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date: 06 December 2019

(p. 647) Index

(p. 647) Index

Abbott, Andrew D., 112, 114, 270, 324
Achinstein, Peter, 80, 145
actual causation, 155, 156–57, 175–76
Adams, John Couch, 252–53n11
agent-based modeling, 365–66
Ahn, T. K., 589–90
The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory (Duhem), 230, 233
Alexandrova, Anna, 105n14
American Political Science Association (APSA), 542, 547, 551
American Political Science Review (journal), 540
Anderson, Lisa R., 499
Andreasen, Nancy, 569
Andreou, Chrisoula, 484–86, 493–96, 500
anthropology
complex causality and, 10
cultural evolutionary theories and, 460–63, 471–72, 474–75, 476
mental health and, 560–61
“Anthropology and the Abnormal” (Benedict), 560–61
archaeology, 291, 294
Aristotle, 566–67
Arneson, Richard J., 600–601
Arntzenius, Frank, 280
assortativity, 442
Atran, Scott, 401, 406, 465
Austin, J. L., 388
average treatment effect (ATE), 92–93, 326–27
Axelrod, Robert, 367, 370–71, 372, 378, 442
Axtell, Robert, 367
balance of power theories, 102, 244–50
Banerjee, Abhijit V., 499–500
Bargh, John A., 430
Barro, Robert, 47–48, 56–58, 60
Barry, Brian, 377, 582–83, 599
“Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory” (Williams), 113
Bashkow, Ira, 398, 399
battle of the sexes, 363–64, 364, 482–83, 483, 485
Baumgartner, Frank, 99–100
Bayesian statistics
as deductive, 263–70
falsification and, 259, 262–63, 265–70, 266, 267, 269
probabilities and, 190–91, 221n9
social science and, 9
as subjective and inductive, 259–64
Beck, Nathaniel, 80, 241
behavioralism, 540–41
Belkin, Aaron, 163–64
Benedict, Ruth, 393, 399, 402, 560–61
Bennett, Andrew
on causal mechanisms, 73
on historiography, 293–94
process tracing and, 68, 79–80, 81, 112, 127
Bentham, Jeremy, 609
Bertrand, Marianne, 520–22
Bhaskar, Roy, 124
Bicchieri, Cristina, 411–15, 417–18, 420–21, 423–24, 430, 434n14
Bidney, David, 393, 398, 401
Binmore, Ken, 443
biological altruism, 440–41
biological anthropology, 462, 471–72
biology and philosophy of biology
biological anthropology and, 471–72
causal mechanisms and, 5, 21, 22, 28, 33
common cause types and tokens in, 294
computational modeling and, 355–56
explanations and, 34–35
methods of, 8
social science and, 436, 458–59, 461–63, 463–64, 476
Black, Duncan, 357
Blackmore, Susan, 466
Bloch, Maurice, 463, 474
Boas, Franz, 390, 393, 398–400
Bolton, Derek, 561
Borch-Jacobsen, Mikkel, 564
Boudon, Raymond, 39, 40
Bourdieu, Pierre
on kin relationships, 396–97
practice theory and, 399, 402
on structuring structures, 118, 119, 123
Boyd, Robert
on cultural evolution, 437, 466, 470, 473
definition of culture, 475
epidemiological model of culture and, 401, 406
Boyer, Pascal, 401
Brady, Henry E., 70
(p. 648) Braham, Matthew, 135–36, 141–42
Brand, Jennie E., 320
Brandom, Robert, 404, 405–6, 424–25
Brock, Dan, 612
Broh, Beckett A., 320
Broome, John, 612, 619
Bruch, Elizabeth, 376
Bruner, Jerome, 501
Buchanan, Alan, 598
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, 244
Burrows, Lara, 430
Byrne, David, 114, 120
Camerer, Colin, 488
Caporaso, James, 543
Caraway, Teri, 543
Carlsson, Hans, 497–98
Carr, Edward, 156
Carter, Bob, 121–22
Cartwright, Nancy, 5, 97–98, 102, 351n22
Castillo, Richard, 561
causal explanations
vs. constitutive explanations, 33–36
definitions of, 76, 358, 359–61
norms as rules and, 425–27
process tracing and, 66–67, 71–78 See also mechanism-based explanations
causal inference
counterfactuals and, 159–60, 170, 173, 177–79
definition of, 75–76
Pearl on, 310–11
process tracing and, 65–71, 75–77, 79–81
causal Markov condition, 59, 62–63n9, 74
causal mechanisms
biology and, 5, 21, 22, 28, 33
complex causality and, 58–61, 58, 58, 59
definitions and general characteristics of, 22–24, 72–73, 75–76
directed acyclic graphs and, 50–61, 52–53, 52, 57, 57
methodological individualism and, 26–27
microfoundations and, 37–39
process tracing and, 71–78
psychology and, 21
reductionism and, 24–27, 72–73
roles and types of, 48–50
social science and, 9, 21–22
causal strength
explanandum-dependence and, 145–48
features of, 140–44
overview, 130–33
qualitative comparative analysis and, 133–36, 139–40, 141–42
regression analysis and, 136–40, 139, 142 See also effect size
Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference (Pearl), 327
causally-relevant explanations, 358–61
causal-mechanical explanations, 359–61, 379
causes, definitions of, 5, 91–92, 157–58
Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca, 437, 465–66, 470
Cederman, Lars-Erik, 378
cell biology, 5, 22, 28
Chaftez, Janet Salzman, 537
charter schools debate
directed acyclic graphs and, 327–49, 330, 332–35, 344, 346–47
quantitative methods and, 322–27
Chavez, Alex, 434n14
Chen, Mark, 430
Chernoff, Fred, 253n14
Chicago school of economics, 309, 310
child well-being, 634
Churchland, Patricia, 571
Churchland, Paul, 571
Cialdini, Robert B., 428–29
Cilliers, Paul, 117
“The Classification of Depressions: A Review of Contemporary Confusion” (Kendell), 569
Claude, Inis, 247
Clayton, Nicola, 487
Clifford, James, 395, 397–98
Cobden, Richard, 245
cognitive anthropology, 463, 469
cognitive psychology
counterfactuals and, 156
epidemiological model of culture and, 388, 401
norms as rules and, 414, 416–17, 425, 430
race and, 511, 512–16
Coleman, James, 37–39, 38
Collier, David, 70, 80
Collins, John, 180n8
communal properties, 30–31
Comparative Political Studies (journal), 543
comparative politics, 380–81n2. See also feminist comparative policy (FCP)
complex causality
causal mechanisms and, 58–61, 58, 58, 59
overview, 9–10
qualitative methods and, 79
process tracing, 111–12
qualitative comparative analysis, 109–10, 114–27
quantitative methods and, 113–14
varieties of, 110–11
complex realism, 109–10
complexity models
criticism and comparison, 367–80, 368, 379
overview, 365–67
componential analysis (ethnoscience), 394
computational models
complexity models, 365–80, 368, 379
definition of, 356
explanations and, 360–61, 371, 379
purposes of, 356–58
social science and, 355–56
Comte, Auguste, 276, 294. See also positivism
(p. 649) concatenation, 68–71, 79
confirmation, 4, 6, 48–49
confounders
common cause types and, 287
descriptive-causal generalizations and, 97–98
directed acyclic graphs and, 53–54, 53, 74, 344
randomized controlled experiments and, 304, 307
regression analysis and, 137
constitution and constitutive explanations, 33–36
contextual empirical feminism. See empirical integrative feminism
contextualism, 639–40
Controlling the Sword (Russett), 240
conventionalism
democratic peace debate and, 239–44, 246, 250
Duhem and, 235–38, 251
conventions, 411
Cooper, Gregory J., 99
cooperation
assortativity and, 442
folk theorem of repeated games and, 443–45
justice as impartiality and, 582
master and servant game and, 445–46, 446
norms as rules and, 432n4
prisoner’s dilemma and, 378, 439–40, 439, 441, 442, 447, 587–90, 595
public goods game, 447–51, 590–93
reciprocity and, 442–43, 448–52, 486, 487, 585–94
social fitness and, 438–39
ultimatum game and, 446–47, 451
coordination
global games and, 496–502
norms as rules and, 411–12, 421–22, 431
overview, 481–86
prisoner’s dilemma and, 443–44
social fitness and, 438–39, 439
social intelligence and, 486–96 See also battle of the sexes; Nash bargaining problem
Corazzini, Luca, 499
correlates of war (COW) project, 242–43
Cosmides, Leda, 459
cosmology, 8, 125, 277, 294
counterfactuals
causal mechanisms and, 24
causal theories of, 166–77, 171, 173–74
definition of, 154
descriptive-causal generalizations and, 87
explanations and, 34–36
overview, 154–57
philosophical approach to, 157–60, 161, 162–64, 166, 169, 172, 173–74
public policy and, 175–76, 310
purposes of, 177–79
social science desiderata for, 160–66
covariation, 68, 69, 79
Craver, Carl F., 72
Croce, Benedetto, 278
Croson, Rachel, 592
crucial experiments, 231–32
cultural anthropology, 463
cultural evolutionary theory
culture concept and, 474–77
opposition to, 460–72
overview, 458–60
particularity and, 472–74
cultural materialism, 393
culture
Boasian model of, 389–92, 398
as communal property, 30–31
definitions of, 387–89, 475–76
epidemiological model of, 388, 389, 400–402, 405–6
evolutionary psychology and, 459
language and, 387, 388
neo-Boasian model of, 388, 398–400
practice theory and, 388, 389, 399, 402–6
semiotic model of, 393–97
Culture and Truth (Rosaldo), 396
Cummins, Robert, 432–33n7
customs, 30–31
Damme, Eric van, 497–98
Daniels, Norman, 609
Darden, Lindley, 72, 413
Darity, William, Jr., 515
Darwin, Charles, 460–63, 471
Dasgupta, Partha, 630–31
Davenport, Christian, 101
Davidson, Donald, 404
Davis, Lennard, 564
Dawkins, Richard, 464, 466
Day, Timothy, 272n4
De Marchi, Scott, 357–58, 364, 374–75
Deacon, Terrence, 503n7
decision theory, 260, 362, 484
deductive-nomological explanations, 66, 72, 358–61, 363
definitions, 4, 5–6
democracy, 545, 549
democratic peace theory
common cause types and, 289–90, 291–92
conventionalism and, 239–44, 246, 250
as descriptive-causal generalization, 86–87, 99, 100, 102
Dennett, Daniel, 8, 466, 501
descriptive norms, 411, 431n3
descriptive-causal generalizations
confounders and, 97–98
as empirical laws, 87–88, 98–101
kinds of, 91–96, 94
overview, 85–88
perfect predictors, 87, 95–96, 96, 98, 103
in social science, 88–91
Desrosières, Alain, 122
(p. 650) Dessler, David, 66
The Determinants of Economic Growth (Barro), 47–48
development economics, 47–48, 61, 631–32
developmental systems theory (DST), 476–77
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 559, 568–75
The Dialogic Emergence of Culture (Tedlock and Mannheim), 404
directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)
complex causality and, 58–61, 58, 58, 59
heterogeneity and, 329–43, 330, 332–35
Hiddleston and, 167–68, 168
natural experiments and, 344–49, 344, 346–47
overview, 73–74, 73, 327–29
strengths and limitations of, 50–58, 52–53, 52, 57, 57
distributions, 28–29
Dolan, Paul, 623n6
Donald, Merlin, 494–95
Downey, Douglas B., 320
Doya, Kenji, 492
Doyle, Michael W., 239
Dretske, Fred I., 145
Duflo, Esther, 298–99
Duhem, Pierre
balance of power debate and, 244–50
conventionalism and, 235–38, 251
democratic peace debate and, 239–44, 246
importance of, 229–30
underdetermination and, 230–35
Dunbar, R. I. M., 486–87
Durkheim, Émile, 295n4, 390, 391
Durlauf, Steven, 371, 377
Earman, John, 234
economics
common cause types and, 294
computational models and, 367
coordination and, 496–97
Duhem and, 230
prisoner’s dilemma and, 312, 313
regression analysis and, 9, 47–48 See also development economics
Edwards, David, 74
effect size
directed acyclic graphs and, 49, 51–52, 51, 54–55, 55, 59
randomized controlled experiments and, 302, 315 See also causal strength
Ehrhart, Karl-Martin, 591
Einstein, Albert, 230, 262–63
Eldredge, Niles, 472
The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (Durkheim), 391
Elkins, Zachary, 253n16
Elster, Jon
on causal mechanisms, 48, 53–54, 66, 72
on counterfactuals, 162, 166, 177, 179–80n5
Emery, Nathan, 487
empirical feminism, 537–38, 538, 539–40
empirical integrative feminism
feminist comparative policy and, 543–53
overview, 539–40
political science and, 540–43
empirical laws, 87–88, 98–103
Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (Hume), 91–92, 157–58
epidemiology, 48
Epstein, Joshua, 367, 378, 381n5
equifinality, 79
essentialism, 509, 513–16
ethnoscience, 394
Euclidean geometry, 235–37
European Political Consortium for Research (ECPR), 542
evidence-based policy and practice (EBPP). See randomized controlled experiments (RCTs)
evolutionary biology
causal mechanisms and, 22
common cause tokens and, 294
computational modeling and, 355–56
methods of, 8
social science and, 458–59, 463–64, 476
evolutionary game theory, 9, 440–41
evolutionary psychology, 459, 460, 511, 512–16
evolutionary social theory (evolutionary program)
cooperation and reciprocity in, 438–52
cultural evolution and, 458–77
overview, 436–37
public policy and, 437–38
experimental social science, 319
Explaining Culture (Sperber), 400
Explaining Technological Change (Elster), 48
explanandum-dependence, 145–48
explanations
causal mechanisms and, 48–49
computational models and, 360–61, 371, 379
decision theory and, 359
definitions and models of, 358–61
game theory and, 359, 362–65, 363
generalizations and, 425–26
intentional fundamentalism and, 39–42
norms and, 409–10, 425–31
fallibilism, 231
falsification
Bayesian statistics and, 259, 262–63, 265–70, 266, 267, 269
Duhem and, 233–34, 237–38
generalizations and, 101
(p. 651) far flung frequency (FFF) mechanistic probability
core concepts, 195–207, 197–98, 202, 204
overview, 187–88
social science contexts and, 207–18, 213
Farber, Henry, 241–42
Fehr, Ernst, 432n4, 448–49, 587, 604n2
Feldman, Marcus, 437, 465–66, 467, 470
feminism and feminist research
definition of, 534–35, 545
epistemologies, 536–40
empirical integrative feminism, 539–53
nonfeminist research and, 533–34, 536, 539, 541, 542–43, 546, 550–53
feminist comparative policy (FCP), 543–53, 548
Ferree, Myra Marx, 551
Fielding, Nigel G., 115
Fisher, Helen, 571
Fogel, Robert, 162, 179–80n5
folk racialism, 509
folk theorem of repeated games, 443–45, 587–88
Follesdol, Dagfinn, 8
Fordham, Signithia, 514–15
Foucault, Michel, 232, 560
Fredrickson, George, 516
Freedman, David, 350n7
Freire, Paulo, 124
frequentist statistical models, 220n1, 259–60
Frith, Christopher D., 487
Fryer, Roland, 515
Gachter, Simon, 604n2
Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 388
Gambetta, Diego, 39
game theory
battle of the sexes, 363–64, 364, 482–83, 483, 485
common cause types and, 295n4
vs. computational models, 371–73, 377–78
definition of, 362
explanations and, 359, 362–65, 363
master and servant game, 445–46, 446
matching pennies, 489–90, 489, 492, 496–97
Rock-Paper-Scissors game, 490, 492
social science and, 9
Garfinkel, Alan, 145, 186–87
Gartzke, Erik, 105n14, 241
Gauss-Markov theorem, 80
Geertz, Clifford, 276, 394–95, 467
Gelman, Susan, 514
generalizations, 425–26. See also descriptive-causal generalizations
generative linguistics, 294
geology, 8
geometry, 235–37
George, Alexander L., 68, 73, 81, 112, 127
gerontology, 632–34
Gerring, John, 67, 73, 79, 81, 82n1
Gibbard, Allan, 443, 582–83, 584, 586, 596, 599
Gillies, Donald, 252n4, 253n12
Gilpin, Robert, 248–49
Glimcher, Paul, 488–89, 489, 495
global game theory, 496–502, 498
Goertz, Gary, 71, 133, 136
Goodwin, Brian, 119
Gowa, Joanne, 241–42
Graebner, Fritz, 390
Graham, George, 433n8
Grasping the Democratic Peace (Russett), 240
Gray, Russell D., 472, 476–77
Green, Donald, 241
Greenhill, Simon J., 472
Greenland, Sander, 260
Greiner, Ben, 499
Griffin, James, 637
Griffiths, Paul, 476–77
Grünbaum, Adolf, 233
Guala, Francesco, 432n5
Gunnthorsdottir, Anna, 591
Haas, Ernst B., 245
Hacking, Ian, 16, 563–64
Hall, Ned, 180n8
Hall, Peter A., 67, 79
Hamilton, W. D., 441–43, 448–49, 451–52
Haney-Lopez, Ian F., 519–20
Hankinson Nelson, Lynn, 537
Harding, Sandra, 229–30, 252n4, 536–37
harmful dysfunction (HD), 565–67, 572–75
Harrington, Joseph, 367, 372, 379–80
Harris, Marvin, 393
Harsanyi, John, 482
Harvey, David L., 109, 124
Hayek, Friedrich, 278
Hayles, Katherine, 125
health
measurements of the value of, 610–13
well-being and, 120–21, 609, 612–14, 619, 620–22
health policy
measurements of the value of health and, 610–13
restricted consequentialism and, 612–22
Hedström, Peter, 37–38, 48
Hees, Martin van, 135–36, 141–42
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 275, 278
Heidegger, Martin, 404
Hempel, Carl, 276–77, 294, 358
Henderson, David, 433n8
Henderson, Errol R., 241
Hendry, David, 309
Henig, Jeffrey R., 321
Henrich, Joseph, 432n6, 466, 470–71
(p. 652) Herder, Johann Gottfried von, 390
herding problem, 499–500
Hermann, Margaret G., 241
Hiddleston, Eric, 167–69
Hill, Karl G., 192–93, 207–8, 215
historicism, 278
history and historiography
common cause tokens and, 275, 279–86, 283, 284
definitions of, 275
vs. social science, 274–79, 287–95, 293
Hitchcock, Christopher, 72, 85, 145
Hobbes, Thomas, 436, 437, 439
Hoefer, Carl, 221n17
holism, 6, 231–32, 233, 237, 305
Holland, John, 110
Holland, Paul W., 71
Holsti, K.J., 245
Holt, Charles A., 499
Hoover, K.D., 48, 56–58
Horgan, Terence E., 433n8, 433n9
horizontal mechanisms, 49–55, 49, 50–51, 53
Horwitz, Allan, 566
Hotelling, Harold, 357
Houser, Daniel, 591
human language, 387, 388, 500–501
Human Well-Being and the Natural Environment (Dasgupta), 630–31
Hume, David
on causation, 9, 34, 91–92, 157–58, 160
on evaluations, 617–18, 619
evolutionary social theory and, 437, 452
on history, 294
knavery principle and, 437–38
Humphrey, Nicholas, 486
Humphreys, Paul, 368
Hung, Angela A., 499
Hyde, Susan D., 76
implicit biases, 41, 511–12, 516–22
independence graphs, 74, 74
individual causal effect (ICE), 155
inductive-statistical explanations, 358–59, 360, 361
inductivism, 233–34
Ingold, Tim, 466–67
inspection game, 488–89, 489
institutional racism, 517–20
intentional fundamentalism, 39–42
interactive social constructionism, 563–65, 570–72
interfield theories
causal mechanisms and, 24–25, 42
norms as rules and, 413–14, 421, 427–28, 430–31
International Feminist Journal of Politics (journal), 542, 544
international relations
balance of power theories, 102, 244–50
feminist research and, 543 See also democratic peace theory
Investigations (Kauffman), 111
Jaynes, E. T., 263
Jencks, Christopher, 186
Jones, A.H.M., 144
Jones, Bryan, 99–100
Jones, Doug, 515
Journal of Women Politics and Policy (journal), 542
justice
as impartiality, 582–83, 599–601, 603–4
as mutual advantage, 582–83, 585
as reciprocity, 581–83, 585, 598–601, 602–4
theories of, 583–85
Kahneman, Daniel, 623n6
Kallgren, Carl A., 428–29
Kant, Immanuel, 236, 244
Katz, Jonathan N., 241
Kauffman, S., 111
Kegley, Charles W., Jr., 241
Kendell, R. E., 569
Kendler, Ken, 636
Kendler, Kenneth, 568
Keohane, Robert O., 133
Keser, Claudia, 591
Khong, Yuen Foong, 163–64, 171, 175
Kim, Soo Yeon, 241
Kimball, Erin, 134–36, 141–42
kin selection, 441
Kincaid, Harold, 8, 66, 77, 272n4
King, Gary, 133
Kitcher, Philip, 235
Kluckhohn, Clyde, 387
knavery principle, 437–38
Knutsen, Torbjørn, 554n8
Koivu, Kendra L., 134–36, 141–42
Kosso, Peter, 277
Kristeva, Julia, 538
Kroeber, Alfred, 387, 391–92
Kuhn, Thomas, 6
Kuper, Adam, 461
Lakatos, Imre
on Duhem, 252n4, 252n9
on theories, 6, 79
on underdetermination, 233, 234
Laland, Kevin N., 467, 475–76
language, 387, 388, 500–501
Laudan, Larry, 234–35
laws, 4, 5, 6
Lawson, Thomas, 401
Layne, Christopher, 241
Le Verrier, Urbain, 252–53n11
Lebow, Richard Ned, 159, 161, 163, 165–66
Lee, Daeyeol, 489–91, 489, 492, 495
Lee, Raymond M., 115
Leibniz, G.W.F., 252n4
Leombruni, Roberto, 373–74, 375
Leplin, Jerrod, 235
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 311–12
Levine, Andrew, 145, 146
(p. 653) Levy, Jack, 99, 102, 240, 253n21
Lewes, George, 115–16
Lewis, David
on common knowledge, 524n3
on coordination, 501, 502–3n1
on counterfactuals, 157, 158–60, 161, 162–64, 166, 169, 172, 173–74
on Hume, 91–92
liberalism, 240
Lieberson, Stanley, 97–98
Little, Daniel, 66, 73, 85
local average treatment effect (LATE), 346–49, 348
Locke, John, 436
Logic and Society (Elster), 177
The Logic of Scientific Discovery (Popper), 269
Longino, Helen, 537
Lorenz, Konrad, 436
Lowie, Robert, 391–92, 395
Lynch, Kevin, 124
Lynn, Freda B., 97–98
Machamer, Peter, 72
MacIver, Robert Morrison, 117
Mackie, John L., 94
Magnus, P. D., 235, 252n7
Mahoney, James
on causal mechanisms, 72
on causal strength, 134–36, 141–42
on qualitative and quantitative methods, 71, 80, 133
Making it Explicit (Brandom), 404, 424–25
Malinowski, Bronislaw, 391, 392, 393
Mallon, Ron, 515
Malouf, Michael, 446
Mannheim, Bruce, 404
Mansfield, Edward D., 242
Mantzavinos, Chrysostomos, 8
Maoz, Zeev, 241, 242
Marcus, George, 395
Mare, Robert, 320, 376
Martin, Raymond, 145
Marx, Karl, 295n4
master and servant game, 445–46, 446
matching pennies, 489–90, 489, 492, 496–97
Maull, Nancy, 413
Maynard Smith, John, 441
Mayo, Deborah, 260, 261
Mazur, Amy G., 544
McCabe, Kevin, 591
McCauley, Robert, 401
McKeown, Timothy J., 68
Mead, Margaret, 393
Mearsheimer, John J., 247–48, 249–50
mechanism-based explanations
intentional fundamentalism and, 39–42
microfoundations and, 26, 37
overview, 22–26
process tracing and, 66, 72, 76–78
medical sciences, 625–26, 632–34
memes, 463–69
Mendeelev, Dmitri, 253n11
mental health
DSM and, 559, 568–75
harmful dysfunction and, 565–67, 572–75
interactive social constructionism and, 563–65, 570–72
pure social constructionism and, 560–63, 568–70
well-being and, 636–37
Mesoudi, Alex, 461–63, 466–67, 475–76, 477
meta-analytic tendency laws, 101–3
methodological individualism
coordination and, 481, 501
explanations and, 36
intentional fundamentalism and, 39–42
models of culture and, 388–89, 393–95, 397, 405
overview, 26–27
methodological pluralism
conventionalism and, 251
cultural evolutionary theories and, 477
feminist research and, 534, 543–44, 546, 549, 551, 552
methodological probabilities, 188–89
microfoundations, 26, 37–39
micro-macro relations, 25, 26–28, 35–36
Midlarsky, Manus I., 241
Mill, John Stuart, 102, 294, 309, 608–9
Miller, Richard W., 145
Mises, Ludwig von, 278
Modelski, George, 248, 249–50
molecular biology, 5, 463
Moore, Barrington, Jr., 134–35
Morgan, Stephen, 327, 352n26
Morgenstern, Oskar, 371
Morgenthau, Hans J., 247, 248
Morin, Edgar, 110
Morris, Stephen, 497–98
Moses, Jonathon W., 554n8
Mullainathan, Sendhil, 520–21
multiple realization, 26
Murdock, George, 393
Murphy, Liam, 600–601
Myerson, Roger, 362
Nagel, Ernest, 66, 360
Nash, John, 371, 444
Nash bargaining problem, 444, 444
Nash bargaining solution, 444–45, 446
Nash demand game, 444–45, 445, 446–47
Nash equilibrium
battle of the sexes and, 363–64, 483
complexity models and, 372
definition of, 362, 439, 440
folk theorem of repeated games and, 443–45, 587–88
primates and, 488–90
(p. 654) prisoner’s dilemma and, 447, 587–88
public goods game and, 447, 450
natural sciences, positivism and, 8
naturalism
definition of, 239
empirical feminism and, 539, 544
social science and, 8
neurosciences, 22, 28
new ethnography (ethnoscience), 394
Newton, Isaac, 262–63
nonreductive materialism, 26
norms
culture and, 387–88, 396–97
explanations and, 409–10, 425–31
game theory and, 372
overview, 409–10
as rules, 410–25
Nozick, Robert, 599
Nussbaum, Martha, 623n6
observational social science
directed acyclic graphs and, 327–49, 330, 332–35, 344, 346–47
overview, 319
quantitative methods and, 322–27
Odling-Smee, John, 467
Ofek, Haim, 495
Ogbu, John Uzo, 514–15
Omi, Michael, 513
Oneal, John R., 241, 242, 244
Oren, Ido, 241
organizational ecology, 8
organizations, 31–32
Organski, A.F.K., 248
Ortner, Sherry, 399, 402–3
Orwell, George, 377
Ostrom, Elinor, 452, 555n19, 589–90
Owen, John M., 243
Oyama, Susan, 476–77
Page, Scott, 376
Page, Talbot, 591
particularity, 472–74
Passeron, Jean-Claude, 119
path diagrams, 322–24, 323
Paul, L. A., 180n8
Pearl, Judea
on causal inference, 62n8, 74, 310–11, 327
directed acyclic graphs and, 337, 340, 350n7, 351n16
Pearson, Karl, 9
Perestroika movement, 540–41
Perez, S.J., 48, 56–58
perfect predictors, 87, 95–96, 96, 98, 103
Perpetual Peace (Kant), 239
Perspectives in Politics (journal), 540
Philosophical Investigations (Wittgenstein), 111
philosophy
counterfactuals and, 157–60, 161, 162–64, 166, 169, 172, 173–74
well-being in, 625, 626–29, 630, 635–37
philosophy of biology. See biology and philosophy of biology
philosophy of geometry, 235–37
philosophy of mind, 26–27
philosophy of science, 3–8
phylogeny, 294
physics, 5, 294
Pierce, Charles Sanders, 279
Plott, Charles, 499, 604n2
Poincaré, Henri, 234, 235–37
political realism, 240
political science, 10, 76, 367. See also international relations
Politics and Gender (journal), 542, 544
Popper, Karl
Duhem and, 230, 233–34
falsification and, 268–70
on historicism, 295n3
on inductive inference, 260
on propensity, 122–23, 221n18
positivism
counterfactuals and, 156
empirical feminism and, 539, 541
explanations and, 359
natural sciences and, 7–8
philosophy of science and, 3–4
sociology and, 276–77, 293–94
postmodern feminism, 537–38, 538, 539–40, 541
Poteete, Amy R., 555n19
Poverty of Historicism (Popper), 295n3
Price, George R., 441, 453n10
Prigogine, Ilya, 123–24
Primitive Culture (Tylor), 389–90
prisoner’s dilemma game
cooperation and, 378, 439–40, 439, 441, 442, 447, 587–90, 595
public goods game, 447–51, 590–93
coordination and, 443–44
economics and, 312, 313
public goods game, 432n4, 447–50, 588, 590–93, 600
reciprocity and, 587–88, 589–90, 595
public goods game and, 432n4, 590–93, 600
probability, 189. See also social probability
process tracing
causal mechanisms and, 71–78
complex causality and, 111–12, 127
counterfactuals and, 178–79
methodological foundations of, 78–81
overview, 65–71
propensities, 122–23, 126, 192, 194
prudential good, 626–29
Przeworski, Adam, 143
pseudoscience, 4, 7
(p. 655) psychology
causal mechanisms and, 21
scientific methods and, 275, 293
public goods game, 432n4, 447–50, 588, 590–93, 600
public policy
complex causality and, 126
consequentialism and, 607–9
counterfactuals and, 175–76, 310
evolutionary social theory and, 437–38
randomized controlled experiments and, 302–16, 303–4
regression analysis and, 47–48
social probabilities and, 185
well-being and, 631–32, 636 See also health policy
pure social constructionism, 560–63, 568–70
Putterman, Louis, 591
qualitative comparative analysis (QCA)
causal strength and, 133–36, 139–40, 141–42
complex causality and, 61, 109, 109–10, 114–27
feminist research and, 549
overview, 133
qualitative methods
complex causality and, 79
feminist research and, 549
overview, 133
quantitative methods
complex causality and, 113–14
feminist research and, 549
observational social science and, 322–27
overview, 133
vs. qualitative methods, 65–66, 71
process tracing, 78 See also regression analysis
Quine, Willard Van Ormand
on Duhem, 230
ethnoscientists and, 394
on linguistic communities, 388
norms as rules and, 422
on theories, 6
underdetermination and, 232–33
Rabin, Matthew, 605n4
race
FFF mechanistic probabilities and, 217–18
as psychologically constrained social role, 522–24
social constructionism and, 512–22
as social role, 507–11, 521–22
Racial Formation in the United States (Omi and Winant), 513
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R., 391, 396
Radin, Paul, 392, 395
Ragin, Charles
causal strength and, 136
on causality, 114–15
FCP studies and, 549
on policy, 126
qualitative comparative analysis and, 94, 109
Randall, Vicky, 541
randomized controlled experiments (RCTs)
overview, 298–302
policy effectiveness and, 302–16, 303–4
Rasler, Karen, 249
rational choice theory
common cause types and, 295n4
evolutionary social theory and, 437–38
intentional fundamentalism and, 39–42
modeling and, 362, 369
theories and, 165 See also game theory
Rawls, John, 436, 584, 601
reciprocal altruism, 442–43, 488
reciprocity
cooperation and, 442–43, 448–52, 486, 487, 585–94
forms of, 594–98
justice as, 581–83, 585, 598–601, 602–4
prisoner’s dilemma and, 587–88, 589–90, 595
public goods game and, 432n4, 590–93, 600
scope of, 598–99
trust game and, 593–94, 594, 596, 598–99
ultimatum game and, 432n4, 593, 595
welfare state and, 601–2
Redman, Deborah, 251n1
reductionism, 24–27, 72–73, 111
Reed, Michael, 109, 124
regression analysis
causal strength and, 136–40, 139, 142
causation and, 47–48, 55–61
overview, 133
vs. process tracing, 80
social science and, 9
Reichenbach, Hans, 280, 282
Reiss, Julian, 175
Reno, Raymond R., 428–29
Research Network on Gender Politics and the State (RNGS), 550–53
restricted complexity, 110–11
restricted consequentialism
health policy and, 612–22
overview, 608–9
retrodiction, 112–13, 124–25
retroduction, 112–13, 124–25
Richerson, Peter
on cultural evolution, 437, 470, 473
definition of culture, 475
epidemiological model of culture and, 401, 406
(p. 656) Richiardi, Matteo, 373–74, 375
Rickert, Heinrich, 276, 278
Rihoux, Benoît, 109, 126, 549
Ringer, Fritz, 113
Rock-Paper-Scissors (R-P-S) game, 490, 492
Rodrik, Dani, 60–61
Root, Michael, 510
Rosaldo, Renato, 396, 397
Rosenblatt, Daniel, 399, 402
Rosenthal, Jacob, 195, 215
Ross, Don, 484, 501
Ross, Robert M., 472
Roth, Alvin, 446
Rouse, Joseph, 404, 405–6, 406
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 436
Rube Goldberg machine, 309–10, 309
Rummel, R. J., 253n15
Russett, Bruce, 99, 240–41, 242, 244
Ryckman, Mike, 90
Ryle, Gilbert, 394
Sabshin, Melvin, 568
Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 47–48, 56–58
Salmon, Wesley C., 72, 74, 359
Salomon, Joshua, 623n1
Santa Barbara School of evolutionary psychology, 459, 460
Sartori, Giovanni, 546
Savage, Leonard J., 260
Sayer, Andrew, 120
Scanlon, Thomas, 617, 637
Schelling, Thomas
on coordination, 482–83
definition of model, 356
on focal point effect, 364
model of residential segregation, 366–67, 366, 372, 376
Schweighofer, Nicolas, 492
science and philosophy of science, 4, 6–7
The Science Question in Feminism (Harding), 536–37
Scott, Joan, 546
Sealey, Alison, 121–22
Seawright, Jason, 80
Sellars, Wilfrid, 388
Sgroi, Daniel, 499
Shapiro, Ian, 66
Shearmur, Jeremy, 252n3
Shin, Hyun Song, 497–98
Sidgwick, Henry, 609
Siim, Birte, 541
Simon, Herbert, 99, 372
Singer, J. David, 242–43
Sklar, Lawrence, 235
Skocpol, Theda, 133, 292
Skyrms, Brian, 443, 501
Slantchev, Branislav L., 105n14
Small, Melvin, 242–43
Smith, Adam, 186, 482
Smith, Roger, 460, 467
Snyder, Jack, 242
Sober, Elliott, 145, 146, 224n41, 272n4, 280
social anthropology, 460–63, 474–75, 476
social atomism, 500
social constructionism
mental health and, 560–72
race and, 512–22
social constructivism, 539, 541, 544, 550
social contracts, 439–40, 445
social institutions, 4, 7
social macro properties, 27–33, 35–36
Social Mechanisms (Hedström and Swedberg), 48
social network analysis, 29–30
social norms, 30–31, 411–12
Social Politics (journal), 542, 544
social psychology, 367, 518
social science
biology and, 436, 458–59, 461–63, 463–64, 476
causal mechanisms and, 21–22
common cause types and, 275, 279–80, 286–87
computational models and, 355–56
Darwinism and, 461–63
vs. history and historiography, 274–79, 287–95, 293
psychology and, 33, 481
scientific standing of, 4, 7–8
well-being and, 625–26, 631–32
The Social Theory of Practices (Turner), 403–4
society, definition of, 487
sociology
causal mechanisms and, 9
complex causality and, 10
computational models and, 367
positivism and, 276, 294
regression analysis and, 48
social macro properties and, 28–30
special sciences, 88, 426–27
Spencer, Herbert, 391
Sperber, Daniel, 400–402, 405, 406, 465
Spiro, David E., 241
Squires, Judith, 538
standpoint feminism, 537–39, 538, 540, 541, 550
Starr, Harvey, 99
statistical nomological machines (SNMs), 221n17
Steel, Daniel P., 67, 72
Stein, Janice Gross, 159, 161, 163, 165–66
Sterelny, Kim, 468–69
Strevens, Michael, 195, 215
strong reciprocity theory, 448–52, 587
structural realism, 165
subjective well-being (SWB), 635–37
(p. 657) supervenience, 26
Swedberg, Richard, 37–38, 48
Tanney, Julia, 401–2
Taylor, Charles, 7–8
team reasoning, 484–85
Tedlock, Dennis, 404
Tëmkin, Ilya, 472
Tetlock, Philip E., 163–64, 253n19
Thalos, Mariam, 484–86, 493–96, 500
theories, 4–5, 6, 165
“Thick Description: Toward and Interpretive Theory of Culture” (Geertz), 394–95
Thompson, William, 102, 241, 248, 249
Tienson, John, 433n9
Tinbergen, Nikolaas, 436
Tooby, John, 459
Torelli, Paul, 515
“Transcending General Linear Reality” (Abbott), 324
Tripp, Aili Mari, 543
trust game, 593–94, 594, 595–96, 598–99
Tucker, Richard, 241
Tukey, John, 119
Turner, Mark, 501
Turner, Stephen, 403–4, 422, 433n9
Tylor, Edward B., 389–90, 393
Tyson, Karolyn, 515
ultimatum game, 432n4, 446–47, 451, 593, 595
underdetermination, 230–35
Unel, Bulent, 591
Vaisey, Steve, 94
Van Fraassen, Bas, 145, 234
Verba, Sidney, 133
vertical mechanisms, 49, 50–51
Virchow, Rudolf, 390
Von Hippel, Paul T., 320
Von Neumann, John, 371
Wakefield, Jerome, 565–66, 573
Walby, Sylvia, 118
Walker, James M., 589–90
Wallerstein, Michael, 143
Waltz, Kenneth N., 247, 248, 253n19
Wang, Xiao-Jing, 491–92, 495
Wantchekon, Leonard, 76
Weber, Max, 38–39, 113, 132, 173, 295n4
welfare state, 601–2
well-being
in everyday life, 629–31
health and, 120–21, 609, 612–14, 619, 620–22
in philosophy, 625, 626–29, 630, 635–37
in the social and medical sciences, 625–26, 631–34
well-being invariantism (WBI), 626, 627–28, 630, 633–34, 637–39
well-being variantism (WBV), 626, 628–29, 630, 633–34, 636–37, 639–41
Wellman, Henry, 514
Wendt, Alexander, 43n1, 66
What Time is this Place? (Lynch), 124
White, Leslie, 393
Whitehouse, Harvey, 401
Whiten, Andrew, 475–76
Williams, Bernard, 524n7
Williams, Raymond, 113
Wilson, E. O., 436
Wilson, Mark, 629
Wimsatt, William Upski, 224n45
Winant, Howard, 513
Windelband, Wilhelm, 274, 276–77, 278
Winokur, George, 569
Winship, Christopher, 320, 327, 352n26
Wittgenstein, Ludwig
beetle in the box, 501
Geertz and, 394, 395
Kauffman and, 111
on linguistic communities, 388
norms as rules and, 422
practice theory and, 404
Women and Politics (journal), 544
Woodward, James
on explanandum-dependence, 145
on explanations, 23, 77, 358, 425–26
on generalizations, 85
Wright, Erik O., 145, 146
Writing Culture (Clifford and Marcus), 395
Xiao, Erte, 434n14
Xie, Yu, 320
Ylikoski, Petri, 50
Yoon, David, 241
Young, Peyton, 483
Yule, Udny, 132
Zhang, Jiji, 432n4
Zorn, Christopher, 95–96