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date: 27 January 2020

(p. 367) Index

(p. 367) Index

A
act of representation, 49–51
Ada (Nabokov), 95
adolescent period
play fighting during, 255
popular activities during, 267
solitude during, 188
video games during, mood management from, 325
adult-constructed play, 102
with children, 236
adulthood, play during, 90–91
scaffolding in, 91
adults
children’s play with, 231–41
children v., in social play, 236
guided play by, 343–44
imitation of, in child’s play, 15
play fighting for, juvenile v., 252
supervision by, for children’s play, 238
symbolic play and, in educational settings, 55
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (Twain), 102
affective content, 233–34
of social play, 234–35
affordances, 159–60
through exploration, 159–60
friendships and, 208–9
hidden, 160
pretend play as, 285
social acceptance as, 208–9
in tool use and play, 159–60
African Americans
children’s play, observations of, 129–33, 130t
parent–child play for, 22–23
afterschool programs, 222
agenda setters, 274–75
aggression
density effects on, 142
observational methods for, in play study, 141–42
play fighting as regulation for, 79
social cognition and, 207
toys and, 217
Albee, John, 105
alloparenting, 23
The Ambiguity of Play (Sutton-Smith), 111
American Journal of Play, 11
Among School Children (Yeats), 94
animal models, play in. See also nonhuman primates, social play among; Rhesus macaques, social play among
fairness in play fighting among, 246–47
in Gene X Environment, 60, 65
locomotor play in, 247
object play in, 247
play fighting, 247–55
social play in, 247
social pretend play, 297–98
animals, play among, 10–11
object, 10
rotational, 10
social, 10–11
solitary locomotor, 10
antipathy, of play, 110–14
emotional role, 112–14
antisocial behavior, 261. See also social withdrawal; solitary-active play; solitary-passive play
in Spencer study, 266
apes, social play among, 76–79
for bonobos, 78–79
for courtship, 76
as nonsexual, 76–77
social structures as influence on, 77
approach-avoidance conflict
solitary-active play and, 190
solitary-passive play and, 193
arousability
emotion regulation and, assessment of, 223–24
temperament and, 227
arts, play with, 10
attachment theory, 236–37
mother–child attachments in, 237
teachers in, 237
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 11
emotion regulation and, 206
information-processing with, 207
social play and, 203–4
solitary play and, 204
technology and play applications, 332
Auguries of Innocence (Blake), 91
autism, pretend play in, 308–18
atypical sociocultural learning and, 315–17
decontextualization for, 312, 314
deficits in, 311–13, 317
executive control dysfunction and, 313–15
false pretense paradigms, 312
Fewell Play Scale for, 311
functional v. pretend play and, 310–11
future directions for, 318
genetic factors for, 308
motivation as factor in, 316
object function inhibition, 314
physical play and, 311
rough-and-tumble play and, 311
scaffolding and, 311
sensorimotor play and, 311
social interaction impairment and, 309
social play and, 311
spontaneous, 308–9, 316
An Autobiography (Frame), 90
B
Badaly, Daryaneh, 5
Baines, Ed, 5
“Baldwin effect,” 45
Barnard, John, 103
Barnett, Lisa, 12
Bateson, Gregory, 92
Bateson, Mary Catherine, 90
Bateson, Patrick, 4, 53, 92–93
Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 177
behavioral biology, theories of play and, 42–43
behavioral patterns, of play, 15, 17, 70–71
behavior drift, 147
belief systems, play and, 21–24
variations within, 21
Berner, Loretta, 105
bias, in play fighting, 253
Bjorklund, Dave, 4
Blake, William, 91
Blatchford, Peter, 5
Bohm, David, 95
bonobo apes, social play among, 78–79, 79f
as contact play, 78
gender and, 78
boys, play for
emotion regulation and, 223
fantasy play, 267–68
games in, 267–68
(p. 368)
HRV and, emotion regulation from, 224–25
in peer groups, hierarchical organization among, 273
play fighting as, 255
with tool use, 164t
with toys, 217
in US, 106
Brazil, play in
cultural ecology of, 120, 124–30
observations of children’s play, 129–33, 131t
Bretherton, Inge, 286
bubblegum years, play during, 90
building blocks, 327, 328f
bullying
playground games and, 261–62
play v., 9
Burarrwanga, George, 94
Burghardt, Gordon, 4, 42, 45, 111
C
Canby, Henry Seidel, 105
capital theory, 32
capuchin monkeys, tool use by, 162
caregiving, play and
within cultural community, 232
cultural development and, 22
among Rhesus macaques, 62, 65
Chase, Martha Jenks, 105
Chatwin, Bruce, 93
childcare programs, 241
children’s play, as social play, 30–34, 231–41. See also human development, play and; social interactions, among children
with adults, 231–41
adult supervision of, 238
adults v. children and, 236
affective content in, 233–34
in agricultural societies, 33–34
attachment theory for, 236–37
in Brazil, 129–33, 131t
in classrooms, 238
cognitive development and, 239
as complementary, 234
components of, 233–34
within cultural community, 231–36
developmental stages of, 236
in different settings, 30–34
dispositions as influence on, 239
in dyads, 235
emotion regulation and, 233, 239
in formal groups, 237
individual developments for, 239
interactive content in, 233–34
in Kenya, 129–33, 131t
language development and, 239
during latency period, 4, 102
object play and, 157, 163–64
in peer groups, 231–41
Peer Play Scale for, 233–34
physical settings for, 32–33
potential benefits, 33–34
pretend play, 234
as reciprocal, 234
reciprocity in, 233
as reflection of adult activities, 30–31
scaffolding in, 235
with siblings, 235
sociability as influence on, 239
social climate of, 237–39
social competence and, 233
structure of, 233–34
symbols in, 234
tool use in, 163–64, 164t
in US, 129–33, 130t
work/play combinations, 31–32
chimpanzees, social play among, 75
tool use and, 162
Chudacoff, Howard, 4
‘chumships,’ 186
classrooms
children’s play in, 238
gender segregation in, 222
negative climates in, 238
play technology applications in, 326
positive climates in, 238–39
The Cobblers (Sutton-Smith), 90
cognitive development
children’s play and, 239
from games, 275–76
games and, 265, 269–73
playground games and, 269–73
from social play, 202
technology and play for, 327
cognitive immaturity hypothesis, 365
Coming, Peter, 114
commitment, from games, 277
communication
in social bridge hypothesis, 75
social play as, among nonhuman primates, 72
communicative musicality, 85
complementary play, 234
social play development theory and, 241
complex social pretend play, 234
social play development theory and, 241
computer games, 267–68
Computer Speech Lab (CSL), 290–91
conduct disorder, 205–6
conflict resolution
from games, 277
from social play, 59
constructive play, 10, 14, 189
object play and, 154
contextualist theories, of play, 125–29
cooperation, from games, 277
cooperative social pretend play, 234
social play development theory and, 241
Coplan, Rob, 5
‘cops and robbers,’ 263–64
Corsaro, Bill, 315
co-sleeping, 23
courtship
among apes, social play as, 76
play fighting within, 253–55
play v., 9
Craske, Margaret, 94
Crosby, Mary, 104
cross-sex games, 270–71
Crosswell, T.R., 105
Culin, Stewart, 105
cultural community, 231–36
adult involvement in, 232
caregiving within, 232
children’s play within, 231–36
cross-cultural research on, 232–33
definition of, 231–33
socialization of social play within, 231–32
theory of human development and, 231–33
cultural-ecological theory, for play, 125–29
activities of interest in, 127
context in, 128
instantiation of culture in, 128
methods in, 127–29
cultural ecology of play, 119–34
anthropological approaches to, 122–23
in Brazil, 120, 124–33, 131t
contextualist methods for, 121–22
contextualist theories in, 125–29
cultural-ecological theory for, 125–29
ethnographic approaches to, 119–20, 122
ethologists and, 119–20
in Kenya, 120, 124–25, 129–33, 131t
mother–child play, 122
neo-positivist methods for, 121
non-positivist methods for, 121
paradigms for, 121–23
PPCT model for, 125
in Senegal, 124
in Six Cultures Study, 120
study methods for, 121–23
Western theories for, 123
Cultural Ecology of Young Children project, 127
culture, play and, 19–34. See also parent–child play
acculturation status, 21
agricultural development and, 22–24
assimilation and, 30
belief systems about, 21–24
caregiving and, 22
causal models for, 21
among children, 30–34
conceptual issues with, 20–21
concerted cultivation and, 21
definitions within, 21
differential opportunities in, 31–32
(p. 369)
in different settings, 30–34
employment factors, 32
enculturation function, 31
in hunting-gathering communities, 23–24
infant social contingency play and, 87–88
maternal beliefs, 24
neighborhood characteristics for, 22
parent–child play, 19–30
physical play, 25–27
in playground games, 278–79
as reflection of adult activities, 30–31
in Six Culture study, 31–32
social pretend play and, influences on, 298–300
symbolic, differences among, 53–55
theoretical frameworks for, 21
working models for, 22
work/play combinations in, 31–32
D
Damasio, Antonio, 112
primary/secondary emotions, 113t
Dancing in the Streets (Ehrenreich), 111
Darwin, Charles, 89–90, 112–13
Darwinism, human development and, 85
deferred adaptations, 155
defiant disorder, 205–6
depression, social play and, 204, 210
developmental scaffolding, 46
developmental theories, play in, 10
Dickinson, Emily, 86
direct instruction programs, 352–53
direct observational methods, in play study, 140–41
Direct Observation and Measurement of Behavior (Hutt/Hutt), 139
dispositions, children’s play and, 239
distress, 206
double-knowledge, 297
Dream Days (Grahame), 90
Dungeons and Dragons, 304
dyads. See also peer groups
in children’s play, 235
externalizing disorders within, 203–4
girls in, 217
E
ecology theory. See also cultural ecology of play
for social play, among nonhuman primates, 71
educational applications, technology and play, 325–31
capacity models in, 329
children’s imagination influenced by, 327–29
in classrooms, 326
for cognition, 327
design for, 330–31
functional benefits of, 326
incidental learning in, 329
for language skills, 327
program content as factor, 328
resistance to, 326
selected studies for, 326–27
with video games, 329–30
educational policy, play in schools and, 341–53, 364–65
cognitive immaturity hypothesis and, 365
debates over, 341–42
with direct instruction programs, 352–53
free play, 344–45, 347, 349–50
free play periods, 365
guided play and, 342–44, 347–51
historical development of, 341–42
“knowledge age,” 341, 353
for language skills, 346–49
for literacy skills, 346–49
LOGO software programs, 345–46
for mathematics and science, 344–46
in Montessori schools, 351–52
pedagogical research for, 351–53
playful learning and, 343–44
state standards for, 342
with Tools of the Mind program, 352
educational theories, play in, 10
Ehrenreich, Barbara, 111
Eisen, George, 91
elderly, technology and play for, 332–33
Eliot, T.S., 94–95
Elkind, David, 11
Emotion Literacy in the Classroom (ELC) program, 350–51
emotion regulation, from social play, 59, 205–6
ADHD and, 206
arousability assessment and, 223–24
among boys, 223
among children, 233, 239
conduct disorder from, 205–6
defiant disorder from, 205–6
deficits in, 205
distress and, 206
gender segregation and, 221, 223–26
among girls, 223
HRV and, 224–27
hypothesized role of, 205
negative, 205–6
ostracism from, 205
social interactions and, 223–26
social rejection from, 205
emotions, play and, 112–14
antipathetical role of, 112–14
primary, 112
secondary, 112
strategy games and, 113
empathy, from social play, 59
emulation, 165
enculturation function, 31
Erikson, Erik, 91
European Americans, parent–child play for, 23
evolution, of play, 44–46
adaptability drivers in, 45
“Baldwin effect,” 45
as form of plasticity, 45–46
organic selection in, 45
evolutionary developmental psychology, object play and, 154–55
deferred adaptations in, 155
ontogenetic adaptations in, 155
skeletal competencies in, 155
social signaling in, 155
executive control dysfunction, 313–15
exercise play, locomotor play and, 174–75
benefits of, 182
ethological studies of, 174
by gender, 175
MVPA, 175
during preschool period, 174
during primary school period, 174–75
exploratory behavior, as play, 353n1
The Expression of the Emotions in Man (Darwin), 112–13
externalizing disorders, social play and, 202–10
within dyads, 203–4
literature for, 207
peer relationships and, 203
solitary-active play and, 204
solitary play and, 204
F
facial expressions
for nonhuman primates, in social play, 79
play and, 17
Fagen, Robert, 4
fairness, in play fighting, 245–47
among animals, 246–47
fantasy play
by gender, 267–68
mother–child, 284–94
within parent–child play, 24
fathers, parent–child play for, 25–26
with infants, 251
fear responses, play fighting and, 250
Fewell Play Scale, 311
fighting
as play, 15
play v., 9
Flannagan, William, 104
Four Quartets (Eliot), 94–95
Frame, Janet, 90
free play, 11
for language skills, 347
for literacy skills, 347
for mathematics and science, 344–45
organized v., 11
self-regulatory skills from, 349–50
for social skills, 349–50
(p. 370) friendship
as affordances, 208–9
biological adaptation of, 271
playground games and, 269–70
sex differences in, 270–73
sociocultural factors for, 271
functional play, 189
in autism, pretend play v., 310–11
G
games, 262–70. See also playground games, in schools
appropriateness of, as peer-influenced, 266
basic requirements of, for participants, 263
among boys, 267–68
cognitive development and, 265, 269–73
commitment from, development of, 277
complexity of, increase in, 266
computer, 267–68
conflict resolution from, 277
cooperation from, 277
‘cops and robbers,’ 263–64
cross-sex, 270–71
by developmental stage, 265–69
development of, 262–65
ecological perspectives of, 264–65
by gender, 265–68
through generations, 268–69
among girls, 267–68
group identity from, 270
‘hide and seek,’ 264
intimacy as result of, 277
language skills development from, 275–76
learning development from, 276–77
in literature, 267
marbles, 263
during middle childhood, 265–66
peer groups and, 269–73
Piaget on, 264–65, 268
play v., 262–64
racing, 263
reciprocity from, 277
rules in, 262–63, 266
school adjustment from, 276–77
school belonging from, 277
self-disclosure from, 277
social-cognitive skills from, 275–76, 278
social groupings and, changing size of, 266
as social objects, 262
as social scaffold, 269–70
in Spencer study, 266
theoretical perspectives on, 264–65
video games, 325
The Games of New Zealand Children (Pellegrini), 112
game theory models, 246
Gardiner, Amy, 4
gelada baboons, social play among, 75–76
adult distribution within, 76
OMUs and, 75–76
play fighting as, 76f
gender
arousability assessment by, 223–24
cross-sex games, 270–71
exercise play by, 175
fantasy play by, 267–68
friendship by, 270–73
games by, 265–68
HRV by, emotion regulation from, 225f
locomotor play by, 173, 175–76
nonsocial play by, 195–96
object play by, 156–57, 163–64
peer groups by, 270–73
social interactions among children and, 215–27
technology play by, 324
tool use by, 161–64, 164t
gender, social play by
among bonobo apes, 78
among children, 215–27
among gorillas, 73
object play and, 163–64
role reinforcement through, 119
tool use and, 164t
“gender enforcers,” 216
gender segregation, 215–26
activity levels and, 219
in afterschool programs, 222
from behavioral compatibility, 219–20
in classrooms, 222
cognitive explanations for, 220–21
communication styles with, 219
conflict resolution strategies and, 219
development of, 215–17
emotion regulation and, 221, 223–26
evolutionary approaches to, 218–19
explanations for, 217–22
forms of influence with, 219
future research for, 226–27
“gender enforcers” for, 216
by girls, 217
homo-social norms and, 221
individual differences in, 222–26
institutional influences on, 221–22
integrative approach to, 222
level variability of, 216
partner choice variations with, 217–18
peer groups and, 221–22
during preschool period, 216
research data on, 222–23
as resistant to change, 215
rough-and-tumble play and, 221
self-regulation and, 219
“similarity-attraction” with, 221
social network analytic techniques for, 219–20
toy play and, 216–17
The Genesis of Animal Play (Burghardt), 111
genetics
Gene X Environment, 59–60
polymorphisms and, 63, 65
for Rhesus macaques, social play influenced by, 62–63
social play and, factors for, 59–65
Gene X Environment, 59–60
in animal models, 60, 65
in Rhesus macaques, 63–64
gestures, play and, 17
among nonhuman primates, 79
Gilder, Jeannette Leonard, 104
girls, play for
compromise among, 217
in dyads, 217
emotion regulation and, 223
fantasy play, 267–68
games in, 267–68
gender segregation and, 217
HRV and, emotion regulation from, 224–25
pacification techniques with, 217
in peer groups, hierarchical organization among, 273
social conversation as, 268
with tool use, 164t
with toys, 217
in US, 106
The Golden Age (Grahame), 90
Goldstein, Jeff, 6
Goodall, Jane, 84
Goodrich, Samuel, 103
gorillas, social play among, 72–75, 73f
gender as influence on, 73–74
play frequency for, 73
size matching in, 74
social contexts for, 73
Gould, Stephen Jay, 85, 94
Grahame, Kenneth, 90
grooming, among nonhuman primates, 75
group identity, from games, 270
guided play, 342–44
adult guidance in, 343–44
definition of, 344
ELC program, 350–51
for literacy skills, 347–49
for mathematics and science, 345–46
self-regulatory skills and, 350–51
H
Hagan, Theresa, 177
Handbook of Child Psychology, 3, 172, 262
Harris, Paul, 293
Havens, Catherine Elizabeth, 101–2
‘Hawthorne effect,’ 147
heart rate variability (HRV), emotion regulation from, 224–27
among boys, 224–25
distress and, 224
by gender, 225f
among girls, 224–25
negative emotions and, 225, 226f
software technology for, 224
(p. 371) Henricks, Thomas, 11
hide and seek, 264. See also peek-a-boo
The High Jump (Knox), 90
hostile attribution bias, 207–8
Howells, William Dean, 108
Howes, Carollee, 5
Huizinga, Johan, 13, 101–2
human development, play and, 83–98.See also infant social contingency play; musicality
adaptability hypothesis for, 92
during adulthood, 90–91
behavioral-flexibility and, 83
during bubblegum years, 90
communicative musicality in, 85
corollaries for, 96–97
criteria for, 85
Darwinism as influence on, 85
ecology theories in, 93
embodiment and, 93–96
flexibility hypothesis for, 92
future directions of, 97–98
geographies as influence on, 85
historical account of, 87
hypotheses for, 91–96
Implicit Function Theorem for, 94
infant-mother contingency play, 96
infant social contingency play, 87–88
intersubjectivity in, 84, 93, 95–96
kinetic melodies and, 93–96
metaphors about, 85–86
during middle infancy, 89–90
milk availability and, 87
moments of awareness in, 93–96
musicality hypothesis for, 92–95
nature-nurture dualism for, 84
null hypothesis, 91–92
play ethos and, 83
rates of, 86–89
rhythm in, 94–97
scaffolding in, 86, 97–98
science media reform for, 97–98
scope of, 86
hunting, play v., 9
Hutt, Corinne, 139
Hutt, S.J., 139
I
imaginary companions, 302
imagination
in social pretend play, 296–97
technology and play as influence on, 327–29
Implicit Function Theorem, 94
infancy, play fighting during, with fathers, 251
“infant handling,” among nonhuman primates, 75
infant-mother contingency play, 96
infant social contingency play, 87–88
cross-cultural information on, 87–88
hypotheses of, 88
integrated play groups (IPGs), 316
interactive content, 233–34
of social play, 235
internalizing disorders, social play and, 202–10
depression and, 204, 209
distress, 206
parallel play and, 204
solitary focused play and, 204
intersubjectivity, 52–53
about metacommunication, 53
construction of, 52
in human development, for play, 84, 93, 95–96
interpretive role of play, 54
peer groups and, 52–53
in scripts, 53
intimacy, from games, 277
J
Job-related Affective Well-being Scale, 333
joking, as play fighting, 255
Jones, Blurton, 139, 142, 299
Jordan, Barbara, 106
K
Kavanaugh, Robert, 5, 293
Kenya, play in
cultural ecology of, 120, 124–25
observations of children’s play, 129–33, 131t
key players, 274–75. See also agenda setters
‘kingpins of the playground,’ 274
“knowledge age,” 341, 353
Knox, Elizabeth, 90
Kraus-Bolte, Maria, 101–2
L
language play, 10
language skills
children’s play and, 239
educational policy for, with play, 346–49
free play for, 347
games and, as factor in development of, 275–76
parent–child play and, 24
for Piaget, 51
role playing and, 303
technology and play for, 327
TELD measurements for, 303
large-motor play, 10
latency period, play during, 4, 102
leadership, playground games and, 273–76
learning development, from games, 276–77
lemurs, social play among, 77
play fighting as, 77, 79
Levenson, Sam, 106
Lillard, Angeline, 5
Linguistic Word Count (LIWC), 290–91
literacy skills
educational policy for, with play, 346–49
free play for, 347
guided play for, 347–49
litotes, 70
locomotor play, 172–83
age trends in, 173, 175, 182
animal models for, 247
benefits of, 365
cognitive effects of, 179–81
definition of, 172–73
deprivation studies for, 176–77
dimensions of, 176
endurance training for, 178–79
ethological studies for, 178
exercise play and, 174–75
functional attributes of, 173
functions of, 176–77
by gender, 173, 175–76
methodological approaches to, 181–82
physical components of, 173
physical training for, 177–79
physiological development from, 177–78
research on, 180, 182–83
rhythmic stereotypies in, 174, 176–77, 182
rough-and-tumble play and, 173
scaffolding in, 176
sex segregation and, 181–82
social effects of, 181–82
socialization pressures with, 181
as social play, 173
Surplus Energy Theory for, 179
LOGO software programs, 345–46
looks, in mother–child pretend play, 289
Lore and Language of School Children (Opie/Opie), 112
M
make-believe play, 10
Manual of Child Psychology, 363
marbles, 263
massive multiplayer online (MMO) game, 324
mastery play, 10
medical prefrontal cortex (mPFC), 249
mental play, 17
metacommunication, 53
metarepresentational thought, 297
functional v. pretend play, 310–11
in pretend play, 310–13
in theory of mind, 310–13
Mickey Mouse Club, 107
middle childhood, games during, 265–66
middle infancy, play during, 89–90
moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 175
Montessori schools, educational policy in, 351–52
Morgan, Lloyd, 45
Morris, Desmond, 45
mother–child play, 284–94
cultural ecology of, 122
fantasy play, 284–94
mother–child pretend play, 29, 286–93. See also movement, in mother–child pretend play
infant comprehension in, 292
language in, 292–93
looks in, 289
mothers as spectators in, 287
mothers’ behaviors in, 288–93
motor cues in, 293
movements in, 289–93
peers in, 287–88
reenactments in, 287–88
replica objects in, 287
research on, 291–92
scaffolding in, 286–87
siblings and, 287–88
smiles in, 288–89
social referencing in, 291, 293
solitary play v., 286–87
sound effects in, 289
voice pitch in, 286–87, 290–91
Vygotsky on, 293–94
word use in, 289
Zone of Proximal Development and, 287
motivation, in theories of play, 42–43
movement, in mother–child pretend play, 289–93
exaggeration in, 290
pantomime, 289
snack-related behaviors, 290, 292
Muir, John, 104
musicality, 92–95. See also communicative musicality
communicative, 85
in human development, play and, 92–95
rhythm and, 94–95
N
Nabokov, Vladimir, 95, 97
negative emotions, 205–6
HRV and, 225, 226f
Newcomb, Harvey, 104
“No Child Left Behind,” 23
nonhuman primates, social play among, 70–80. See also apes, social play among; bonobo apes, social play among; gelada baboons, social play among; gorillas, social play among; social bridge hypothesis
for apes, 76–79
behavioral plasticity for, 71
for bonobo apes, 78–79, 78f
for chimpanzees, 75
ecology theory for, 71
facial displays in, 79
for gelada baboons, 75–76
gender as influence on, 73–74
gestures in, 79
for gorillas, 72–75, 73f
grooming and, 75
“infant handling” and, 75
for lemurs, 77
object play, 157–58
playfighting as, 254–55
during puberty, 71–75
for Rhesus macaques, 60–64
size-matching for, 74–75
social bridge hypothesis, 75–79
as social communication, 72
social competence from, 71–72
social signaling and, 72
among spider monkeys, 72f
for spider monkeys, 72f
surplus resource theory for, 71
tool use and, 162–63
non-literality, play and, 13
non-participant observational methods, in play study, 139–40
nonsexual play, among apes, 76–77
nonsocial play, 185–97. See also reticent behavior; solitary-active play; solitary-passive play
‘chumships’ and, 186
contextual differences for, 196–97
definition of, 186
developmental differences for, 195
development of, 185–86
disadvantages of, 187
empirical studies of, 186
by gender, 195–96
historical perspectives for, 186
methodological issues with, 194–95
onlooking with, 188
for peer groups, 186–87
real world implications of, 197
reticent behavior as, 189–91
sampling techniques for, 194
scale assessment of, 194
shyness and, 196
social context for, 186, 188
social participation and, 188–89
social withdrawal and, 187
socio-emotional outcomes, 195
solitary play v., 188
solitude and, 187–88
subtypes of, 186, 189–94
theoretical perspectives for, 186
unoccupied behaviors and, 188
null hypothesis, for human development and play, 91–92
O
object-oriented play. See object play
object play, 10, 153–58. See also evolutionary developmental psychology, object play and
among animals, 247
among children, 157, 163–64
children’s folk psychology and, 167
constructive play and, 154
definition of, 153–54
evolutionary developmental psychology and, 154–55
experiential learning for, 165–66
exploration v., 154
by gender, 156–57, 163–64
in nonhuman primates, 157–58
observational learning for, 165–66
perception v. action with, 166–67
social learning and, 165
social pretend play and, 296
tool use and, 163–64
observational methods, in play study, 138–48
for aggression, 141–42
behavior analysis, 146
behavior drift in, 147
categorization of, 138, 143–44
constraint setting in, 140–41
developmental differences in, 156–57
direct, 140–41
ethological methodology for, 138–39
familiarization of, 142–43
gender differences in, 156–57
‘Hawthorne effect’ in, 147
history of, 139–40
measures of behavior in, 144–45
in natural environments, 140–41
with non-participants, 139–40
observer effects in, 147
(p. 373)
parallel play, 144
with participants, 139–40
pilot work in, 142–43
POS in, 143
recording techniques, 144
reliability of, 146–47
sampling in, 145–46
sequence analysis in, 148
theoretical suppositions in, 142–43
with tool use, 165–66
validity of, 146–47
observer effects, 147
one-male units (OMUs), 75–76
ontogenetic adaptations, 155
Opie, Iona, 112, 274
Opie, Peter, 112
orbital frontal cortex (OFC), 249
organized play, free v., 11
Osborne, Nigel, 97
ostracism, 205
Our Street (Sutton-Smith), 90
P
parallel play, 144
internalizing disorders and, 204
parent–child physical play, 25–27
child form attachments, 27
purpose of, 26–27
parent–child play, 19–30. See also fathers, parent–child play for; mother–child play; mother–child pretend play; parent–child physical play; parent–child pretend play
for African Americans, 22–23
alloparenting and, 23
among Asians, 23
co-sleeping and, 23
as culture-specific, 20
ethno-theories about, 21
among European Americans, 23
fantasy play within, 24
for fathers, 25–26
language skills and, 24
maternal cognitions in, 22–23
modernization and, 19
modes of, 24–30
with non-parental figures, 25
as object-mediated, 25
peek-a-boo in, 28
physical, 25–27
pretend, 28–30
for Puerto Ricans, 22–23
in socialization models, 20
stimulation activities for, 27–28
universal claims of, 20
parent–child pretend play, 28–30
adult initiation of, 28
child initiation of, 28
for mothers, 29
peer group influence on, 28
siblings and, 29
socialization and, 29
participant observational methods, in play study, 139–40
“pay-for-play” sites, 107–8
peek-a-boo, 28
peer groups
biological adaptation of, 271
for boys, hierarchical organization among, 273
children’s play among, 231–41
in different schools, 275
externalizing disorders and, 203
formation of, 235–36
games among, changing size of, 266
by gender, 270–73
gender segregation and, 221–22
for girls, hierarchical organization among, 273
intersubjectivity and, 52–53
membership in, 269
mother–child pretend play and, 287–88
nonsocial play for, 186–87
playground games and, 267, 269–73
psychological safety within, 279
among Rhesus macaques, social play for, 61–62
size of, 272
as socializing context, 272–73
sociocultural factors for, 271
in Spencer study, 272
in US, history of play for, 105
value system variability between, 275
Peer Play Scale, 233–34
Pellegrini, Anthony, 45–46, 83, 92, 112
Penn Interactive Peer Play Scale, 194
physical activity play, autism and, 311.See also locomotor play
physical play, 25–27. See also locomotor play
object-mediated, 25
parent–child, 25–27
rough play as, 25
among siblings, 26
Piaget, Jean, 48–56, 301
conceptualization of play for, 49
on games, 264–65, 268
intersubjectivity and, 52–53
language skills for, 51
play as sociocultural activity, 51–52
on pretend play, 284–86, 309
symbolic play for, 48–56
play, 9–17. See also animal models, play in; children’s play, as social play; culture, play and; games; locomotor play; nonsocial play; object play; observational methods, in play study; parent–child play; siblings, play with; symbolic play; technology, play and; theories, of play; tool use, play and
ADHD as influence on, 11
among animals, 10
antipathies of, 110–14
with arts, 10
behavioral patterns of, 15, 17, 70–71
bullying v., 9
constructive, 10, 14, 189
courtship v., 9
criteria for, 4, 13–16
cultural context of, 4
definition of, 3–4, 9–10, 70–71
developmental theories and, 10
diversity of, 11–12
educational policy and, 364–65
educational theories and, 10
ethology and, 12–13
evolution of, 44–46
exploratory behavior as, 353n1
as expression of freedom, 101–2
facial expressions and, 17
fighting, 9, 15
as form of plasticity, 45–46
free, 11
functional, 189
games v., 262–64
as gender role reinforcement, 119
gestures in, 17
good v. bad, 111–12
human development and, 83–98
hunting v., 9
imitation of adults in, 15
immaturity and, 364
language, 10
large-motor, 10
during latency period, of childhood, 4, 102
in literature, 13
litotes and, 70
make-believe, 10
mastery, 10, 15
mental, 17
motivation for, 277
as nonfunctional, 111
non-literality and, 13
as non-obligatory, 4
as non-survival based, 13–14
as nonvoluntary, 111
positive affect and, 13
pretend, 15
process classification for, 16–17
real behavior v., 42–43
recognition of, 12–13
during “relaxed” states, 16
repetition in, 15–16
risk-taking, 10
rough-and-tumble, 10
rule-based, 10, 15
in school, 10
sensory, 10
similar behaviors in, in definition of, 15
small-motor, 10
social, 10–11, 58–65
as spontaneous, 14
structural components of, 188–89
study methodologies for, 4
symbolic, 10, 189
temporal limitations of, 14–15
therapeutic theories and, 10
as therapy, 12
tool use and, 158–67
types of, 10
in US, history of, 101–8
with word, 12
Play, Dreams, and Imitation (Piaget), 301
PlayBOT robot system, 333f
playdates, 196
play deprivation, 247–48
play ethos, 83, 353n2
play fighting, 245–52. See also rough-and-tumble play
during adolescence, among boys, 255
adult v. juvenile tactics in, 252
affective states for, 251
aggression regulation from, 79
ambiguity in, 247
in animal models, 247–55
behavioral patterns in, 245–46
bias in, 253
within courtship, 253–55
defense tactics in, 252
evasion tactics in, 252
(p. 374)
fairness in, 245–47
fear responses and, 250
as form of metacommunication, 298
in game theory models, 246
among gelada baboons, 76f
among humans, 255
during infancy, 251
joking as, 255
among lemurs, 77, 79
marital discord as influence on, for children, 251
movement coordination with, 248
among nonhuman primates, 72f, 254–55
in nonsexual contexts, 248
pain stimuli and, 250
partner-related modulation of, 253
reciprocity and, 251
serious v., 246
in sexual contexts, 248
for social advantage, 252–55
social brain and, 247–52
social complexity of, 254–55
social integration as result of, 79
in social pretend play, 298
among spider monkeys, 72f
teasing as, 255
playful learning, 343–44
definition of, 343
playfulness, 20
playground games, in schools, 260–79
agenda setters in, 274–75
bullying and, 261–62
cognitive development and, 269–73
culture for, 278–79
among ethnic groups, 270
friendship and, 269–70
historical development of, 261
isolates in, 274
‘kingpins of the playground,’ 274
leadership and, 273–76
peer groups and, 267, 269–73
during recess, 261–62, 276–79
research on, 261–62
responders in, 274
social status and, 273–76
in Spencer study, 274–75
teachers’ views on, 279
in US, 106, 261–62
youth violence and, 261
playmates, 102
Play Observation Scheme (POS), 143
play sites
“pay-for-play,” 107–8
playgrounds, 106
in US, history of, 102–4
play therapy, 12
positive affect, play and, 13
Power, Thomas, 83
preschool period, play during
exercise play, 174
gender segregation and, 216
social interactions during, 214
solitude during, 188
tool use during, 161
Preschool Play Behavior Scale, 194
pretend play, 15, 296–305. See also autism, pretend play in; fantasy play; mother–child pretend play; social pretend play; symbolic play
action in, 285
as affordance, 285
in autism, 308–18
as autistic behavior, 284
children’s play and, 234
complex social, 234, 241
cooperative social, 234, 241
coordinated interaction and, 315–16
criteria for, 284–85
definition of, 284–85
development of, 285–88
functional play v., in autism, 310–11
metarepresentational nature of, 310–13
mother–child, 29, 286–93
onset of, 286
parent–child, 28–30
Piaget on, 284–86, 309
ritualization in, 285
as secondary representation, 310
shared, 316
social context for, 286
in social play development theory, 240
symbolism in, 284
theories of, 309–10
theory of mind for, 310
for Vygotsky, 49–50, 313
primary process play, 16
Primate Ethology (Jones), 139
process-person-context-time (PPCT) model, 125
public policy, theories of play and, 46
Puerto Ricans, parent–child play for, 22–23
R
racing games, 263
Ransome, Arthur, 90
recess, 276–79
educational benefits of, 365
intrinsic value of, 262
playground games during, 261–62
reciprocal play, 234
social play development theory and, 241
reciprocity, in children’s play, 233
from games, 277
play fighting and, 251
repetition, in play, 15–16
representational abuse, 297
responders, 274
reticent behavior, 189–91
approach-avoidance conflict and, 190
conceptualization of, 189–90
correlates of, 190–91
definition of, 189
frequency of, 190
outcomes of, 190–91
Rhesus macaques, social play among, 60–64
agonistic behaviors, 61
anxiety levels and, 62–63
biological outcomes for, 64
biological systems and, 63
candidate gene approach to, 64
care giving and, 62, 65
deprivation of, 61, 64–65
early experiences for, 61–62
environmental stressors for, 62
fear levels and, 62–63
genetic influences on, 62–63
Gene X Environment and, 63–64
normative development of, 60–61
among peer groups, 61–62
prenatal stressors and, 63–64
social competence from, 60
stages of, 61
‘therapist monkeys’ with, 61
variations in temperament and, 62–63, 65
rhythm, 94–97
in locomotor play, 174, 176–77, 182
(p. 375)
musicality and, 94–95
risk-taking play, 10
Robbins, Jerome, 95
Roberts, John M., 113
The Role of Play in Human Development (Pellegrini), 83
role playing, 301–3
emotional cognition and, 303
games, 304
imaginary companions and, 302
language skills and, 303
in social pretend play, 301–2
theory of mind and, 302
Roopnarine, Jaipaul, 4
rotational play, 10
rough-and-tumble play, 10, 245–55.See also play fighting
autism and, 311
distinctiveness of, 142
gender segregation and, 221
locomotor play and, 173
observational methods for, 141–42
as physical play, 25
play fighting as, 245–52
in Spencer study, 266
as spontaneous, 245
rule-based play, 10, 15
in games, 262–63
S
scaffolding
during adult play, 91
autism and, 311
in children’s play, 235
developmental, 46
games and, 269–70
in human development, 86, 97–98
in locomotor play, 176
in mother–child pretend play, 286–87
in theories of play, 46
schools. See also educational policy, play in schools and; playground games, in schools
playground activities in, 260–79
play in, 10
Schwartz, David, 5
scripts
intersubjectivity in, 53
with symbolic play, 54
secondary process play, 16
self-constructed play, 102
self-disclosure, from games, 277
self-regulatory skills
free play and, 349–50
guided play and, 350–51
Senegal, play in, 124
sensorimotor play, autism and, 311
sensory play, 10
sex cleavage. See gender; gender segregation
shared pretend play, 316
sheltered-child model, 105
shyness, 196
siblings, play with
among children, 235
in Early America, 103
mother–child pretend play and, 287–88
parent–child pretend play and, 29
physical play among, 26
signaling. See social signaling
“similarity-attraction,” 221
Simon, Kate, 108
simulation theory, 304–5
Singer, Dorothy, 304
Singer, Jerome, 304
Six Culture study, 31–32
in cultural ecology of play, 120
size matching, 74–75
among gorillas, for social play, 74
skeletal competencies, 155
slavery, play and, in US, 102–3
small-motor play, 10
smart toys, 323–25
smiles, in mother–child pretend play, 288–89
social referencing, 291
Smith, Peter, 4, 83, 163, 172, 177
Smith, Robert Paul, 107
Smitty Does A Bunk (Sutton-Smith), 90
sociability, children’s play and, 239
social brain, play fighting and, 247–52
development of, 249
mPFC development, 249
OFC development, 249
physical damage as influence on, 248–49
play deprivation and, consequences of, 247–48
structure of, 249
social bridge hypothesis, 75–79
communicative displays in, 75
grooming in, 75
social cognition, 206–8. See also social competence
aggression and, 207
feedback loops with, 207
from games, skills development, 275–76, 278
hostile attribution bias and, 207–8
information-processing with, 206
interpretation in, 206
maladaptive cognitive schema and, 207–8
social competence, 58
children’s play and, 233
among nonhuman primates, from social play, 71–72
among Rhesus macaques, 60
social play and, 58, 233
social groups. See peer groups
social integration, from play fighting, 79
social interactions, among children, 214–26. See also dyads; peer groups
autism and, 309
emotion regulation and, 223–26
gender and, 215–27
gender segregation and, 215–26
partner selection variability and, 215
during preschool years, 214
rates of, 214–15
research history for, 214
social learning, object play and, 165
emulation in, 165
true imitation and, 165
social play, 10–11, 58–65. See also children’s play, as social play; externalizing disorders, social play and; internalizing disorders, social play and; nonhuman primates, social play among; Rhesus macaques, social play among; social play development, theory of
ADHD and, 203–4
affective content of, 234–35
among animals, 247
autism and, 311
cognitive development from, 202
conflict resolution from, 59
within cultural community, 231–32
depression and, 204
development of, 58, 60–61
development theory, 231–40
emotion regulation from, 59, 205–6
empathy from, 59
externalizing disorders with, 202–10
as flexible, 58
free play and, 349–50
friendships and, 208–9
gender differences in, 59
genetic factors for, 59–65
Gene X Environment, 59–60
and group formation, 235–36
as intentional, 79
interactive content of, 235
internalizing disorders with, 202–10
locomotor play as, 173
among nonhuman primates, 70–80
Peer Play Scale for, 233–34
physical maturation from, 202
quality of, 58
quantity of, 58
among Rhesus macaques, 60–64
social acceptance and, 208–9
social climate of, 237–39
social cognition from, 206
social competence and, 58, 233
socialization from, 202
structure of, 233–34
social play development, theory of, 231–40
attachment perspective in, 236–37
childcare programs and, 241
complementary play and, 241
complex social pretend play and, 241
consequences of, 239–40
continuity in, 239
cooperative social pretend play and, 241
within cultural community, 231–36
across domains, 240
pretend play in, 240
proto-narratives, 240
reciprocal play and, 241
research on, 240–41
in social policy, 240–41
social pretend play, 296–305
among animals, 297–98
anthropological studies for, 299
community values in, 299
cultural influences on, 298–300
definition of, 296–97
development of, 300–303
after early childhood, 303–4
features of, 297
imagination in, 296–97
intellectual development from, 299
metarepresentational thought and, 297
during middle childhood, 304
object play and, 296
parental beliefs about, 299–300
play fighting in, 298
properties of, 297
representational abuse in, 297
role play in, 301–2
simulation theory and, 304–5
social development from, 299
theory of mind in, 301–3
social referencing
in mother–child pretend play, 293
smiles, 291
social referencing smiles, 291
social signaling, 72
in evolutionary developmental psychology, 155
social status, playground games and, 273–76
popularity and, 274
social withdrawal, 187. See also solitude
(p. 376) solitary-active play, 191–92
characteristics of, 191
conceptualization of, 191–92
correlates for, 192
externalizing disorders and, 204
outcomes for, 192
social context for, 192
solitary focused play, 204
solitary locomotor play, 10
solitary-passive play, 192–94
approach-avoidance conflicts and, 193
characteristics of, 193
conceptualization of, 193
correlates for, 193–94
outcomes for, 193–94
unsociability and, 193
solitary play. See also solitary-active play; solitary-passive play
ADHD and, 204
externalizing disorders and, 204
mother–child pretend play v., 286–87
nonsocial play v., 188
solitude, 187–88
during adolescent period, 188
benefits of, 187–88
during preschool period, 188
The Songlines (Chatwin), 93
sound effects, in mother–child pretend play, 289
Spalding, Douglas, 45
Spencer, Ethel, 105
Spencer study, 266
antisocial behaviors in, 266
peer groups in, 272
playground games in, 274–75
rough-and-tumble play in, 266
spider monkeys, play fighting among, 72f
spontaneous play, 14
autism in, 308–9, 316
pretend, 14
rough-and-tumble, 245
Stamps, Judith, 179
Stern, Daniel, 90, 95
strategy games, 113
Surplus Energy Theory, 179
Surplus Resource Theory, 363
for social play, among nonhuman primates, 71
Sutton-Smith, Brian, 11, 84, 90, 111, 173
Swallows and Amazons (Ransome), 90
symbolic play, 10, 48–56, 189, 309
cultural differences in, 53–55
definition of, 48–49
education and, role in, 55
as intersubjective, 52–53
among legitimate peripheral participants, 54
long-term outcomes of, 56
negotiations during, 52
scripts with, 54
as social, 52
social organization and, 54
Symbolic Play: The Development of Social Understanding (Bretherton), 286
symbolism, in pretend play, 284
symbols, in children’s play, 234
T
Tarkington, Booth, 90
Teacher Behavior Rating Scale, 194
teasing, as play fighting, 255
technology, play and, 322–34. See also educational applications, technology and play
ADHD and, 332
biofeedback applications of, 332
children’s imagination influenced by, 327–29
content as influence on, 328
demographic studies on, 323–24
development of, 323–25
educational applications of, 325–31
for elderly, 332–33
gender as influence on, 324
health applications for, 331, 332f
MMOs, 324
smart toys, 323–25
for special needs populations, 331–32
studies of, 333–34
user-generated content and, 323
video games, 325
in workplace, 333
temperament, social play and. See also emotion regulation, from social play
arousability and, 227
contextual factors for, 227
among Rhesus macaques, 62–63, 65
self-regulation and, 227
tertiary process play, 16–17
Test of Early Language Development (TELD), 303
Thelen, Esther, 174
theories, of play, 41–46. See also Piaget, Jean; Vygotsky, Lev
behavioral biology and, 42–43
evolution in, 44–46
of motivation, 42–43
naming issues in, 41–42
prevailing conditions in, 43
projection in, 41–42
public policy and, 46
scaffolding in, 46
utility in, 43–44
theory of human development, 231–33
theory of mind, 301–3
metarepresentational thought in, 310–13
for pretend play, 310
role play and, 302
TELD measurement for, 303
therapeutic theories, play in, 10
‘therapist monkeys,’ 61
Thurston, Brown, 104
Tools of the Mind program, 352
tool use, play and, 158–67
action planning in, 160
affordances and, 159–60
categorization of, 160
causal structures in, 159–60
children’s folk psychology and, 167
children’s play and, 163–64, 164t
“design stance” with, 160
development of, 158–59
evolutionary history of, 158–59
experiential learning for, 165–66
functional fixedness with, 160
by gender, 161–64, 164t
modes of, 164–67
in nonhuman primates, 162–63
object play and, 163–64
observational learning for, 165–66
perception v. action with, 166–67
during preschool years, 161
toys. See also technology, play and
aggression and, 217
for boys, 217
craze for, 270
gender segregation and, 216–17
for girls, 217
mass production of, 105, 107
smart, 323–25
in US, in history of play, 104–5
Toys and Reasons (Erikson), 91
true imitation, 165
Twain, Mark, 102
U
United Kingdom (UK), play in
among mixed gender groups, 271–72
playground games in, 261–62, 268–69
United States, history of play in, 101–8
during 1800s, 103–6
Baby Boom as influence on, 107
birth rates as influence on, 104–6
for boys, 106
childhood freedom and, 105–6
commercialization of, 107–8
cultural ecology for, 120, 123–24
death rates as influence on, 102
in Early America, 102–3
future directions for, 108
for girls, 106
golden age of, 106–7
as “idling,” 103
labor patterns as influence on, 103–4
materials for, 102, 103
among mixed gender groups, 271–72
observations of children’s play, 129–33, 130t
for peer groups, 105
on playgrounds, 106, 261–62
“play instinct,” 106
playmates and, 102
play sites, 102–4
during Progressive Era, 106
(p. 377)
as “rambling,” 103
safety policies for, 107
self-constructed v. adult-constructed, 102
sex-segregation in, 106
sheltered-child model, 105
with siblings, 103
slavery and, 102–3
in suburban areas, 108
toys, 104–5
unsociability, 193
utility theories, of play, 43–44
V
Van Valen, Leigh, 84
video games, 325, 329–30
educational applications for, 329–30
mood management from, 325
space applications for, 333
visual perception benefits from, 330
voice pitch, in mother–child pretend play, 286–87, 290–91
CSL measurements, 290–91
LIWC analysis, 290–91
Vollstedt, Ralph, 172
von Balthasar, Hans-Urs, 95
Vygotsky, Lev, 48–56
act of representation for, 49–51
intersubjectivity and, 52–53
on mother–child pretend play, 293–94
play as sociocultural activity, 51–52
pretend play for, 49–50, 313
symbolic play for, 48–56
on Zone of Proximal Development, 49–50, 55
W
Weisner, Tom, 126
Wilson, E.O., 3, 154
word play, 12
in mother–child pretend play, 289
work, play and, 31–32
capital theory in, 32
for children, 31–32
gender influences on, 32
integration of, 32
workplace, technology and play in, 333
Job-related Affective Well-being Scale, 333
Wright, Henry, 104
Wundt, Wilhelm, 123
Y
Yeats, William Butler, 94
Z
Zone of Proximal Development, 49–50, 55
mother–child pretend play and, 287