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date: 16 October 2019

(p. 501) Index

(p. 501) Index

Ability to learn, 476–77
Academic achievement, 374
Academic program/school
Leadership Advantage, 126
Leadership Studies Minor, 126
Accelerating change, 452
Acculturation and acculturative stress, 403–5
Acculturation strategies, 409
Acculturative stress, 407
facets of, 405
Action, capacity for, 76
Action learning, 159, 498
Active processing, 265
Activists, 237
Adaptability, 453–54
Adaptation, 411–15
Adaptive learners, 3–4
Adaptive learning, 8, 15, 366
“Adaptive progressive” sentiment, 15
Adaptive Style Inventory (ASI), 76
ADDIE Model, 157–58, 201
Adolescent polling, 139
Adopting lifelong learning, reasons for, 14
Adult contextual learning, 276–77
Adult development and ELT, 77–79
Adult education, 5
Adult education, in Russia, 345
after 1991, 348
compensatory aspect, 351–52
concept of lifelong learning, 348–49
curriculum, 349–51
economic factors affecting, 347
education and vocational training issues, 354
future of, 354–55
globalized economy, education for work in, 353
history of, 347
lifelong learning policy imperatives from West, 346–47
new initiatives in, 351
new policy documents on, 349
policy issues in, 345–46
as social and pedagogical rehabilitation, 352–53
Adult Education Act (1966), 30
Adult education and psychology, 31
Adult education models, 34
andragogy and self-directed learning, 34–35
experience and education, 36
experiential learning, 35–36
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, 37–38
transformative learning theory, 36–37
Adult learning, emerging conceptualizations of, 450
adaptability, 453–54
adult learning, principles of, 466
attitudes and values, 465
blended approach, 460
competency-based learning, 451–52
continuous learning, 465–66
critical social thinking skills, 454
demographics, 461–62
design, 466
economics, 462–63
embodied conversational agents, 458
formal mentoring programs, 458
formal methods, 455
informal and incidental methods, 459
informal mentoring programs, 459
in situ simulations, 457
intercultural competence, 454
just-in-time (JIT) information retrieval systems, 457–58
legal and regulatory issues, 463–64
methods, 455
new directions, need for, 460
new technology and software, 452–53
self-directed learning, 459–60
shared leadership, 454–55
situational factors, 467
technological advancements, 464–65
technology-enhanced training, 455
traditional training strategies, 455
trainee characteristics, 466–67
Adventure learning, 159
recent applications for, 245–46
Adventure training and novel events, 175
Advisory board, identifying, 242
Agenda, 96
American Association for Retired Persons, 135
American Institute of Certified Public Accounts (AICPA), 196
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 424
Analysis, in ADDIE model, 158
Andragogy, 34–35
Annual leadership conference, 127
Appraisal programs, 64
Appraisal. See Performance appraisal
Apprenticeship, 151, 317–18
Artificial experience approach, 156
Assertiveness, 297
Assessing learning needs, 441
evaluation, 446–48
evaluation, purpose of, 445–46
job/task analysis, 443–44
needs assessment, 442
organizational analysis, 442–43
person analysis, 444–45
Assessment Center Method, 65
Assessment centers, 234
distinguishing elements of, 234–35
types of, 245–46
Assessment exercises, 235–36
Assessment techniques, 234–35
Assessors, 235
Assessors and administrators, training, 245
Assessor training, 235
ATLAS Certificate Program, 122
Attendance and performance, monitoring, 189
Attitudes and values, 465
learning implications, 465
Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices, 391
Authentic leadership and Stewardship models, 478–79
Autopoiesis, 77
Autopoietic life force, 79
Awareness of learning, 7
Axons, 43
Behavioral classification, 234
Behavioral modeling, 159
Behavior and scoring, recording, 235
Behaviorism, 32
Behaviors, 57–58
Benner’s “novice to expert” framework, 121
Bersin’s training impact model, 161
“Big 5” framework, 182
Biological bases of learning and development, 40
brain, change in, 44
brain-based learning, 42–43
complexity of learning, 44
developmental changes, 47
evidence for, 48
imaging the working brain, 43–44
(p. 502)
meaning-making, learning as, 46
meaning-making, neurobiological correlates of, 46–47
neurobiological correlates of development, 45
neurobiology of learning and development, 42
neuroplasticity, 47
new memories, formation of, 45–46
observable human development, 45
readiness to learn, 49
Blended formats, 159
Blended learning, 151
strategy, 233–34
Blogs, using, 141
Board of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), 397
Bodily intelligence, 38
Brain, change in, 44
developmental changes, 47
meaning-making, learning as, 46
meaning-making, neurobiological correlates of, 46–47
neurobiological correlates of development, 45
new memories, formation of, 45–46
observable human development, 45
Brain, working
imaging, 43–44
Brain-based learning, 42–43
“Broaden and build” theory, 85
Business education and the liberal arts, 222
art of rhetoric, teaching, 224–25
Gorgias, 226–27
liberal vs. professional education, 223–24
persuasion, sources of, 225–26
Plato’s relevance to business education, 226
rhetoric, 227–28
student reaction, 228–29
Business games, 159
Business leadership, 472–74
ability to learn, 476–77
communication skills, 476
company-sponsored leadership development, 484
dialogue, 483–84
dimensions past and future, 477
emerging models of business leadership, 477
emotional intelligence, 475–76
humility, 475
judgment, 476
leaders as educators, 484–85
learning distributed leadership, 485
learning opportunities in, for adults, 482
and lifelong learning, 482
moral virtue, 474–75
research and development in, 487–88
self-directed learning, 482–83
skills in creating environments, 476
tenacity, 475
threats/opportunities, 474
Cardinal observation, 44
Career accomplishment record (CAR), 246
Career advancement, 383
learning for, 381
Career goal, 109
Career growth curve, 7
Career planning approach, 156
Career-related continuous learning, 4–5
Case studies, 159
Caveats, 112
Certified Public Accountants (CPAs), 196, 207
Challenges of lifelong learning, 70–71
Change, 119
Change and learning, 3, 444
Change of mind, evidence of, 107–8
Children, in learning process, 33
Chinese language, 305–6
Classroom training, 200
Coaching, 94, 232–33
Cognate concepts, of lifelong learning, 13
Cognitive growth and resistance, 109–10
Cognitive supports for students, 114
Cognitivism, 32–33
Coleman Foundation, 397
Collective coping, 416
Collectivism, 413
Colleges, 374–75
College Success Seminar (CSS), 105–7
Collegiate Entrepreneurs’ Organization (CEO), 397
Commercial, off -the-shelf (COTS) games, 457
Communication skills, 476
Company programs, 55
Company-sponsored leadership development, 484
Competencies, 57, 91, 92, 119–20
agenda, 96
context and audit, 96
development, 94
evidence of lifelong learning, 97–99
experimenting and practicing, 96
Ideal Self, 95
multilevel phenomenon, lifelong learning as, 97
positive visioning, 95–96
power jobs and roles, 94
resonant relationships, 96–97
Competency based education, 32
Complex contextual learners, 282–83
Complexity of learning, imaging, 44
Comprehension, assessing, 144
Computer Clubhouse, 140
Concepts of lifelong learning, 19–21
Conceptual confusions surrounding lifelong learning, 14–15
Concurrent evaluation, 158
“Conditions of instruction,” 33
Conflict Management, 94
Confucian Asia, societies in, 299
“Connecting With the Professor” workshops, 76
Consciousness, orders of, 103–5
Consortium on Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations, 97
Constraint stress, 407
Constructivism, 33–34
Contemporary lifelong learning, 23
Contextual learners, 280, 281
complex learners, 282–83
effortless learners, 281–82
learner differences, 280–81
predicting, 283–85
Contextual learning, 274
adult, 276–77
employee, 278
student, 277–78
youth, 275–76
Continuing education (CE) programs, participation in, 180
age, 182
antecedents of, 182
attendance and performance, monitoring, 189
behaviors, 186–87
consequences, 185
design of, 184–85
education, 183
environmental factors, 187–88
individual differences, 182
institutional factors, 188
job-specific vs. generalizable skills, 188–89
learning, 186
organizational culture, 189
organizational effectiveness, 187
organization’s role in, 187
perceived value of, 184
personality, 182–83
reactions, 185–86
situational differences, 184
supervisors and peers, support from, 185
trainers and trainees, heterogeneity of, 189
transfer of learning, level of, 188
work history, 183–84
Continuing Professional Education (CPE), 196
Continuous learning, 4, 6, 210, 417
definition of, 362
need for, 494–95
Continuous learning, national culture on, 291
appraisal and feedback, 303–4
creativity and innovation, 305–6
criticism and further directions, 293–94
(p. 503)
The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, 296–300
Hofstede, model of, 294–96
in multinational organizations, 300
job competence, 300–302
learning orientation, 304
learning style, 304–5
objective setting, 302–3
performance management, 302
performance measurement, 303
rewards, 304
theoretical frameworks, 292–93
Conventional leadership development, 175–76
Cooperative learning, effects of, 144
Cooperative learning methods, 139
Coordination training, 159
Coping and adaptation, 415–16
Corporate social responsibility, 391
Corporate university, 154
Council of Europe, 13
Course development for professional learner, 200–204
Creativity, 444
Credential creep, 22
Critical curiosity, 444
Critical social thinking skills, 454
Critical thinking, 47
Criticisms of lifelong learning, 21–24
“Cross categories,” 113
Cross-training, 151
Cultural differences
in coping preferences, 415
and generational differences, 135
Cultural knowledge, 411
Cultural knowledge activation, principles of, 411–15
Cultural variations on stress and coping processes, 415
Culture, 292, 373
and language, connection between, 305–6
recognizing generation as, 134
Culture distance, 405
Culture learning, 410
“Culture shock,” 410
Cumulative distribution (CD), 280
Data collection methods, 151
Data integration, 235
Data sharing, 139
“Day-in-the-life” job, 246
“Debasing of education” criticism, 16
DECA/Delta Epsilon Chi, 396
Dedicated departments, 127
Office Of Leadership Development, 127
Deep learning, 79
Degrees, advanced, 375–76
Delors Report, 30
DELTA forces, 465
Demand stress, 405–6, 409
“Democratic progressive” sentiment, 14, 23
Demographics, 461
learning implications, 461–62
Dendrites, 43
Dentate gyrus, 45, 46
Dependence and fragility, 444
Design, in ADDIE model, 158
Develop, in ADDIE model, 158
Development, 150, 365–67, 368
Developmental actions, choice of, 66
Developmental assessment center, 242–45
development of the center, 243–45
implementing an assessment center for development, 245
scoping and planning, 242–43
Developmental assignments, 65
Developmental changes, 124
Developmental networks, 87
Development strategies, 231
adult learning, recent applications for, 245–46
assessment center methodology, using, 247–48
assessment centers, 234
assessment centers, types of, 245–46
assessment techniques, 234–35
assessors, 235
assessor training, 235
behavioral classification, 234
behavior and scoring, recording, 235
blended learning strategy, 233–34
coaching, 232–33
comparison of developmental approaches, 236–38
data integration, 235
developmental assessment center, 242–45
e-learning, 233
experiential/“stretch” assignments, 232
implementation considerations, 241
implementation questions, 241
individual development plans (IDPs), 232
job analysis, 234
key leadership skills, developing, 247
multiple assessments, 235
next-level talent pool, preparation for, 246–47
postimplementation considerations, 242
postimplementation questions, 242
preassessment design considerations, 239–40
preassessment design questions, 241
simulations, 235
technological innovations, 238
technology-enhanced assessment center (TEAC), 239
traditional training, 233
typical assessment exercises, 235–36
Dialogue, 483–84
Dichotomy
putting dichotomy to test, 322–24
of transition systems, 320–22
Dimensions past and future, 477
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), 424, 433
“Discoveries,” 94
Discrepancies, in pay, 377–78
Dispositions, 57
Distinctive liberatory commitments, 14
Distress, sense of, 55–56
Distributed leadership
command and control versus, 486–87
and nine dimensions, 481
in practice, 480
“Doing” mode of learning, 87
Dual channels, 265
“Durable category,” 110
Early-stage managers and 360-degree feedback, 253
Economics, 462
learning implications, 463
Education
access to, 374, 381
marketization of, 18
normative definition of, 19
Educational attainment, 380
societal impacts on, 376
Educational choices and achievement, 381
Educational Leadership programs, 126
Education and learning, 17
Education improvement, in schools and families, 138–44
conditions of learning at school, 138
middle-aged parents, learning needs of, 141–43
older adults, 143
social networking and online mentors, 139–41
Education permanente, 13
Education–work transitions, 312
apprenticeship, 317–18
dichotomy of transition systems, 320–22
differences, 315–17
generic factors, searching for, 324–25
keeping comparisons within family, 324
national differences, understanding, 317
“new model” of transition, 315
policy borrowing, 324
policy learning from transition-system research, 324
putting dichotomy to test, 322–24
similarities, 314
system logics, understanding, 325
transition systems, 318–20
Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (ELLI), 444–45
Effortless contextual learners, 281–82
E-learning, 151, 200, 233, 263
future of, 271–72
multimedia learning, 264–71
new opportunities of, 263
(p. 504) Electronic, computer-based medical record system (EMR), 453
Electronic polling, 138
ELT developmental model, 77, 78
Embedded systems, 211
Embodied conversational agents, 458
Emerging adults, durable categories of, 108
Emerging Leaders program, 118
Emotional intelligence, 64, 475–76
Emotional quotient (EQ), 64
Emotion-focused coping, 415
Emotions, 58–59
Employee contextual learning, 278
Employers and learning, 5
Employment status, 380
Environments, skills in creating, 476
Episodic changes, 124
E-Readers, 277
Essential processing, 266
Essential processing, principles for managing, 269–71
modality principle, 270–71
pretraining principle, 270
segmenting principle, 269–70
E-texts, 277
Evaluate, in ADDIE model, 158
Evaluations on performance, 64
Evaluation supporting lifelong learning
evaluation, purpose of, 445–46
of traditional training program, 446
EvaluLEAD methodology, 124
Event-based approach to training (EBAT), 455
Evidence of lifelong learning, 97–99
Executive coaching, 63, 254
Exemplary learning and leadership development programs, 124
Exercise, 80
Exosystem, 75
Experience
trusting, 82
and education, 36
Experiencing, capacity for, 76
Experiential learning, 35–36, 72, 498
cycle of, 72
Experiential learning theory (ELT), 71–75
cycle of experiential learning, 72
learning spaces, 75
learning style, 73–74
Experiential/“stretch” assignments, 232
Experimenting and practicing, 96
Extraneous processing, 266
Extraneous processing, reducing
coherence principle, 267
redundancy principle, 267–68
signaling principle, 267
spatial contiguity principle, 268
temporal contiguity principle, 268–69
Extreme Entrepreneurship Tour (EET), 397
EZ-Pass, 276, 282
Face-to-face training, 200
Failure, 83
Faure Report, 16, 22
Federal Employment Service (FES), 346
Feedback, 167, 168, 295, 364–65, 368
on performance, 64
“Feminine,” 378
Fixed vs. learning identity, 81–82
Flexibility, 30
of learning, 76
Formal education, 13, 22
Formal instruction, 63
Formal learning, 19, 366, 455
Formal mentoring programs, 62, 458
Formal operations, 33
Formal training, 8
Formative evaluation, 158, 204
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 42, 43–44, 48
Functional neuroplasticity, 48
Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA), 396
Future orientation, 297
Futuring approach, 156
Gagné’s theory of instruction, 32
Games, 457
Gap, learning, 5
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, 37–38
Gender, 370
academic achievement, 374
access to education, 381
career advancement, 383
career advancement, learning for, 381
colleges, 374–75
degrees, advanced, 375–76
differences, 372–73
discrepancies, in pay, 377–78
education, access to, 374
educational attainment, societal impacts on, 376
educational choices and achievement, 381
“glass ceiling,” 376–77
glass cliff, 379
horizontal segregation, 376
as learned behavior, 371–72
lifelong earning and career advancement, promoting, 382
lifelong learning, 380–81
pay gap, bridging, 378
promoting lifelong learning, 381
and race, 378
same-sex schools, 375
stereotyped jobs, 379–80
stereotype threat, 373
wage parity, 382–83
women as lifelong learners and earners, 380
women entrepreneurs, 379
women in leadership positions, 378–79
Gender and diversifying leadership development, 121–23
“Gender disadvantage,” 378
Gender egalitarianism, 297, 298
General Educational Development (GED) credential, 424, 425
“General education,” 109, 110
General Motors (GM), 155
General Motors University (GMU), 155
Generation Xers, 462
Generative learners, 4
Generative learning, 8, 366
Generative processing, 266, 271
voice principle, 271
Gestalt psychology, 32
“Glass ceiling,” 376–77
“Glass cliff,” 379
Globalization, 292
Global political consensus, 30
Global Positioning Systems (GPS), 458
The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, 296–300
“Glocalisation,” 345
Goals
concept of, 108
establishing, 242
Goal setting, in performance management, 363–64, 368
Gorgias, 226–27
Governments surrendering responsibility for education, 23–24
“Green” wave, 395
Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 473
Group communication skills, developing, 143–44
Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6
Handbook of the Evolving Research of Transformative Learning Based on the Learning Activities Survey, 5
Hand in Hand, 391
Hemoglobin, 43
Heuristics, 392
High-context cultures, 293
“Higher calling,” jobs with, 375
High-flier programs, 330, 333
High-potential professionals and 360-degree feedback, 253
High potential workers, 154
High school and college aged students, 395–96
additional support for, 396–97
Hippocampus, 45–46
Hofstede, model of, 294–96
Holistic assessments, 59
Home Net line, 137–38
Horizontal segregation, 376
Hosts and embedded systems, 211
Human capital theory, 155
Humane orientation, 297, 298
Human performance and training, 157
Human resources information system (HRIS), 241
Humility, 475
Hypothetical-deductive model, 36
(p. 505) Idealized learning cycle, 72
Ideal leadership development laboratories, 124
Ideal self, 55, 95
Identity status, 134
Imaging the working brain, 43–44
Immigration as adaptive challenge, 402
acculturation and acculturative stress, 403–5
acculturation strategies, 411–15
acculturative stress, facets of, 405
adaptation, 411–15
constraint stress, 407
coping and adaptation, 415–16
cultural knowledge activation, principles of, 411–15
demand stress, 405–6
implications for lifelong learning, 416–17
multicultural identities and strategies for acculturation, 409–11
opportunity stress, 406
psychological adaptation of immigrants, 407
Implement, in ADDIE model, 158
Implications for lifelong learning, 416–17
Imposed leadership enablers, 167
Incidental learning, 366, 455
Individual development plans (IDPs), 232
Individualism, 294, 295, 413
Individualism-collectivism dimension of cultural variations, 412
Individualized education program (IEP) teams, 423
Individual-organizational congruity, 165–67
“Individual progressive” sentiment, 14
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 423–24
Industrialized societies, learning in, 5
Informal learning, 6, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 198–99, 366, 455
Informal mentoring programs, 459
Informal training, 8
Information and knowledge, 107
Information technology (IT), 185
In-group collectivism, 297, 298
INROADS internship, 123
In situ simulations, 457
Inspirational leadership, 477–78
Institutional collectivism, 297, 298
Institutional initiatives, 124
Student Leadership Certificate, 125–26
Undergraduate Colleges, 125
Instructional systems design (ISD) model, 157–58
Integration, state of, 409
Intelligence, 5
Intentional Change Theory (ICT), 94
Intentions, best of, 55
Interactive video training (IVT), 160
Intercultural competence, 454
Intergenerational learning, paradigm for, 133
improving education in schools and families, 138–44
optimal support, conditions to motivate, 133–36
reciprocal learning, benefits of, 136–38
Internal labor markets (ILMS), 319
Internal learning and development unit, 201
International Adult Literacy Survey, 380–81
International Handbook of Lifelong Learning, 5
International Journal of Lifelong Education, 31
Internet, 139, 140, 275
Internet polling, 138
Internships, 151, 382
Interrelationships among systems, 210
hosts and embedded systems, 211
organizations as communities of practice, 212
stocks and flows, 211–12
iPod, 277
iTunes, 277
Job analysis, 234, 243
Job ladders, 383
Job-specific vs. generalizable skills, 188–89
Job/task analysis, 443–44
Judgment, 476
Junior Achievement (JA), 396–97
Just-in-time (JIT) information retrieval systems, 457–58
Just-in-time informational retrieval (JITIR), 457
Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, 397
Kegan’s five orders of consciousness, 103–4
Kegan’s theoretical framework, 114
Kegan’s Theory of Development, 102
caveats, 112
change of mind, evidence of, 107–8
College Success Seminar (CSS), 105–7
current study, 105
emerging adults, durable categories of, 108
foundation of, 103
life experience and cognitive transition, 110–11
orders of consciousness, 103–5
path ahead, 115–16
resilience and the socialized mind, 111–12
resistance and cognitive growth, 109–10
self-defined reality, 108
teaching and research, implications for, 113–15
Key leadership skills, developing, 247
Kinesthetic intelligence, 38
Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs), 451
Knowledge and information, 107
Kolb Learning Style Inventory (KLSI), 74
Kolb’s work on learning styles, 35
Language and culture, connection between, 305–6
Leaders as educators, 484–85
Leadership, 479–80
Leadership Advantage, 126
Leadership development, 120, 165, 205
Leadership development program models and components, 120–21
Leadership Development Programs, 124, 164
adventure training and novel events, 175
conventional leadership development, 175–76
critical ingredients of, 165
dialectic antecedent, 169–70
evaluating, 124
imposed leadership enablers, 167
individual-organizational congruity, 165–67
leadership learning architecture, 170–73
self-efficacy feedback, 168
self-other comparisons, 167–68
simulation-based programs, 173–75
subjective well-being, 168–69
Leadership education and development, 127–28
“Leadership for Life” program, 118
Leadership learning architecture, 170–73
Leadership programs, 119
Leadership qualities, 119–20
Leadership skills, 120
Leadership Studies Minor, 126
Learning, definition of, 362
Learning and development, 44
Learning community (LC), 106
Learning disabilities (LD), adults with, 422
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 424
general education development (GED) credential, 424
legislation related to, 424
postsecondary academic settings, accommodations in, 430
postsecondary accommodations, effectiveness of, 431–32
postsecondary skills, 432
secondary education, legislation related to, 423–24
secondary school performance of youth, 423
Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act, 424
self-advocacy, 433
(p. 506)
self-determination, 432–33
self-management skills, 433–34
successful adults, characteristics of, 434–35
transition, 424–25
transition barriers, 426–28
vocational and occupational training, 428–30
Learning distributed leadership, 485
Learning From Experience Toward Consciousness, 79
Learning gap, 5
Learning gender. See Gender
Learning identity, 80–83
fixed vs. learning identity, 81–82
Learning process, trusting, 82
Learning relationships (LRs), 83–97, 444
Learning society, 19, 20, 21
Learning style, 35, 304–5
Learning to Be, 30
“Learning to learn” competencies, 447
“Learning to learn” course, 82
Learning way, 70
challenges of lifelong learning, 70–71
experiential learning theory, 71–75
learning identity, 80–83
learning relationships, 83–97
spiral of learning and adult development, 77–79
strategies for lifelong learners, 75–77, 79–80, 87–88
Legal and regulatory issues, 463
learning implications, 463–64
LGBTQ leadership, 122
Liberal vs. professional education, 223–24
Liberatory outcomes of individual growth and development, 14
Life experience and cognitive transition, 110–11
Lifelong earning and career advancement, promoting, 382
Lifelong education, 13, 16–19
Lifelong Education, 29
Lifelong learners, 22. See also Professionals as lifelong learners
strategies for, 75–77, 79
Lifelong learning, 3
bane or boon, 380–81
basic premise of, 4
creating learning environments, 5
definition of, 4
other handbooks of, 5–6
resources for learning, 8
scope of, 6
theories of learning and education, 6–8
Lifelong Learning Act (1976), 30
Life span development, 7–8
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, 383
Limited capacity, 265
Linguistic intelligence, 38
Living-Learning Communities/Centers (LLCs), 127
Logical intelligence, 38
Long-term orientation, 294
Low-context cultures, 293
Macrosystem, 75
Magnetoencephalography (MEG), 42
Managers
Senior Managers, 173–74
technical professionals as, 256–57
underperforming, 257
Managers and 360-degree feedback, 253
Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE), 197
Marginalization, strategy of, 410
Market-driven approach, 156
Marketization of education, 18
“Masculine,” 378
Masculinity, 294, 296
Meaning-making, 444
learning as, 46
neurobiological correlates of, 46–47
Mentor, 140
Mentoring, 62–63, 94, 140
Mesosystem, 75
Mezirow’s model of lifelong learning, 37
Microlending, 391
Microsystem, 75
Middle-aged parents, learning needs of, 141–43
Millennials, 462
Mind and body, separation of, 41, 49
M-learning, 274, 275, 457
future of, 285–86
Mobile learning, 457
Mobility of learner, 274
Models of lifelong learning, 29
adult education, 34
andragogy and self-directed learning, 34–35
behaviorism, 32
cognitivism, 32–33
constructivism, 33–34
experience and education, 36
experiential learning, 35–36
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, 37–38
psychology, 31
transformative learning theory, 36–37
Modernism, 7
Moment of reflection, 55
Mommy track, 379
Moral virtue, 474–75
Multicultural competencies, 119
Multicultural identities and strategies for acculturation, 409–11
Multilevel phenomenon, lifelong learning as, 97
Multimedia learning, 264–65
essential processing, principles for managing, 269–71
extraneous processing, principles for reducing, 267
generative processing, principles for fostering, 271
theoretical basis for principles, 265–67
Multinational organizations, continuous learning in, 300
appraisal and feedback, 303–4
creativity and innovation, 305–6
job competence, 300–2
learning orientation, 304
learning style, 304–5
objective setting, 302–3
performance management, 302
performance measurement, 303
rewards, 304
Multiple assessments, 235
Multiple intelligences, Gardner’s theory of, 37–38
Multisource feedback, 64–65, 255
Musical ability, 38
National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance (NCIIA), 390
National differences in education–work transitions, 317
apprenticeship, 317–18
dichotomy of transition systems, 320–22
putting dichotomy to test, 322–24
transition systems, 318–20
National School Boards Association, 141
Naturalist intelligence, 38
Near-the-job training. See Vestibule training
Needs assessment, 442
job/task analysis, 443–44
organizational analysis, 442–43
person analysis, 444–45
NEET group, 316
Negative Emotional Attractor (NEA), 96
Neoliberalism, 29
Neurobiological correlates of brain development, 45
Neurobiology of learning and development, 42
Neuroconstructivism, 45
Neuroconstructivist theory, 47
Neurons, 43
Neuroplasticity, 47
evidence for, 48
New memories, formation of, 45–46
Next-level talent pool, preparation for, 246–47
coaching and feedback, 246–47
debrief and integration, 246
prework, 246
simulation, 246
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), 423–24
Nonformal education, 18
Normative definition of education, 19
(p. 507) Novel emphasis on learning, 12–13
NYUeVita, 128
Observable human development, 45
“OCB-others,” 186
Occupational labor markets (OLMs), 319, 321
Office Of Leadership Development, 127
Offsite offerings, 199
Off-the-job training, 151
Older adults, 143
comprehension, assessing, 144
group communication skills, developing, 143–44
next steps, 144
Olympia approach to reverse mentoring, 136–37
Onboarding, 152
Ongoing leadership training, 205
Online community, 141
Online course, 199–200, 201
On-the-job training, 151, 152
Operant conditioning, 32
Opportunity stress, 406
Optimal reverse mentor relationship, 137
Optimal support, conditions to motivate, 133–36
establishing learning expectations for older adults, 135–36
granting identity status to youth, 134–35
recognizing generation as culture, 134
Orders of consciousness, 103–5
Organizational analysis, 442–43
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), 186
Organizational culture for learning, 8
Organizational leaders, 154
Organization based initiatives, 64
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 13
Organizations as communities of practice, 212
Organization’s work environment, 5
Orientation, 152
“Ought” self, 95
Oxygen, 43
Parent Success Indicator (PSI), 142
Pathos, 226
Pay gap, bridging, 378
Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 81
Peer and Self Evaluation System, 144
Perceptions, 57
Performance, 58
Performance analysis, 150, 158
Performance appraisal, 64, 367, 368
Performance level, 161
Performance management, 361
development, 365–67, 368
feedback, 364–65, 368
goal setting, 363–64, 368
performance appraisal, 367, 368
performance management, definition of, 362–63
Performance management systems, 64
Performance orientation, 297
Performance value, 161
Performance/visual aids, 160
Permanent social control, lifelong learning imposing, 22
Personal digital assistant (PDA), 457
Person analysis, 444–45
Persuasion, sources of, 225–26
Piaget’s theory, 33–34
Planned on-the-job training, 151
Plato’s relevance to business education, 226
Pleasantness, 58
Podcasts, 277
Policy learning, from transition-system research, 324
generic factors, searching for, 324–25
keeping comparisons within family, 324
policy borrowing, 324
system logics, understanding, 325
Policy statements, of lifelong learning, 18
Portability of service, 274
Positive Emotional Attractor (PEA), 95
Positive visioning, 95–96
“Postmodern,” 7
Postsecondary academic settings, accommodations in, 430
Postsecondary accommodations, effectiveness of, 431–32
Postsecondary skills, 432
self-advocacy, 433
self-determination, 432–33
self-management skills, 433–34
successful adults, characteristics of, 434–35
Potential, 58
Power distance, 294, 297, 298
Practice, 80
Pragmatists, 237
Preeminence of lifelong learning, rise to, 15
PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), 197
Problem-centered learning, 35
Professionals as lifelong learners, 195
agreement, 206–7
course development for professional learner, 200–204
different views, lifelong learning from, 205
informal learning, 198–99
leadership development, 205
mutual win for, 204
offsite offerings, 199
onsite courses, 199–200
reasons for lifelong learning, 195–96
required learning, 196–98
sole practitioner, 206
time in profession, 205–6
Progressive sentiments, 14
Prominence of lifelong learning, rise to, 13
Promoting lifelong learning, 381
Protestant-relational ideology, 407
Proton emission tomography (PET), 42, 48
Psychological acculturation, 403
Psychology-inspired understandings, 31
behaviorism, 32
cognitivism, 32–33
constructivism, 33–34
Psychosocial theory, 121
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB), 196
Pulse-taking approach, 156
Qualifications, 320
Quality leadership development programs, 122, 123
Quality time, 142
QUEST (Quality Undergraduate Education Starts Today), 106, 109
Race and gender, 378
Racial/ethnic disadvantage, 378
Readiness of individual, 66
Readiness to learn, 49, 210
Real Life 101, 118
Reasons for lifelong learning, 14, 195–96
Receptive field plasticity, 48
Reciprocal learning, benefits of, 136–38
trading places at home, 137–38
trading places at school, 136–37
trading places at work, 136
Recurrent education, 13
Redefining Engagement in Active Leadership (REAL) Project, 128
Reflection, 76
Reflective learning, 124
Reflectors, 237
Reflexive modernity, 30
Relational-cultural theory (RCT), 84
Relationships building, 83–97
Replacement planning, 204
Required learning, 196–98
Resilience and socialized mind, 111–12
Resistance and cognitive growth, 109–10
Resonant relationships, 96–97
Resource-based view of the firm (RBV), 337
Return on investment (ROI), 258–59
Reverse culture shock, 406
Reverse mentoring, 136, 137
Rhetoric, 227–28
Rhetoric, art of
teaching, 224–25
Risk losing, 83
Road to Success, 429
Role-plays, 159
Russia, adult education in. See Adult education, in Russia
(p. 508) Same-sex schools, 375
Scandinavian case, 329
boundaryless career, 341–42
career anchor, 340–41
cultural context, 333–37
from career to talent, 340
management models, 342–43
managerial career development, 330–32
organization as context for career and talent development, 337
paradigmatic change in progress, 330
perspectives, 332–33
resource-based view of the firm, 337–38
strategic change, 338–40
talent concept, 342
Secondary education, legislation related to, 423–24
“Second wave,” reasons for, 15–16
Self-advocacy, 433
Self-analysis, 59–60
Self-awareness, 52, 53–54, 253
assessment center method, 65
behaviors, 57–58
company programs, 55
competencies, 57
developmental actions, choice of, 66
developmental assignments, 65
dispositions, 57
distress, sense of, 55–56
emotions, 58–59
executive coaching, 63
holistic assessments, 59
intentions, best of, 55
mentoring, 62–63
moment of reflection, 55
multisource feedback, 64–65
organization based initiatives, 64
perceptions, 57
performance, 58
performance appraisals, 64
potential, 58
readiness of individual, 66
self-analysis, 59–60
social network contacts, 62
supervisory feedback, 62
supportive social network, 66
thinking, ways of, 57
timely and useful feedback, 66–67
training, 63–64
working with others, 60–62
Self-defined reality, 108
Self-determination, 432–33
Self-development, 80, 302
Self-directed learning, 34–35, 459–60, 482–83
Self-directedness, 5
Self-disclosure, 61
Self-efficacy feedback, 168
Self-esteem, maintenance of, 405
Self-fulfilling prophecies, 331–32
Self-insight, 54, 55
Self-knowledge, 54, 55
Self-making, 80
Self-management skills, 433–34
Self-other comparisons, 167–68
Self-regulated learning, 498
Self-system, 54
Self-testing, 60
Self-training, 60
Senior executives and 360-degree feedback, 253
Senior Managers, 173–74
Sensitivity group movement, 61
Service learning, 123–24
“Sex tendencies,” 375
Shared leadership, 454–55
Sharing dominance, 135
Simulation-based programs, 173–75
Simulations, 235, 456–57
Smart phones, 277
SMS (text messaging), 275
Social Change Model of Leadership, 127
Social entrepreneurship, 389
corporate social responsibility, 391
definition of, 393–94
development of, 390–91
high school and college aged students, 395–97
as learning process, 391–93
microlending, 391
older adults and retirees, support for, 397–99
organizations and foundations assisting and educating, 397
understanding of, 393–95
youth, 395
Socialization process, 152
Social network contacts, 62
Social networking and online mentors, 139–41
Social venture, 390
Sociocultural adaptation, 411
Soft skills, 222
Sole practitioner, 206
Spaces, learning, 75, 75–77
customizing, 76
Spatial intelligence, 38
Speed Pass, 282
Spending time together, 142
Spiral of learning and adult development, 77–79
Standardization, 318
State of mind and learning, 48–49
Status quo, lifelong learning supporting, 23
Stereotyped jobs, 379–80
Stereotype threat, 373
Stock Market Game, 395
Stocks and flows, 211–12
Strategic awareness, 444
Strategies for lifelong learners
learning style and spaces, 75–77
spiral through development, 79
Stratification, 318
Stress, coping with, 142
Structuralist theory, 121
Student activities, 127
annual leadership conference, 127
leadership education and development, 127–28
Student activities, 127–28
Student African American Brotherhood (SAAB), 122
Student contextual learning, 277–78
Student Leadership Certificate, 124–25
Student leadership development programs, 121, 129
Students in Free Enterprise (SIFE), 396
Student-teacher team collaboration, 136
Style, of learning, 73–74, 75–77
Subject-centered learning, 35
Subjective well-being, 168–69
Successful adults, characteristics of, 434–35
Summary of Performance (SOP), 426
Summative evaluation, 158
Supervisory feedback, 62
Supportive social network, 66
Synaptic activity, 43
Synaptogenesis, 44, 45
System logics, understanding, 325
Taken-for-granted assumption, 18
Talent management, 204
Task-relevant knowledge, 8
Taskwork-related content, new directions in, 452
adaptability, 453–54
new technology and software, 452–53
Teaching, 32
Teaching and research, implications for, 113–15
Team Skills Inventory, 144
Teamwork, 94
Teamwork, new directions in, 454
critical social thinking skills, 454
intercultural competence, 454
shared leadership, 454–55
Technological advancements, 464
learning implications, 464–65
Technological innovations and assessment centers, 238
Technology and culture for learning, 496–97
Technology-enhanced assessment center (TEAC), 239
preassessment design considerations, 240–41
Technology-enhanced training, 455
Tenacity, 475
T-group movement, 61
Theorists, 237
Thinking, 76
ways of, 57
“Think manager–think male” paradigm, 373
360-degree feedback, 251, 252 (p. 509)
best practices, 259
coaching, 255–56
development planning, 255–56
effectiveness, 258–59
executive coaching advantage, 254–55
goal-setting, 255–56
high-impact executive coaching applications, 256–57
maximizing results, 253–54
participant characteristics, 257–58
purpose and benefits of, 252–53
Threshold clusters of competencies, 93
Time in profession, 205–6
Timely and useful feedback, 66–67
Time management, 142
Tomorrow’s business leaders, lessons of educating, 472
ability to learn, 476–77
authentic leadership and Stewardship models, 478–79
business leadership, 472–74
business leadership and lifelong learning, 482
command and control versus distributed leadership, 486–87
communication skills, 476
company-sponsored leadership development, 484
dialogue, 483–84
dimensions, 477
distributed leadership and nine dimensions, 481
distributed leadership in practice, 480
emerging models of business leadership, 477
emotional intelligence, 475–76
humility, 475
inspirational leadership, 477–78
judgment, 476
leaders as educators, 484–85
leadership, 479–80
learning distributed leadership, 485
learning opportunities in business leadership for adults, 482
moral virtue, 474–75
research and development in business leadership and lifelong learning, 487–88
self-directed learning, 482–83
skills in creating environments, 476
tenacity, 475
threats/opportunities, 474
Traditionalism, 7
Traditional Leadership Development programs, 126
Traditional lecture course, 79
Traditional student affairs model, 121
Traditional training, 233
Traditional training strategies, 455
Trainers and trainees, heterogeneity of, 189
Training, 63–64, 149, 150–51
to achieve strategic objectives, 156–57
benefits of, 153–56
categories of, 151–52
delivery methods, 158–60
evaluation, 160–62
forecasts for future of, 162
to improve human performance, 157
key training statistics, 153
role of, in onboarding, 152–53
training design, approaches to, 157–58
Training and development (T&D) groups, 188
Training needs assessment, 150
Transfer of learning, 5, 161
level of, 188
Transfer partnership, 161
Transformational learning, 366
Transformational learning theory, 171
Transformative changes, 124
Transformative learners, 4
Transformative learning, 5–6, 8
Transformative learning theory, 36–37
Transition, 4, 424–25
Transition barriers, 426–28
Transition systems, 313, 318–20
dichotomy of, 320–22
Trends and directions for lifelong learning programs and research, 493
Typologies of transition systems, 323
Uncertainty avoidance, 294, 295, 297, 298
Undergraduate Colleges, 124
Understanding lifelong learning, 6
Undesirable learning, 16
Unemployed women, 382
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 13
University education, 117
academic program/school, 126
after college, 128–29
competencies, 119–20
dedicated departments, 127
exemplary learning and leadership development programs, 124
gender and diversifying leadership development, 121–23
institutional initiatives, 124
leadership development program models and components, 120–21
leadership development programs, evaluating, 124
leadership qualities, 119–20
need, history, and scope of leadership development in universities, 117–19
service learning, 123–24
student activities, 127–28
“Unlearn” previous learning, 16
Unplanned on-the-job training, 151
Vestibule training, 151
Visionary leaders, 154
Visual intelligence, 38
Vocational and occupational training, 428–30
Vocational education and training (VET), 345, 353
Wage parity, 382–83
White Paper on lifelong learning, 30
WIFI, 277, 278
Winning, 83
Wireless adopters, 275
Wireless learner, 275
WISE (Women In Science and Engineering) programs, 122
Women as lifelong learners and earners, 380
Women entrepreneurs, 379
Women in leadership positions, 378–79
Work environment, of organizations, 5
Workforce preparedness, 495–96
Working brain, imaging, 43–44
Working with others, 60–62
World Bank, 346
Worldwide Learning Center for Social Entrepreneurship, 399
Worldwide Learning Organization, 398, 399
Year Pursue program, 118
Young social entrepreneurs, support for, 395
high school and college aged students, 395–97
youth, 395
Youth, secondary school performance of, 423
Youth contextual learning, 275–76
Youth Noise, 141
Zone of proximal development (ZPD), 34