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date: 20 November 2019

(p. 485) Subject Index

(p. 485) Subject Index

A
Adipokinetic hormone, 281–282
ADRB1,ADRB2, 344–345
Adrenergic receptors, 371–372, 382
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), 9–10, 204, 299–300
Affective science, 18. See also Positive emotions (positive affect)
African-Americans, 7
Aging and well-being
affective style in immune response, 43–45, 51–52
Alameda County Study, 41–42
atherosclerosis, 48
B cell senescence, 40
benefit finding, 47, 50
broaden-and-build theory, 38
cancer studies, 44, 45, 47, 49–50, 50–51
caregiving stress, 43–44, 48
cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), 50
cognitive processing, 47, 50
cortisol, 51–52
C-reactive protein, 44–45, 45–46, 46
cytomegalovirus infections, 39–40
eudaimonic well-being, 40–42, 45–47, 52–53
exercise, 49, 52
fibrinogen, 48
future research directions, 54–55
growth hormone, 52
Health and Retirement Study, 41–42
health behaviors, 52–53
hedonic well-being, 40–42, 43–45, 52–53
HIV/AIDS, 50
HPA axis, 51–52
IGF-1, 52
immunosenescence, 37, 39–40, 44–45, 46–47, 51, 51–52
innate immune response, 44
interferon-γ, 40, 44, 46, 49, 50
inter-individual differences vs. intra-individual change, 42–43
interleukin-2, 40, 43–44, 50
interleukin-6, 43–45, 45–47, 48
interleukin-10, 44, 46
interleukin-12, 44
interleukin-1β, 43–44, 45
interventions, 48–51
loneliness, 46–47, 53
MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, 52
macrophages, 40
marriage, 53
MBSR protocol, 50–51
Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, 41–42
meditation, 50–51
MESA study, 48
MIDUS study, 45–46, 51–52, 52–53
natural killer (NK) cells, 40, 47
optimism vs. pessimism, 47–48
overview, 19, 37–39
paradox of aging, 41
physiological regulatory systems, 51–52
proinflammatory cytokines, 38, 40, 43–45, 45–47, 48, 50
psychological resources, 38
psychosocial processes, 37–38, 47–48
purpose in life, 45–46
rhinovirus studies, 44
sense of coherence (SOC), 47
sleep, 52–53
SNS impairment, 51–52
social isolation, relationships, 46–47, 52, 53
social support in, 219
social well-being, 40–42, 45–47
spirituality benefits, 48
Tai Chi, Qigong, 49
T cell senescence, 39–40
telomere shortening, telomerase decline, 40, 48
TNF-α, 46
vaccination and exercise, 49
vaccination response, 43–44, 47, 48–49
well-being/health decline relationships, 41–42
well-being therapy, 53–54
well-being vs. ill-being, 38–39, 43–45
Whitehall II, 52–53
WLS study, 46
Aging of immune system
adaptive immunity, 64–65
adenosine/ADA expression, 69–70
Alzheimer's disease, 67–68, 68–69, 72
apoptosis, 66
atherosclerosis, 67–68, 68
B cells, 64–65
cancer, 63–64, 66–67
CD8 cells, 66–67, 68, 70
CD28 cells, 65, 66–67, 69–70
cholesterol, 68
cortisol, 69
C-reactive protein, 68
cytokines, 66, 68, 69–70
cytomegalovirus, 63–64, 66–67, 69, 71
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 69
diabetes type 2, 67–68
dyskeratosis congenita, 67–68
Epstein-Barr virus, 63–64, 66–67, 69
(p. 486) 17β-estradiol, 70–71
exercise, 71
future research directions, 72
heart disease, 67–68
herpes viruses, 66–67
HIV/AIDS, 66–67, 67–68, 70
hTERT, 70
immune system generally, 64–65, 67–69
insulin resistance, 67–68
interferon-γ, 66, 68, 70
interleukin-2, 69–70
interleukin-6, 66, 68
latent infection, 67, 69
lifestyle interventions, 71–72
low-density lipids (LDL), 68
meditation, 71–72
mind-body connections, 69–70
neural reflexes, 69
neurotransmitters, 69
osteoimmunology, 68
osteoporosis, 68
overview, 63–64, 72
oxidative stress, 64, 65–66, 68
preventive/treatment strategies, 70–72
psychological stress, 63–64, 69
psychoneuroimmunology, 69–70
RANKL, 68
replicative senescence, 65, 69
rheumatoid arthritis, 68
t'ai chi, 71
T cells (chronically stimulated), 65–66
T cells (cytotoxic), 64–65
telomerase targeting, 70–71
telomere shortening, telomerase decline, 65–66, 67–69, 69
thymus reduction, 63
TNFα, 66, 68, 70–71
vaccination, 63, 69, 71
viral infections, 63–64, 66, 66–67, 69
vitamin D, 71
Alameda County Study, 221
Allergies. See also Delayed-type hypersensitivity
immunity, 19–20, 20, 24–25
positive emotions (positive affect), 97, 100
seasonality, 293, 298–299
Alzheimer's disease
aging of immune system, 67–68, 68–69, 72
effects on natural killer (NK) cells, 4
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 373–374, 378–379
Anger. See also Hostility
adiposity, obesity effects, 187
C-reactive protein, 182–185
cross-sectional studies, 182–185
cytokine expression in, 171–172
gender effects, 186–187
instinctive theory of aggression, 307–308
interleukin-6, 182–185
measures of, 172–173
overview, 174
as self-conscious emotion, 85–86
soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM), 183
studies of generally, 178, 182
TNF-α, 182–185
Anorexia, illness-induced, 278, 278–279, 279–281
Anxiety
in cancer, 342
personality, animal, 130–131, 133, 135–136, 137–138
as self-conscious emotion, 82, 85–86
separation anxiety, 28t
social anxiety, 85
Apolipophorin III, 281, 282, 286, 283f
Aristippus, 41
Aristotle, 41
Asthma
emotional expression, disclosure, 111
immunity, 19–20
seasonality, 298
social regulation of gene expression, 259
socioeconomic status, 246
Atherosclerosis, 19
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 237
B
Bacterial infections. See Infections
B cells
aging of immune system, 64–65
in emotional expression and disclosure, 113–114
senescence in aging and well-being, 40
socioeconomic status, 238–241
Behavioral interventions. See Stress management interventions
Best possible self, 109, 117–118. See also Emotional expression and disclosure
β-adrenergic agonists, 388–389, 392
β-adrenergic receptors
cancer, 344–345, 347, 350
social regulation of gene expression, 258, 265–267
Big Five traits, 146, 148, 166
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 347–348, 378–379
Breast cancer
classification of, 386–387, 386t
cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM), 400–401
disease processes, PNI and, 389, 399–402
endocrine-immune interactions, 388–389
expressive supportive group therapy (ESGT), 398–399
mortality, 344, 350–351
PNI efficacy in, 402–403
rationale for PNI intervention in, 398
C
Cancer
ADRB1,ADRB2, 344–345
aging and well-being studies of, 44, 45, 47, 49–50, 50–51
angiogenesis, 346, 346–348
anoikis, 346, 348–349
anxiety, 342
at-risk population identification, 357–358
avoidance, 343
β-adrenergic receptors, 344–345, 347, 350
biobehavioral factors
in cancer incidence, 341–342
in cancer progression, 342–344, 345f, 348–349
clinical significance of, 358
inflammation, effects on, 353–354
in neuroendocrine dysregulation, 355
sensitive periods for, 358
brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), 347–348
breast cancer mortality, 344, 350–351 (See also Breast cancer)
catecholamines, 350, 353
CD species cells, 351
cervical, 396
CMT-3, 348
cognitive-behavioral stress management, 351
coping strategies, 343, 351
cortisol, 344–345, 348, 351, 353, 354–355
(p. 487) cytotoxic T lymphocytes, 345f, 349–350
denial, minimization, 343
depression, 342, 342–343, 344, 347, 349, 353–354
emotional distress, 342–343
enriched environment, 347–348
epinephrine, 347, 348
fatigue, sleep disturbance studies, 325–326, 330–332
fighting spirit approach, 343
focal adhesion kinase (FAK), 348–349
gene activation patterns, 349, 355
glucocorticoids, 344–345, 350, 355
hematologic malignancies mortality, 344
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 356–357
HPA axis modulation of, 344–345, 345f, 354–355
immune markers, tumor microenvironment, 345f, 352
immune response, 345f, 349–350, 355
immunogenic potential, 350
immunotherapy, 356–357
inflammation, 353–354
interleukin-1, 354–355
interleukin-1β, 354
interleukin-6, 346, 347, 352–353, 353–354, 355–356
interleukin-8, 346
interleukin-10, 352–353, 354, 355–356
interleukin-12, 352–353
isoproterenol, 348
leptin, 347–348
marriage effects, 203–204
matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), 345f, 348, 353
natural killer cells, 345f, 349, 350–352,
neuroendocrine dysregulation in, 354–355
neuroendocrine stress hormones, 345f, 347, 348
NMU-induced tumors, 354
norepinephrine, 344–345, 347, 348, 353
Nurses’ Health Study, 343–344
perceived stress, 351
personality, animal, 138, 139
pessimism, 343, 350
physiological pathway examination, 356
positive affect, 351–352
propranolol, 347, 348
prostaglandins, 350
protective psychosocial factors, 351–352
psychosocial interventions, 350–351
PTSD, 347
quality of life, 342–343, 345f
sickness behaviors, 353–354
SNS modulation of, 344–345, 345f
social support/isolation, 217, 218–219, 343–344, 349, 350–351
STAT3, 347
stress, 345f, 348–349, 350, 351, 355
stress-related immunosuppression model, 350–352
TGFβ, 352–353
TNFα, 354, 354–355
tumor associated macrophages (TAMs)
behavioral, neuroendocrine modulation of, 353
role of, 348, 352–353
stress effects on, 345f, 355–356
tumor growth, progression
angiogenesis, 346, 346–348
anoikis, 346, 348–349
bi-directional signaling in, 346, 353–354
HPA axis modulation of, 344–345, 345f, 354–355
malignant transformation, 345–346
metastasis, 346
SNS modulation of, 344–345, 345f
tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), 352
Women's Health Initiative study, 342
CARDIA study, 238, 243–244
Cardiovascular disease
cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM), 404
emotional expression and disclosure, 107, 108–109
inflammation
anger, hostility as risk factor, 185–186
depression as risk factor, 178–179
overview, 170–171
risk factors, 171–172
marriage effects on, 197–198, 204, 207
personality, human, 161
seasonality in, 297–298
socioeconomic status, 247
stress management interventions
classification of, 386–387, 386t
(p. 488) disease processes, PNI and, 389
immune processes in, 403
inflammation, 403–404
PNI efficacy, 404
psychosocial factors, 403–404
psychosocial intervention in, 404
Cardiovascular system reactivity
in emotional expression and disclosure, 107, 108–109
GRK2 effects, 374
in self-conscious emotions, 84–85
social support and, 222, 224
Catecholamines
in cancer, 350, 353
in comparative psychoneuroimmunology, 277–278
GRK2 and, 371–372, 379–380
marriage and, 204
in pregnancy and stress, 9–10
in seasonality, 296
in social regulation of gene expression, 258
stress management interventions and, 387–388, 388–389, 389, 392
Caucasians, 7
CCL3, 379–381
CD4 cells
emotional expression and disclosure, 108, 112–113
personality, animal, 134, 136
CD8 cells
aging of immune system, 66–67, 68, 70
emotional expression and disclosure, 107–108
personality, animal, 136
CD28 cells, 65, 66–67, 69–70
CD species cells
cancer, 351
in marriage, 199–200, 200–201
seasonality, 296–297
in social regulation of gene expression, 255
social support, 219
socioeconomic status, 244–245
Central nervous system. See CNS activation
Chemokines
in fatigue, sleep disturbance, 322–323
in hostility, 184–185
Chemotherapy, 325–326
Cholesterol, 68
Chronic fatigue syndrome
classification of, 386–387, 386t, 404–405
disease processes, PNI and, 389–390
distress reactions, 405–406
fatigue, sleep disturbance, 326–327
immune processes in, 405
PNI efficacy, 407–408
PNI processes, 405–406
psychosocial factors, 405–406
Chronic stress
adaptive function of, 284–285
as evolutionary force, 282–284
in fatigue, sleep disturbance, 331–332
CMT-3, 348
CNS activation
cytokines (proinflammatory) mediation by, 323–324
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 323–324
PNS, 94, 94–95, 225
seasonality, 296
SNS (See SNS activation)
social regulation of gene expression, 256, 269
Cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM)
aging and well-being, 50
breast cancer, 400–401
cardiovascular disease, 404
chronic fatigue syndrome, 407
efficacy in HIV/AIDS, 393–394, 394–396
program design, implementation, 394
Cognitive processing
aging and well-being, 47, 50
emotional expression, disclosure, 108, 109, 111–112, 115, 117
marriage effects on, 200
social support, 223
Comparative psychoneuroimmunology
adipokinetic hormone, 281–282
antimicrobial peptide production, 280–281
apolipophorin III, 281, 282, 283f, 286
bacterial burden tests, 286–287
benefits of, 277–278
carbohydrate consumption, 281
catecholamines, 277–278
chronic stress
adaptive function of, 284–285
as evolutionary force, 282–284
cognitive ability decline, 279
corticosterone, 284
cortisol, 282–284
cytokines, 277, 278–279
digestion, 280–281
disease resistance, 282, 283f, 285–287
ecological immunology, 278
fasting behaviors, 278–279
fight or flight behaviors, 282, 283f
FOXO pathway, 280–281
future directions, 287
glucocorticoids, 278, 282–284
hormones, 278
host resistance tests, 286
illness-induced anorexia, 278, 278–279, 279–281
immune assay, 285–287
immune function, 280–281, 281–282
immune-neural-behavioral interactions, 277–278
insects, 278, 279, 281–282
invertebrates, 278, 279
iron intake, 280
learning, 279
lipid intake, 281, 283f
macrophages, 277
memory, 279
motivational changes, 279
norepinephrine, 278
octopamine, 280, 281–282, 283f, 285
pathogen specificity, 279
pathogen susceptibility, 281
phenoloxidase system, 286
serotonin, 280
sickness behaviors, 278, 278–279
social behaviors, 279
stress hormones, 278, 281–282, 284–285
stress response, 281–282, 285
testosterone, 282–284
tolerance vs. resistance, 286
treatment design, 277–278
wound healing, 284
wound infection, 282
Coping strategies
emotional expression and disclosure, 109, 114–115, 131
personality, animal, 109, 114–115, 131, 137–138
reactive, in personality, animal, 130–131, 132–133, 137–138
Corticosteroids
positive affect and, 94
stress management interventions, 387–388, 388–389, 392
Corticosterone
personality, animal, 133, 136, 138, 139
seasonality, 295–296
Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), 324, 328
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), 9–10
Cortisol
aging and well-being, 51–52
aging of immune system, 69
comparative psychoneuroimmunology, 282–284
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 328, 329
marriage effects on, 204
personality, animal, 133–134, 138
phasic changes errors, 426
positive affect and, 94
pregnancy and stress, 9–10
sampling methods, 422
seasonality, 299–300
self-conscious emotions
glucocorticoid sensitivity, 87–88
physiological specificity studies, 88
proinflammatory cytokines, 79–80
reactivity, 81–82
reactivity in shame, 82–83
response generally, 82–83
social-evaluative threat response, 80, 80–81, 81–82
social regulation of gene expression, 258
social support, 225, 227
stress management interventions, 388–389, 389, 392, 400
C-reactive protein
aging and well-being, 44–45, 45–46, 46
aging of immune system, 68
anger, 182–185
emotional expression and disclosure, 111
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 322–323, 326, 326–327, 329, 331–332
hostility, 182–185, 185–186, 187
in self-conscious emotions, 86
social support, 217
socioeconomic status, 238, 239–241t, 242–243t, 243–244, 244, 245–246, 248
stress management interventions, 389, 403–404
Cytokines. See also specific cytokines
aging of immune system, 66, 68, 69–70
(p. 489) comparative
psychoneuroimmunology, 277, 278–279
emotional expression and disclosure, 107–108, 108, 110–111, 111, 111–112, 119
imbalance in hostility, 185
in immunity, 20, 20–21, 21, 29, 30
influences on motivation, 306–307, 312
in personality, human, 153, 154, 156–157, 160–161, 162, 163–164, 166
positive affect and, 96–97, 98, 100
pregnancy and stress, 4, 8–9, 11–12
reliability formulae, 422–424
social support, 216–217, 221–222, 224, 225
stress management interventions, 387–388, 389–390, 400, 403–404, 406
Cytokines (proinflammatory). See also specific cytokines
aging and well-being, 38, 40, 43–45, 45–47, 48, 50
aging of immune system, 66, 68, 69–70
fatigue and sleep disturbance
activation, sleep and, 327–329
CNS mediation by, 323–324
overview, 322–323
sickness behavior and, 324–325
sleep-inducing criteria, 328
GRK2 and, 372, 374, 378, 379–380, 381
inflammation role generally, 171, 178
marriage effects on, 200, 204–205
in personality, animal, 133, 135, 137–138, 138, 139–140
in seasonality, 294, 296–297, 298
in self-conscious emotions, 79–80, 81, 86, 86–87
Cytomegalovirus
aging and well-being, 39–40
aging of immune system, 63–64, 66–67, 69, 71
socioeconomic status, 238–241, 247
D
Daytime sleepiness, 321, 329, 330. See also Fatigue and sleep disturbance
Death rate patterns, 19
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 69
Delayed-type hypersensitivity. See also Allergies
emotional expression and disclosure, 119
personality, human, 159, 164
seasonality, 293, 298
social support, 218, 219
Depression
adiposity, obesity effects, 187
causal pathways, 178–179
C-reactive protein, 178–179, 179–180, 180–181, 183
cross-sectional relationships, 179–180
directionality (prospective) studies, 180–181
dose-response association, 179
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 322
fibrinogen, 180–181
gender effects, 186–187
interferon-α, 178
interleukin-2, 178
interleukin-6, 178–179, 179–180, 180–181
interleukin-8, 179–180
interleukin-10, 181
interleukin-1 species, 179–180, 181
leptin, 187
macrophage-T-lymhocyte hypothesis, 177–178, 179–180
marriage effects on, 202–203, 203–204
measures of, 172–173
meta-analysis of studies, 179
overview, 174
personality, animal, 138–140
social support, 224
stress management interventions, 387–388, 390–391, 403–404
studies of generally, 177–178, 181–182
temporal relationships, 181
TNF-α, 182–185, 187
Development, 19
Diabetes type 2, 67–68
Docetaxel, 326
Dopamine, 323
Dyskeratosis congenita, 67–68
E
Emotional expression and disclosure
adaptive immunity, 119
anger, 109–110, 115
arteriosclerosis, 108–109
asthma, 111
attentional bias, 109
autonomic nervous system effects, 107, 118–119
B cells, 113–114
best possible self, 109, 117–118
cancer, 114–115
cardiovascular reactivity, 107, 108–109
CD4 cells, 108, 112–113
CD8 cells, 107–108
cognitive processing, 108, 109, 111–112, 115, 117
coping strategies, 109, 114–115, 131
C-reactive protein, 111
delayed-type hypersensitivity response, 119
disinhibition, 117
emotional effects, 107, 117–118
Epstein-Barr virus, 113
expressive writing studies, 106–107
future research directions, 120
goals, 109, 115
headaches, 109–110
health benefits of, 105–106, 106–107, 116–117
heart disease, 107, 108–109
HIV/AIDS, 108, 112–113
hostility, 108–109, 109, 115
HPA axis, 118–119
immune system effects, 107–108
inflammation, 108–109, 111, 115–116
interferon-γ, 111, 111–112, 119
interleukins, 107–108, 108, 110–111, 111–112, 119
marital conflict, 110–111
meaning-making, 117
meta-analyses, 116–117
migraines, 109–110
moderators of, 108–109
natural killer cells, 107–108, 108–109
neuroimmune mechanisms, 118–119, 120
overview, 105–106, 116, 120
pain alleviation, 109–110
psoriasis, 115–116
psychological processes, theories, 117–118
psychosis, posttraumatic stress, 110, 117–118
racism, 113–114
reflection, narrative reconstruction, 120
repressor (type D) personalities, 108
rheumatoid arthritis, 108, 111–112
secure attachment style personalities, 108
(p. 490) self-conscious emotions, 107
self/no-self, 119
self-perceptions, myself, 120
self-regulation, 114–115, 117–118
sexual assault, abuse, 110
skin conductance levels studies, 107
social integration, 118
social isolation, 112, 119
state-dependent memory, 105
TNF-α, 108, 110–111, 111
trauma, 107, 110, 117–118
vaccination, 113–114, 119
word use, 105, 108, 117
wound healing, 115
Emotions, mood
overview, 18
self-conscious (See Self-conscious emotions)
Epinephrine
cancer, 347, 348
GRK2 and, 371–372, 379–380, 382
positive emotions (positive affect), 94
stress management interventions, 388–389, 392
Epstein-Barr virus
aging of immune system, 63–64, 66–67, 69
emotional expression and disclosure, 113
marriage effects on, 200–201, 204
personality, human, 152
Error
beta weight measurements, 425
covariance, 427–430
decision studies, 424–425
effect size, 426–427
funding issues, 425
mediational hypotheses tests, 425–426
meta-analysis, 427
Monte Carlo methods, 425
overcontrol, 429
overview, 421–422
partialling, 429–430
phasic changes, 426
physiometrics, 422–424, 430
prediction comparisons, 425
reliability, 422–424, 425, 428f, 430
significance testing, 427
study design, 425, 427
Type I, 426, 427
Type II, 426, 427
undercontrol, 428–429
variability, 422, 430
17β-estradiol, 70–71
Exercise
aging and well-being, 49, 52
aging of immune system, 71
vaccination and, 49
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, 373, 375
Expressive supportive group therapy (ESGT), 398–399
F
Fatigue and sleep disturbance
adalimumab, 332–333
anakinra, 332–333
anti-inflammatory agents, 332–333
bacterial infection, 328
behaviors in, 330–331
cancer studies, 325–326, 330–332
chemokines, 322–323
chemotherapy, 325–326
chronic fatigue syndrome, 326–327 (See also Chronic fatigue syndrome)
chronic stress in, 331–332
corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), 324, 328
cortisol, 328, 329
C-reactive protein, 322–323, 326, 326–327, 329, 331–332
cytokines (proinflammatory)
activation, sleep and, 327–329
CNS mediation by, 323–324
overview, 322–323
sickness behavior and, 324–325
sleep-inducing criteria, 328
daytime sleepiness, 321, 329, 330
depression, 322
docetaxel, 326
dopamine, 323
economic costs of, 321, 321–322
endotoxin studies, 325, 328
future directions, 333–334
gene polymorphisms, 326
growth hormone releasing hormone, 328
hepatitis C, 328
HPA axis, 324, 326, 330
ICAM-1, 322–323
inflammation
fatigue and, 325–327
as mechanism, 330
sleep characteristics, 327
sleep deprivation, 329
inflammatory reflex, 324
infliximab, 333
innate immunity, 329
insomnia, 321, 330–331
interferon-α, 325, 327–328, 328
interferon-β, 327–328
interferon-γ, 322–323
interleukin-1, 322–323, 323, 324, 327
interleukin-1β, 323, 324, 326, 328–329
interleukin-1ra, 326, 331–332
interleukin-2, 322–323, 329
interleukin-4, 328
interleukin-6, 322–323, 325–326, 326, 328, 329, 331–332
interleukin-8, 325–326
interleukin-10, 323, 328, 331–332
interleukin-18, 323
mechanisms, 322, 330, 331f
modafinil (Provigil), 332
mood changes, endotoxin-induced, 325
mortality, 321
multiple sclerosis, 326–327
muramyl peptide, 327
natural killer cells, 329
neopterin, 326
neurotransmitters, 323, 330–332
NF-κB, 326, 328, 329
nitric oxide synthase, 328
norepinephrine, 323
overview, 333
persistent post-treatment fatigue, 326, 330–332
personality, animal, 139–140
prostaglandins (E2 series), 323, 328
psoriasis, 326–327
QiGong, 49, 332
radiotherapy, 326
rheumatoid arthritis, 326–327
serotonin, 323
sickness behavior, 322, 324–325, 330–332
sleep characteristics, 327
sleep deprivation, 329
sleep latency, 321
sleep patterns, 139–140
soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), 325–326
soluble TNF receptor type I (sTNF-R1), 326
transcription factor signaling, 329
treatment
pharmacologic, 332–333
(p. 491) psychosocial, 332
whole-systems approach, 333
tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (TNF-RII), 326
vagal pathway, 323–324
VEGF, 325–326
viral infection, 327–328
vital exhaustion, 331–332
Fear/anxiety, 130–131, 133, 135–136, 137–138
Fetal immunity
brain development, 21f, 22–23, 29
immunomodulation, 21–24, 29
outcomes, 23–24, 29–30
overview, 19–20
programming, 20, 24
Fibrinogen
aging and well-being, 48
depression, 180–181
seasonality, 297–298
socioeconomic status, 238, 239–241t, 242–243t, 243–244, 245–246, 248,
Five-Factor model, 130–131
Flinders rats, 139–140
Forced-swim test, 139
Fractalkine signaling, 381–382
Framingham Offspring study, 242–243
G
Gene expression, social regulation of. See Social regulation of gene expression
Genetic polymorphisms
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 326
GRK2, 370, 374
social regulation of gene expression, 261–262, 266f
Glucocorticoids
comparative psychoneuroimmunology, 278, 282–284
marriage effects on, 204
personality, animal, 133
positive affect and, 94
pregnancy and stress, 6, 6–7
seasonality, 295–296, 299–300
self-conscious emotions, 87–88
sensitivity in self-conscious emotions, 87–88
in social regulation of gene expression, 256, 258, 268
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)
adrenergic receptors, 371–372, 382
Alzheimer's disease, 373–374, 378–379
astroglia, 378–379
BDNF, 378–379
cardiovascular effects, 374
catecholamines, 371–372, 379–380
CCL3, 379–381
cellular signaling generally, 369–370
chronic pain
central sensitization in, 377–379
GRK2 role by cell type, 380–381
GRK2 role model, 378f, 379–380
inflammatory pain, peripheral sensitization, 376–377
microglia in, 377–379
overview, 375–376
pain signaling (normal), 376, 377f
cre-lox technology, 374–375
deficiency, pathophysiological consequences of, 374–375
desensitization, 370–371, 372–373
developmental/environmental factors, 370
dexamethasone, 370
diabetes type II, 370, 375
epinephrine, 371–372, 379–380, 382
experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, 373, 375
fractalkine signaling, 381–382
future research directions, 382
genetic polymorphism, 370, 374
glucocorticoids, 370
G protein coupled receptors
homologous receptor desensitization, 372–373
target system sensitivity mechanisms, 371–372
hyperalgesia, 379–381
hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, 375
inflammatory pain, 376–377
insulin-resistance, 370
interferon-γ, 374
interleukin-1β, 374, 376–377, 378, 379–381
interleukin-6, 371–372
interleukin-10, 378
interleukin-12, 378
juvenile idiopathic arthritis, 371–372
M1, M2 phenotypes, 378
minocycline, 373–374
MKK6, 381
multiple sclerosis, 373, 375
neuroinflammation, 373–374, 382
nitrous oxide, 378
norepinephrine, 371–372
µ-opioid receptor, 370–371
pain role by cell type, 380–381
pain role model, 379–380
Parkinson's disease, 373–374
p38 MAPK pathway, 381–382
post traumatic stress disorder, 370
pro-inflammatory cytokines, 372, 374, 378, 379–380, 381
prostaglandin E2, 376–377, 378, 379–380
regulatory role of, 372–373
rheumatoid arthritis, 372, 373
sensitivity, individual differences in, 370–371
sensitization
central, 377–379
peripheral, 376–377, 377f
substance P, 376–377, 378–379
TGFβ, 378
TLR4 pathway, 374
TNFα, 372, 374, 378, 381
traumatic events, 370
Growth hormone, 94
Growth hormone releasing hormone, 328
H
Health and Retirement Study, 41–42
Hepatitis C, 328
Herpes virus
aging of immune system, 66–67
recurrence, 150, 153
social support, 224
socioeconomic status, 247
Hispanics, 7
HIV/AIDS
aging and well-being, 50
aging of immune system, 66–67, 67–68, 70
classification of, 386–387
cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM)
efficacy of, 393–394, 394–396
overview, 391–392, 396–398
disease processes in, 389, 390
emotional expression and disclosure, 108, 112–113
endocrine-immune interactions, 388–389
opportunistic infections in, 392
personality, animal, 134
personality, animal, 150, 153, 154, 157–158, 164–165
psychological factors in disease progression, 390–391
social support, 219–220
H1N1, 217–218
Hormones. See also specific hormones
growth hormone, 94
growth hormone releasing hormone, 328
(p. 492) overview, 278
in positive emotions (positive affect), 94
in pregnancy and stress, 9–10
in seasonality, 299–300
stress (See Stress hormones)
Hostility
adiposity, obesity effects, 187
chemokines, 184–185
CMHO scale measurement, 183–185
C-reactive protein, 182–185, 185–186, 187
cross-sectional studies, 182–185
cytokine imbalance in, 185
directionality (prospective) studies, 185
emotional expression and disclosure, 108–109, 109, 115
factor interaction findings, 185–186
gender effects, 186–187
high density lipoprotein (HDL), 185, 185–186
instinctive theory of aggression, 307–308
interferon-γ, 183–185
interleukin-2, 183–185
interleukin-4, 183–185
interleukin-5, 183–185
interleukin-6, 182–185, 185–186, 187
interleukin-10, 183–185, 185
marriage effects on, 199–200, 206
personality, human, 161–164
TNF-α, 182–185
HPA axis
activity in self-conscious emotions, 81, 83, 84
aging and well-being, 51–52
emotional expression and disclosure, 118–119
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 324, 326, 330
marriage effects on, 204
modulation of cancer by, 344–345, 345f, 354–355
motivation, 306–307, 312, 313
personality, animal, 132–134, 137–138
personality, animal, 151
positive affect and, 94, 94–95
pregnancy and stress, 6–7, 9–10, 11
seasonality, 295–296, 299–300
in social regulation of gene expression, 257–258, 258
social support, 224–225
socioeconomic status, function and, 247
stress management interventions, 388, 388–389, 389–390, 405–406
HPG axis, 295
HTERT, 70
I
ICAM-1
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 322–323
sICAM-1, 183, 325–326
socioeconomic status, 238–241, 242–243t
stress management interventions, 403–404
IL6 gene, 261–262, 266f
Illness-induced anorexia, 278, 278–279, 279–281
Immunity
adaptive, 18–19, 28
aging in (See Aging of immune system)
allergies, 19–20, 20, 24–25
antenatal corticosteroids, 24–25, 26–27
antibodies, 19, 25–26, 26f
asthma, 19–20
bacterial vaginosis, 22
Bifidobacteria, 27–28
cytokines, 20, 20–21, 21, 29, 30
dexamethasone, 26
evolutionary processes, natural selection, 24–25, 29–30
fetal brain development, 21f, 22–23, 29
fetal immunomodulation, 21–24, 29
fetal outcomes, 23–24, 29–30
fetal programming, 20, 24
fetus, 19–20
future research directions, 31
immunomodulation, 20, 20–21, 21f, 29
infections, 21–22, 22, 22–23, 27–28, 29
influenza, 22–23
innate, 18–19, 28
interferon, 20
interleukin-1β, 20–21
interleukin-5, 20
interleukin-6, 20–21, 22–23, 30
interleukin-8, 20–21
interleukin-12, 20
intestinal disease, 27–28
Lactobacilli, 27–28
as learning system, 19
lymphocyte responses, 19
microbiota, 19, 27–28
MNCs, 25, 26–27
monoamine neurotransmitters, 23–24
neurodevelopmental disorders, 22–23
overview, 18–20, 30–31
passive immunity, 19, 25–26, 26f, 30
placenta, 19, 20, 21–22, 24–25, 29
pregnancy, 19–20, 20–21, 21f, 29(See also Pregnancy and stress)
prenatal processes in, 20
progenitor cells, 24–25
proinflammatory cytokines, 21, 22f, 23
protective factors, resiliency, 24, 30
psychological processes, 22–24, 29–30
rearing environment in, 19, 24–25, 26–27, 27f, 27t, 28–29, 29f, 30
separation anxiety, stress, 28, 28t
small molecular weight proteins, 24–25
suppressor T cells, 26–27, 27f, 27t
T cell memory, 19, 25
thymus, 20, 24–25, 29
TNF-α, 21, 22f
tolerance, 20, 20–21, 21f, 29
trauma, violence, 23, 29–30
weaning cytokines, 28, 28t
worms, parasites, 22
Immunoglobulins
personality, animal, 134, 135, 136, 139–140
personality, animal, 156
positive emotions (positive affect), 96
salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), 238–241
secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), 96, 99
socioeconomic status, 238–241
Infections
bacterial
in fatigue, sleep disturbance, 328
in social regulation of gene expression, 262–264
in socioeconomic status, 238–241, 247
cytomegalovirus (See Cytomegalovirus)
early life exposure to, 236–237, 246, 247
Epstein-Barr (See Epstein-Barr virus)
immunity generally, 21–22, 22–23, 27–28, 29
intimate social, 262–264
(p. 493) latent in aging of immune system, 67, 69
opportunistic in HIV/AIDS, 392 (See also HIV/AIDS)
personality, animal, 139
pregnancy and stress, 8
seasonality, 297–298
upper respiratory, marriage and, 206–207
viral
in fatigue, sleep disturbance, 327–328
in immune system aging, 63–64, 66–67, 69
in social regulation of gene expression, 254–255, 256, 259–261, 265–267
in socioeconomic status, 238–241, 247
wound, 282
Inflammation
adiposity, obesity effects, 187
anger (See also under Hostility)
adiposity, obesity effects, 187
C-reactive protein, 182–185
cross-sectional studies, 182–185
cytokine expression in, 171–172
gender effects, 186–187
interleukin-6, 182–185
measures of, 172–173
overview, 174
soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM), 183
studies of generally, 178, 182
TNF-α, 182–185
atheromata (lesions), 176
atherosclerosis, 170, 175–176
biomarker measurement, 176–177
cardiovascular disease
anger, hostility as risk factor, 185–186
depression as risk factor, 178–179
overview, 170–171
risk factors, 171–172
cholesterol, 171, 185, 185–186
clinical assessment of, 176–177
coronary heart disease, 174–175
C-reactive protein, 176–177, 178–179
depression
adiposity, obesity effects, 187
causal pathways, 178–179
C-reactive protein, 178–179, 179–180, 180–181, 183
cross-sectional relationships, 179–180
directionality (prospective) studies, 180–181
dose-response association, 179
fibrinogen, 180–181
gender effects, 186–187
interferon-α, 178
interleukin-2, 178
interleukin-6, 178–179, 179–180, 180–181
interleukin-8, 179–180
interleukin-10, 181
interleukin-1 species, 179–180, 181
leptin, 187
macrophage-T-lymhocyte hypothesis, 177–178, 179–180
measures of, 172–173
meta-analysis of studies, 179
overview, 174
studies of generally, 177–178, 181–182
temporal relationships, 181
TNF-α, 182–185, 187
ELISA assay, 177
emotional expression and disclosure, 108–109, 111, 115–116
fatigue and sleep disturbance
fatigue and, 325–327
as mechanism, 330
sleep characteristics, 327
sleep deprivation, 329
future research, 186, 187–188
gender effects, 186–187
hostility
adiposity, obesity effects, 187
chemokines, 184–185
CMHO scale measurement, 183–185
C-reactive protein, 182–185, 185–186, 187
cross-sectional studies, 182–185
cytokine imbalance in, 185
directionality (prospective) studies, 185
factor interaction findings, 185–186
gender effects, 186–187
high density lipoprotein (HDL), 185, 185–186
interferon-γ, 183–185
interleukin-2, 183–185
interleukin-4, 183–185
interleukin-5, 183–185
interleukin-6, 182–185, 185–186, 187
interleukin-10, 183–185, 185
IP-10, 184–185
MCP-1, 184–185
measures of, 172–173
overview, 173–174
peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 185, 186
RANTES, 184–185
soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM), 183
studies of generally, 178, 182
TNF-α, 182–185
hsCRP assay, 176–177
hypercholesterolemia, 175–176
INTERHEART study, 174
leukocytes, leukocyte subsets, 171, 176
low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 171
moderators, mediators of, 186–188
in motivation, 307, 308–310, 315–316, 316n
myocardial infarction, 170, 174–175
overview, 19, 188
proinflammatory cytokines, 171, 178
psychological factors, 171–172
research assessment of, 177
role in disease, 175
seasonality, 293
in self-conscious emotions, 86–87
socioeconomic status, 241–244
stress concepts, 172–173
sympathetic nervous system, 171, 178
T cells, 176
Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 186–187
THROMBO study, 174–175
Infliximab, 333
Influenza, 22–23, 217–218
Instinctive theory of aggression, 307–308
Insulin resistance
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 370
socioeconomic status, 247
Integrative Mind-Body Training (IMBT), 98
Interferon-α
depression, 178
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 325, 327–328, 328
personality, animal, 139
Interferon-β, 327–328
Interferon-γ
aging and well-being, 40, 44, 46, 49, 50
aging of immune system, 66, 68, 70
emotional expression and disclosure, 111, 111–112, 119
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 322–323
(p. 494) G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 374
hostility, 183–185
personality, animal, 133, 137–138, 139–140
personality, animal, 161–162
positive affect and, 96–97
pregnancy and stress, 8–9
seasonality, 298
social support, 217
stress management interventions, 400
INTERHEART study, 174
Interleukin-1
depression, 179–180, 181
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 322–323, 324, 327
in motivation, 312
stress management interventions, 406
Interleukin-1β
aging and well-being, 43–44, 45
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 323, 324, 326, 328–329
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 374, 376–377, 378, 379–381
in immunity, 20–21
in motivation, 306–307, 313–314, 316n
pregnancy and stress, 9
self-conscious emotions, 81
stress management interventions, 389, 403–404
Interleukin-1ra
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 326, 331–332
socioeconomic status, 244–245
Interleukin-2
aging and well-being, 40, 43–44, 50
aging of immune system, 69–70
depression, 178
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 322–323, 329
hostility, 183–185
seasonality, 296–297
stress management interventions, 387–388, 400
Interleukin-4
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 328
hostility, 183–185
seasonality, 296–297
social support, 217
socioeconomic status, 246
Interleukin-5
hostility, 183–185
in immunity, 20
socioeconomic status, 246
Interleukin-6
aging and well-being, 43–45, 45–47, 48
aging of immune system, 66, 68
anger, 182–185
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 322–323, 325–326, 326, 328, 329, 331–332
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 371–372
hostility, 182–185, 185–186, 187
in immunity, 20–21, 22–23, 30
marriage effects on, 200
in motivation, 312
personality, human, 152–153, 153, 154, 156–157, 158, 160–161, 162, 163–164
pregnancy and stress, 9, 11–12
seasonality, 298
self-conscious emotions, 81, 87
social support, 216–217, 221–222, 225
socioeconomic status
experimental studies, 244–245
function in health outcomes, 245–246
health behaviors and, 239–241t, 242–243t, 248
observational studies of, 237–244,
stress management interventions, 389, 403–404, 406
Interleukin-8
depression, 179–180
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 325–326
in immunity, 20–21
pregnancy and stress, 9
social support, 217, 221–222, 224
Interleukin-10
depression, 181
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 323, 328, 331–332
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 378
hostility, 183–185, 185
seasonality, 298
stress management interventions, 389
Interleukin-12
aging and well-being, 44
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 378
in immunity, 20
Interleukin-13, 246
Interleukin-18, 323
Interleukins
emotional expression, disclosure, 107–108, 108, 110–111, 111–112, 119
personality, animal, 133, 136, 137–138, 138, 139–140
personality, animal, 152–153, 153, 156, 160–161, 161–162
positive emotions (positive affect), 96–97, 98, 100
Introversion, 148–150
Isolation. See Social isolation
J
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, 371–372
L
Lactobacilli, 27–28
M
MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, 52
Marriage
adaptive immunity, 200–201, 203–204
adrenocorticotropic hormone, 204
age effects, 206
allostatic model, 198–199
atherosclerosis, 207
attachment avoidance, 200
autonomic nervous system, 198–199, 204
behavioral mechanisms, 201–202
benefits of, 197, 207–208
biobehavioral mechanism explication, 208
cancer, 203–204
cardiovascular disease, 197–198, 204, 207
catecholamines, 204
CD4/CD8 cell ratio, 200–201
CD62L- cells, 199–200
CD3 receptor, 200–201
cognitive processing, 200
Con A, 200–201
conflict, 198–199, 199–200
cortisol, 204
couple range expansion, 208–209
couples, 198–199, 203
depression, 202–203, 203–204
dexamethasone, 204
diet, 202
Epstein Barr Virus, 200–201, 204
gender differences, 205–206
glucocorticoids, 204
health behaviors, 201–202
hostility, 199–200, 206
HPA axis, 204
(p. 495) immune function principles, 199–201
immune function theory, 198–199
infectious disease, 203–204
inflammation markers, 200, 202
innate immunity, 199–200, 204
interleukin-2R, 201
interleukin-6, 200
interpersonal relationships, 204–205
intervention studies incorporation, 209–210
intimacy, 203–204
marital quality, 197–198, 202, 205–206
mitogen, 200–201
moderators, 205–206
natural context studies, 209
natural killer cells, 199–200, 204
neuroendocrine mechanisms, 198–199, 204–205
norepinephrine, 198–199
obstructive sleep apnea, 201–202
oxytocin, 204–205, 206
positive affect, 203–204
proinflammatory cytokines, 200, 204–205
psychological mechanisms, 202–204
rheumatoid arthritis, 201, 203–204
L-selectin, 199–200, 204
shame, 203
sleep, 202
social evaluative threat, 203
social rejection, 203
social support, 203–204
spousal criticism, negativity, 201
stress/social support hypothesis, 198, 203
TNF-α, 200, 204–205
upper respiratory infections, 206–207
vasopressin, 204–205, 206
wound healing, 206
Meditation, 71–72, 98
MESA study, 48, 238
Mindfulness based stress reduction, 98
Monoamine neurotransmitters, 23–24
Mood induction studies
findings, 98–99
goal of, 95
high arousal, 96–97
hypnotic suggestion, 98
Integrative Mind-Body Training (IMBT), 98
meditation, relaxation, calm, 98
mid arousal, 97–98
Motivation
adaptation, 308–309
agonistic behaviors, 313–314
amoebocytes, 312
anogenital sniffing, 315
brain, cytokine influences on, 306–307, 312
changes in comparative psychoneuroimmunology, 279
concept of, 307–308
conditioned taste aversion, 315
control behaviors, 314–315
cooperative behaviors, 314
defensive strategy, 310–311, 312–313, 313–314, 315
emotional, cognitive changes, 312–313
external incentives vs. internal drives, 307–308
fever, 308, 316n
fight or flight response, 312
flexibility, 308, 310
food intake decline, 308–309
hierarchy, 308, 309–310
homeostatic vs. non-homeostatic, 307
HPA axis, 306–307, 312, 313
imipramine, 313
immune-challenged organism as incentive, 314–315
immune system as sensory organ, 311–312
inflammation in, 307, 308–310, 315–316, 316n
instinctive theory of aggression, 307–308
interleukin 1, 312
interleukin 1β, 306–307, 313–314, 316n
interleukin 6, 312
major urinary proteins (MUPs), 315
muzzle sniffing, 315
neuroendocrine factors, 312
octopamine, 312
perceptive-defensive-recuperative (PDR) model, 310–311
perceptual integration, 312
proinflammatory cytokines, 306–307, 312
prostaglandin E2, 316n
sexual behaviors, 313, 314
sickness behaviors, 308–310
sociality, 313–315
social transmission of food preferences, 315
specificity, 308, 309
TNF, 312
tryptophan, 306–307
Multiple sclerosis
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 326–327
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 373, 375
stress management interventions, 389
Muramyl peptide, 327
N
Natural killer cells
aging and well-being, 40, 47
beta weight measurements, 425
emotional expression and disclosure, 107–108, 108–109
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 329
marriage effects on, 199–200, 204
partialling error, 429
personality, human, 149–150, 152–153, 153, 158–159, 162–163, 164
positive affect and, 96, 99–100
pregnancy and stress, 4, 10
social support, 216, 218–219
socioeconomic status, 238–241, 244–245
stress management interventions, 387–388, 389–390
Negative mood, 93, 95, 97–98, 99. See also Positive emotions (positive affect)
Neopterin, 326
Neuroticism
partialling error, 429
personality, human, 150–154
Neurotransmitters. See also Epinephrine; Norepinephrine
aging of immune system, 69
dopamine, 323
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 323, 330–332
monoamine, 23–24
positive affect and, 94
pregnancy and stress, 9–10
serotonin, 280, 323
social support, 225
stress management interventions, 388–389, 389, 392, 395–396
NF-κB
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 326, 328, 329
seasonality, 294
self-conscious emotions, 87–88
social regulation of gene expression, 256–257, 258
(p. 496) NGF gene, 256
NGF/IFNB/SIV system remodeling, 259–261
Norepinephrine
cancer, 344–345, 347, 348, 353
in comparative psychoneuroimmunology, 278
in fatigue, sleep disturbance, 323
GRK2 and, 371–372
marriage, 198–199
positive emotions (positive affect), 94
seasonality, 296
social regulation of gene expression, 259–261
social support, 225
stress management interventions, 388–389, 392, 395–396
NUPDQ assessment, 6
Nurses’ Health Study, 343–344
O
Obstructive sleep apnea, 201–202
Octopamine, 280, 281–282, 283f, 285
Opiates, 94
μ-opioid receptor, 370–371
Osteoporosis, 68
Oxidative stress, 64, 65–66, 68
P
Parkinson's disease, 373–374
personality, animal
affiliation, sociability, 131–132, 134–135, 137
aggression, 132–134, 137
animal models generally, 129–130, 134–135
arthritis, 138
autonomic nervous system function, 135
behavioral inhibition, 130–131
behavioral syndrome, 131
cancer, 138, 139
CD4 cells, 134, 136
CD8 cells, 136
coping strategies, 109, 114–115, 131, 137–138
corticosterone, 133, 136, 138, 139
cortisol, 133–134, 138
definitions, 130–131
depression, 138–140
disease, 131–132
exploration, 130–131, 136–137
extraversion, 130–131
fear/anxiety, 130–131, 133, 135–136, 137–138
Five-Factor model, 130–131
Flinders rats, 139–140
forced-swim test, 139
future research directions, 140
genetic linkages, 134
glucocorticoids, 133
health, 131–132
HIV/AIDS, 134
HPA axis, 132–134, 137–138
immune function, 131–132, 134–135
immunoglobulins, 134, 135, 136, 139–140
infection, 139
interferon-α, 139
interferon-γ, 133, 137–138, 138, 139–140
interleukins, 133, 136, 137–138, 138, 139–140
keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), 138
learned helplessness, 138–139
life spans, 136
lymph node innervation, 135
natural killer cells, 133, 136
novelty-seeking, 130–131, 136–137
overview, 129–130, 140
proactive coping, 130–131, 132–133, 135, 137–138
pro-inflammatory cytokines, 133, 135, 137–138, 138, 139–140
prolactin, 137–138
reactive coping, 130–131, 132–133, 137–138
sensation-seeking, 130–131, 136–137
short vs. long attack latency, 133
simian immunodeficiency disorder (SIV), 133–134
sleep patterns, 139–140
SNS reactivity, 133
sucrose-preference test, 139
T cells, 134, 137–138
terminology, 130
tetanus, 134, 135
TNF-α, 136–137
type-health status relationships, 129
vaccination, 134, 135
personality, human
agreeableness, 155
assessment of personality, 147
Big Five traits, 146, 148, 166
cardiovascular disease, 161
causal inferences, 148
CD species cells, 149–150, 152–153, 153, 154, 156, 158, 162–163
conscientiousness, 154–155, 165–166
coping strategies, 158–159
C-reactive protein, 153, 154, 156–157, 162
delayed-type hypersensitivity, 159, 164
environmental alterations, 146–147
Epstein-Barr virus, 152
extraversion, 148–150
future research directions, 165–166
herpes recurrence, 150, 153
HIV/AIDS, 150, 153, 154, 157–158, 164–165
hostility, 161–164
HPA axis, 151
immune altering behaviors, 146–147
immunoglobulins, 156
infectious disease, 147, 148–149, 151, 154, 160
inflammation markers, 153, 154, 156–157, 160–161, 162, 163–164, 166
influence of traits, 146–147
interferon-γ, 161–162
interleukins, 152–153, 153, 156, 160–161, 161–162
introversion, 148–150
lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets, 149–150, 152–153, 156
main vs. stress-modulating effects, 147
measures of immunity, 147
natural killer cells, 149–150, 152–153, 153, 158–159, 162–163, 164
NEO scale, 148
neuroticism, 150–154
openness to experience, 155
optimism, 155–159
overview, 146, 165
phytohemagglutinin (PHA), 149–150, 152–153, 156
positive affect, 160–161
social inhibition, 164–165
stress effect moderation, 150, 151, 153, 158–159, 162–163, 166
subtraits, 166
T cells, 149–150
telomere length, 157
vaccination, 149, 151–152, 152, 154, 156, 158, 160
Photoperiodism. See also Seasonality
immune response to, 292–293, 293
inflammation response, 293, 295–296
(p. 497) innate immunity response, 294–295
mechanisms of, 295–296
overview, 292–293
p38 MAPK pathway, 381–382
PNS activation, 94, 94–95, 225. See also CNS activation; SNS activation
Positive emotions (positive affect)
allergy, 97, 100
benefits of studying, 93
calm, 98
cancer, 351–352
conceptual issues in, 95
corticosteroids, 94
cortisol, 94
cytokines, 96–97, 98, 100
enduring personal resources, 94–95
epinephrine, 94
future research directions, 101
glucocorticoid receptors, 94
growth hormone, 94
happiness, 97–98, 100
hormones, 94
HPA axis, 94, 94–95
hypnotic suggestion, 98
immunity, immune function, 93–95, 100
immunoglobulins, 96
Integrative Mind-Body Training (IMBT), 98
interferon-γ, 96–97
interleukins, 96–97, 98, 100
laughter, 96–97
main effect model, 94
marriage effects on, 203–204
mindfulness, relaxation, 95, 98
mindfulness based stress reduction, 98
mood induction, 93, 94
mood induction studies
findings, 98–99
goal of, 95
high arousal, 96–97
hypnotic suggestion, 98
Integrative Mind-Body Training (IMBT), 98
meditation, relaxation, calm, 98
mid arousal, 97–98
naturalistic studies
daily fluctuations, 99
findings, 100
immune-related disease, 100
longer lasting PA, 99–100
natural killer cell cytotoxicity, 96, 99–100
naturally occurring mood, 99
negative mood, 93, 95, 97–98, 99
neurotransmitters, 94
norepinephrine, 94
opiates, 94
overview, 92, 100–101
oxytocin, 94
personality, human, 160–161
phytohemagglutinin (PHA), 97
psychological stress, 94–95
research study methods, 95
rheumatoid arthritis, 96–97
secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), 96, 99
SNS/PNS activation, 94–95
state affect, 95
state vs. trait affect, 95
stress-buffering model, 94, 98
TNF-α, 96–97
types, measurement of, 92–93
vigor, 99, 100
wound healing, 100
Post traumatic stress disorder
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 370
self-conscious emotions and, 84
Pregnancy and stress
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), 9–10
catecholamines, 9–10
complication development, 11
corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), 9–10
cortisol, 9–10
cytokines, 4, 8–9, 11–12
defining, measuring effects of, 5–6
dexamethasone, 6–7
early studies of, 4–5
emotional state (psychosocial stressor) effects on, 4, 4–5, 7
endocrine interactions in, 4, 7–9
fetal rejection avoidance, 8
future research, 12–13
glucocorticoids, 6, 6–7
hippocampal function, 6
HPA axis, 6–7, 9–10, 11
IFN-γ, 8–9
immune function, 6–7
immunity in, 19–20, 20–21, 21f, 29
infant outcome, 3–4, 4–5, 7, 12
infection, autoimmune diseases, 8
inflammatory markers, 4
interleukin 1β, 9
interleukin-6, 9, 11–12
interleukin-8, 9
low birth weight, 3–4, 4–5, 7
maternal stress effects, 9–10
mechanism of, 6
minority status effects, 7
natural killer cells, 4, 10
neural-immune interactions in, 4, 10–12
neurotransmitters, 9–10
NUPDQ assessment, 6
overview, 19, 3–4
prematurity, 7
risk factors in, 7
Th2-type immune response, 8
TNF-α, 9, 11–12
Prenatal stress. See Pregnancy and stress
Proinflammatory cytokines. See Cytokines (proinflammatory)
Prostaglandin E2
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 323, 328
G protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), 376–377, 378, 379–380
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
behavior, 436
brain regions of interest, 435–436
causality, 436
clinical significance, 437
development, 437–438
experiment, 436
interactions, 438
interventions, 436–437
intraindividual variability, 438
levels of analysis, 18–19
life course, 19
mechanisms, 435–436
overview, 17
temporality, 436, 438
Q
QiGong, 49, 332
R
RANKL, 68
Rheumatoid arthritis
aging of immune system, 68
emotional expression and disclosure, 108, 111–112
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 326–327
GRK2, 372, 373
marriage effects on, 201, 203–204
positive affect and, 96–97
stress management interventions, 389
S
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 298–299
Seasonality
adaptive immunity, 293–294
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), 299–300
asthma, 298
atenolol, 298
cardiovascular disease, 297–298
catecholamines, 296
CD species cells, 296–297
CNS activation, 296
concanavalin A, 296–297
corticosterone, 295–296
cortisol, 299–300
developmental plasticity, 299
DTH response, 293, 298
fibrinogen, 297–298
future directions, 300
glucocorticoids, 295–296, 299–300
HPA axis, 295–296, 299–300
HPG axis, 295
immune responses
classes of, 291–292
self-defense rationale for, 293
infectious diseases, 296–297
inflammation, 293
innate immunity, 294–295
interferon-γ, 298
interleukin-2, 296–297
interleukin-4, 296–297
interleukin-6, 298
interleukin-10, 298
leukocyte proliferation assays, 293–294
melatonin, 295, 298
NF-κB, 294
norepinephrine, 296
overview, 291, 300
photoperiodism
immune response to, 292–293, 293
inflammation response, 293, 295–296
innate immunity response, 294–295
mechanisms of, 295–296
overview, 292–293
phytohemagglutinin, 296–297
pokeweed mitogen, 296–297
proinflammatory cytokines, 294, 296–297, 298
reduced food intake, 294–295
reproduction, 292, 296
respiratory infection, 297–298
seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 298–299
season of birth effects, 299
sex steroids, 295
sickness behavior, 294–295
stress hormones, 295–296, 299–300
T cells, 293, 296–297
vaccination response, 296–297
Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), 96, 99
L-selectin, 199–200, 204
Self-conscious emotions
anger, 85–86
anxiety, 82, 85–86
autonomic activity, 85–86
cardiovascular reactivity, 84–85
in children, 83
cortisol
glucocorticoid sensitivity, 87–88
physiological specificity studies, 88
proinflammatory cytokines, 79–80
reactivity, 81–82
reactivity in shame, 82–83
response generally, 82–83
social-evaluative threat response, 80, 80–81, 81–82
C-reactive protein, 86
developmental studies, 83
economic decision-making, 83
elicitors, function, 80
embarrassment, 80, 85–86
emotional expression and disclosure, 107
future research directions, 88–89
glucocorticoids, 87–88
guilt, 80, 86–87, 88
HPA activity, 81, 83, 84
hypocortisolism, 84
inflammation, 86–87
interleukin-1β, 81
interleukin-6, 81, 87
NF-κB, 87–88
overview, 79–80
physiological specificity studies, 88
proinflammatory cytokines, 79–80, 81, 86, 86–87
psychiatric disorders, 84
PTSD, 84
rejection, 82
shame
autonomic correlates, 85
cortisol reactivity in, 82–83
economic decision-making, 83
glucocorticoid sensitivity, 87–88
individual differences, 84
physiological profile studies, 88
proinflammatory cytokines, 79–80
self-evaluative nature of, 80
social context, 83–84, 88–89
social anxiety, 85
social-evaluative threat
(p. 499) autonomic responses, 84–85
cortisol levels, 80, 80–81, 81–82
immunological effects, 86
inflammation, hormonal interactions, 87–88
physiological effects, 81, 82, 88
Social Self Preservation Theory, 79–80
submissive behaviors, 81, 83
TNF-α, 81, 86, 86–87
trait shame, 84
vagal withdrawal, 85–86
writing studies, 83–84, 86–87
Separation anxiety, 28, 28t
Serotonin, 280, 323
Shame. See also Self-conscious emotions
autonomic correlates, 85
cortisol reactivity in, 82–83
economic decision-making, 83
glucocorticoid sensitivity, 87–88
individual differences, 84
marriage and, 203
physiological profile studies, 88
proinflammatory cytokines, 79–80
self-evaluative nature of, 80
social context, 83–84, 88–89
Sickness behaviors
comparative psychoneuroimmunology, 278, 278–279
cytokines (proinflammatory) in, 324–325
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 322, 324–325, 330–332
in fatigue and sleep disturbance, 324–325
in motivation, 308–309, 308–310
seasonality, 294–295
stress management interventions, 403–404, 406
Simian immunodeficiency disorder (SIV), 133–134
Sleep disturbance. See Fatigue and sleep disturbance
SNS activation
impairment in aging, 51–52
modulation of cancer by, 344–345, 345f
in positive affect, 94, 94–95
reactivity in personality, animal, 133
social regulation of gene expression, 254–255, 257–258, 265–267
in social regulation of gene expression, 256, 269
social support, 225
stress management interventions, 388, 388–389
Social anxiety, 85
Social-evaluative threat
autonomic responses, 84–85
cortisol levels, 80, 80–81, 81–82
immunological effects, 86
inflammation, hormonal interactions, 87–88
marriage and, 203
physiological effects, 81, 82, 88
Social isolation
in aging and well-being, 46–47, 52, 53
emotional expression and disclosure, 112, 119
gene expression regulation, 254–255, 257f, 258
stress management interventions, 388, 391, 406
Sociality, 313–315
Social regulation of gene expression
asthma, 259
bacterial infection, 262–264
β-adrenergic receptor, 258, 265–267
brain processes, 256, 269
cAMP response, 265–267
cancer, 256
catecholamine, 258
CD14+ cells, 255
CNS activation, 256, 269
cognitive behavioral stress management, 264
cortisol, 258, 258
CREB, 256–257
defensive programming, 255–256, 258–259, 259–261, 269
early childhood adversity, 255, 258, 268
evolutionary basis, 262–264, 269
GATA1, 261–262, 266f
gene-environment interactions, 259–261
genetic polymorphisms, 261–262, 266f
glucocorticoid receptor, 256, 258, 268
HPA axis, 257–258, 258
IL6 gene, 261–262, 266f
immune response evolution, 262–264
individual differences in, 264–265
individual identity, molecular biological level, 267
infectious disease, 262–264
intimate social infections, 262–264
introversion, 264–265
neuroimmune interactions, socio-environmental remodeling of, 259–261
NF-κB, 256–257, 258
NGF gene, 256
NGF/IFNB/SIV system remodeling, 259–261
norepinephrine, 259–261
overview, 268
pathogen coevolution, 265–267, 269
pathway mapping, 258, 268
phylogenetic basis, 269
plasticity, 256, 268–269
positive psychology, 268
psychologically targeted interventions, 264
psychoneuroimmunologic relationships, 267
RNA transcription dynamics, 259–261, 262f
selective pressure, 256, 265–267
self-generated social interventions, 265
SNS activation, 254–255, 257–258, 265–267
social defense mechanisms, 265
social factors, 254–256
social isolation, 254–255, 257f, 258
social loss, adversity, 255, 258, 268
socially inhibited behaviors, 264–265
social signal transduction, 256–259, 260f, 262f, 268
socioeconomic status, 255–256, 258
subjective experience in, 264
temperament-related differences, 264–265
viral infection, 254–255, 256, 259–261, 265–267
Social Self Preservation Theory, 79–80
Social support
adherence to medical regimens, 222
Alameda County Study, 221
β2-adrenergic blockade, 225
behavioral processes, 220–221, 221–222
biologically significant outcomes, 217–219
brain processes, 227
cardiovascular reactivity, 222, 224
CD species cells, 219
cognitive processing, 223
conscious reports studies, 224
cortisol, 225, 227
C-reactive protein, 217
cytokines, 216–217, 221–222, 224, 225
definitions, 215–216
depression, 224
disease mediation, 221, 223
DTH responses, 218, 219
elderly patients, 219
epidemiological studies, 215
functional support, 216
health effects of, 215, 225–226
hepatitis, 217–218
Herpes virus, 224
HIV/AIDS, 219–220
H1N1, 217–218
HPA axis, 224–225
immune function, 216
infectious disease, 216, 221
inflammation, 216–217
influenza, 217–218
interferon-γ, 217
interleukin-4, 217
interleukin-6, 216–217, 221–222, 225
interleukin-8, 217, 221–222, 224
marriage (See Marriage)
mechanisms, 220–225
mitogens, 216
model testing, 226
MRFIT, 222
multiple mediator approach, 223–224
natural killer cells, 216, 218–219
neuromodulation, 224–225
norepinephrine, 225
opioid processes, 225
overview, 214–215, 225
perceived support studies, 224
PNS activation, 225
positivity and negativity incorporation, 227–228
process coordination, 227
psychological processes, 220–221, 222–224
relational regulation theory, 223
relevancy of measures, 226–227
SNS activation, 225
social exclusion, 227
social integration, 215–216
social networks, 219–220, 222–223
stress-buffering model, 219
stress management interventions, 388, 391, 406
symbolic interactionism, 215–216
T cells, 219, 220
TNF-α, 217
vaccination, 217–218
Socioeconomic status
area level indicators, 237
asthma, 246
atherosclerosis, 245–246
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 237
(p. 500) bacterial infection, 238–241, 247
B cells, 238–241
CARDIA study, 238, 243–244
cardiovascular disease, 247
CD species cells, 244–245
childhood SES, 241–242
cognitive ability, childhood, 246–247
conceptualization of, 235–237
coronary heart disease, 237, 238, 245–246
C-reactive protein, 238, 241, 239–241t, 242–243t, 243–244, 245–246, 248
cytomegalovirus, 238–241, 247
Dunedin birth cohort, 244
early life adversity, 243–244, 248
early life infection exposure, 236–237, 246, 247
education studies, 236, 237, 239–241t, 242–243t
endothelial dysfunction, 247
endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, 243–244
experimental studies of, 244–245
family environment studies, 243–244
Framingham Offspring study, 242–243
future research directions, 248
genetic mechanisms, 246–247
health behaviors, 239–241t, 241–242, 242–243t, 248
health care access, 247
herpes simplex virus, 247
HPA axis function, 247
impaired immune function, 245–246
income, wealth studies, 236, 237, 239–241t
infectious disease, 236–237, 246
inflammation, 241–244
insulin resistance, 247
interleukin-1ra, 244–245
interleukin-4, 246
interleukin-5, 246
interleukin-6
experimental studies, 244–245
function in health outcomes, 245–246
health behaviors and, 239–241t, 242–243t, 248
observational studies of, 237–244, 244f
interleukin-13, 246
ladder classification, 237
life course studies, 236–237, 237, 238f, 241–244
low socioeconomic status, 246
MESA study, 238
MIDUS study, 243–244
monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), 238–241, 242–243t
natural killer cells, 238–241, 244–245
neuroendocrine regulation, 247
NHANES studies, 238, 247
observational studies of, 237–244
occupation studies, 236, 239–241t, 242–243t
psychophysiological responsivity, 243–244, 248
salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), 238–241
self-rated social status, 237
social gradients, 234–235, 249n
social regulation of gene expression, 255–256, 258
socioeconomic trajectories, 242–243
standard of living measures, 237
TNF receptor, 242–243t
viral infection, 238–241, 247
Whitehall II, 238–241, 244–245, 247
Whitehall Psychobiology Study, 244–245
Whitehall studies, 234
Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), 183, 325–326
Soluble TNF receptor type I (sTNF-R1), 326
STAT3, 347
Stress
as both cause and effect, 18
chronic (See Chronic stress)
as individual phenomenon, 18
moderation of effects, 150, 151, 153, 158–159, 162–163, 166
overview, 17–18
in pregnancy (See Pregnancy and stress)
psychological, 63–64, 69
Stress hormones
in comparative psychoneuroimmunology, 278, 281–282, 284–285
neuroendocrine in cancer, 345f, 347, 348
seasonality, 295–296, 299–300
stress management interventions, 388–389, 395–396
Stress management interventions
atherosclerosis, 389
autoimmune disease, 389
β-adrenergic agonists, 388–389, 392
breast cancer
classification of, 386–387
cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM), 400–401
disease processes, PNI and, 389, 399–402
endocrine-immune interactions, 388–389
expressive supportive group therapy (ESGT), 398–399
PNI efficacy in, 402–403
rationale for PNI intervention in, 398
cardiovascular disease
classification of, 386–387
disease processes, PNI and, 389
immune processes in, 403
inflammation, 403–404
PNI efficacy, 404
psychosocial factors, 403–404
psychosocial intervention in, 404
catecholamines, 387–388, 388–389, 392
cervical cancer, 396
chronic fatigue syndrome
classification of, 386–387, 404–405
disease processes, PNI and, 389–390
distress reactions, 405–406
immune processes in, 405
PNI efficacy, 407–408
PNI processes, 405–406
psychosocial factors, 405–406
cognitive appraisals, 388, 406
cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM)
breast cancer, 400–401
cardiovascular disease, 404
chronic fatigue syndrome, 407
efficacy in HIV/AIDS, 393–394, 394–396
HIV/AIDS, 391–392, 396–398
program design, implementation, 394
coping response, 388, 391, 406
corticosteroids, 387–388, 388–389, 392
cortisol, 388–389, 389, 392, 400
C-reactive protein, 389, 403–404
disease classes, 386–387
ENRICHD trial, 404
epinephrine, 388–389, 392
HAART, 391, 395–396
HIV/AIDS
classification of, 386–387
cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) (See Cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), above)
disease processes in, 389, 390
endocrine-immune interactions, 388–389
opportunistic infections in, 392
psychological factors in disease progression, 390–391
HPV, 396
ICAM-1, 403–404
inflammatory processes, 389–390
interferon-γ, 400
interleukin-1, 406
interleukin-1β, 389, 403–404
interleukin-2, 387–388, 400
interleukin-6, 389, 403–404, 406
interleukin-10, 389
leukocyte adhesion molecules, 389
lymphocyte proliferative response, 400
Mac-1, 389
multiple sclerosis, 389
natural killer cells, 387–388, 389–390
negative life events, cumulative, 391
neuroendocrine response, 387–388
norepinephrine, 388–389, 389, 392, 395–396
opportunistic infections, 392, 402
optimization
content, format, 409–410
methodology, 411–412
target populations, 409
timing, 410–411
overview, 385–386, 408
peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 389, 400
rationale, relevant mechanisms
disease processes, PNI and, 389–390
endocrine-immune interactions, 388–389
human studies, 387–388
overview, 387
PNI rationale, 390
rheumatoid arthritis, 389
L-selectin, 389
sickness behaviors, 403–404, 406
sleep disruptions, 400–401
SNS activation, 388, 388–389
social support, isolation, 388, 391, 406
stress hormones, 388–389, 395–396
SWITCHD trial, 404
TNFα, 389, 403–404, 406
vaccination, 387–388
Substance P, 376–377, 378–379
Sympathetic nervous system. See SNS activation
T
T'ai chi, 49, 71
T cells
aging of immune system, 63–64, 65–66, 66–67
chronically stimulated in immune system aging, 65–66
cytotoxic in immune system aging, 64–65
emotional expression and disclosure, 107–108, 112–113
in inflammation, 176
memory, 19, 25
personality, human, 149–150
seasonality, 293, 296–297
social support, 219, 220
socioeconomic status, 238–241, 244–245
suppressor, 26–27, 27f, 27t
Telomerase targeting, 70–71
Telomere length
aging of immune system, 65–66, 67–69, 69
personality, human, 157
Testosterone, 282–284
Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 186–187
THROMBO study, 174–175
TLR4 pathway, 374
TNF-α
aging and well-being, 46
aging of immune system, 66, 68, 70–71
anger, 182–185
in depression, 182–185, 187
emotional expression and disclosure, 108, 110–111
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 322–323, 323, 324, 326, 328–329, 329, 331–332
GRK2 and, 372, 374, 378, 381
hostility, 182–185
in immunity, 21, 22f
marriage effects on, 200, 204–205
personality, human, 152–153, 160–161, 161–162
positive emotions (positive affect), 96–97
pregnancy and stress, 9, 11–12
self-conscious emotions, 81, 86, 86–87
social support, 217
socioeconomic status, 244–245, 239–241t
Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs)
behavioral, neuroendocrine modulation of, 353
role of, 348, 352–353
stress effects on, 345f, 355–356
V
Vaccination
aging and well-being, 49
aging of immune system, 63, 69, 71
emotional expression and disclosure, 113–114, 119
personality, human, 149, 151–152, 152, 154, 156, 158, 160
response in seasonality, 296–297
social support, 217–218
VEGF
fatigue and sleep disturbance, 325–326
Viral infections. See Infections
W
Well-being and aging. See Aging and well-being
Whitehall Psychobiology Study, 244–245
WLS study, 46
Women's Health Initiative study, 342
Wound healing
comparative psychoneuroimmunology, 284
emotional expression and disclosure, 115
marriage effects on, 206
positive emotions (positive affect), 100
Wound infection, 282