Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 22 October 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This article provides updated estimates of the costs of the Iraq war and the Afghanistan wars. With all the caveats that one can apply, the current estimate of the cost of the two wars falls between $4 and $6 trillion. In addition to the known costs of conducting current and future military operations, caring for war veterans, and macroeconomic impacts, the most sobering costs of the Iraq conflict are in the category of opportunity costs. In the absence of the Iraq invasion, would the United States be mired for so long in Afghanistan? Would oil prices have risen so rapidly? Would the U.S. federal debt be so high? Would the economic crisis have been so severe? This article argues that the answer to all four of these questions is no.

Keywords: Iraq war, Afghanistan wars, U.S. invasion, opportunity costs, economic crisis

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.