- Short Contents
- About the Editors
- The Promises (?) of Deaf Education:: From Research to Practice and Back Again
- The History of Language and Communication Issues in Deaf Education
- Legal Advocacy for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children in Education
- Preparing Teachers of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
- Effective Instruction for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students:: Teaching Strategies, School Settings, and Student Characteristics
- Supporting Students in General Education Classrooms
- Current and Future Technologies in the Education of Deaf Students
- Evidence-based Curricula and Practices That Support Development of Reading Skills
- Will Cochlear Implants Close the Reading Achievement Gap for Deaf Students?
- The Demands of Writing and the Deaf Writer
- Mathematics Instruction and Learning of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students:: What Do We Know? Where Do We Go?
- Deaf Children with Severe Multiple Disabilities:: Etiologies, Intervention, and Assessment
- Reflections on Identity
- Deaf Studies in the 21st Century:: “Deaf-gain” and the Future of Human Diversity
- Cochlear Implants:: Family and Young People’s Perspectives
- The Impact of Early Identification of Deafness on Hearing Parents
- How Does Speech Intelligibility Affect Self and Others’ Perceptions of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing People?
- Emerging Sign Languages
- Early Language Acquisition and Adult Language Ability:: What Sign Language Reveals About the Critical Period for Language
- Communication Choices and Outcomes During the Early Years:: An Assessment and Evidence-based Approach
- Early Communication in Sign and Speech
- Language Acquisition and Critical Periods for Children Using Cochlear Implants
- Newborn Screening and Earlier Intervention with Deaf Children:: Issues for the Developing World
- Prelinguistic Vocalizations in Infants and Toddlers with Hearing Loss:: Identifying and Stimulating Auditory-guided Speech Development
- Children and Youth Who Are Hard of Hearing:: Hearing Accessibility, Acoustical Context, and Development
- Performance Outcomes for Adult Cochlear Implant Users
- Play and Theory of Mind:: Indicators and Engines of Early Cognitive Growth
- Learning Disabilities in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
- Executive Function, Cognitive Control, and Sequence Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants
- Working Memory, Deafness, and Sign Language
- Paradigm Shifts, Difficult Truths, and an Increasing Knowledge Base in Deaf Education
- Author Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
The oral/manual “methods” controversy arose more than 200 years ago. Although many variations exist, there have been three basic approaches. An “oral” approach concentrates on the development of the spoken language of a community. What is now known as a bilingual-bicultural (Bi-Bi) approach emphasizes the development of the natural sign language of a community as the first language, then teaches the majority language through reading. A third approach supports the development of a sign system based on the syntax of a spoken language and modifications of a sign language in instruction. This system can be used either alone or in coordination with speech, known as simultaneous communication (Sim Com), or alone. A fourth approach, known as total communication (TC), encourages the use of all forms of communication, dependent on individual needs. These longstanding debates have not been resolved after two centuries, and represent different perceptions of deafness, the requirements for leading a full, rich life, and resultant educational and social goals.
The oral method was dominant from 1880 to 1960. Since then, constant change has occurred, with sign languages and sign systems receiving significant support. Recent global developments in neonatal screening, early intervention programs, cochlear implants, and the growth of an “inclusion” model in education have major implications for instruction and for the development of language and communication skills in deaf individuals.
Donald F. Moores Department of Exceptional Student and Deaf Education University of North Florida Jacksonville, FL
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