST group and, 541, 543–48
study review on, 535–36, 538
treatment phase, of BGT, 497–98
triangulation, 278
Trotzer, James P., 6–7, 44–45, 46, 293
on conflict resolution, 332
on consolidating function, 329
on interaction, 329, 332
on intervention, 329
on leader function, 331–32
on resource mobilization, 332
on rules-keeping, 332
true experimental designs, 239
trustworthiness, 272–73
Tschuschke, V., 145, 150, 151, 195, 354
Tuckman, B., 39
progressive stage model, 186–88
stage theory of group development, 139
Tuckman progressive stage model, 186–88
Turner, J. C., 27, 30
Twenty Years at Hull House (Addams), 54
Twitter social network, 527
types
ASGW on group, 4, 13, 301, 311
of diversity group, 85–86t
of group, 350–52, 351t, 373
of group counseling, 41–45
group counseling supervision and, 373
of multicultural group work, 84–85
of relationship, 24
U
undifferentiated type, of group counseling, 41–42
universality, 122, 194–95
cohesion and, 141–42
unstructured group, 6
V
validity, 277–78
value, 62
core group, of ST groups, 545
options, 63
verbal stimulation, 339
vertical cohesion, 138
Veterans Administration (VA) programs, 8, 399–401
on gender roles, 403
for PTSD, 400–401
of SADPs, 401–2
victimization, 439
videos, for training, 13
virtue, 62–63
ethics, 69
VISTAS Online, 237
W
Waldo, M., 6, 8, 43
Ward, D. E., 4, 42, 44, 313, 349, 373
Watson, P. J., 9
Welfel, E. R., 64, 67
“What to Look for in Groups” (Hanson), 89
Wheelan, S. A., 42, 44, 46, 145, 196
GDOS of, 195
White, J. C., 158
on leader function and style, 335–36, 338
Wilbur, M. P., 42, 95
Williams, C. D., 88
Williams, E. C., 72
Williams, K. D., 28, 153
Wilson, E. R., 373
Wilson, F. R., 64, 90, 299, 349, 350
Wolpe-Lazurus Assertiveness Scale, 250
Wood, P. K., 132, 195
Woody, S. R., 146, 151, 157
work and task groups, 4
Working Alliance Inventory, 340
working stage, of group development, 310
World Federation for Mental Health, 56
World War II, 9, 10, 54–55, 56, 104, 400
Y
Yalom, I., 4, 37, 39, 57, 58, 83–84, 91, 125, 168, 227, 279, 296–97
on caring, 329
on cohesion, 137–40, 139, 146
on curative factors, 295
on emotional stimulation, 328
on executive function, 329
on family dynamics, 289
on leader function, 10–11, 292–94, 328–31
on learning, 47, 354
on support groups, 404
on therapeutic factors, 121–23, 122t, 128, 130, 132, 134, 194, 242, 407, 418, 448
Youth at Risk: A Prevention Resource for Counselors, Teachers, and Parents, 247
Z
Zander, A., 23–24, 25, 27, 38
on leader function, 326
Zane, N., 94, 97