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date: 13 November 2019

(p. 949) Index

(p. 949) Index

Page numbers in italics indicate illustrations.

Abasolo (Oaxaca), 781
Abejas phase, 142, 143
Acahal Maya, 411
Acahualinca (Nicaragua), 85
Acámbaro (Guanajuato), 527
Acanceh (Yucatán), 268, 275
Acapetahua Estuary (Chiapas), 146
Acapulco (Guerrero), 896
Acatlán (Puebla), 824
Achiutla (Oaxaca), 340, 342
Acozac (Mexico), 133
acropolises, 205, 236, 338
action theory, 13, 14
aerial photography, 7
of landscapes, 552–553, 558–565
oblique vs. vertical images, 554–555
Africans, 924, 940
Agaabes, 251
Agaltepec (Tuxtlas Mountains), 362
agave. See maguey
agency, 4–5, 10, 14, 17, 38
agricultural cycle, 788
agriculture, 1, 9, 12, 147, 192, 193, 216, 235, 496, 567, 571, 766, 920, 913, 935
aerial photography and, 558–561
intensification of, 541–547, 940–941
Maya, 259, 327, 331
origins of, 5, 7, 37, 151–152, 153, 156–157
transition to, 159–160
western Mexico, 498, 501–502
Zacuala mural theme, 861–863
Agua Fría (Guerrero), 621
Aguán Valley (Honduras), 488
Aguateca (Guatemala), 63, 329, 591, 711
Aguatenango Lake (Chiapas), 134
Aguilar, Carlos, 88
Aguilar, Mónica, 89
Ahuachapan, Coast of (El Salvador), 90
Ahuelican (Guerrero), incised tablet from, 840–841
Ahuitzotl, 649
Ahuitzotla (Mexico), 315
Aké (Yucatán), 276, 277
Aktun Ha (Quintana Roo), 145, 287
Alarcón, Ricardo, 89
Alfaro, Anastasio, 88
alliances, 11, 667, 899, 903
Aztec Empire, 456, 526, 528, 529
Basin of Mexico, 449, 451, 462–463
with Spanish, 457–458, 463–465
almanacs, in Maya codices, 789–790
Alta Verapaz (Guatemala), 247, 248, 250, 406, 412
Alta Vista (Zacatecas), 288, 516, 517, 792
altepetl, 449, 453, 457
Altún Ha (Belize), 73, 75, 264, 283
Alvarado, Pedro de, 94, 133, 407, 422, 462
Alvina de Parita (Panama), 133
Amador, Fabio Esteban, 85
Amalucan (Central Highlands), 119
Amapa, 503
Amaranthus sp., domestication of, 152, 159
AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dates, 135, 143, 144, 158
Anales de Cuauhtitlan, 745
ancestors, 12, 238, 342, 514, 691, 780
and place, 778–779
veneration of, 781–782
Ancestral Puebloan tradition, 514, 516, 519, 521–522
Ancient Monuments and Antiquities Ordinance (Belize), 71
Ancient Monuments and Relics Ordinance (Belize), 70
Ancient Monuments Protection Ordinance (Belize), 69–70
Anderson, Alexander Hamilton, 71
Anderson, Arthur J. O., 884
animals, 216, 223
Pleistocene, 132, 134
Spanish-introduced, 7, 935, 938
Annals of the Kaqchikels (Cakchiquel), 407, 790
Antigua Valley (Guatemala), 411
antiquities, looting of, 58–59, 64
Antiquities Ordinance (Belize), 70–71
apartment compounds, 287, 809
ethnic identity, 677–678
Zacuala, 861–863
Apoala (Oaxaca), 342
arboriculture, Mayan, 327
archaeoastronomy, 39, 753, 791
Archaeological Atlas Project, 63–64
Archaeological Commissioners (Belize), 71–72
(p. 950) archaeological heritage, indigenous people and, 107, 109
archaeological parks, 85
archaeological-resource management
in Belize, 69–72
in Mexico, 52
archaeological sites, spiritual importance of, 107–108
archaeology
professionalization of, 32, 33, 62–63
regional projects in, 36–37
Archaeology of Communities, The, 699–700
archaeology of place, 934
Archaeology of the Rivas Region, Nicaragua, The (Healy), 86
archaeomagnetism, 18
archaeometry, 39
Archaic period, 3, 13, 74, 88, 89, 116, 134, 141, 171, 270
in dry tropical lowlands, 145–147
Mexican semiarid highlands, 142–143
Pacific coast, 201–202
plant domestication during, 147–148, 156
in Valley of Oaxaca, 143–144
western Mexico, 495–496, 504
architecture, 116, 120, 285
central Mexican influence on, 407–408
E-Group, 257–259, 273, 275, 753, 792793
historic period, 938, 940
talud-tablero, 277, 285, 286–287, 807, 814 See also monumental architecture; public architecture; by type
archives, Spanish and Mexican, 882, 883
Archivo General de Indias, 882, 884
Archivo General de la Nación, 882, 883, 884
Archivo General de Simancas, 882, 884
Arid America, 117
Armillas, Pedro, 36, 47
Arroyo, Bárbara, 90
art, 12, 209, 287, 408
Aztec Empire, 819–826
Classic period, 807–814
collections of, 58–59, 64
Late Classic Maya, 261–262
monumental, 205, 206
Olmec, 798–801
Preclassic, 795–798
ritually focused, 768770
art in space, 800
Asaveto (Michoacán), marketplace in, 642
Astronomical Commemorative Assemblages, 257
astronomy
city planning and, 220, 753, 791–792
creation myths and, 742–743
Maya, 789–790
Atepehuacan (Mexico), 133
“Atlantean” warrior figures, 375, 378
Atlas Arqueológico de Oriente (El Salvador), 85
Atlihuayán (Morelos), incensario from, 769, 770
Atoyac (Jalisco), 622
Atzompa (Oaxaca), 238
Austria, Felipe de, 897, 901
Autlán region (Jalisco), 619
Avenue of the Dead (Teotihuacan), 217, 218
avocados (Persea americana), 143, 152
Awe, Jaime, 71, 72, 75
Axayacatl, 822
axes, jade, 604
axis mundi, 745, 746, 764–765
Ayala (Nicaragua), 93
Ayutla region (Jalisco), 619
Azcapotzalco (Mexico), 34, 449, 462, 463
Aztahuacan (Mexico), 135
Aztatlán complex/tradition, 503–504, 516, 517–518
Aztec Empire, Aztecs, 8, 13, 15, 125, 360, 420, 421, 427, 434, 449, 450, 545, 601, 643, 646, 664, 678, 685, 780, 787
boundary relationships of, 525–532
ceramics, 362, 428
Codex Mendoza, 871–873
control of, 455–457
creation mythology 742–743, 744, 747
income, 454–455
Mexican state archaeology and, 49, 108
military campaigns and conquests, 452–453
pictorial books, 870–871
revenue sources, 728–729
Tenochtitlan and, 451–452
and Tollan, 336, 381
tribute in, 654–658, 909–911
Aztec period, Tula, 379–380
Aztecs under Spanish Rule, The (Gibson), 883
Badilla, Adrian, 89
Baja Verapaz (Guatemala), 247, 248, 406
Bajío region, 120, 374, 434, 437
Bakabs, 744
Baking Pot (Belize), 73, 75
Balberta (Guatemala) site, 288, 426
ballcourts, 94, 116, 271, 272, 355, 356, 394, 486, 516, 741, 757, 814
Formative period, 118, 172, 202
in Guatemala Highlands, 249–250
ballgame, 94, 355, 388
Balsas Valley (Guerrero), 145, 173, 440, 619
Aztec Empire, 527, 528
Early Formative period, 118, 175
maize and squash domestication, 7, 144, 146, 147–148, 153, 156, 157, 496
Banderas Polychrome, 94
Barra complex, 202, 796
Barra phase, 172, 202
barrios, 10, 360, 715
Teotihuacan, 218, 239, 288, 289
Tula, 376–377
Barrio Tepalcate (Chiapas), 423
Barton Creek (Belize), 75
(p. 951) Barton Ramie (Belize), 73
base camps, Archaic, 202
Bastan district (Michoacán), 619
Batán Grande (Peru), 621
Bat Palace (Dos Pilas), 754
Batres, Leopoldo, 33
beads, polishing of, 604, 605
beans (Phaseolus spp.), 143, 152, 158, 160, 766
Beleh (Guatemala), 250–251
belief systems, 11, 691. See also religion
Belize, 1, 110, 132, 147, 256, 270, 618
archaeological research in, 72–75
archaeological-resource management, 69–72
Institute of Archaeology in, 75–77
Spanish colonial period, 937, 938, 939
Belize Valley, 73, 74–75
bells, copper, 623–624
Berdan, Frances, 884
Beringia, 129
Bernasconi, Antonio, 57
Bibliothêque Nationale de France, 884
bifaces, 603
Binford, Lewis, 36
bioarchaeology, 5, 39
bird-serpents, 118, 123. See also feathered serpent
Blackman Eddy (Belize), 75
blade making, 601, 602
Blanco Levantado, 377
Blanton, Richard, 37
bloodletting, 744, 768
Blue Creek (Belize), 74
Boas, Franz, 34, 47
boats, 146, 497
Boggs, Stanley, 84
Bonampak (Chiapas), 329
Bonilla Lagoon (Costa Rica), 93
Book of Gods and Rites, The, 764
books, 122
calendrical practices in, 790–791
pictorial, 869–876, 898
readings of, 874–876 See also codices
Books of Chilam Balam, 397, 744, 790
borderlands studies, 475–476
Borgia Group, 870. See also Codex Borgia
Bostan phase ceramics, 90
botanical remains, 7, 135
Archaic period, 143, 144, 147–148
domesticates, 158–159
Tula, 377–378
boundaries
of Aztec Empire, 525–532
cultural innovation, 475–476
Bourbon reforms, 939
Bovallius, Carl, 85
Branche, Winnel, 72
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 580
British Museum, 73
Buena Vista (Belize), 75
Building L (Monte Albán), 237
Building of the Feathered Serpent (Xochicalco), 863–865
burials, 12, 96, 260, 288, 380, 437, 730, 767–768
genealogy of place and, 778–779
gender identification in, 665–666, 667
Guatemala highlands, 248, 249
social ranking, 233, 235, 248, 260
Teotihuacan sacrificial, 218, 223, 224–225, 285
Teposcolula, 900–901
burned stone, 605
cacao (Theobroma cacao), 135, 152, 288, 518, 643
historic production of, 938, 940
Soconusco region, 421, 427
Cacaxtla (Tlaxcala), 390, 813, 856, 864–865
Cacaxtla Battle murals, 629
Cacaxtla-Xochitécatl (Tlaxcala), 288, 311, 313
caches, 257, 629, 656, 746, 747, 798
cacicazgos, 335
in Oaxaca, 340, 730, 899, 900–902
caciques
and colonial economy, 901–902
mayordomo system, 902–903
in Oaxaca, 900–902
and Spanish colonial acculturation, 896–897
Cahal Pech (Belize), 75
Cahyup (Guatemala), 251
Cajón region (Honduras), 487, 488, 490
Cakchiquel. See Kaqchikel Maya
Calakmul (Yucatán), 261, 264, 274, 712–713, 759
calendar cycle, 788–779
calendar round, 788, 850, 857
calendars, 17, 58, 745
and Teotihuacan construction, 220–221, 222
260-day, 787–788
calendrical practices, 17, 209, 387
in codices, 789–790
cross-circle petroglyphs, 791–792
highland scribal traditions and, 856–860
in historical books, 790–791
Maya, 122, 324, 745–746
Teotihuacan construction, 220–221, 222
Calixtlahuaca (Mexico), 823, 824
Callejón del Horno (Veracruz), 362
Callero, Maria Lily, 87
calpixque, 454–455, 530
calpolli, 685
Calzadas Carved ceramics, 799
Cambote (Guatemala), 251
Cambridge University, 73
Camino real, along Sierra Madre piedmont, 421–422
Campeche, 937
campesinos, 941
Canada, 73
Canajasté (Guatemala), 252
(p. 952) canal systems, 500, 501, 558, 559, 560
Cancuén (Guatemala), 250, 329
Candelaria River basin, agricultural intensification in, 558–559
Cantona (Veracruz), 124, 288, 355, 362
Cantona (Puebla), 813–814
Cantón Corralito (Chiapas), 175, 178, 179, 203, 422, 799
Capacha cemeteries, 497
cape, as ceremonial regalia, 769, 770
captives
life after death of, 776–777
mortuary rituals, 780–781
Caracol (Belize), 73, 74–75, 260–261, 263, 264, 283, 713, 730
Caracol (Chichén Itzá), 393, 792
cardinal directions, in creation myths, 744–745, 746
Caribbean coast, 156, 396
Caribbean highlands (Costa Rica), 89
Caribbean Islands, 93
Caribbean lowlands (Costa Rica), 89, 93
Carnegie Institution, 60–61, 73, 397
carpentry, 645
carrying capacity, regional, 571–572
cartography, migrations, 870–871
carved stone, 798. See also monuments; stelae
Casa Dueñas (El Salvador), 85
Casa Redonda (Chichén Itzá), 394
Casas Grandes (Chihuahua), 518, 519, 521
Cascajal Block/Tablet, 771772, 840, 841
Caseta (Jalisco), copper alloys, 622
Caso y Andrade, Alfonso, 35, 48, 898
Caste War of Yucatán, 110, 939–940
Castillo (Chichén Itzá), 391, 392, 395, 642
Castillo (Mayapán), 398
Castillo de Teayo (Veracruz), 360, 822, 825826
Catholic Church, 515, 881, 896, 937, 938
cattle, 938, 939, 940
Cauadzidziqui rockshelter (Guerrero), 797, 798
Cauinal (Guatemala), 251
causeways, 93, 259, 276, 394
caves, 136, 249, 250, 269, 797
Archaic period use of, 142, 143–144, 145, 156, 158
in Belize, 73, 75
northern lowland Maya use of, 273–274
under Pyramid of the Sun, 753, 754, 808
Cawinal (Guatemala), 410
Caye Coco (Belize), 147
Cayo District (Belize), 73
Cehpech ceramics, 391, 393
celestial bodies, 221
celts, 257
jade, 799–800
Olmec incised, 838–840
cement, production of, 605
cemeteries, 86, 88, 90, 91, 497, 778
Cempoallan, 530
Cenote (Guatemala), 258, 259
cenotes, 269, 391, 392
Cenote Xtoloc (Chichén Itzá), 392
Central America, 89, 425
Maya influence, 91–93
Mexican influence in, 93–96
Olmec influence in, 90–91, 421
Paleo-Indian sites in, 132, 136–137 See also various countries; regions; sites
Central Highlands (Guatemala), 245, 246–247
Central Highlands (Mexico), 6, 118, 119, 171, 122, 123
agricultural intensification, 544–555
dynastic successions from, 863–865
ecological studies of, 569–574
environment and subsistence, 215–216
scribal traditions, 855–865
Central Highlands (Costa Rica), 93
centralization, 14, 302, 304
central Mexican culture, 437
influence on Maya highlands, 407–10
Centro Arqueológico de Documentación e Investigación (CADI) (Nicaragua), 87
ceramics, ceramic traditions, 61, 85, 87, 147, 238, 277, 313, 360, 437, 497, 516, 591, 592, 607, 746, 796, 808
Aztatlán complex, 503, 517
Aztec, 428, 528, 531
Basin of Mexico, 310 (table), 312
Central American, 90, 91, 94, 95, 96
Chichén Itzá, 391, 393, 394–395, 397
chronological sequencing of, 18, 35
decoration of, 609–612
Dzibilchaltún, 268–269
Early Formative, 176–178, 191, 202
Epiclassic, 312, 315–318
forms, 612–614
Gulf Coast, 355, 359, 361, 362
historical, 921–924, 938–939
Initial Formative, 117, 171
northern Maya lowlands, 272, 275
northern Yucatán, 389, 397
manufacturing technology, 608–609
Maya polychrome, 261–262
Middle Formative, 179, 205
Mixteca Alta chronology, 337–338
Nicaragua, 86, 87
Olmec-style, 190, 203, 422
Pacific coast, 202, 205, 425
Plumbate, 426–427
Postclassic, 94, 95, 96, 362
Preclassic, 798, 799–800
Quelepa, 487–488
ritual-specific, 768769
sourcing studies, 580–581
spindle whorls, 630–635
Teotihuacan, 219, 226
Toltec, 343–344
Tula region, 373(table), 374, 378
(p. 953) Ulúa Valley, 485, 487, 488
US Southwest/Northwest Mexico, 515, 518, 519–520, 521
Usulután-style, 90, 486
in Yucatán, 270, 398
ceremonial centers, 84, 181, 203, 216, 247, 249, 441, 451
E-Group architecture, 257–259
Middle to Late Formative, 119–120
sacred geography of, 755, 756–759
Teotihuacan as, 217–225
ceremonial regalia, 769, 770
ceremonial structures, 173, 441
ceremonialism, elaboration of, 172–173, 175
ceremonies, 11, 107, 531. See also rituals
Cerén (El Salvador), 486–487
Cerro de la Campana (Puebla), 824
Cerro de la Cruz (Oaxaca), 235, 237
Cerro de las Conchas (Chiapas), 146
Cerro de las Mesas (Veracruz), 355
Cerro de las Navajas, obsidian from, 286, 287, 288, 289
Cerro del Calón (Nayarit/Sinaloa), 497
Cerro del Chivo (Guerrero), 621
Cerro de Zapotitlan, 826
Cerro Jazmín (Oaxaca), 236
Cerro Palenque (Honduras), 488
Cerro San Gaspar, (Guerrero 528
Cerro Tenayo (Mexico), 315
Cerro Tilcajete (Oaxaca), 238
Cerros (Belize), 74, 209, 275
Chacalilla (Nayarit), 503
Chacchoben (Quintana Roo), 109
Chachoapan (Oaxaca), 337, 340
Chacs (Chaacs). See Chahks
Chacsinkin (Yucatán), 272
chacmool figures, 375, 378, 380, 441
Chaco Canyon (New Mexico), 516, 518, 520
Chac II, 287
Chahks, (Chacs, Chaacs), 747
Chajoma Kaqchikel, 411, 412
Chalcatongo (Mexico), 340, 666
Chalcatzingo (Morelos), 1, 175, 180, 216, 273, 666, 667, 800
Chalchihuites culture/region, 374, 516, 517, 518
Chalchiuhtlicue, 823, 824
Chalchitán (Guatemala), 59–60
Chalchuapa (El Salvador), 208, 247, 425, 485, 486, 488
Chalco, Lake, 130–131
Champotón (Campeche), 391
Chan, 701–702
Chance, John, 884
Chapala (Jalisco), 132
Charles V, 459
Charlton, Thomas, 13
Charney, Desiré, 391
Chase, Arlen, 74–75
Chase, Diane, 74–75
Chatinos, 337
Chenes, 386
chenopods (Chenopodiuim spp.), 152, 159
chert manufacturing settlement, 74
Chiapa de Corzo (Chiapas), 118, 180, 181, 798, 801, 832
Chiapanec script, 856
Chiapas, 18, 124, 171, 175, 180, 202, 527, 801, 910, 919, 937, 939, 940
Archaic sites in, 134, 145, 146
highlands, 251–252, 405
indigenous rights in, 109, 941
Pacific coast, 419, 428
Paleo-Indian points and sites in, 132, 133, 134, 135
Spanish conquest of, 461, 464
Teotihuacan influence in, 425–426
Chiapas-Guatemalan Highlands, 118, 123
Chiapas highlands (central Chiapas/Chiapas plateau), 406, 409, 412
Chibchan culture, 88, 91, 93, 96
Chibchan languages, 489–490
Chicanel Horizon, 275
Chichén Itzá (Yucatán), 124, 275, 390, 397, 701, 731, 811, 865, 866
architecture of, 393–394, 792
political structure, 395–396
settlement history of, 391–392
and Tollan, 342, 378–379
Chichimecs, 361, 441, 462, 517, 821
Chicomecoatl, 746
Chicomoztoc, 753
Chiconquiaco, Sierra de, 191
chiefdoms, 93, 170, 250
Early Formative, 202, 203, 232
Middle Formative, 204, 233, 234, 270
Chihuahua, 519
Chikin Tikal, tomb at, 63
Childe, V. Gordon, 36, 37
children, socialization of, 663, 664
Children of Quetzalcoatl, 896
chili (Capsicum annuum), 143, 142, 159, 611, 612, 613
Chimalhuacán (Mexico), 133
Chimaltenango (Guatemala), 250
chi'na, 685
chinampas (raised fields), 216, 544–545
Chinantec, 231, 530
Chinautla (Guatemala), 250
Chingú (Hidalgo), 374
Chingú phase, 374
Chinkultic (Chiapas), 109
chipped stone technology, 601603
Paleo-Indian, 132, 134–135, 136
chisels, 604
Chitaqtz'aq (Guatemala), 412
Chixoy River (Guatemala), 64, 245, 248, 251, 409, 410
Chocolá (Guatemala), 208, 424
(p. 954) chocolate pots, 613
Ch'olan Maya, 835, 851–852
Ch’ olti', 851
Cholula (Puebla), 95, 121, 123, 216, 283, 288, 306, 342, 731, 813
Epiclassic, 313, 318
textile production in, 631, 635
and Virgen de los Remedios festival, 902–903
Cholulteca drainage (Honduras), 117
Cholultecans, 462, 463
Chontal Maya, 462
Chorotega, 490
Chorotega-Mangue speakers, 88, 421
Ch'orti', 109, 851
chronicles, Maya, 396, 397, 407
chronologies, 3, 152, 391
development of, 17–18, 64
Gulf Coast, 351–353(table)
Mixteca Alta, 337–338
southern Mexican highlands, 231
Tarascan culture, 436(table)
Teotihuacan, 221(table)
Tula, 373(table)
Chuabaj (Guatemala), 250
Chuitinamit, 410
Chuj Maya, 411
Chukumuk (Guatemala), 251
Chunchucmil (Yucatán), 277, 701, 711, 713
Chupícuaro tradition, 436, 515
churches, salvage archaeology in, 919
Churumuco mine (Michoacán), 619
Cihuacóatl, 632, 634, 826
Cihuatán (El Salvador), 85, 94, 488
Cipactli, 743, 744
circular architecture, Teuchtitlán Tradition, 285
Citadel (Teotihuacan), 217, 218, 220, 224, 225–226
cities, 1, 8, 114, 119, 263, 708, 727
administrative, 380, 709n3
as cosmograms, 753, 792
Late Formative, 120–121
as moral communities, 715–716
regal-ritual, 709–713
social interactions within, 713–714
city planning, 709n2, 753, 791–792
city-states, 449, 656
Late Formative, 207–208
Mixteca Alta, 236, 340
Oaxaca, 340, 345
Postclassic, 125, 335
Ciudad Vieja (El Salvador), 94, 938–939
Cival (Guatemala), 209, 257, 259, 747, 748, 798
civic architecture. See public architecture
civilization, origins of Mesoamerican, 178
civil war, Guatemala, 64
class, 10, 673
stratification of, 674–677, 940
Classic Central Veracruz culture, 350, 354
settlement hierarchies, 355–357
Classic Maya, 6, 12, 17, 609, 632, 666, 710, 731, 742, 746, 778, 910
collapse of, 14–15, 324–333
Early, 121–122
Hieroglyphic writing, 845–846
sociopolitical organization, 326–327, 729–730
states, 727–728
trade networks, 329–330
women's power in, 664–665
Classic period, 9, 12, 17, 249, 312, 516, 591, 678, 792, 807
Central America, 91–93
Chiapas-Guatemalan trade, 251–252
developments during, 121–124
Gulf Coast, 348, 350, 354–359
interactions during, 283–284
Mixteca Alta, 239–240
Teotihuacan, 730, 808–810
western Mexico, 501–502
climate, 120, 215–216
climatic change, 6, 438, 502, 503, 542–543, 573
Cline, Howard F., 883
clothing, 64, 628, 629, 664
Clovis first model, 129–130
Clovis points, 89, 132, 133, 137
Coapexco (Mexico), 175
Coastal script, 856
Coatepeque Lake (El Salvador), 90
Coatitlan (Central Highlands), 119
Coatlicue, 33, 820, 825, 826
Coatzacoalcos Valley (Veracruz), 171, 173, 177, 179, 531
Cobá (Yucatán), 124, 270, 275, 387, 712
Cobos Palma, Rafael, 393
Cob Swamp (Belize), 74
Cocijo, 747
Cocom family, 396, 398
Codex Bodley, 343, 898–899, 901
Codex Borbonicus, 746, 788, 870
Codex Borgia, 632, 741, 745, 748, 790, 870, 874
Codex Colombino-Becker, 870
Codex Cospi, 632, 870
Codex Dresden, 741, 744, 745, 789–790, 846, 847
Codex Fejérváry-Mayer, 745, 870
Codex Laud, 870
Codex Madrid, 746, 846
Codex Magliabechiano, 632
Codex Mendoza, 454, 628, 655–656, 716, 871–873, 875
Codex Nuttall, 632, 633–634
Codex Selden, 870
Codex Vaticanus B, 745, 748, 870
Codex Vienna, 870
Codex Vindobonensis, 741, 743
Codex Zouche-Nuttal, 870, 873, 875
Codice de Calkini, 107
codices, 328, 397, 870
Aztec, 871–873
calendrics in, 789–790
dynastic lineages in, 898–899
Mixtec, 337, 338
religious, 873–874
Coe, Michael, 73
Coe, William, 73
coffee industry, 59, 939
Coixtlahuaca (Oaxaca), 342
Colha (Belize), 74
Colima, 495, 497, 502, 518, 613–614, 622
collaboration, international, 62–63
Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Diamond), 331
collapses, 338
defining, 301–302
Monte Albán, 123, 240, 335
Teotihuacan, 305–306, 309
Colombia, 88, 93
colonialist archaeology, in Guatemala, 55, 65
Colonial period, 13, 57, 94, 95, 571, 619
Cholula, 902–903
documents, 879–884
economies, 896–897
environmental degradation, 920–921
kingdoms, 895–896
Maya region, 107, 934–942
population losses, 912–914
Teposcolula, 900–902
travel routes, 421–422
colonization
by Aztecs, 821–822, 825
colors, cardinal directions and, 745
colossal heads, Olmec, 173, 174, 798, 799, 800
Columbus, Christopher, 9
comales, 613
Comayagua Valley (Honduras), 485, 486, 487, 488, 490
commercial centers, 250
Commission on Sacred Places (Guatemala), 108
commodity money, 642–643
commoners, 10, 62, 237, 339, 441, 654, 687
differential wealth, 675–676
in domestic economies, 643–645
as pochteca, 646–647
communal societies, 514
community, communities, 10
defining, 697–698, 699–700
and households, 698–699
moral, 715–716
resilience, 701–702
Compañia Mexicana de Aerofoto, 553
complex adaptive systems, 7, 14
ecological approaches to, 568–569, 574
complex systems models, 284–285
complexity, 249
emergence of, 89, 169–170
Maya lowlands, 255, 270–277
western Mexico, 498, 500
compositional analyses, 89
conch-shell trumpets, 768
CONCULTURA, 84
confederacies, 897
congregaciones, 937
Conquest of Mexico, The (López de Gómara), 460
conquests, 655
Aztec, 452–453, 820, 821
Maya, 251
Spanish, 15, 57, 908–909 See also Spanish conquest
conservation, 64, 75, 918–919
contract archaeology, 64, 89
Convention 169 (International Labor Organization), 109
Convento de San Pedro y San Pablo Teposcolula, 901
Convento de Santo Domingo (Oaxaca), 901–902
conventos, 901–902, 937, 938
Copán (Honduras), 6, 108, 109, 176, 261, 327, 329, 330, 483, 490, 666, 686, 701, 746, 810
early excavations at, 57, 58
prestige goods, 288–289
rulership in, 260, 287
copper, 517
alloy technology, 622–623
mining of, 618, 619
smelting process, 620–622
Coralillos (Veracruz), 357
Córdoba Valley (Veracruz), 355
core-periphery models, 8,17, 475, 483–484
Corozal District (Belize), 74
corporate groups, 10, 11
households and, 685–686
social differences in, 676–677
Corrales, Francisco, 89
Cortes de Cadiz reforms, 939
Cortés, Hernán, 15, 330, 459
conquest, 460, 462, 911
and indigenous alliances, 463–464
cosmograms, cities as, 753, 792
cosmology, 88, 441, 500, 791
city structure and, 715716, 772–773
sacred geography and, 753, 764–765, 800
and shamanism, 765–766
US Southwest/Northwest Mexico, 518, 520–522
world trees and, 744–745
Costa Rica, 1, 83–84, 86, 91, 93, 117, 132, 634
archaeology in, 88–89
Nicoya region, 482, 485
Postclassic in, 94, 95, 96
costumes, and identity, 626
Cotaxtla Basin (Veracruz), 362
cotton, 630, 631, 643
Cotzumalhuapa (Guatemala), 58, 427, 856, 857
Coxcateca, 826
(p. 956) Coxcatlán (Puebla), 826
Coxcatlán Cave (Puebla), 142, 143, 158, 159
Coxcatlán phase, 142
Coxoh Maya, 411
Coya phase, 358
Coyolapan (Oaxaca), 528
Coyolxauhqui, 820
Coyolxauhqui monolith. See Great Coyolxauhqui Stone
Coyotlatelco culture, 123
Coyotlatelco phase, 312
Coyotlatelco Red/Buff pottery, 312, 313, 315316, 317–318, 374
Cozumel (Quintana Roo), 391
crafting
household, 645–646, 689
vs. manufacturing, 589–590
craft production, 9, 589
ceramics, 608–609
commoners, 645646
household, 688–690
intensity of, 593, 594
metal working, 620–624
prestige goods, 648–649
Tula, 376–377
craft specialization, 9, 175, 225, 601, 602, 689, 773
cranial deformation, 233
creation, 78
mythology of, 742–748
sacred geography of, 753, 756–758
cremations, Mixteca Alta, 233
Cristóbal (Guatemala), 204
crocodile, cosmic, 743–744
crops, 7, 545
cultivated and domesticated, 154–155(table), 158–159
domestication of, 13, 151–153, 496
cross-circle petroglyphs, 791–792
cruciform cache pits, 257
Cuauhtémoc, 49, 423
Cuauhtinchan, 876
Cuauhxicalli Stone, 634
Cuchumatan Mountains, 411
Cuello (Belize), 74
Cuernavaca, 822, 823
Cuetlaxtlan, 453, 530
Cueva Blanca (Oaxaca), 143
Cuicatec, 231
Cuicatlán Cañada (Oaxaca), 237
Cuicuilco (Mexico), 216217, 285, 305
Cuilapan (Oaxaca), 341, 462
Cuitzeo Basin, Lake (Michoacán), 436, 437
Culebra, Bay of (Costa Rica), 91, 96
Culhuacan (Mexico), 463
cultivation, 89, 119, 154–155(table), 202
cults, 178, 709
of the dead, 767–768, 776–777
Quetzalcoatl, 123, 342, 514, 517, 521, 714
cultural astronomy, 791
cultural ecology, 4, 5, 13, 16, 35, 36, 37, 88, 89, 354, 567
cultural evolution, 5, 13
cultural materialism, 35
cultural-resources management, 7, 40, 52
culture areas, 471–472
culture history, 4, 5, 13, 32, 33–34, 35, 36, 62, 64, 83
culture traits, 472
Cumtun (Yucatán), 394
Cunil (Belize), 256
Curicaueri, 441
Cuzcatlan (El Salvador), 94
Dainzú (Oaxaca), 238
dance platforms, northern Maya lowlands, 273
dance ritual, Oaxacan, 766
Danibaan phase, 831
danzantes, 831832
databases, digital, 89
David J. Guzmán National Museum, 84
Day, Jane, 96
day lists, in highland scribal traditions, 856–857
dead, as social actors, 776–777
dedication rituals, 11–12
defensive settlements, 250, 251, 411, 412
deforestation, lowland Maya, 331
deities, 123, 396, 441, 691, 741, 801
Aztec, 820, 823825, 826
creation, 742–743, 744, 745
and textile production, 632, 634635
Department of Archaeology (Belize), 71, 72
Department of Archaeology (El Salvador), 85
depopulations, 544
after Spanish conquest, 908–909, 912–914, 937
development projects, 6, 64
Diamond, Jared, 331
Díaz, Porfirio, 33, 940
Díaz del Castillo, Bernal, 460, 462, 463
diet, European impacts on, 924
diffusionism, 32, 472
digital sources, 884
Diquís region (Costa Rica), 89, 93
diseases, 15, 909, 912–913
ditched fields, 543
divination, codices used for, 875–876
documents, 407
Colonial period, 879–884
of Spanish conquest, 460–466
dogs (Canis familiaris), 158, 206
domesticates, 154–155(table), 202, 216
Archaic period, 143, 144, 146, 147–148
early, 156–159
domestication, 766
of maize, 3, 146, 151–152
plant, 13, 152–159, 171
western Mexico and, 495–496
Dominicans, 896, 900–901
Dos Pilas (Guatemala), 265, 329, 701, 754
Drolet, Robert, 88
(p. 957) drought, 6, 202, 331
Late Formative/Preclassic period, 209–210
Late Preclassic, 248–249, 547
dry tropical lowlands
Archaic sites in, 145–147
plant domestication in, 156–157
dual processual theory/model, 11, 14
Durán, Diego, 451, 764, 902
Durango, 515, 516
dynasties, 239, 260, 822
collapses of, 328–329
northern Maya lowlands, 276, 277
Postclassic, 125, 336
royal, 14, 898–899
Tarascan, 440, 441
Dzibilchaltún (Yucatán), 268–269, 277, 712
Eagle Knights, 124
eagles, Epiclassic period, 124
Early Archaic period, 144, 145, 147–148
Early Classic period, 121–122, 216, 283, 286, 328, 358, 782, 845
Chiapas highlands, 251–252
Maya lowlands, 259, 260–261, 275, 277, 547
Pacific Coast, 425–426
Early Formative period, 13, 118, 171, 677, 766
ceramics, 18, 176–178
Gulf Olmec, 189, 190–191, 193, 194, 195
northern Maya lowlands, 270, 271
Oaxaca Valley, 232–233
Pacific coast, 202–203, 422–423
sociopolitical hierarchies, 172, 173–175
western Mexico, 497, 498
Early Horizon style, 176–178
Early Nabanché period, 270–271
Early Postclassic period, 94, 359, 372, 409
Basin of Mexico, 318, 319
ceramic decoration, 609, 610
in Greater Nicoya, 87, 95
Oaxaca, 338, 339–340, 345
Pacific Coast, 426–427
Early Preclassic period, 256
Early State Module, 359
earth as square, 744
earth crocodile/earth monster, 743–744
Earth Goddess, Aztec, 826
Eb (Petén), 256
ecological research, 14
carrying capacity, 571–572
complex adaptive systems and, 568–569
cultural adaptation, 570–571
human adaptations, 573–574
production and resource availability, 567–568
systems theory and, 569–570
ecology, 5, 7, 643
historical changes to, 941–942
and landscape changes, 933–934
Spanish colonization and, 935–936
economies, 17, 175, 250, 642, 674, 690
Aztec Empire, 454–455
domestic, 640–641, 643–648
historic, 896–897, 938–939, 940
institutional, 648–650
Middle Formative, 205–206
Postclassic, 9–10
state, 728–729
Tarascan, 439–440
Ecuador, metallurgy from, 617
edge-trimmed tool tradition, 134
Edzná (Yucatán), 272, 387
effigy pots, Preclassic, 799
E Groups, E-Group architecture, 273, 753
astronomical alignments of, 792793
Maya use of, 257–259, 275
at Naachtun, 757, 759
Ehecatl, 123, 824. See also Quetzalcoatl
Ejutla Valley (Oaxaca), 237, 593, 611, 612
Ek Balam (Yucatán), 387, 388
Ekholm, Gordon, 73
El Bálsamo (Guatemala), 204
El Baûl (Guatemala), 208, 427
El Bosque (Nicaragua), 130–131
El Cajón region (Honduras), 485
El Carmen (El Salvador), 90
El Cedral (Mexico), 130, 136
El Chanal (Colima), 503
El Chayal obsidian, 191, 582
El Duende pyramid (Dos Pilas), 754
El Fuerte (Sinaloa), 921
El Gigante rockshelter (Honduras), 144, 147
El Grillo (Jalisco), 503
elites, 9, 12, 14, 49, 116, 237, 238, 283, 287, 289, 330, 437, 441, 475, 500, 517, 521, 591, 741, 808, 812, 813, 898
Aztec Empire alliances, 526, 528, 531
Chichén Itzá, 393, 394
craft production, 645, 689
Early Formative period, 118, 174, 175
founding stories, 341–342
Mayapán, 396, 398, 399
Maya lowlands, 259, 261
Middle Formative, 233, 234–235
ornament production, 600, 616
Plumbate pottery, 426–427
Postclassic Oaxaca, 335–336, 338, 342–343, 344–345
El Llanto group, 272
El Manatí (Veracruz), 173, 175, 191, 767, 798, 799
El Mercado, 865
El Mirador (Petén region), 120, 209, 259, 274, 276, 328, 753
El Opeño tombs (Michoacán), 497–498, 778
El Palenque (Oaxaca), 237
El Palmillo (Oaxaca), 240, 337, 546, 686
El Peñón (Mexico), 135
El Perú (Guatemala), 261
El Pital (Veracruz), 355
(p. 958) El Portón (Guatemala), 248, 834
El Quiché (Guatemala), 406
El Rayo (Nicaragua), 87, 93, 95
El Remolino (Veracruz), 194–195
El Riego (Puebla), 143
El Riego phase, 142, 143
El Salvador, 83, 90, 94, 96, 117, 120, 204, 425, 461, 486, 489, 814, 937
archaeology in, 84–85
fringe of Mesoamerica, 482, 485
Maya influence in, 91–93
Pacific coast, 419, 428
Spanish colonial, 938–939
El Soch (Guatemala), 245, 250
El Tajín (Veracruz), 124, 288, 355, 357, 390, 814
El Ujuxte (Guatemala), 208, 209, 425
El Zapotal (Veracruz), 530
empires, 114, 122, 124, 264
Aztec, 451–452
fragmentation and centralization of, 302–303
Spanish, 125–126
encomiendas, encomenderos, 896, 937
environment
landscape changes and, 933, 934–936
post-conquest degradation of, 920–921, 937–938
environmental archaeology, 35, 47, 568
cultural development and adaptation, 569–571, 573–574
Epiclassic period, 120, 124, 288, 309, 372, 409, 437
Basin of Mexico, 310–319
ceramics, 315–318, 591
production units, 592–593
trade during, 516–517
western Mexico, 502–503, 505
epidemics, 912, 913
epigraphy, Mayan, 5, 12, 35, 328
epi-Olmec, writing in, 832–833, 836–838
Erongaríguaro (Michoacán), 437
Erquicia, Herbert, 85
Escamilla, Marlon, 85
Escuela Internacional de Arqueología (Mexico), 47
Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia (ENAH), 47, 48, 50–51, 53–54
Escuintla region (Guatemala), 204, 247
Estero de Tres Bocas, 559–560
estuary canal systems, 422
Etla (Oaxaca), 231, 234, 236
Etlatongo (Oaxaca), 337, 344345
ethnic enclaves, 715
ethnicity, 10, 715, 938
in Oaxaca, 230–231
Teotihuacan, 677–678
ethnic identity, 35, 65
ethnoarchaeology, 5, 39
ethnohistory, 95, 336, 337
and Chichén Itzá, 390, 391
Maya region, 107, 328, 406–407, 410–411
Tarascan, 435–436
European Union, 75
evolutionary ecology, 13
exchange networks/systems, 89, 90, 117, 173, 272, 284, 421, 437, 451, 498, 628, 639–640
Chiapas-Guatemala, 251–252
Classic Maya, 329–330
domestic economy, 643–648
Early Formative, 175, 203
intersocietal, 472–473
Kaminaljuyu and, 247, 249
Late Classic, 288–289
Mayapán, 398–399
Naco Valley, 488–489
northern Yucatán, 389–390
obsidian, 90, 318, 362, 379
Pacific coast, 203, 205–206
Teotihuacan, 289–290
Toltec, 343–344
world systems theory and, 473–474
Fábrica de San José (Oaxaca), ceremonial cape from, 769
families, 500, 821
Mayapán, 396, 398, 399
social relations, 666–667
famine, post-conquest, 913
farmer-artisans, Late Classic period, 123
farming, 116, 120, 123, 502
slash-and-burn, 7, 146, 147, 148, 156, 160, 327
Farriss, Nancy M., 884
Fat Cacique of Zempoala, 463–464
faunal remains, 216, 223
Pleistocene, 132, 134
Spanish-introduced, 7, 935, 938
feasting, 172, 531
feathered serpent, 224, 813
US Southwest/Northwest Mexico, 514, 518–519
in Yucatán, 396, 399
feathered serpent cult, and adoption of hieroglyphic system, 865–866
Feathered Serpent Pyramid (FSP), 217, 220, 224, 225, 287, 809
sacrificial burials at, 285, 288
feminist archaeology, 5, 17
Fernández, Patricia, 89
festivals, 807
Field Museum, 73
figurines, 11, 233, 354, 498, 516, 613–614, 664, 796, 798
as ancestors, 691, 781
life events and rituals in, 666–667
Olmec-style, 191, 203, 423
Postclassic Gulf Coast, 361–362
ritual, 766767, 768
fincas, 903
(p. 959) Fine Orange ware, 395, 398, 610
fire, deities of, 745
fishing, Archaic period, 146
fishtail points, in Central America, 89, 132, 137
Flannery, Kent, in Valley of Oaxaca, 37, 38, 143–144, 158, 567
Flint, Earl, 85
flint knapping, 601602
floods, seasonal, 562–563
Florentine Codex, 624, 745, 764
flute player, hump-backed, 517
fluted points, 132, 136–137
forest clearing, 89
Folsom points, 89
food production, 202
lowland and highland, 157–159
origins of, 151, 153, 156–157
Tula, 377–378 See also agriculture
footprints, in Acahualinca ash, 85
foragers, 117
Archaic, 13, 143, 147, 156
Pleistocene-era, 134–135
Formative period, 90, 216, 515, 568, 610, 667
developments during, 116–121
Pacific coast, 200–201
ritual practices, 771–772
sacred bundles, 770–771
in Veracruz, 189–190
western Mexico, 497–498, 504
writing systems, 830–838
fortified sites, 500
fortresses, Aztec Empire, 527, 528, 530
fragmentation, 14, 302
France, and Guatemalan archaeology, 62–63, 64
Franciscans, 896
Fred Smith site (Belize), 147
Friedel, David, 74
frontiers, 457, 482
Spanish colonial, 937–938
Fuego phase, 379
Fuentes y Guzmán, Francisco Antonio, 56–57, 61, 65
Fundación Nacional de Arqueología de El Salvador (FUNDAR), 85
funerary sites, 88, 822
funerary structures, 778–779, 813
Gallardo, Roberto, 85
Gamio, Manuel, 34–35, 48
Gann, Thomas, 72
Garber, James, 75
García Elgueta, Manuel, 59–60
gardens, household, 152, 156
Garifuna, 106
gemstones, working of, 604
gender, 10, 17, 629, 663–664
depictions of, 666–668
spinning and weaving imagery, 633634
third- and fourth-, 665–666
gender archaeology, 5, 9, 39, 89
genealogies, 239, 870, 897. See also dynasties; lineages
geographic information systems (GIS), 7
Germany, 86
Geurds, Alex, 87–88
Gheo-Shih (Oaxaca), 143, 144, 147, 766
Gibson, Charles, 883
Glass, John B., 883
globalization theory, 475
global positioning systems (GPS), 7
God L, 746
gold, 601, 617, 624
Google Earth, 7
Gorda, Sierra (Queretaro), 132
Gordo, Cerro (Teotihuacan), 218
Gordon, George Byron, 483
gourds, bottle (Lagenaria siceraria), 143, 158
governing councils, 731
Graham, Elizabeth, 71–72, 74
Granada region (Nicaragua), 93
Gran Chichimeca, 117
grasses, 135, 144, 146. See also maize
grave goods, 767–768
Gray Ware tradition, 317
Great Ballcourt (Chichén Itzá), 391, 392, 394
Great Britain, 58, 73–74
Great Cenote (Chichén Itzá), 391
Great Coyolxauhqui Stone, 51, 820, 821
Great Terrace (Chichén Itzá), 391, 392, 393
Greater Nicoya (Nicaragua), 87, 95, 96, 485, 487, 488, 490
green maize harvest ceremony, 500
greenstone, 91, 175, 223, 225, 272, 605, 619, 634, 799, 808
Grijalva Basin/Valley (Chiapas), 251, 406, 409, 411, 412
ground stone tools, 135, 144, 145–146, 603–604
Group A (Izapa), 756
Group of the Columns (Chichén Itzá), 392
Group of the Initial Series (Chichén Itzá), 391, 393
guachimontones, 498, 499500, 502
Guadalupe (Zacapu Basin), 437
Guadalupe-Victoria obsidian, 191
guajes (Leucaena spp.), 152, 157
Guajilar (Guatemala), 252
Gualoquito (Honduras), 486
Guanacaste (Costa Rica), 96
Guanajuato, 306, 378, 437, 503
(p. 960) Guatemala, 1, 124, 171, 175, 202, 206, 288, 910, 934
Archaeological Atlas Project, 63–64
art collecting in, 58–59
early archaeology in, 59–60
indigenous activism in, 109, 110
international collaboration in, 62–63, 64–65
Middle Formative in, 180, 204–205
obsidian trade, 191, 284
Pacific coast, 64, 419, 428, 801, 814
Paleo-Indian points and sites in, 132, 133, 134
patriotic archaeology in, 56–57
pot-belly sculptures from, 90, 210
professional archaeology in, 55–56, 62–63
sacred sites in, 107–108
Spanish conquest of, 461, 462, 463
U.S. research in, 60–62 See also Guatemala Highlands
Guatemala City, 64
Guatemala Highlands, 64, 118, 123, 245, 284, 407, 608, 613, 897, 939
excavations in, 59–60
Mexicanization, 409, 410
Middle to Late Formative period, 120, 180
Paleo-Indian points form, 132, 134
Prehispanic occupation of, 246–252
Guatemala Valley, 61, 204, 246–247. See also Kaminaljuyú
Guayabo de Turrialba (Costa Rica), 89, 93
Guderjan, Tom, 74
Guerrero, 125, 427, 618, 797, 800, 921
Archaic sites in, 145, 146
Aztec Empire in, 527, 825
copper production in, 619, 621, 622
Early and Middle Formative in, 118–119, 173
Guide to Ethnohistorical Sources (Cline), 883
Guilá Naquitz cave (Oaxaca), 133–134, 135, 157, 158
Archaic period, 143–144, 147
Guirún (Oaxaca), 337, 341
Gulf Coast, Gulf lowlands, 94, 95, 123, 193, 348–349, 363, 592, 747
chronology, 351–353(table)
Classic Central Veracruz culture, 350, 354–357
Classic period, 357–359
Early Formative period, 173–177
Formative period, 189–192
Middle Formative period, 179, 180
Postclassic period, 359–360 See also Olman
Gulf Olmec, 188–189, 232, 272, 667
archaeology of, 194–195
development of, 192–194
diagnostics of, 190–191
Gumarcaaj (Guatemala), 251
Gusave (Sinaloa), 517
Guzmán, Diego de, 896–897
Guzmán National Museum See David J. Guzmán National Museum
Haberland, Wolfgang, 86
hachas, 94, 348, 354, 355
haciendas (estates), 905, 921, 939
industrial agriculture on, 940–941
oral and documentary histories of, 903–904
hammerstones, 601, 618
Hammond, Norman, 72, 73–74
Handbook of Middle American Indians (Wauchope), 883
Harrison, Peter, 74
Hartman, Carl V., 88
Harvard University, 60, 85
Headband Twins, 746
heads, Olmec stone, 173–174, 205
head towns, 727
health, 330, 924
Healy, Paul, The Archaeology of the Rivas Region, Nicaragua, 86
hearthstones, in Maya creation, 745, 746
heritage, indigenous communities and, 107
heritage preservation, 33, 40
hermeneutic interpretation, 32
Hernandez de Cordoba, Francisco, 95
Hero Twins, 746
Hester, Tom, 74
Hidalgo, 132, 921. See also various sites
hieroglyphic writing, 12, 64, 248, 397, 742, 772
at Chichén Itzá, 391, 392
foreign conventions in, 865–866
languages represented in, 851–852
La Venta, 830–831
Maya, 260, 261, 845–847
structure of, 847–850
hieroglyphic texts
Epi-Olmec, 832–833
Maya, 260, 261, 833–835
on religious systems, 741–742
social dimensions of, 852–853
Yucatán, 387–388, 396
Zapotec, 831–832 See also codices; texts by name
highlands, 35, 118, 175
food production in, 158–159
semiarid Mexican, 142–144
High Priest's Grave (Chichén Itzá), 392
hill shrines, Aztec temples over, 823
hilltop sites, 236, 240, 312–313, 314, 341, 374, 448
Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 744
historical archaeology, in Mexico, 916–926
historical particularism, 32, 47
Hocaba ceramics, 397
Hodder, Ian, 38
hog plum (Spondias purpurea), 152, 157
Hohokam, 515, 516, 518, 520, 522
homosexuality, and masculinity, 666
(p. 961) Honduras, 1, 9, 88, 90, 92, 109, 117, 132, 144, 176, 461, 462, 490
core-periphery models, 483–484
cultural developments in, 485–489
Hoopes, John W., 89
horned serpent, US Southwest/Northwest Mexico, 514, 518
horticulture, 192, 201, 766
house gardens, domestication in, 152, 156
household archaeology, 5, 9, 684–685
household compounds, at Chichén Itzá, 394
households, 10, 11, 12, 123, 327, 395, 398, 477, 641, 666, 684, 779
and communities, 698–699
crafting, 645–646
craft production, 91, 664–665, 688–690
craft workshops, 9, 376–377
differential wealth of, 675–676
domestic exchange and, 643–644
gardens in, 152, 156
as production units, 592, 593
ritual, 11, 690–692
social organization in, 685–687
houselots, 123, 398, 937
House of the Eagles (Tenochtitlan), 344
House of the Governor (Uxmal), 792
houses, 8, 12, 677, 684, 687, 745, 937
Huamelulpan (Oaxaca), 236, 780
Huapalcalco (Hidalgo), 311
Huastecas, 348, 354, 360, 529, 530
Huatabampo, 518
Huatulco (Oaxaca), 896
Huaxtepec, 454, 455, 822
Huaxyacac (Oaxaca), 528–529
Huehuetenango (Guatemala), 251
Huehueteotl (Ueueteotl), 745
Huexotzinco, 462, 463
Huichol, 743
Huitzilopochtli, 741, 754, 820, 821, 826
Huitzo (Oaxaca), 781
human remains, 9, 96, 269
Pleistocene era, 135–136
ritual use of, 779–781
stable isotope testing of, 287, 289, 290
Humboldt celt, 838, 839
Hunahpu, 746
hunter-gatherers, 5, 32, 147, 156, 170
hunting, Paleo-Indian, 129–130, 132–134
hybrid cultures, 475
hydraulic systems, 500–501, 545, 546, 937–938. See also irrigation systems
hydroelectric projects, 64
Ichon, Alain, 64
iconography, 58, 86, 206, 237, 408, 420, 516, 517, 801, 813
Aztec, 456, 457
Classic period, 355, 742
El Opeño-style tombs, 497–498
Middle Formative, 118–119
Mixteca-Puebla style, 94, 95
Monte Albán, 238, 239
Olmec, 12, 173174, 273
of Tollan, 342, 343
in US Southwest/Northwest Mexico, 513–514, 518–522
identity, 235, 315, 484, 628, 780, 920
ethnic, 677–678
group, 730–731
Maya, 65, 941
resettlement and, 934, 937
social, 10, 11, 95, 235, 665
iguana earth crocodile, 743
Ihuatzio (Michoacán), 441
ilmenite perforated cubes, 190
Ilopango volcano, eruptions of, 486–487
Imix, 745
immigrants. See migrations
imperialism, 12
Aztec, 451–458
Spanish, 7, 125–126
imperialist archaeology, 55, 56
in Guatemala, 60–62
incense burners, 613, 614, 769, 770
indigenous communities, 6, 34, 57, 58, 108
and archaeology, 109–110
Maya region, 106–107
and Spanish conquest, 461–466 See also various groups
indigenous rights, 106, 109, 941
indigo production, 939
industrial archaeology, 925
inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), 582–583
infrastructure projects, Mexico City, 51–52
Inguarán district (Michoacán), 619
inheritance, 664, 675
Initial Formative period, 116–117, 171, 172
Institute of Archaeology (IOA) (Belize), 69, 75–77
Institutional period, 72
Instituto de Antropología e Historia (IDAEH), 61, 63–64
Instituto Hondureño de Antropología e Historia (IHAH), 483
Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH), 47, 52, 131, 917
(p. 962) Instituto Nacional de Estadíca y Geografía (INEGI), 555
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), 580–581, 922
interaction networks, intersocietal, 472–473
Intermediate Area, 117
international congresses, 85
International School of Archaeology (Mexico), 47
International School of Archaeology and Ethnography, 34
International Style, 390
interpretive archaeology, 38
iron-ore artifacts, 175
iron pyrite, 498, 518
irrigation systems, 119, 120, 216, 247, 500
Isla Cerritos (Yucatán), 390
Isla de Sacrificios (Veracruz), 361
islotes, 546
Isthmo-Colombian region, 88
Itzá kingdom, 330
Itzam Kab Ayiin, 743, 744
Itzcoatl, 875
Itziparátzico (Michoacán), smelting in, 621–622
Itzmal Ch'en, 8
Iximché (Guatemala), 58, 64, 407, 408, 410, 412
Ixlu, Stela 2 from, 812
Ixtapa, 503
Ixtepeque obsidian, 191, 582
Ixtépete, 503
Izalcos region (El Salvador), 94, 938, 940
Izamal (Yucatán Peninsula), 180, 271, 276, 277
Izapa (Guatemala), 208, 423, 425, 427, 756757, 801
Izapan style, 208, 420
Jacaltec Maya, 411
Jacona-Zamora Valley (Michoacán), El Opeño-style tombs in, 497–498
jade, 91, 119, 175, 250, 272, 498, 600, 604, 799, 808
jadeite, 257, 288, 289
jade workshops, 250
jaguar head statues, 90
Jaguar Knights, 124
jaguars, 119, 124, 801
Jalieza (Oaxaca), 238, 240, 337
Jalisco, 132, 158, 374, 434, 495, 496, 497, 503, 516
copper metallurgy in, 619, 622
figurines from, 613–614
Japan, and Guatemalan archaeology, 63
Jesuit College of San Felipe and Santiago (Sinaloa), 921
Jicalán El Viejo (Michoacán), 622
Jicaques, 462, 489
Jicaro (Costa Rica), 96
Joya de Cerén (El Salvador), 84, 85, 92, 94, 108
Juxtlahuaca cave (Guerrero), 572
Kabáh (Yucatán), 387
Kaqchikel Maya, 407, 410–11, 412, 462, 897, 913
Kaminaljuyú (Guatemala), 57, 61, 64, 180, 207, 245, 246, 247, 249, 250, 252, 283, 287, 425, 801
hieroglyphic texts at, 834, 835
Late Formative, 208, 209, 210
Late Preclassic, 248, 251
Kan Cross, 273
Karttunen, Frances, 884
Katsina religion, 514, 515, 519–520, 521, 522
K'axob (Belize), 782
Kayenta traditions, 521
Kekchi Maya, 411, 777
K'iche’ Maya. See Quiché Maya
Kidder, A. V., 73, 552
kilns, pottery, 610, 611–612
K'inich Ajaw, 743
K'inich Yaax K'uk’ Mo', 287
kingdoms, 125, 730, 897
Maya, 326–327, 328
Spanish colonial, 895–896
kingship, 449
ideology of, 14–15
Mayan, 274–275, 329
Tarascan, 440–441
kinship, 13, 122, 686, 898
Kirchhoff, Paul, 3, 32, 35
Knorozov, Yurij, 64
knowledge
ritual and cosmological, 514–515
traditional ecological, 936
Komchén (Yucatán Peninsula), 180, 270
Kowoj family, 399
K'uk'ulkan, 391, 397
Kuruxtun (Quintana Roo), 273
La Arenera (Nicaragua), 90
La Barranca de las Fundiciones de El Manchón (Guerrero), 621
La Blanca (Chiapas), 179, 181, 204, 205–206, 207, 423, 798
labor, 15, 121, 588, 592, 641, 664, 727, 912
and agricultural intensification, 541, 544
gendered, 667, 668
haciendas, 903, 904
indigenous infrastructure and, 937–938
Spanish use of, 913–914
La Calsada (Nuevo Leon), 133
Lacandon Maya, 940, 941
La Casa de Las Golondrinas (Guatemala), 408
Lady 13 Flower, 632
La Encruijada (Tabasco), 747
La Garraía cave (Chiapas), 629
Lagartero (Guatemala), 252
Laguna Chapala (Jalisco), 503
Laguna de los Cerros (Veracruz), 359
Laguna de On (Belize), 147
Laguna de Términos, (Campeche) 934, 939
Laguna Zope (Chiapas region), 423
(p. 963) Laguneta (El Salvador), 92
La Higuerita (Jalisco), 503
La Joya (Jalisco), 504
lake-margin fields, 543
lakes, 133, 134, 156, 543, 544, 545
La Laguna (Tlaxcala), 688
La Lagunita (Guatemala), 249
La Libertad (Chiapas), 801
Lamanai (Belize), 74, 75, 283, 937
Lambityeco (Oaxaca), 240, 337, 338–339
La Merced (Guatemala), 250
La Merced (Veracruz), 175
La Milpa (Belize), 328
La Morena (Guatemala), 204
land, 116, 686, 903, 941
agricultural intensification and, 541–547
Colonial period, 920, 938
Spanish and, 896, 914
Landa, Diego de, 391, 397
land bridge, 129
land clearance, 7, 171, 270
Archaic period, 146, 147, 148, 156, 160
Maya lowlands, 546–547
landscapes, 7, 8, 121, 263, 797
aerial photography of, 552–553, 558–565
agricultural intensification and, 543, 541–547
burial practices and, 778–779
changes in, 556–557
historic changes in, 933–942
post-conquest modifications of, 920–921
sacred, 752–760, 800
Lange, Frederick W., 87, 88, 96
languages, 60, 95, 231
in Maya writing, 851–852
La Pintada (Jalisco), 502
La Playa (Mexico), 144
Laporte, Juan Pedro, 62
La Quemada (Zacatecas), 288, 516, 517
Las Bocas (Mexico), 216
Las Delicias (Nicaragua), 90
Las Vegas (Honduras), 488
Late Archaic period, 116, 117, 143, 145, 147, 148, 201, 766
Late Classic period, 120, 287, 359, 610
development during, 122–124
El Salvador, 92, 93
exchange networks, 288–289
Guatemala Highlands, 249–250, 252
Oaxaca, 238–239, 240, 338
Pacific Coast, 426–427
Late Formative period, 91, 119–121, 189, 500, 677
northern Maya lowlands, 268, 271, 274–275
Pacific coast, 206–209, 424–425
Southern City-State Culture collapse, 209–210
La Sierra (Honduras), 486, 592
Las Mercedes (Costa Rica), 89
Las Palmas (Quintana Roo), 136, 145
Las Tunas (Guatemala), 248
Late Middle Formative period, 12
Late Postclassic period, 125, 427, 571, 624, 742, 754, 780
Guatemala highlands, 250–251
Maya highlands, 405–413
Oaxaca, 335, 337, 339, 345, 730
Late Preclassic Period, 327, 436, 782
Guatemala Highlands, 247, 248, 251
Maya lowlands, 259–260
Latinoamerican social archaeology, 89
La Venta (Olmec) (Tabasco), 119, 175, 181, 189, 191, 193, 272, 477, 744, 798, 799
written text at, 830–831, 837–838
La Ventilla barrio (Teotihuacan), 289
La Verde mine (Michoacán), 619
lead-glazed earthenwares, 923–924
League of Mayapán, 399
Legajo 1204, 618, 619
legislation, 53, 58, 64, 69–71, 89
Leiden University, 87–88
Lempa River (El Salvador), 84, 90
Lenca speakers, 90, 91, 462, 489
León Viejo (Nicaragua), 87, 95
León y Gama, Antonio, 33
Lerma Basin (Guanajuato), 437, 527, 572
Lerma points, 133–134, 136
Leventhal, Richard, 74
Lienzo de Jicalán, copper smelting in, 621, 623
light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology, 76, 263, 553
lightning gods, 747
Lindbergh, Charles A., aerial reconnaissance, 552
lineages, 10, 239, 247, 410, 441, 782, 789, 897
and guachimontones, 500, 502
human remains and, 779–780
Mayapán, 396, 398, 399
in ranked societies, 674, 675
linguistics, 12, 88, 249, 489–490
literature, Colonial period, 881–882
lithic assemblages, 145, 286, 389
Paleo-Indian, 132, 134–135, 136
lithic toolkits, 132, 134
Litvak, Jaime, 37
Lockhart, James, 884
Locona phase, 172
logwood production, 939, 940
Loltún (Yucatán Peninsula), 269, 273, 274
Loma Alta (Zacapu Basin), 437
Loma Alta phase, 436–437
Loma Caldera (El Salvador), 94
Lomas Corral (Costa Rica) cemetery, 91
Long Count, 17, 745–746, 788–789, 850
looms, back-strap, 629–630, 645
looting, 63, 64, 86, 222, 225
(p. 964) López de Gómara, Francisco, The Conquest of Mexico, 460
Lord 4 Jaguar, 342, 343
Lord 8 Deer “Jaguar Claw,” 341, 343, 875
Lorenzo, José Luis, 36
Los Angeles (Nicaragua) cemetery, 86
Los Encuentros (Guatemala), 252
Los Grifos (Chiapas), 132, 136
Los Guachimontones (Jalisco), 501
Los Horcones (Chiapas), 425426
Los Mangales (Guatemala), 248
Los Naranjos (Honduras), 485, 486, 488
Los Reyes La Paz (Mexico), 133
Los Tapiales (Guatemala), 132, 133
Lothrop, Samuel, 86
Lower Río Verde, 231, 235, 337–338
lowlands, 7, 8, 89
dry tropical, 145–147, 156–157 See also Gulf Coast; Maya lowlands
Lubaantun (Belize), 73, 75
Lupe phase, 437
Macal River (Belize), 75
macaws, scarlet, 518
MacKie, Euan, 73
MacNeish, Richard, 142–143, 158, 567
macrobands, Archaic, 143, 144
macrobotanical analysis, 7, 9
macro-regional studies, 8, 14, 714
Macuilxóchitl (Oaxaca), 337, 339, 342
Madre Vieja complex, 202
maguey (Agave sp.), 123, 143, 546, 630, 921
maize (Zea mays), 89, 116, 117, 146, 171, 193, 201, 206, 500, 746, 766
and ceramic forms, 612–613
domestication of, 3, 7 141, 143, 144, 151–152, 153, 156, 157, 496
maize gods, 746, 747, 801
majolica, 923–924, 938
Malinalco (Mexico), 823
Malinche Hill, deities depicted on, 824–825
Mam Maya, 251, 410, 411, 412
Mamom horizon, 271
Manila trade, 896
manufacturing, 9
vs. crafting, 589–590
manufacturing areas, monumental sculptures, 87–88
Marañones (Honduras), 486
marine resources, 134, 497
maritime resources, in western Mexico, 496–497
markets, marketplaces, 9, 451, 591, 639–640, 641–643, 903, 938
domestic economy and, 643646
institutional economy, 648–650
production units, 592–593
Tarascan, 439–440
Marquesillo (Veracruz), 359
marriages, 822, 901
alliances through, 456, 529, 667
Mars, movements of, 790
Martínez rockshelter (Oaxaca), 143
Marxism, 5, 36, 37, 49–50, 89
Mascota cemetery at, 497
masculinity, expressions of, 666
masks, 275, 798, 801
Mason, George, 73
Masson, Marilyn, 397
Matacapan (Veracruz), 286, 287, 358, 611–612
Matachine Dance, 515
Matagalpa languages, 490
Matanchel Bay (Nayarit), 921
Matanchén site (Nayarit), 496
material culture, 5, 259, 355, 703
Teotihuacan-style, 261, 287
Yucatán Peninsula, 389–390
materialism, 4, 37
Matlazinca, 318, 820, 822, 824
Matlatzinco, 820
Matrícula de Tributos, 454, 655–656
Maudslay, Alfred P., 58, 61
Maya, 9, 60, 120, 124, 257, 407, 558, 629, 668, 674, 685, 777, 780, 787, 792, 796
ancestor veneration, 781–782
and archaeological sites, 107–108, 109–110
astronomy and calendrics, 324, 789–790
and Central America, 91–93
city structures, 710, 711–713
creation mythology, 742, 743–744, 745–746
and El Salvador, 91–93
ethnic identity, 65, 678
Guatemala highlands, 246–252
hieroglyphic texts, 833–835
landscape change and, 933–942
Late Classic period, 122–123, 261–263
Late Postclassic, 405–412
Long Count, 745–746, 788–789
as modern analogues, 412–413
in northern Yucatán, 385–386
public art, 811812
and southeastern fringe, 484–485
Teotihuacan influence on, 286–288, 810
world trees, 744–745
writing systems, 5, 12, 35, 64, 833–835, 845–853 See also Classic Maya; Maya lowlands; various sites
Maya Archaeological Sites Development Program (MASDP), 75
Maya Leaders Alliance, 110
Maya lowlands, 6, 76, 91, 147, 171, 249, 278, 324, 472, 572, 591, 746, 731, 777, 801
agricultural intensification, 546–547, 558
cave use, 273–274
city densities, 711–712
collapse of, 14–15, 92, 209, 328–333
(p. 965) Early Classic period, 260–261
E-Group architecture, 257–258
Late Classic period, 261–265
Late Formative period, 274–275
Late Preclassic period, 259–260, 276–277
Middle Formative, 180, 270–274
Postclassic period, 396–397
pottery decoration in, 609, 610
regal-ritual cities in, 711–713
sociopolitical complexity in, 255–265, 268–278
states in, 264–265 See also various sites
Maya Mountains, 262
Mayapán (Yucatán), 124, 390, 391, 714, 731, 743
Postclassic settlement of, 396–397
settlement structure of, 397–398
trade network, 398–399
Mayapito hill (Michoacán), mines in, 618–619
Mayo-Cahita, 921
mayordomos, and Virgen de los Remedios festival, 902–903
Mazatán region (Chiapas), 172, 173, 178, 202, 203, 204
Mazatzin Moctezuma, Gonzalo, 463, 464–465
McAnany, Patricia, Questioning Collapse, 331–332
McCafferty, Geoffrey, 87
McKillop, Heather, 72, 74
McNeish, Richard S., 36
megalithic architecture, 276
Mendoza, Antonio de, 901
merchants, 9, 454, 517, 639, 640
Cholula, 902–903
pochteca, 646–647
Merchants’ Barrio (Teotihuacan), 288, 289
Mérida (Yucatán), 939
Mesoamerica, 115
defined, 1–3, 31–32, 302
southeastern fringe of, 482–491
metallurgy; metal working, 89, 440, 503, 528, 601, 625
alloys, 622–663
cast bells, 623–624
copper smelting, 620–622
development of, 616–617
Late Classic period, 123–124
mining and, 617–619
metates, sculpted, 603–604
Metepec phase, 310, 313
Metztitlán (Hidalgo), 132, 528
Mexicanization, of Maya highlands, 407–410
Mexican Manuscript Painting of the Early Colonial Period (Robertson), 883
Mexican Revolution, 941
Mexican School of Archaeology, 47–48, 50
Mexicas, 462, 463, 664, 668, 741. See also Aztecs; Nahua speakers
Mexico, 1, 32
Central Highlands, 215–216
development of agriculture in, 151–152, 156
heritage conservation, 49–50
historical archaeology in, 917–926
national archaeology, 33, 34, 47–49, 108
Paleo-Indian sites in, 130–132, 133–134, 136–137
plant domestication in, 151–159
Pleistocene-era human remains in, 135–136
regional projects in, 36–37
rescue and salvage archaeology in, 51–52
semiarid highlands in, 142–444
Spanish conquest of, 460–466
types of archaeology in, 55–56
university educations in, 50–51, 53–54 See also various regions; sites; states
Mexico, Basin/Valley of, 36, 92, 125, 144, 217, 449, 472, 488, 553, 571, 588, 591, 609, 624, 634, 685, 754, 910, 913, 920, 921
Epiclassic in, 310–318
Pleistocene-era sites in, 130–131, 133, 134
Preclassic ceramics, 799–800
ranked societies in, 675–676
sociopolitical hierarchies in, 173, 175
spindle whorl analysis, 630–631
volcanic eruptions in, 121, 216 See also various sites
Mexico City, 51, 919, 923, 924
Mezquital Valley (Hidalgo), 920–921
mica, 289
Miccaotli phase, 220, 222, 223
Michoacán, 495
archaeology in, 435, 436–439
copper smelting in, 621, 622
El Opeño-style tombs in, 497–498
open-pit mines in, 618–619
Tarascan Empire, 434, 442
and Teotihuacan, 285, 290
microbands, Archaic period, 143–144
microbotanical analysis, 7, 9
Middle Archaic period, 7, 143, 147, 148
Middle Classic period, 92, 358
Middle Formative period, 120, 134, 179–181, 498, 745, 768, 799
in Guerrero, 118–119
Gulf Olmec, 189, 191, 745
northern Maya lowlands, 270–274
Oaxaca, 233–235
Pacific coast region, 203–206, 423–424
Middle Postclassic period, 124–125, 318, 436, 440
Middle Preclassic period, 247, 248, 327, 779, 801, 845
middle-range theory, 5, 14
migrations, 87, 286, 378, 472, 490, 521, 530
Basin of Mexico, 306, 317–318, 319
cartographies and, 870–871
Epiclassic, 120, 312
to Guatemala Highlands, 250–251
Gulf Coast, 357, 362
Maya region, 107, 256–257, 270, 409, 410
Mexican, 94–95
to New World, 129–130
Toltec, 306, 391
(p. 966) Milbrath, Susan, 397
militarism, 124, 288, 808, 820
military, 395, 641, 727
Aztec, 452, 528, 656
millet, foxtail (Setaria), 143
Millon, René, 36–37
milpa system, 496
Mimbres culture, 516, 518, 520, 522
Mi Museo (Nicaragua), 87
Minanha (Belize), 75
mining, 440, 925
metal ores, 617–619
Ministry of Culture (Nicaragua), 87
Miniyua phase, 235–36
Minizundo phase, 235
Mirador Basin (Guatemala), 328
Miraflores Lake (Guatemala), 247, 248
mirrors, 175, 395, 518
Misantla (Veracruz), 192
missionaries, Catholic, 896
Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR), 580
Mitla (Oaxaca), 337, 338, 340, 341, 343
Mixco Viejo (Guatemala), 64, 407, 410
Mixe, 231
Mixe-Zoquean language, 834, 835, 836
Mixe-Zoque region, 123, 257
Mixteca Alta, 110, 175, 231, 340, 529, 714, 730, 780, 898, 899, 900
ceramic chronology, 337–338
Classic period, 239–240
social ranking in, 233–234
urbanization, 235, 236, 237
Mixteca Baja, 859, 899
Mixteca-Puebla polychromes, 94, 96
Mixteca-Puebla style/system, 344, 360, 390, 503, 517, 521, 609, 629, 870
Mixtecs (Veracruz), 94, 125, 231, 240, 462, 624, 632, 685, 743, 898
and Aztec Empire, 527, 528, 529
pictorial books, 869, 870, 873874, 875
Postclassic period, 337, 338
Mixtequilla (Veracruz), 355, 530–531, 631
Mixtlán phase, 437
model villages (Guatemala), resettlement in, 107
modes of production, Marxist approach to, 37
Modified Florescent Style (Chichén Itzá), 392, 394
Mogollon tradition, 516
Moho Cay (Belize), copper processing, 618
Mokaya tradition, 117, 799
molcajetes, 611, 612, 613
Montana (Guatemala), 287
Monte Albán (Oaxaca), 37, 48, 231, 283, 288, 289, 343, 686, 714, 715, 727, 728, 730, 753, 772, 780, 801
decline of, 123, 240, 335
founding and growth of, 236–237
Middle to Late Formative period in, 119–121
Mound J conquest slabs, 831832, 833
public monuments at, 812–813
spinning and weaving gear at, 634, 665
Teotihuacan and, 285–286, 810, 811
Zapotec civilization and, 238–239
Monte Albán Chico (Oaxaca), 238
Monte Alto (Chiapas), 204, 210, 423–424
Monte Negro (Oaxaca), 236, 714
monumental architecture/precincts, 49, 90, 93, 118, 121
Classic period art and, 807, 808–814
in El Salvador, 91, 94
Tenochtitlan, 819–821
Teotihuacan, 217–226
Tula, 374, 375, 376
monumental art
Middle Formative, 205, 206
Tenochtitlan, 819–821 See also sculpture
monuments, 90, 604, 667, 789, 862
Guatemala highlands, 247, 248
Maya carved stone, 262, 845–846
in Oaxaca, 344345, 812–813
Olmec, 800, 830–831
Moon Pyramid (Teotihuacan), 217, 218, 219, 220, 223, 225, 288
Moore, Allan, 72, 75
Mopan, 109
Morelos, 175, 314, 631, 797, 800, 822, 919. See also various sites
Morley, Sylvanius G., 60, 391
Moroney, Bosco, 87
Morris, John, 72
mortality, concepts of, 777–778
mortuary practices, 767–768, 776, 782
human remains and, 779–781
landscape and, 778–779
mortality in, 777–778
western Mexico, 497–498, 503
Motagua River (Guatemala), 245
Motecuhzoma I, 822, 825
Motecuhzoma II, 825
Mother Culture, 178
multidisciplinary research, 9, 34, 48
multiethnicity, in Teotihuacan, 218
mummy bundles, 780
murals, 629, 813
Maya, 122, 408, 742, 798, 812
Teotihuacan, 809–810
at Zacuala, 861863
Museo del Oro (Costa Rica), 89
Museo Nacional de Antropología (El Salvador), 85
museums, in Nicaragua, 86, 87
musical instruments, 614, 768
(p. 967) mythology, 285, 410, 741, 820
creation, 742–748
elite founding, 341–342
Naachtun, sacred landscape of, 757–759
Naco Valley (Honduras), 485, 486, 487, 488–489, 490, 592
naguales, 766
Naharon (Quintana Roo), 136
Nahuapa (Jalisco), 503
Nahua (Nawa) speakers, 95, 342, 360, 421, 674, 904
and Aztec Empire, 530, 821–822
in Central America, 93–94, 489, 490
pictorial books, 869, 870–871
population movements, 355, 503
Nahuatlization, 407
Nakbé (Guatemala), 120, 180, 259, 283
Nakum (Guatemala), 63
Nanahuatzin, 742, 743, 747
Naranjo (Guatemala), 180, 247, 260, 264, 846
narrative frameworks, of sacred places, 755–759
national archaeology programs, 4, 6, 33, 34, 47–48, 75
National Historical Academy (El Salvador), 85
National Indigenous Council of the Maya-Ch'orti’ of Honduras (CONIMCHH), 109
National Institute of Anthropology and History (Mexico). See Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Historia
National Institute of Culture and History (NICH) (Belize), 72, 75
National Institute of Culture and History Act (Belize), 72
nationalism, Mexican, 48–49
nationalist archaeology, 55, 58, 86–87, 108
National Museum (Costa Rica), 88
National Museum (Guatemala), 58, 61
National Museum (Mexico), 47
National Museum (Nicaragua), 87
National Museum of Anthropology (Costa Rica), 83
National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (Guatemala), 63
National School of Anthropology, 35
National University (El Salvador), 85
National University (Mexico), 47
Navajas (Jalisco), guachimontones at, 499
Navarrete, Carlos, 422
Nawa-speakers. See Nahua speakers
Nayarit, 495, 518, 921
figurines form, 613–614
shell mounds in, 496–497
neighborhoods. See barrios
neoevolutionism, 4, 32, 36, 37
Netherlands, in Nicaraguan archaeology, 87–88
networks, 8, 14, 476–78. See also exchange networks
networks of interaction, 10–11
neutron activation analysis (NAA), 177, 580–81
New Archaeology, 88
New Empire, 325
New Fire ceremonies, 788
New Galicia, conquest of, 463
Nicaragua, 1, 83–84, 90, 93, 96, 117, 482, 490, 633, 634
archaeology in, 85–88
Postclassic in, 94, 95 See also various sites
Nicaragua, Lake, 85, 95
Nicarao (Nicaragua), 490
Nicayuju (Oaxaca), 337, 340, 686
Nicoya polychromes, 96
Nicoya region (Costa Rica), 94, 482, 485
Niederberger, Christine, 568
Nimli (Belize), 75
noble houses, 686–687, 896
nobles, 10, 237, 239, 287, 329, 441, 674, 905
Aztec Empire, 455–456
in colonial Cholula, 902–903
Lambityeco, 338–339
at Mayapán, 396, 398
residences, 686–687, 688
Nochixtlán Valley (Oaxaca), 173, 175, 231, 337, 340, 899
Nohoch Ek (Belize), 73
Nohpát (Yucatán), 387
Nohpetén (Guatemala), 935, 937
northern highlands (Guatemala), Prehispanic settlement, 247–248, 249–250
Northwestern Frontier, 123
notational systems, 12, 122
Nuevo Corinto (Costa Rica), 89
Nuevo Leon, 133
ñuiñe script, 856, 859–860, 864
numbers, in highland scribal traditions, 856–860
Oaxaca, 14, 121, 158, 175, 230–231, 462, 472, 593, 611, 613, 624, 701, 780, 921, 923
alliances in, 899–900
Aztec Empire, 527, 528–529, 825
cacicazgos in, 899–902, 903
Paleo-Indian sites in, 132, 133–134, 135
Postclassic period, 335–345
public monuments, 812–813
scribal traditions in, 855–856, 859
and Spanish conquest, 463, 464
Oaxacans, in Teotihuacan, 677–678
(p. 968) Oaxaca Valley, 16, 125, 147, 171, 175, 231, 529, 624, 730, 899
agricultural intensification in, 545–546
Archaic sites in, 143–144
Flannery in, 37, 567
Monte Albán and, 119–120
Postclassic period in, 337, 338
ranked society in, 232–233, 234
ritual in, 766, 780
sociopolitical hierarchies, 173, 175
urbanization, 235, 236–238 See also various sites
obsidian, 18, 90, 191, 251, 340, 355, 362, 377, 379, 389, 425, 437, 582, 600, 920
Aztec Empire trade, 528, 531
in Mayan offerings, 286, 287, 288
Pátzcuaro Basin, 438, 440
trade in, 284, 289, 362
western Mexican trade in, 500, 504
Zinapécuaro-Ucareo network, 318, 395
obsidian blades, 175, 601, 602
Ocelocalo (El Salvador), 938
Oceloapan (Veracruz), 361
Oconahua (Jalisco), 503
offerings, 286, 287, 451, 471, 767
household, 691–692
at Teotihuacan, 222–223, 224, 747–748
Office of Cultural Patrimony (Nicaragua), 87
Ojo de Agua (Chiapas), 175, 179, 202, 251–252
Olancho (Honduras), 487
Olman (Olmec heartland) 179, 189, 799
Gulf Olmec in, 190–192, 193
sociopolitical structure in, 173–175
Olmeca-Xicalanca, 189, 864–865
Olmec babies, 767767
Olmec culture, 14, 118, 178, 179, 194, 216, 273, 634, 667, 742, 744, 745, 801, 797
in Honduras, 485–486
incised celts, 838–840
iconography, 12, 119, 838
influence in Central America, 90–91
maize gods, 746–747
and Pacific Coast, 420, 421, 428
ritually focused art, 768770, 771772
social structure, 119, 173–175
writing, 830–831, 835, 837–838 See also Gulf Olmec; Olman
Olmec Dragon, 768, 769, 770
Olmec Problem, 178
Olmec style
diffusion of, 799–800
ritual art, 768770, 771
Ometepe Island (Nicaragua), 86, 95
O'odham, feathered serpent legends, 514
oracular centers, in Oaxaca, 340
Orange Walk (Belize), 74
Orange Ware (Gulf Coast), 317
Origenes (database), 89
ornamentation, 95, 616, 730
Osario Group (Chichén Itzá), 392, 393
Osorio, Pedro, 901
Oto-Manguean (Otomanguean) speakers, 93–94, 95, 231, 490
Otomí, 315, 360, 462
Aztec influences on, 821–822
historical archaeology, 919–920
Spanish colonialism and, 920–921
Otumba, 463, 635, 920, 921
Oxkintok (Yucatán), 276, 277, 387
Oxlaju Aj'pop, 110
Oxtotipac phase, 312, 317, 319
Oztoma (Guerrero), 527, 528
Pacbitun (Belize), 75
Pachuca green obsidian, 395, 425, 582
Pacific coast, 64, 89, 117, 120, 123, 146, 171, 337
Early Formative, 202–203
Formative period, 200–201, 422–424
Late Formative period, 206–209
Middle Formative, 203–206
Nicaragua, 87, 90
palaces, 9, 237, 260, 275, 339, 688
Palacio, Joseph, 71
palacio phase, 379
Palenque (Chiapas), 57, 58, 260, 327, 329, 613, 743–744
paleoclimatic models, 6, 502
paleoecology, 130, 156
paleoenvironmental research, 35, 36, 248–249, 568
Paleo-Indian period, 13, 89
early sites, 130–132
expedient technology used, 134–135
fluted-point hunters, 132–133
Lerma and leaf-shaped point hunters, 133–134
migration models, 129–130
Yucatán Peninsula, 269–270
palmas, 348, 354, 814
Pame, 360
Panama, 88, 89, 132, 133, 160
panels, Maya sculpted, 122
pan-Maya movements, 941
Papagayo (Costa Rica), 96
Papaloapan Basin, 189, 529, 715
population density in, 711712
Paraíso Valley (El Salvador), 485, 488
Paredes, Federico, 85
Paris Codex, 846
zodiac in, 789, 790
particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), 581–582
Paso de la Amada (Chiapas), 117, 172, 175, 202–203, 666
Paso del Macho (Puuc region), 272
patios, residences centered on, 685, 690
Patlachique phase, 219, 220
(p. 969) patriotism, Guatemalan archaeology as, 56–57
patrons, 86
patron-client relationships, 687
Pátzcuaro Basin (Michoacán), 290, 624, 914
archaeology of, 436, 437–438
environmental deterioration of, 920, 921
Tarascan state in, 439–442
Pavón, Oscar, 87
Paxil (Veracruz), 361
Paya speakers, 490
Paz, Río, 90
Peabody Museum of Archaeology, 60
Peace Agreement (Guatemala), 64–65
Pech speakers, 490
Pendergast, David, 71, 72, 73, 74
Peraza Lope, Carlos, 397
performance, of pictorial books, 875–876
performance stages, in northern Maya lowlands, 273
Peru, 160, 617, 621
Petén (Guatemala), 62, 120, 180, 256, 259, 591, 934, 938, 941
Petexbatún (Guatemala) region, 328, 329. See also Petén
petroglyphs, 205, 408, 797, 822, 823824
cross-circle, 791–792
Phillips, Phillip, 36
Pico de Orizaba, 191, 362
Piedra de Ayarza (Guatemala), 408
Piedra del Sol, 33
Piedra Pinta (Totomixtlahuaca), 797
Piedras Negras (Guatemala), 261, 327, 329
pilgrimage centers, 904–905
Cholula as, 123, 902–903
Pinturas Sub-1 (San Bartolo), murals at, 742, 744, 746–747
Pipil-Nicarao migrations, 94, 378
Pipil-speakers, 489
Pivot of the Four Quarters (Wheatley), 753
place, 8, 797
genealogy of, 778–779
sacred, 752–760
planets, movements of, 789–790
plants, 135, 154–155(table), 216
Archaic use of, 74, 143, 144
domestication of, 141, 151–152, 495–496, 766
Spanish-introduced, 7, 935, 938
platform-mounds, Salado, 521
platforms, 205, 486, 503, 668, 807
Early Formative, 173, 175
E Groups and, 258–259
Maya, 257, 273
Playa de los Muertos (Honduras), 485
Playa de Tesoro (Colima), 502
plazas, 121, 205, 238–239, 257
Pleiades, 791
Pleistocene
forager economies, 9, 134–135
hunters, 129–134
Plumbate pottery, 610
from Pacific Coast, 426–427
Pochteca, 454, 646–647
and institutional activities, 648–649
Pocomames, 251
Pohl, Mary, 74
Pokoman, 410, 411
pole-climbing ritual, and guachimontones, 500
political economy, 5, 9, 17
women's roles in, 664–665
political organization, Classic Maya records, 729–730
political theater, at Chichén Itzá, 396
politics, 8, 12, 33, 193, 209
and Guatemalan archaeology, 60, 61–62, 64–65
indigenous rights and, 108–110
northern Yucatán, 387–390
polities, 10, 442, 701, 710, 731–732
centralization of, 303–304
Classic Maya, 326, 328–329
hierarchical, 13, 727
Maya highlands, 410, 411–412
Pacific Coast Olmec, 423–424
Postclassic peer, 897, 898–899
revenues of, 728–729
Teotihuacan, 305–306
Pollock, H. E. D., 397
Pomona (Belize), 73
Ponce, Alonso, 422
Popenoe de Hatch, Marion, 62
Popocatepetl, 217
Popoluca, 462
Popol Vuh, 194, 407, 742, 746, 753, 757
population, 14
and agricultural intensification, 541–542, 544
pre-contact, 909–911
Spanish conquest and, 15, 908–909, 937
population movements, 6–7, 503, 568. See also colonization; migrations
porcelains, Chinese, 923
Postclassic period, 8, 11, 13, 17, 240, 530, 666, 676, 678, 714, 846, 897
Central America, 93–94
development, 124–126
economies, 9–10
Gulf Coast, 348, 350, 359–363
Guatemala Highlands, 250–251, 252
maguey farming, 123, 546
Oaxaca, 335–345
peer polities of, 898–899
ritual spaces, 772–773
Veracruz, 361–362
western Mexico, 503–504
Yucatán, 396–397
Postcolonial period, 13
postcolonial theory, 475
(p. 970) post-Monte Albán script, 856
postprocessualism, 13, 89
potbellies, 90, 210, 425
pottery. See ceramics
Poxilá (Quintana Roo), 271, 272, 394
Preclassic period, 11, 12, 17
art in, 795–801
Initial Formative period, 116–117 See also Formative period
pre-Clovis sites, 130–131, 136
pre-proto-Zoquean, 833
preservation projects, 75
prestige goods, 206, 288–289, 474, 808
prestige goods theory (PGT), 473, 474–475
priests, 765, 773
as elite class, 514–515
specialized, 12, 766–767, 772
primate center, Monte Albán as, 121
Principal Bird Deity, 746, 757
Problem-oriented period, in Belizean archaeology, 72, 73
processual archaeology, 5, 36, 37, 38
processualism, 5, 13, 472
production centers, 89, 591–592
production systems, 588
ceramics, 608–609
context in, 590–591
crafting v. manufacturing, 589–590
domestic economies and, 643–648
geographic organization, 591–592
intensity, 593–594
scale and, 592–593
production units, scale of, 592–593
professional archaeology, 32, 33, 55–56, 62–63
projectile points, Paleo-Indian, 132–134, 136–137
Protoclassic period, 357
Protohistoric period, 250, 407
proto-Mixe-Zoquean, 833
proto-Zoquean, 833
pseudo-cloisonné technique, 517–518
public architecture, 237, 250, 285, 398, 437, 486, 488, 503
Central Classic Veracruz, 355–356
Chichén Itzá, 393–394
Early Formative, 175, 202, 233
E-Group, 257–259
Gulf Coast/lowlands, 358–359
Middle Formative, 179, 181, 206, 234
Monte Albán, 119–120
northern Maya lowlands, 271, 272–273
Teotihuacan, 217–220 , 181
Yucatán, 388–389
Puebla, 38, 94, 217, 463, 822, 923
historical archaeology in, 919, 921
Tehuacán Valley sites, 142–143, 158
Puebla (city), 903
Puebla-Tlaxcala Project, 37
Puebla-Tlaxcala region, 286, 313–314
Pueblos (U.S.), 514, 519, 520, 521–522
Puerto Escondido, 485
Puleston, Dennis, 74
Pulque God temple (Tepoztlan), 822
Punit (Belize), 75
Pure Florescent style (Chichén Itzá), 391, 393
Purépecha culture, 434, 442
archaeology of, 436–438
documents in, 435–436
Purron (Tehuacán Valley), 143
Puuc, 124, 272, 386, 792
architecture, 387, 388, 393, 396
Puuc Hills, 386, 387
pyramidal mounds, 181
Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent (Teotihuacan), 781
Pyramid of the Moon (Teotihuacan), 781, 808
Pyramid of the Sun (Teotihuacan), 753, 754, 808
pyramids, 94, 121, 217, 218, 219, 356, 376, 441
Q-152 (Mayapán), 398
Quauhtochco (Veracruz), 530
quarrying, 546, 547, 601
quartz crystals, 601
queches, 340
Quelepa (El Salvador), 84, 92, 425, 485, 486, 487–88
Querétaro, 132, 503
Questioning Collapse (McAnany and Yoffee), 331–32
Quetzalcoatl, 391, 517, 824, 825
creation myth, 742, 744
US Southwest/Northwest Mexico, 514, 515, 519–520, 521
Quetzalcoatl cult, 123, 342, 514, 517, 521, 714
Quiahuistlan (Veracruz), 361
Quiché (Guatemala), 247, 248
Quiché (K'iche') Maya, 60, 251, 427, 777, 897
creation myths of, 742, 746
Late Postclassic period, 410, 412
Spanish conquest of, 407, 411
Quilisimate Lagoon (Guatemala), 248
Quintana Roo, 109, 145, 271, 274–275
Quiotepec (Oaxaca), 239
Quirigua (Guatemala), 58, 60, 61
radiocarbon dates, 17, 18, 135, 156, 220, 273, 397
raiding, by Monte Albán, 237
rain, 514
rain gods, 747–748, 801
raised field systems, 74, 543, 558
in central highland Mexico, 216, 544–555
in Maya lowlands, 546, 547
in Tequila valleys, 500, 501
Ramírez, Claudia, 85
ranchos, 921, 940
ranking, hereditary, 14, 260
ranked societies, 170, 674–676
Central Classic Veracruz, 355–357
in Oaxaca, 232–235
(p. 971) rattles, turtle-shell, 768
readings, readers, of pictorial books, 874–876
Realm of the Dead, 765–766
reconstruction projects, 37, 49
records
Classic Maya, 729–730
on religion, 741–742
reducciones, 107
reeds, and Tollan, 342
refugees, indigenous, 107
regeneration, 301–2
regional centers, 175, 202, 203, 205, 234, 240
regional studies, 36–37, 51, 64, 84
Relación de Michoacán (RM), 436, 441, 621, 623
Relaciones Geográficas, 526–527, 647
religion, 6, 178, 340, 361, 741, 940
cosmology, 764–765
Katsina, 514, 522
priests and, 766–767
shamanism and, 765–766
state, 11, 12
US Southwest/Northwest Mexico, 519–520
Remojadas culture, 354
remote sensing, 7–8
Republican period, in Maya region, 939–941
rescue archaeology, 51–52, 64, 87, 918
reservoirs/tanks, Maya lowlands, 546, 547
resettlement, 934, 937
residences, 677, 686, 809
craft production, 688–690
elite, 118, 202, 393
residential areas, at Tikal, 62, 287. See also apartment complexes; barrios
residential mobility, 171
resilience, of communities, 701–702
resilience and complexity theory, 7, 304–305, 570, 574
resistance
Maya, 109, 934–942
to Spanish colonialism, 920–921
resources, 440
Aztec Empire, 529–530
marketplace conversion of, 642–643
for prestige goods, 646–647
wild, 117, 216
restoration projects, 49, 62, 63
revenues, 728–729. See also taxation; tribute
revitalization movements, 940
Riachuelo ceramic complex, 205
Ricketson, Oliver, 73, 552
Río Blanco (Guatemala), 248
Río Claro (Honduras), 488
Río Pelo (Honduras), 486
Río Pesquero (Tabasco), 840
Río Verde River valley (Oaxaca), 231, 235
Río Viejo (Oaxaca), 235, 236, 239, 240, 337
Postclassic period, 338, 339–340, 341
ritual bundles, 769–771
ritual centers. See ceremonial centers
ritual cycles, 790
ritual deposits, 257. See also caches; offerings
rituals, 238, 259, 497, 500, 514, 688, 798
ceramics, 768769
city level, 709–713
dedication and termination, 11–12
domestic, 690–692
Formative period, 771–772
human remains used in, 779–781
mortuary, 767–768
sacred bundles, 769–771
in sacred places, 752, 755
shamanistic, 765–766
stages, 772–773
ritual specialists, 11, 107–108, 766–767
Rivas region (Nicaragua), 93
Riverton site (Illinois), 160
Roaring Creek (Belize), 75
Robertson, Donald, 883
rock alignments, 144, 56061
rock art, 408, 797, 822, 823824
cross-circle, 791–792
rockshelters, 135, 797
Archaic sites in, 141, 143–44, 145, 156
Roman Empire, 302–3
Romero's cave (Tamaulipas), 158
Rosario phase, 234, 831
Rosenswig, Rob, 89
royalty, 821–822, 859, 898
Royal Ontario Museum (ROM), 73
rulers; rulership, 118, 119, 208, 225, 340, 343, 387, 396, 675, 688, 709, 765, 722, 800
Aztec Empire, 821–822
Maya, 260, 287, 326
recognition of, 730–731
rural-urban interactions, 713–714
Sacatepéquez (Guatemala), 248, 250
Sacaton Phase, 518
sacbeob. See causeways
sacred places, 236, 752
archaeological sites as, 65, 107–108
defining, 753–754
narrative structure of, 755–759
sacred bundles, 769–770
Olmec, 771772
sacred precincts, 8, 451
sacrifices, 234, 237, 441, 514, 517, 741, 743, 744, 768, 776, 788, 820, 821
curation and display of, 780–781
Teotihuacan, 218, 223, 224–225, 288
Sahagún, Bernardo de, 764
Sakajut (Guatemala), 248
Salado tradition, 519, 521
Salamá Valley (Guatemala), 248, 249
Salgado, Silvia, 89
Salitrón Viejo (Honduras), 486
(p. 972) salt production and trade, 275, 338, 339, 390, 395, 503
salvage archaeology, 7, 51, 52, 63, 64, 90, 918, 919–920
Samalá Valley (Guatemala), 409
San Andrés (El Salvador), 84, 486, 488
San Antonio Frutal (Guatemala), 250
San Bartolo (Guatemala), 742, 744, 746–747, 798, 835, 845
San Blas (Nayarit), 921
Sanders, William, 36
San Estevan (Belize), 73, 147
San Fernando Aké (Yucatán), 940
San Francisco de Arriba (Oaxaca), 235
San Francisco de Paula (Yucatán), 940
San Francisco museum (Nicaragua), 87
San Gabriel de Cholula (Puebla), 902, 903
San Isídro (Chiapas plateau), 119
San Jose (Belize), 73
San José Mogote (Oaxaca), 173, 180, 236, 238, 666, 781, 831
as ranked center, 234–235
sociopolitical complexity, 175, 233
San Juan/La Antigua river basin, 56263
San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan (Veracruz), 118, 119, 177, 178, 179, 189, 191, 193, 701, 799, 800
Cascajal Block from, 771772
Pacific coast interaction with, 203, 422
sociopolitical complexity at, 173–175, 232
San Luis Potosí (Mexico), 130, 358, 378
San Marcos cave (Puebla), 158
San Martín Pajapan (Veracruz), 192
San Martín Tilcajete (Oaxaca), 234
San Miguel Acocotla (Puebla) hacienda, 903–904, 921
San Miguel Amuco (Guerrero), 831
San Pedro y San Pablo Teposcolula, Convento of (Oaxaca), 901
Santa Cruz de Báracenas (Jalisco), 503
Santa Cruz Phase (Hohokam), 518
Santa Elena (Veracruz), 559, 560
Santa Elena, Valle de (Yucatán), 387
Santa Inés site (Hidalgo), 919920
Santa Isabel (Nicaragua), 87, 95, 630, 635
Santa Izabel Iztapan (Mexico), 134
Santa Leticia (El Salvador), 425
Santa María Asunción (Mexico), 675
Santa Marta Cave (Chiapas), 133, 135, 145, 146
Santa Rita (Belize), 75
Santa Rita Corozal (Belize), 260
Santa Rosa (Guatemala), 424
Santa Rosa Xtampak, 273
Santo Domingo (Oaxaca), Convento de, 901–902
Saquitacaj-Chibalo (Guatemala), 250
Sayre, Edward, 580
Sayula Basin (Jalisco), 622
scale-free networks, 284, 285
Schmidt, Peter, 393
scientific archaeology, 87
Schmidt, Peter, 71
screen-fold books, 122. See also codices
scribal traditions, 12–13, 852
calendar indexes, 856–860
dynastic successions, 863–865
emulation of, 865–866
Oaxacan, 855–856
Teotihuacan, 860–863
sculptures, 58, 250, 360, 375, 667, 810, 814
Aztec imperial, 825–826
Classic Central Veracruz, 348, 354
Gulf Olmec, 190, 192
at Lake Nicaragua, 85, 86
Late Formative, 208, 210
manufacturing areas, 87–88
Middle Formative, 205, 206, 207
Olmec, 90, 118, 173174, 190, 799
Olmec-style, 179, 180, 203, 206
potbelly, 90, 210, 425
and sacred landscapes, 756757
Takalik Abaj, 205, 207
Tenochtitlan, 820–821
volute styles, 354, 355, 357
seasonal mobility, Archaic, 142–143
sedentism, 116, 118, 171, 202, 797–798
Seibal (Guatemala), 257
Seler, Eduard, 34, 47
Semetabaj (Guatemala), 251
serpents, 118, 123, 743. See also feathered serpent
settlement archaeology, 36
settlement hierarchies, 202, 486
Classic Central Veracruz, 355–357, 359
Late Postclassic Maya highlands, 411–412
settlement-pattern research, 7, 8, 39, 62
settlement patterns, 193
Late Postclassic Maya, 411–412
sex, sexuality, 10, 663–664, 666, 667
Shafer, Harry, 74
shaft tombs, 121, 498, 499, 502, 503
shamanism, 765–766, 767
shell, marine, 175, 288, 289, 516, 593
shell fish, Archaic use of, 146
shell mounds, 146, 201–202, 496–497
shell workshops, western Mexico, 502
Shibata, Shione, 85
Shook Altar, 207
shrines, 12, 781–782, 823, 940
Sierra de las Navajas (Hidalgo), 920
Sierra Madre de Chiapas, 409, 412
Sierra Madre (Chiapas and Guatemala), 406, 421–422
Sierra Nahuat, 747
Sierra Popoluca, 530
Sinaloa, 496–497, 517, 921
Sinaloa de Leiva (Sinaloa), 921
siqui, 685
Site Q, 261
sky events, 791
sky-sustaining posts, 744
(p. 973) slash-and-burn farming, 7, 146, 147, 148, 156, 160
smallpox, 912
smelting
alloys, 622–623
copper, 620–622
Smithsonian Institution, 85
snake emblem, 261
Snake Mountain, 759
Snaketown (Arizona), 518
Snarskis, Michael J., 88, 91
social archaeology, 5, 37, 64
social hierarchies, 10, 13–14, 117, 441, 937, 940
Formative period, 172, 181, 202
social inequalities, 172, 202, 232–233, 674, 701
social mobility
commoners, 675–676
pochteca, 646–647
social networks, 8, 476–77
social organization, 249, 703, 897
complexification of, 169–170
Colonial mayordomos, 902–903
household, 685–687
social stratification, 10, 202, 225, 240, 441, 668, 673
class and, 674–676
and corporate groups, 676–677
Oaxaca, 237–238
origins of, 232–233
sociopolitical complexity
northern Maya lowlands, 268–278
in southern Maya lowlands, 255–265
western Mexico, 498, 500
Soconusco region (Chiapas), 18, 156, 171, 173, 175, 179, 378, 421, 427, 527, 796, 798, 910, 919, 937, 939
Olmec interactions with, 178, 422–424
Sola de Vega (Oaxaca), 237
Solano (Guatemala), 250
solares, 685
solstice marking, 792
Sonora, 132, 518
Sotuta (Yucatán), 396
Sotuta ceramic complex, 391, 393, 394–395, 397
sourcing studies, 9, 579
ICP-MS, 582–583
INAA, 580–581
research considerations, 583–584
XRF and PIXE, 581–582
South America, 117, 617
Southern City-State Culture, 207, 209–210
Southern Methodist University, 74
Southern Pacific Coastal Region (SPCR), 419, 428
Late Formative period, 424–425
Olmec archaeology on, 422–424
Plumbate pottery from, 426–427
Teotihuacan horizon, 425–426
travel routes along, 421–422
Southwestern Postclassic international style, 408
Southwest US/Northwest Mexico
iconography and cosmology, 513–514, 519–522
social relations with, 515–19
Spain, 63, 125–126
Spanish conquest, 15, 33, 911
Aztec Empire, 457–458
depopulations after, 908–909
historical descriptions of, 460–461
indigenous participation in, 461–466
Maya highlands, 407, 411
Spanish colonial era, 7, 11, 107
ecological changes, 935–936
kingdoms during, 895–896
taxation and tribute, 936–937
Spanish Crown, official documents, 881
spindle whorls, 628, 630–631, 664
symbolism of, 632, 634635
spinning, symbology of, 632–34
springs, 767, 823824
squash (Cucurbita sp.), 766
Archaic period, 143, 144, 146, 147–148
domestication of, 141, 152, 153, 156, 158, 496
Squier, Ephraim, 85
stable isotope analysis, of human remains, 287, 289, 290
stages, ritual, 772–773
Stann Creek District (Belize), 74
state(s), 7, 15, 114, 124, 204, 247, 277, 305, 731–732
and agricultural intensification, 545–546
And archaeological research, 6, 48–49, 58, 108
Classic Maya, 264–265, 727–728
defining, 716–727
formation of, 1, 14
Late Formative, 207–208
life cycles of, 10–11
Oaxaca, 237, 239, 730
Tarascan, 439–442
state architecture, at Monte Albán, 237, 238
statuary traditions, 90
statues, Lake Nicaragua, 86
stela-altar cult, Maya lowlands, 260
stelae, 58, 120, 205, 277, 426
Late Formative, 208, 424
Maya, 262, 834
Olmec, 338, 831
as public art, 811–812
and sacred landscapes, 756757
Stephens, John L., 58
Steward, Julian, 36
stone, carved, 120, 798. See also monuments; stelae
Stone, Doris, 96
Stone of Tizoc. See Tizoc Stone
stone-working technologies, 599
chipped, 601–603
ground, 603–604
material selection, 600–601
polished and burned, 604–605
(p. 974) strategic centers, Tequila valleys, 500
stratigraphy, 34, 35
at Uaxactun, 60–61
strikes, indigenous activism, 109
stucco, production of, 605
stucco masks, 275, 798
subsistence, 17, 216, 497
Gulf Olmec, 193–194
La Blanca, 205–206
Tikal, 16, 62
Tula, 377–378
Subtiaba, 490
Sumu, 489
Sun Pyramid (Teotihuacan), 217, 218, 287
construction of, 220, 221–222
offerings, 222223
suns, in creation myths, 742743
supernaturals, sculpture depicting, 208
surveys, 7, 74, 84, 87, 175
sustainable management, 76
Swasey (Belize), 256
sweat baths, 118
symbolism, 12, 116, 824
Early Horizon style, 176–178
Olmec, 768–769
rain, 747–748
textile production, 632–635
systemic-processual archaeology, 37
Tabasco, 190, 348, 359, 462
tabletop monuments, Olmec style, 800
Tajín culture, 354, 361 (See also El Tajín)
Takalik Abaj (Tak'alik Ab'aj) (formerly Abaj Takalik) (Guatemala), 64, 210, 834
as city-state, 207–208
Late Formative period, 209, 424, 425
Middle Formative, 180, 204, 205, 423
Taltic (Guatemala), 250
Talud-tablero architecture, 277, 285, 286–287, 807, 814
Tamaulipas, 36, 133, 158, 348
Tanquil phase, 358
Tantuan II-III, 357
Tarascans, 462, 620, 921
Tarascan State/Empire, 15, 125, 504, 543, 624, 642, 728
archaeology and ethnohistory of, 435–436
and Aztec Empire, 527–528
exchange networks, 439–440
organization of, 440–441
political structure of, 441–442
Purépecha culture and, 434–435, 436–438
Tasajillo (Jalisco), 622
taxation, 9, 641, 653–654, 939
Aztec Empire, 454455, 729
Spanish, 912, 936
Tayata (Oaxaca), 233–234, 236
Tazumal group (El Salvador), 84, 90, 486, 488
technologies, 542
Spanish-introduced, 7, 543–544, 935, 936
stone, 599–600
tecomates, 90, 613
Tecorral (Puebla), 143
Tecuciztecatl, 742
Teenek speakers, 360
Tehuacán Valley (Puebla), 36, 142–143, 157, 158, 159, 171, 567, 630
Tehuantepec, Isthmus of, 117, 118–119, 124, 462, 464, 833, 921
Temple of the Big Tables (Chichén Itzá), 393
Temple of Heaven (Tilantongo), 341, 342
Temple of the Warriors (Chichén Itzá), 392
temples, 9, 498, 766–767, 823
Monte Albán-style, 237, 238
Templo Mayor, 629, 656, 754, 820, 821
Tenampúa (Honduras), 488
Tenam Rosario (Guatemala), 252
Tenochca dynasty, 821, 822
Tenochtitlan (Mexico), 8, 15, 215, 342, 344, 380,