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date: 04 December 2020

(p. 383) Index

(p. 383) Index

A
Aaron of Lincoln, 72, 73
abortion, 357, 358n.16
Abrahamic monotheism, 218–219, 220, 228n.4
Abramitzky, Ran, ix, 24, 169, 173, 175, 176
Acemoglu, A., 93, 124, 226
Act of Toleration, 283
adolescence
nonmarital sex among, 47
religious participation during, 44, 46
adulthood, religious affiliation in, 43
Adventism, 333
adverse selection, in communes, 170, 172, 173–175, 178, 183, 187n.8
Afrobarometer, 370
al-Afghani, Jamal al-din, 83–84
Alatas, Syed Hussein, 4–5
Alexander VI, Pope, 316
Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid, 84
alternative spirituality, 295, 299
Alwin, Duane, 353
Amana communes, 171, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 184
Amanze, J. N., 371
American Baptist church, 291
American Church Lists, 351
American Congregational Giving Study (ACGS), 349–350
American National Election Studies (ANES), 344, 347
American National Election Survey, 348
American Piety: The Nature of Religious Commitment (Stark and Glock), 6–7
American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS), 349
America’s Communal Utopias (Pitzer), 172
Amish, 178
Anglican Church, 155, 283, 284
antichurch campaigns, 242–243
anticlericalism, 238
China, 243–244
Cuba, 243
Easter Europe, 241–242
Soviet Union, 239–241
anticolonial movements, 120
antireligious propaganda, 246
Apostolic Constitution, 196
Arabic, 82
Arab states, 19
Aristotle, 9, 30n.6
Asian societies, early printing in, 117–118, 125n.6
assimilation
communes and isolation, 177–179
segmented, 157
Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), 27, 344–345, 346, 347, 348, 350–351, 353–355, 357n.1
Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies, 351
atheism, in postcommunist societies, 250–251
atheism, scientific, 17, 235–236, 237–239, 248
atheist competition, 236–237
atheist substitutes, for religion, 245, 247, 248–249
Atlantic trade, economic growth and rise of, 226
Atlas of Global Christianity (Johnson and Ross), 374
auricular confession, 316
(p. 384) Australia’s Religious Communities: A Multimedia Exploration (Hughes), 372
Azzi, Corry, 8, 260
B
Bader, Christopher D., ix, 28
Bainbridge, William Sims, 18–19, 22, 356, 366, 367
Bankston, Carl L., 157
Baptists, 291–292
Bar Ilan University, Israel, 27
Barometer surveys, 346, 370
Barro, Robert J., ix, 10, 25, 257
human capital and economic growth, 115
state religion (religious monopoly), 18, 217
Baylor Survey of Religion, 347, 352–353, 357n.7
beatifications, 25, 192
blessed persons and, 210–215
data set of beatifieds and saints, 197–202
geographical distribution of, 211
process, 194, 195, 196, 197
regression results on rates of, 202–209
Becker, Gary S., 9, 57, 95, 290, 294
Becker, Sascha O., ix, 15–16, 94, 99, 100, 103, 104, 107
behavior
economic model of human, 294–297
religion and individual, 6, 13
beliefs about God, 347, 357n.7
belief systems, of communes, 180
Bellah, Robert N., 4–5
Bellamy, Edward, 366
Benedict XVI, Pope, 191, 197, 200, 202, 203, 205, 207, 209
Benjamin of Tudela, 60, 61
Berger, Peter, 17
Berman, Eli, 18, 24, 182, 260
Bible and tract societies, 116, 124n.4
Bill of Rights, 276
birth control, 6, 49
births, and religious demographic change, 376
Bishop Hill commune, 173, 174, 175, 176, 182
black market for religion, 246
Blaine Amendments, 277
blessed persons, 192, 209–214
blue laws, 266, 267–269, 271n.11
repeal of, 13, 44, 267
Book of Debts, 176
Boppart, T., 106
Bose, Feler, x, 11
Boston University, 373
Botticini, Maristella, x, 14, 16, 23, 57, 63
brain drain, in communes, 170, 172, 173–174, 175, 178, 182
Brazil, 46
Brecke, P., 223, 229n.9
Britain
religious affiliation census, 369
return of Jews to England, 73–74
British colonialism, 121, 122
British East India Company, 121
British Methodism, 290
Brotherhood of Cooperative Commonwealth commune, 181
Bruce, Steve, x, 9, 291
Brunner, Edmund, 139
Buddhism, 20, 23
demographics of monks, 368, 380n.3
financing, 333–336
immigration and, 154, 156, 164
rational choice and, 11, 12
statistics, 368
Tibetan, 11, 19, 20
under communism, 250
Weber’s sociological study of, 4
Buddhist Association, 243
Bureau of Applied Social Research, 5
Burns, Paul, 192
Butler’s Lives of the Saints (Burns), 192
buy-back of Crusading vows, 315–316
C
Cabet, Étienne, 181
Cadge, Wendy, 155
Cairo Geniza documents, 65, 68, 71
Calendar of Saints, 195
Caliph al-Qadir, 88
Calvinism, 4, 119, 283
Calvin, John, 195, 317
(p. 385) Campbell, Angus, 5
canonizations, 25–26, 192
blessed persons and, 210–215
geographical distribution of, 212
process, 194–195, 196
regression results on rates of, 202–209
capitalism, 4
capital markets, 310–312
Card, David, 95
Carlson, Carole C., 366
Castro, Fidel, 237, 243
Catholic Encyclopedia, 192
Catholicism. See Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Patriotic Committee, 243
censuses
on American religion, 350–351
religious demographic data, 368–369
Central Asian governments, control of religions by, 21–22
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 365–366
centralized state authority, 19
certae restitutions, 311
Chandler, James, 29
Chaney, Eric, x, 15, 88
Chaves, Mark, 258, 259
Chen, Daniel, 267
Cherlin, Andrew J., 48
children
births and religious demographic change, 376
child-bearing and second demographic transition in the U.S., 48–49
education and fertility, 104–105
nonmarital sex among adolescence, 47
religious participation during adolescence, 44, 46
China Protestant Patriotic Movement, 243
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 249
Chinese folk religions, 11
Chiswick, Barry R., 44, 75
Christian Commonwealth commune, 174, 181
Christianity
Christian immigrants in the U.S., 159
colonial rule and, 121
conflicts between Muslims and, 221–222
Jewish conversions to, 64–65
and monotheism, 218, 220
nineteenth-century Christian America, 330–331 See also medieval Church
Christiano, Kevin, 350
Church and Church Membership Surveys, 27
churches
census of U.S., 350–351
church revenues, 313–316, 319n.13
ethnic, 157–158
membership surveys and studies, 27, 140–147, 351, 355
religion yearbooks and handbooks, 371
statistical questionnaires and reports by, 371
zoning restrictions/regulations, 278–279
Churching of America, The (Finke and Stark), 135
church membership, supply and demand participation rates, 136, 139–147
Church of England, 283
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 314
church-state relations, as market phenomena, 3
church taxes, 328–329, 337n.2
CIA Factbook, 365, 366 see also Central Intelligence Agency
Cinnirella, F., 104
civil liberties, religious, 275–285
civil society, 119–120
Clement V, Pope, 70
Clement VIII, Pope, 197, 203
Clement XII, Pope, 200
clerical income, 314
client-practitioner religions, 11, 12
Codex Juris Canonici, 196
Codex pro Postulatoribus, 196
cohabitation, 40, 43
collective-productive religions, 11, 12, 325–326
College of Relators, 196
colonialism, fostering rule of law during, 120, 121–122
colonizer-financed education, 114
(p. 386) communes, 24, 169–172, 185–186
brain drain, adverse selection, and moral hazard in, 170, 172, 173–175, 178, 182, 183
exit mechanisms, 173, 174, 175, 182
ideology in the stability of, 180–185
institutional design, 174–177
isolation and integration/assimilation, 177–179
lock-in devices, 175–176, 179
as organizations, 172–177
social rituals, 182–183
communism, religion under, 235–239
comparative implications, 251–253
regulation of religion, 17–18, 21–22
repression, 239–245
revival and postcommunist developments, 249–251
saint making in former communist countries, 213
substitution, 245–249
compensator and reward, concepts of, 10, 12
competition
and American religious institutions, 330
as a religion market model, 3, 7
empirical work on, 261–263
religious conversion and, 15
religious finance and, 327
religious pluralism, 22–26
theories of interreligious, 259–261
computer searches on religion, 372
Comte, Auguste, 218
confessors, 192, 193
Conflict Catalog (Brecke), 223
conflict data, on religious strife, 222–226
conformity, 20
Confucianism, 4
Congregationalists, 284
Congregational Life Survey, U.S. (USCLS), 349–350
congregational religions, 11
Congregation for the Causes of Saints, 196, 197
Congregation for the Divine Worship, 196
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 196
Congregation of Rites, 195, 196
congregations, 258, 259, 270n.1
competition and secular forces issues, 263–265, 270nn.810
Religious Congregations and Church Membership Study, 140–147, 351, 355
survey data on, 349–350
Connor, Phillip, 155
conservative Protestants
economic and demographic behavior of, 40, 42
patterns of nonmarital sex and divorce among, 47–48
religious participation among, 42
socioeconomic status of, 46
conservative religious elites, 15
Constitutional Convention, 284
Constitution, U.S., 275, 276, 277, 280, 284, 330
Continental Congress, U.S., 284
conversionary Protestants (CPs), 112–123, 124n.1
conversions, religious, 15, 292
conversion to the Protestant faith, 98
Jewish conversions to Christianity, 64–65
and religious demographic change, 377
Copernicus, Nicolaus, 82
Correlates of War, 222, 223
cost-benefit analysis, of religious participation, 8, 10, 12
Council of Carthage, 193
Council of Mainz, 194
Council of Trent, 26, 195
Counter-Reformation, 195, 213
Crockett, Alasdair, 261, 262, 291
Cromwell, Oliver, 74
cross-national data, 345–346
Crusades, 25, 73, 83, 312, 313–316
Crusading vows, buy-back of, 315–316
Cuba
communist repression, 240, 243
religious markets in, 246
religious participation in, 18
religious revival, 249
cultural capital, 153, 220
(p. 387) Cultural Revolution, 241, 243–244, 249, 250
Curry, Mary, 158
D
damnation, 10
Daoism, 250
Daoist Association, 243
Daoist secret societies, 243
data collection, 26–29, 343–344, 356–357
censuses on American religion, 350–352
cross-national data, 345–346
data sources, 344–351
and new technologies, 26–29
other research tools, 354–355
refining the measures, 352–354
religious demographic data, 367–378
survey data on congregations, 349–350
survey data on North America and beyond, 347–349
surveys and polls, 369–370
deaths, and religious demographic change, 376
dechurching, 242
defections, 377
Dehejia, Rajeev, 257
de la Pole, William, 73
DeLeire, Thomas, 257
demand for religion, 18, 20, 135–140, 155, 236, 237, 238
Demerath, N. J., 6
Demographic and Health Surveys, 346, 348
demography
defined, 365, 380n.1 See also religious demography
Deng Xiaoping, 244
Denominational Trees and Profiles, 355
van der Sprenkel, Otto, 5 (this is out of order—shouldn’t it be under “van”? That is where I would place it after “van der Kuijp”)
differentiation, 20
diffused religions, 11
DiMaggio, Paul, 20
directories of denominations, Christian councils, and confessions, 372
diversity, in religious demand, 20
division of labor, 4
divorce, nonmarital sex and, 47–48
Dougherty, Kevin, 352–353
Durkheim, Emile, 218
E
Eastern religions, 11, 12
East Germany. See Germany
Ebaugh, Helen Rose, 158
Ecklund, Elaine Howard, 155
Eckstein, Zvi, x, 14, 16, 23, 57, 63
economic development
and choices of religion, 4–5
human capital and Protestant, 103–105, 115
influence of fractionalization on, 221
mass education and, 114
economic model of human behavior, 294–297
economics of religion
data collection, 26–29, 343–357
as field of inquiry, 3–30
human capital, 13–16, 94–97
methodology, disciplinarity, and interdisciplinarity, 29–30
rational choice, 9–12
religion market, 7–9
religious monopoly with or without the state, 16–20
religious pluralism and competition, 22–26
state regulation and the religion market, 20–22
Edict of Nantes, 283
education
association between Protestantism and education within countries, 106
atheism, 251
commune-specific, 175, 187n.10
and degree of religious liberty, 284
female, 16
immigration and, 158
and income, 163–164
Jewish vs. Christian schools, 332
Muslim schools, 86–87
Protestant economic history and earnings on, 94–97
(p. 388) Protestantism, fertility and, 104–105
Reformation and gender differences in, 102–103
Reformation and German school system, 100–102
Reformation on education in Prussia, 97–100, 101–102
religious, 14
religious participation and, 43, 44
role in Protestant economic development, 103–104, 108n.4
and spread of human capital, 113–115
state subsidies for religious, 18
Talmud era, 64–65, 66–67, 71, 75
Torah, 62–63, 75 See also literacy
Edward I (England), 73
Edward III (England), 73
egalitarian communes, 24
egalitarianism, 24, 183
Ehrenberg, Ronald G., 8, 260
Ekelund Jr., Robert B., x, 10, 11, 325
elites, conservative religious, 15
Elster, Jon, 297
emigrants, 377–378
Encyclopedia Britannica, 372
endogeneity, 43, 98
Engelsing, Rolf, 101
Enlightenment, the, 15, 82, 90n.4
Ephrata communes, 180, 182
equality issues, in communes, 176–177
Ernst II the Pious, Duke (Germany), 101
Ernst, Manfred, 370
ethnic churches, 157–158
Europe
religious participation rates, 136
religious persecution in, 242–243
saint making in Eastern Europe, 213
state ties to religion in, 328–329 see also Western Europe
European religion market, 23
European scientific development, 82
European Social Survey, 370
European Union, 369, 380n.4
Evangelicalism, growth of, 209, 210, 212, 213, 333
Evangelicals, 21, 119, 122
exclusion acts, 156
excommunication, 315
F
Fanfani, Amintore, 4
fee-for-service transactions, 333
female education, 16
fertility
high fertility in U.S., 46, 48
Protestantism, education and, 104–105
and religious demographic change, 376
field surveys and interviews, 371
finance, religious, 11, 323–324, 336–337
American Judaism, 331–332
Buddhism, Paganism, Hinduism, and more, 333–336
church revenues, 313–316, 319nn.13
examples and applications, 328–336
financing the New Age, 332–333
modern Europe, 328–329
nineteenth-century Christian America, 330–331
principles of, 324–328
financial activities
of communes, 176
of religions, 11–12
Finke, Roger, x, 27, 28
data collection, 351, 353
immigration and religion, 153, 154
religious liberty, 278
religious markets, 259, 266
state religion, 19
supply-side model, 18, 20, 22, 135, 136, 139, 290, 291
Finland, 106
Finucane, R. C., 314–315
First Council of Nicaea, 70
First Crusade, 83
First Great Awakening, 284
Fischer, Claude S., 352
Fischoff, Ephraim, 4
Fletcher, Erin, 26, 218, 221, 223, 225
Flitner, W., 101
folk religions, 18, 246, 250
Form, William H., 153
fostering rule of law, during colonialism, 120, 121–122
(p. 389) Fourierist North American Phalanx commune, 176
Fourth Lateran Council, 195
Fox, Jonathan, 21, 27, 278, 353
Religion and State Project, 27, 346
fractionalization, 221–222
Frederick the Great, 102
Freeman, Richard B., 43
free-ridership, 8, 170, 176, 281
Froese, Paul, 17, 21, 249, 252
functionalist perspective, in social sciences, 218
Fundamentalism, 333, 366
Future of Religion: Secularization Revival and Cult Formation, The (Stark and Bainbridge), 366
G
Gallup International, 346
Geertz, Clifford, 5
Geluk School, Tibet, 19
general population surveys, 370
General Social Survey (GSS), 27, 159, 163, 344, 347, 349, 353
Geographic Information Systems (GIS), 26–27, 351, 355
Gerber, Alan, 267, 269
Germany
atheism in East Germany, 250–251
communist repression, 240, 242–243
literacy rates in, 106
Reformation and German school system, 100–102
religious participation in East Germany, 18, 21
state ties to religion, 328–329, 337n.2
Gilchrist, John T., 314
Gill, Anthony, xi, 21–22, 252
Gill, Robin, 289
GIS Maps: Working with Social Explorer, 355
Global Barometer Surveys, 346
Globalization and the Re-Shaping of Christianity in the Pacific Islands (Ernst), 370
Glock, Charles Young, 5, 6, 352
God, images and beliefs in, 347–348, 357n.7
“Golden Age”, Muslim, 88–89
golden age of Jewish history, 60–62
Goldin, Claudia, 106
Google Earth, 26–27
Google Maps, 26–27
Gorski, Philip, 258, 259
Go, Sun, 106
government
demographic statistical reports, 371
religious practice and, 266
role in religious finance, 324–325 See also state religion
gray market for religion, 246
Great Jewish Revolt, 59
Great Patriotic War, 244
Greeley, Andrew, 5, 6, 7, 27, 347
Green, Lowell, 101
Gregory V, Pope, 310
Gregory IX Pope, 194
Greif, Avner, 66
Grim, Brian J., xi, 28, 278, 353, 373
Gruber, Jonathan, 13, 43–44, 266, 267, 269
Guide to Resources and Services, 344
Gutenberg, Johannes, 328
H
Hackett, Rosalind, 372
Halacha, 72
Handbook of Churches and Councils: Profiles of Ecumenical Relationships (van Beek), 372
Handbook of Churches, Ecumenical Organisations, Theological Institutions, and Other World Religions in Botswana, A (Amanze), 371
handbooks, church and religion, 371
Hanson, Charles, 284
Harmony and Harmony Society communes, 171, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180
Hart, Clyde W., 5
Hartzell, Jay C., 28, 350
Harvard University, 5
Heberg, Will, 155
Hébert, Robert F., xi, 10, 11
(p. 390) Hebrew, religious texts in, 62, 63, 66, 72
Hellenistic learning, 84–85
Henry IV (France), 283
Henry, Patrick, 280
Henry VIII (England), 19, 195
heresy
Islam and, 87
saint making and cases of, 193
Herfindahl index, 261, 262
heterogeneity, in ideology, 181–182
Hinduism, 23
financing, 333–336, 338n.8
immigration and, 154, 156, 164
and printing, 117
rational choice and, 10, 11, 12
Weber’s sociological study of, 4
History of the Future: A Chronology (Lorie and Murray-Clark), 366
Holmstrom, Bengt, 176
holy wars, 314
homogeneity
cultural, 218
in ideology, 181
Hoodbhoy, Pervez Amirali, 89–90
Hornung, Erik, 104
Hout, Michael, 6, 352
Huang, Jidong, 44
human capital, 13–16
critique of rational choice approach, 292–293
effects of the Protestant Reformation on, 93–107
Islam and, 81–90
Jewish money lending and, 70–71
and Protestant economic development, 103–105
religion and spread of, 113–118
religion in human capital investments and the family in the U.S., 39–49
religious, 247–248
Hume, David, 218
Hungary
communist repression in, 240, 242
religious participation in, 18
Hungerman, Daniel, xi, 13, 21, 44, 260, 266, 267, 269
Huntington, Samuel, 221, 222
Hutterite communes, 171, 177, 178, 179, 181, 185–186
I
Iannaccone, Laurence R., xi, 19, 24
cost-benefit analysis, 8–9
data collection, 356
public financing of religion, 11–12
religion under communism, 246, 247
religious finance, 326
religious human capital, 247
religious markets, 257, 260, 266, 270n.6
social rituals, 182
state religion, 18–19
supply-side model, 20, 22, 136, 290, 291, 292, 293
Ibn Abi Usayb’ia, 88
Ibn Aqil, Abu al-Wafa Ali, 85
Ibn Hazm, 87
Ibn Taymiyya, Taqi al-Din, 84
Icarian communes, 171, 174, 175, 176, 181, 184
ideology, in the stability of communes, 180–185
instrumental and noninstrumental, 183
Idler, Ellen, 353
’ilm al-kalam, study of, 86–87, 89
images of God, 347–348, 357n.7
immigration, 20, 151–152
immigrant communes, 175
impact of religion on migration, 152–154
impact on religion, 154–156
religion among immigrants in the U.S., 159–164, 377
religion and immigrant life chances, 156–158
and religious demographic change, 377–378
U.S. religion market and, 23, 174–175
incertae restitutions, 311
Index ac Status Causarum, 192
India, 120
indulgences, 25
Crusading, 316, 319n.14
granting of, 316–317, 328
industrialization
effects of education on, 104
(p. 391) Protestant work ethic and, 99–100
Industrial Revolution, 104, 118
InfoUSA, 351
Inglehart, Ronald, 136–137
Innocent III, Pope, 313
Innocent XI, Pope, 209
Institute for Research in Social Science (IRSS), 348
Institute on Culture, Religion and World Affairs, 373
institutions, 118–119
civil society, 119–120
fostering rule of law during colonialism, 120, 121–122
minimizing market regulation, 122
political democracy, 123
instrumental egalitarianism, 183
instrumental ideology, 183–184
international data collection, 28–29
International Data Initiative, 353–354
international religious demography, 365–380
International Social Survey Program (ISSP), 27, 346, 370
interreligion marriages, 293
interreligious competition, theories of, 259–261
Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 27, 344
intimate partner violence and victimization, 44–45
intra-Christian conflicts, 26
Ireland, 19, 106
Islam, 10, 11, 14–15, 20, 23
founding of, 59, 60
immigration from Islamic nations, 156, 158
and monotheism, 218, 220
Muslim Empire and Jews, 65–66
and printing, 117, 118
religion and scientific development in, 83–89
under communism, 250
Islamic Association, 243
isolation and integration/assimilation, communes and, 177–179
Israeli kibbutzim, 24, 169, 170, 171, 173, 175
Italy
Italian banking houses, 73
printing industry in, 116
Iyigun, Murat, xii, 26, 218, 219, 220, 221, 224, 225, 228n.7
J
Jamal al-din al-Afghani, 83–84
James, Estelle, 120
Jehovah’s Witnesses, 333
Jerusalem temple, destruction of, 59, 62
Jewish European history
farmers to merchants, 65–66
Jewish Diaspora, 66–67
Jewish history overview, 59–62
money lending in, 58–59, 67–74
Talmud era, 64–65
Torah, 59, 62–63, 74
Jewish pogroms, 222
John Paul I, Pope, 203, 209
John Paul II, Pope, 191, 197, 200, 202, 204–205, 207, 209, 213, 244, 250
Johnson, Byron R., 352–353
Johnson, S., 226
Johnson, Stephen, 348
Johnson, Todd M., xii, 28, 210, 373
John XV, Pope, 194
John XXIII, Pope, 209
Judah haNasi, Rabbi, 63
Judaism, 14
diaspora, 66–67
economic and demographic behavior of non-Orthodox Jews, 40
education, 62–65, 163
financing, 331–332
Jewish immigrants, 157, 161, 162, 163, 164
legacy of, 74–75
and religious participation, 44
state subsidies for religious schooling, 18
two pillars of, 62, 76n.3
voluntary conversions, 64
Weber’s sociological study of, 4
Jugendweihe ceremonies, 251
K
Kanter, Rosabet, 177
karma, 10, 12
(p. 392) Katz, Lawrence F., 106
Kemp, Eric W., 25, 194
Keyes, Charles, 5
Khalifa, Hajji, 84
kibbutzim
brain drain process in, 173
communal wealth in, 176
European, 171
group size and equality, 177
ideology, 181, 184
integration/assimilation issues, 179, 186
Israeli, 24, 169, 170, 171, 173, 175
outside workers, 179
religious, 184
Al Kindi, Ya’qub, 85
kinship groups, 309
Kuran, Timur, 14, 15
preference falsification, 15
Kuznets, Simon, 66, 75
L
labor, organization of, 4
language, literacy and, 114, 115
Lanzinner, M., 101
Late Great Planet Earth, The (Lindsey and Carlson), 366
Latin America
blessed persons, 212, 213
canonizations in, 26
Protestants emphasis on education in, 115
laws
and control of religious activities, 21–22
legal recognition of religious groups, 278–279
rule of law during colonialism, 120, 121–122
Lazarsfield, Paul, 5, 6
Lehrer, Evelyn L., xii, 13, 14, 39, 349
Lenin, Vladimir I., 237, 238–239, 242, 245
Lenski, Gerhard, 5, 6
Leo XI, Pope, 203
Lesthaeghe, Ron J., 48
Lewis, Bernard, 14–15, 82
Likert, Rensis, 5
Lindert, Peter H., 106
Lindsey, Hal, 366
linguistic fractionalization, 221
liquor, abolishment, 16
literacy
literacy rates, 15–16
mass education and growth of, 113–114
Protestantism and, 98, 99, 100–102, 105–106
religious, 66, 71
loans, medieval Church lending activities, 312, 313, 319n.11
Locke, John, 280
lock-in mechanisms, commune, 175–176
logical methods, study of, 86–87
Looking Backward, 2000–1887 (Bellamy), 366
Lorie, Peter, 366
Louis XIV (France), 283
Lunt, W. E., 312, 314, 319n.11
Lutheran Church, 21, 26, 106, 242, 251, 328–329
Luther, Martin, 94–95, 99, 101, 102–103, 195, 317
Luttmer, Erzo F. P., 257
M
Madison, James, 280
Makdisi, George, 85, 88
manuscript societies, 118
Mao Zedong, 237, 239, 243, 244, 245, 250
market phenomena, religious competition as, 3, 7
market regulation
communism and, 235–239
Protestantism and minimizing, 122
red, black, and grey, 246
marriage
interreligion, 293
medieval Church and, 309–310
nonmarital sex and divorce among conservative Protestants, 47–48
religiosity and marital stability, 41–42
religious affiliation and married-couple households, 41
shared-faith, 293
martyrs, 192, 193
Marxist-Leninist regimes, 244, 245, 247, 248, 251
(p. 393) Marx, Karl, 237
mass education, early, 113–114
mass printing and mass religious education, 116–118
maximizing utility, 294, 295–296
Mazarin, Cardinal, 283
McCleary, Rachel M., xii, 10, 18, 19, 25, 257
state religion (religion monopoly), 18–19
McGowan v. Maryland, 267
McQuoid, Alexander, xii, 25
MEASURE Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 368
medieval Church, political economy of the, 305–306, 317–318
capital markets, 310–312
Crusades, 313–316
doing well by doing good, 308–309
marriage, 309–310
organization of medieval Church, 307–308
purgatory, indulgences, and the Protestant Reformation, 316–317
medieval scientific developments, in the Muslim world, 81–90
Melanchthon, Philipp, 101
melting pot concept, 7
Membership Reports and Mapping, U.S., 355
members-only religious institutions, 12
Menasseh ben Israel, Rabbi, 74
meta-credence goods, 10
Methodism, 16, 290
M-form corporation, 307, 308, 318n.4
Middletown studies on Muncie, Indiana, 348
migration, impact of religion on, 152–154, 159, 160
military conflicts, 26, 222–226
military technology, advances in, 227
Milner, Murray, Jr., 12
miracles, 192, 195, 197
Mishnah, 63, 72
missionaries
Catholic and Protestant, 16, 105, 119–120, 121, 123–124
and colonialism, 121–122
missionary education, 114–115
missionary printing, 116–117, 120, 125n.5
reform activities of Protestant, 119–120
Social Gospel, 122
statistical evidence and Protestant missionary activity, 123–124, 125n.8
Mohammed, 59, 60
money lending, in medieval Church, 311, 319n.8
money lending, Jewish
in Jewish European history, 58–59
medieval Church and, 312
physical vs. portable human capital, 70–71
religious lever of, 71–74
restrictions on Jewish activities, 67–68
restrictions on non-Jewish activities, 68–70
timeline of restrictions, 69
Mongol invasions, 59, 61, 83
monographs, scholarly, 370–371
monotheistic religions, 11, 12, 20, 281
rise of monotheism, 218–220, 228n.4
Montgomery, James D., 259, 260, 261
moral hazard in communes, 170, 172, 173–174, 178
Morioka, Kiyomi, 334
Mormonism, 333
Mormons
congregations, 142
economic and demographic behavior of, 40, 42
Mughal empire, 89
Müller, H., 102
Murray-Clark, Sidd, 366
Murray, John E., 173
Muslims, 14
ascent of Muslim empire, 60, 65
conflicts between Christians and, 221–222
demographics of, 367–368, 374, 376, 378–379, 380n.2
early printing in Muslim society, 118
immigration, 154, 156, 164, 378
Muslim science, premodern, 81–82, 89–90
brief history of, 82–83
conflict between religion and science, 83–84
decline in competition and the “appropriation” of science, 87–88
(p. 394) from logic for debates to science, 86–87
proofs, rationality, and heresy, 87
science and diversity after the “Golden Age”, 88–89
tolerance, religious competition, and reason, 85–86
when and why did the conflict arise, 84–85
Muslim states, 19
N
National and Regional Profiles, 355
National Center for Health Statistics, 348
National Congregation Study, 350
National Council on Churches, 351
nationalization of church assets, 242, 243
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 13
National Opinion Research Center, 5
National Science Foundation, 348
National Study of Youth and Religion, 347, 349
nation-states, 227, 291
natural religion market, 20
Neidert, Lisa, 48
Nelson, Benjamin N., 312
New Age religions/movements, 11, 18, 295, 299, 326, 333
New Harmony commune, 174, 181
New York censuses, 348
New York Times, 366
Niebuhr, H. Richard, 20
Nonconformist Protestants, 119, 122
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 120
noninstrumental egalitarianism, 183
noninstrumental ideology, 183–184
nonmarital sex and divorce, 47–48
nonprofits, religious, 350
Norris, Pippa, 136–137
Nunn, Nathan, 223, 224
O
Olds, Kelly, 266
Olson, Daniel V. A., xiii, 22–23, 261, 262, 291
Oneida communes, 171, 178, 179, 180, 182, 184, 185
Opium Wars, 118
opportunity cost of time, religious choices and, 8
oral societies, 118
organizational civil society, 119–120
Orthodox Church, 241–242, 329
otherworldly compensators, 9, 10
Ottoman Empire, 89, 220
Oved, Yaacov, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177
P
Pacific Theological College, 370
Paganism, 333–336
Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 348
papal bulls, 194, 316
Papal States, 306, 318n.2
Parker, Geoffrey, 224
Parsons, Christopher A., 28, 350
Parsons, Talcott, 5, 218
patriotic associations, 244
Paul III, Pope, 195
Paul V, Pope, 200
Paul VI, Pope, 196, 209
Penn State University, 27
Pentecostalism, 20, 46, 209, 333
People’s Republic of China
communist repression, 240, 241, 243–245
religious markets in, 246, 252
religious participation in, 18
religious revival, 249, 250
persecution, religious, 239–245
Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 352, 355, 358n.14
Pew Forum’s Ten-country Survey of Pentecostals, 346
Pew Forum’s U.S. Religious Landscape Survey, 349, 370
Pew Global Attitudes Project, 370
Pew Research Center, 347
Pfaff, Steven, xiii, 17, 21
Pharisees, 62, 63, 71
pilgrimages, 313–314
Pitzer, Donald, 172, 173
Pius V, Pope, 209
(p. 395) Pius IX, Pope, 203, 209
Pius X, Pope, 209
Pius XI, Pope, 200
Pius XII, Pope, 209
Poland, communist repression, 19, 241, 243, 244
political actors, 282
political democracy, 123
political economy, of the medieval Church, 305–319
political parties, rise of, 120, 123
Polson, Edward C., 352–353
Ponce, Jasper, 316
pornography, 357, 358n.16
post-Enlightenment era, 218, 228n.2
Powell, Walter W., 20
Presbyterians, 283
Princeton University, 373
printing, 116–118
printing press, 16, 117, 221, 328
printing societies, 118
private donations, religious institutions and, 12
private religions, 326
new age, 333
proselytism, 243
proselytizing religions, 20, 327, 332
Protestant economic development, human capital and, 103–105
Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, The (Weber), 4
Protestantism
and Catholicism, 15–16, 26, 96–97, 101–102, 103, 105, 106, 114, 222
communes, 182
and communism, 249, 250
congregations, 141–145, 146
cross-country pattern in 1900, 105–106
education, and fertility, 104–105
and education within countries, 106
immigration and, 153, 161, 162, 163, 164
and literacy, 98, 113–115
and printing, 116, 117, 125n.5
religious affiliation variables, 45–46 See also conservative Protestants; missionaries
Protestant Reformation, 93–94, 280
Crusades and, 316–317
on education in Prussia, 97–100
and gender differences in education, 102–103
human capital theory of Protestant economic history, 94–97
sainthood and, 195, 209, 213
spread of literacy from Lutheran times to the 19th century, 100–102
success of, 220, 221
Prussia, Reformation on education in, 97–100, 101–102
purgatory, 316–317
Puritanism, 4, 21, 283, 284, 299
Q
Qian, Nancy, 223, 224
Quakers, 283, 284
Question Lab (ARDA), 354
QuickLists and QuickStats, 355
Qur’an, 60
R
Raffles, Thomas Stamford, 122
Ramet, Sabrina, 238
Rapp, George, 175, 176
rational choice model, 9–12, 270
of behavior, 297
limitations of, 9–10, 294–297
religious beliefs and activities in, 3
Smith and Weber’s use of, 3, 4
rationality, 9, 270, 271n.12
Reagan, Ronald, 329
red, black, and gray markets for religion, 246
Reformed Church, 242
reform movements, 119–122
Regnerus, Mark D., 47
reincarnation, 10
relators, 196, 197
relics, religious, 195, 314, 319n.12
religion
among immigrants in the U.S., 159–164
census data on, 350–351
decline of, 18, 20, 298
demand for, 18, 20
in human capital investments and the family in the U.S., 39–49
and immigrant life chances, 156–158
impact of immigration on, 154–156
impact of migration on, 152–154
and individual behavior, 6
salience of, 46
in the second demographic transition, 48–49
and spread of human capital, 113–118
under communism, 17–18, 21, 235–253
Religion and State Project, 27, 346, 353–354
religion yearbooks and handbooks, church and religion, 371
religiosity, 41–42, 46, 261, 262, 291
religious activities, control of, 21–22
religious affiliation
economic and demographic outcomes and, 40–41, 42, 173, 375–378
religious participation and, 42–44
social identity and, 295–296
unaffiliated, 40–41, 352–353
variables in, 45–46
religious capital, 153, 154, 218
religious commodities, 296–297, 325–326
religious communes, 184–185, 187n.20
religious competition. See competition
religious concentration, 18, 43, 135
Religious Congregations and Church Membership Study (RCMS), 140–147, 351, 355
religious conversions, 15, 64–65, 292
religious demography, 365–366, 380n.1
collections of data, 372–378
data, 367–372
future research, 378–380
previous inaccurate predictions, 366–367
religious economies, 8, 137, 147n.1
immigrants, migration and, 151–164
religious elites, conservative, 15
Religious Factor, The (Lenski), 6
religious fractionalization, 221–222
religious freedom, 275–285
religious goods, 281, 285n.1
religious hegemonies, 290–291, 296
religious human capital, 247–248
religious ideology, 184–185, 297
religious institutions, 324
Religious Landscape Survey, U.S., 349, 355, 358n.14, 370
religious liberties, 21–22, 252, 275–276
liberty, pluralism, and religious vitality, 285
and Protestant missionaries, 119–120
origins of, 280–284
as a regulatory issue, 277–279
religious markets, 7–9, 257–259, 269–270
competition in, 3, 7
empirical work on competition, 261–263
examples of secular phenomena and case study, 265–269
importance of secular phenomena, 263–265
state regulation and, 20–22
theories of competition, 259–261
under communism, 246, 248, 252
religious monopolies, 290–291
with or without the state, 16–20
religion monopoly defined, 18
religious organizations, 157, 158
legal issues/regulations for, 278–279
religious participation
decline of, 18, 21
and economic and demographic behavior, 42
immigrant, 156
intimate partner violence and victimization and, 44–45
religious affiliation and, 42–44
religious participation model, 8
repeal of blue laws and, 13, 44, 266
supply and demand, 135–147
variables in, 44–45, 46–47
religious pluralism, 21
and competition, 22–26
and demographics, 379
religious liberty and, 276, 282, 284, 285
religious research, 337, 338n.9
religious strife, 217–229
(p. 397) religious switching, 43
religious vitality, 285, 290–291, 297
RELTRAD, 352, 353
Renaissance, 82, 90n.4
rent-seeking, 310, 311, 315, 318n.7
repression, communist, 239–245
Responsa, 58, 64, 65, 68, 70, 72
restitutions, Church, 311, 319n.9
revenues, church, 313–316, 319nn.13
revival, religious, and postcommunist developments, 249–251
reward and compensator, concepts of, 10, 12
Rhode Island, 46
Ricardo, David, 74–75
Richardson, Lewis F., 220
Richelieu, Cardinal, 283
rituals, social, 182–183
Robbins, Thomas, 334
Robert the Pious (France), 310
Robinson, James, 226
Roman Catholic Church
canonization process, 194–197
and colonialism, 121, 122
communism and, 242, 243, 244, 249–250
congregations, 141–142, 143
cults, 193
fertility rates and, 46, 376
financial activities of, 11
immigration and, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159–161, 162, 163–164
medieval Church and, 305–306, 307, 309, 311–312, 313, 314, 316–318
organization of, 24–26
Protestantism and, 15–16, 26, 96–97, 101–102, 103, 105, 106, 114, 222
religious freedom and, 282, 283, 284
state religion and, 19
taxes, 328–329
U.S. Catholicism, 6, 40
usury ban and, 25, 69, 73, 311, 318nn.78 See also missionaries; sainthood
Roman Curia, 196
Roth, Cecil, 67, 69
Rothschild, Mayer Amschel, 58, 75
Ruffle, Bradley, 184
rule of law, 120, 121–122
Russian Orthodoxy, 17
S
Sacra Rituum Congregatio, 196
Sadducees, 62, 63
sainthood, 191–193, 214–215
data set of beatifieds and saints, 197–202
locations and characteristics of blessed persons, 192, 209–214
regression results on rates of canonization and beatification, 202–209
saint making process, 193–197
Saliba, George, 83
salvation, 9, 10, 12
Santeria, 18, 246, 250
Scheitle, Christopher, 350, 351, 356
Schleunes, Karl A., 101–102
scholarly monographs, 370–371
scholars, Muslim, 83–84
scientific atheism, 17, 235–236, 237–239, 248
scientific developments, in the Muslim world, 81–90
scientific study of religion, 7
Scientology, 295
Second Crusade, 315
second demographic transition, 48–49
Second Great Awakening, 113
Sectarian Protestants, 163
sects, religious, 8–9
secular communes, 180
secular competition, 21
secularization and economic models, 20, 289–293, 299–300
first principles and general problems, 294–297
secularization and maximizing, 297–299
secularization theories, 136
secular phenomena, 263–269
segmented assimilation, 157
sex, nonmarital sex and divorce, 47–48
Shaker communes, 171, 173, 175, 176, 177–178, 180
shared-faith marriages, 293
Sharot, Stephen, 12
(p. 398) Sherkat, Darren E., xiii, 10, 13, 23
Shintoism, 11
sin tax, 25
Sixtus V, Pope, 195–196
slavery, 16, 112, 122
Smith, Adam, 3, 4, 5, 16–17, 259, 325
Smith, Christian, 252, 349, 353
social capital, 218
Social Gospel missionaries, 122
social identity, and religious affiliation, 295–296
socialist anticlericalism, 238
socialist communes, 171, 173, 178
socialist ideologies, 180, 184–185
social movements, 119–120
social rituals, in communes, 182–183
social sanctions, in communes, 176–177
social support programs, for immigrants, 158
socioeconomic consequences of religious strife, 217–218, 227–229
conflict data, 222–226
religion, conflict, and socioeconomic change, 218–222
sociological study of religion, Weber and, 4–7
Sombart, Werner, 4
Sosis, Richard, 182, 184
Sources of News on the Generations of Physicians, 88
Southern Baptists, 291
Soviet Union
communist repression, 240, 241–242
religious revival, 249, 252
stability of communes, role of ideology in, 180–185
Stalin, Joseph, 242, 244, 245
Stark, Rodney
data collection, 352
general compensators, 10
Glock and, 6–7
immigration and religion, 153, 154
monotheistic religions, 20
religious demography, 366, 367
religious markets, 259, 266
religious participation, 46
state religion (religion monopoly), 18–19
supply-side model, 20, 22, 135, 136, 139, 290, 291, 297
State Department International Religious Freedom Reports, U.S., 27, 346, 357n.2
state education systems, creation of, 115
State of the First Amendment surveys, 347
state religion
religion monopoly and, 16–20
role of state and religious finance, 324–325
state funding of religion, 11
state regulation and the religion market, 20–22, 235–239
statistical questionnaires and reports, 371
Statistical Yearbook of Norway, 371
Statutum de Judaismo, 73
Steensland, Brian, 353
Stigler, George J., 57
stigmatic behavior, 8–9
strict religions, membership in, 8–9
structural-functionalist school, 218
substance abuse, repeal of blue laws and, 13, 44
substitutes, for religion, 245–249
Sunrise commune, 173
supply and demand, 18, 20, 23, 135–137
communism and, 237–238, 239, 240–241, 246–247, 248
demand as participation relative supply, 139–140
distinguishing, 137–138
immigration and, 154, 155
Religious Congregations and Church Membership Study, 140–147
religious vitality and, 291
supply-side model of religion, 18, 20, 21, 22–23, 135
Survey Research Center, 5, 6
surveys
demographic, 369–370 See also data collection
Swedberg, Richard, 5
Sylvester II, Pope, 310
T
Talmud, 58, 63, 64–65, 72, 75
Tamney, Joseph, 348
Taoism, 4
(p. 399) Tawney, Richard Henry, 4
taxation, 21, 25, 266, 314, 316, 328–329, 337n.2
Templeton Foundation, 346
Templeton Religion Survey Data Expansion Project, 348
Ten-Country Survey of Pentecostals (Pew Forum), 346
text mining, 27
theological beliefs, 46
Thirty Years’ War, 101, 102, 220
Tilly, Charles, 227
Times of London, 116
Tollison, Robert D., xiii, 10, 11
Torah, 59, 62–63, 74, 75
Treaties of Westphalia, 101
Trinity College, 349
Troeltsch, Ernst, 4, 8
Two Hundred Years of American Communes (Oved), 172
Tyerman, Christopher, 315
U
ulema, 15
Ulric of Augsburg, Saint, 194
United Methodist Church, 28
United Nations, 369, 372
United States
American colonies and religious freedom, 283, 284
census data on religion, 350–352, 372
communes, 170–171, 172, 173, 175–176, 181, 184, 186n.4
high fertility rates in, 46, 48
immigration, 156–157, 377
nineteenth-century Christian America, 330–331
Protestantism and education in, 106
religion among immigrants in the, 159–164
religion in human capital investments and the family in the, 39–49
religion market, 10–11, 17, 20, 23
religious liberty in, 277, 283, 284
religious participation in, 136
rise of religious freedom in, 280
second demographic transition in the, 48–49
State Department International Religious Freedom, 27, 346
survey data on North America, 347–349
tax-based incentives, 266
zoning restrictions, 278–279
U.S. Congregational Life Survey (USCLS), 349
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 348
unpublished documentation, 372
unregulated saints, 193
Urban VIII, Pope, 196
usury doctrine, 25, 58, 68–69, 73, 311–312, 313, 315, 318nn.78
V
van Beek, Huibert, 372
van der Kuijp, Leonard, 19
van der Sprenkel, Otto, 4, 5
Vatican II, 6, 40, 115
Vatican Web site, 192
violence and victimization, 44–45
violent conflicts, 223, 229n.9
Voas, David, 261, 262, 291
voluntary organizations, 120
W
Wagar, Warren, 380
Warner, R. Stephen, 135
Wealth of Nations (Smith), 3, 4
Web-based descriptions of religions and churches, 372
Weber, Max, 66
categories of human action, 9, 30n.7
interpretive sociology, 5
Judaism and urbanization, 66
Protestant ethic, 4, 15–16, 93, 95, 99
and Protestant Reformation, 93
and sociological study of religion, 4–7
Wesley, John, 16
Western Europe and immigrants, 157, 377
Wilkinson, David, 220
Wilkinson, Priscilla Anne, 75
Williams, Linda B., 46
William the Conqueror, 72
Wittenberg, Germany, 16, 98–99
(p. 400) Wittenberg, Jason, 242
Woessmann, Ludger, xiii, 15–16, 94, 99, 100, 103, 104, 107
Woman of the Wilderness commune, 173
women, child-bearing and second demographic transition in the U.S., 48–49
Woodberry, Robert D., xiii, 15, 16, 28, 105
World Christian Database (WCD), 210, 215, 345, 355, 373–374
World Christian Encyclopedia (WCE), 345, 370–371 see also World Christian Database
World Council of Churches, 372
World Factbook, 355
World Religion Database, 28–29, 373–374
world religions, economic development and, 4–5
World Values Survey (WVS), 27, 28, 159, 346, 355, 370
Wuthnow, Robert, 6
Y
Yang, C. K., 11
Yang, Fenggang, 246, 252
yearbooks and handbooks, church and religion, 371
Yermack, David L., 28, 350
Z
Zhou, Min, 157
Zimmer, Basil G., 46
Zoar communes, 171, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181, 182, 184
zoning laws, 21, 278–279