- Short Contents
- About the Editors
- The Promises (?) of Deaf Education:: From Research to Practice and Back Again
- The History of Language and Communication Issues in Deaf Education
- Legal Advocacy for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children in Education
- Preparing Teachers of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
- Effective Instruction for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students:: Teaching Strategies, School Settings, and Student Characteristics
- Supporting Students in General Education Classrooms
- Current and Future Technologies in the Education of Deaf Students
- Evidence-based Curricula and Practices That Support Development of Reading Skills
- Will Cochlear Implants Close the Reading Achievement Gap for Deaf Students?
- The Demands of Writing and the Deaf Writer
- Mathematics Instruction and Learning of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students:: What Do We Know? Where Do We Go?
- Deaf Children with Severe Multiple Disabilities:: Etiologies, Intervention, and Assessment
- Reflections on Identity
- Deaf Studies in the 21st Century:: “Deaf-gain” and the Future of Human Diversity
- Cochlear Implants:: Family and Young People’s Perspectives
- The Impact of Early Identification of Deafness on Hearing Parents
- How Does Speech Intelligibility Affect Self and Others’ Perceptions of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing People?
- Emerging Sign Languages
- Early Language Acquisition and Adult Language Ability:: What Sign Language Reveals About the Critical Period for Language
- Communication Choices and Outcomes During the Early Years:: An Assessment and Evidence-based Approach
- Early Communication in Sign and Speech
- Language Acquisition and Critical Periods for Children Using Cochlear Implants
- Newborn Screening and Earlier Intervention with Deaf Children:: Issues for the Developing World
- Prelinguistic Vocalizations in Infants and Toddlers with Hearing Loss:: Identifying and Stimulating Auditory-guided Speech Development
- Children and Youth Who Are Hard of Hearing:: Hearing Accessibility, Acoustical Context, and Development
- Performance Outcomes for Adult Cochlear Implant Users
- Play and Theory of Mind:: Indicators and Engines of Early Cognitive Growth
- Learning Disabilities in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
- Executive Function, Cognitive Control, and Sequence Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants
- Working Memory, Deafness, and Sign Language
- Paradigm Shifts, Difficult Truths, and an Increasing Knowledge Base in Deaf Education
- Author Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
The critical period hypothesis, as it relates to language acquisition, states that there is a limited window of opportunity for the infant to optimally process incoming acoustic input, learn to discriminate phonemes, and organize language into meaningful units. When auditory input is absent during the critical period, connections within the brain may tend to be organized in the absence of phonological discrimination. This may, in part, account for the long-term language processing difficulties that are often reported for children with significant hearing loss.
The advent of cochlear implants provided researchers with a unique opportunity to examine the impact of earlier versus later access to audition on emerging linguistic domains such as phonology, semantics, morphology, and syntax. The average language outcomes for profoundly hearing-impaired children over the past 20 years using either hearing aids or cochlear implants have been generally disappointing. In contrast, the most recent outcomes for profoundly deaf infants receiving cochlear implants before the age of 12 months show language development within the normal range. Technological advances in physiological studies and medical imaging, coupled with the results from the most recent formal language measures, appear to support the view that cochlear implants are now being applied early enough to maximize natural language development for infants and toddlers.
Shani Dettman Cochlear Implant Clinic Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital East Melbourne, Australia
Richard Dowell Cochlear Implant Clinic Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital East Melbourne, Australia
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