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date: 04 July 2020

(p. 561) Index

(p. 561) Index

3M Corporation, 321, 327, 332
20,000 Leagues under the Sea, 153
Abbott, Andrew, 91, 118, 253
ABC (American Broadcasting Company), 396
“ability scripts” and cochlear implants, 323
Abraham, Otto, 187, 190–192
The Abyss, 375
“Account of an Experiment Touching upon the Propagation of Sound Through Water,” 155
ACIDplanet and ACID software
history of online music sites, 481, 482
Ackerman, Diane, 304
acousmatic sound in digital games, 349–351, 360
acoustemology, 15
of blood flow, 305
acoustic ecology, 7, 362
acoustic images, capabilities for cognitive visual and spatial imaging, 415
acoustic microscope research, 224–248
bridging life science research and engineering research, 232
extending perception by fusing different senses, 240
illustration, 229
life scientists’ reluctance to use new imaging technology and interpret new contrast mechanism, 241
myxobacteria, cryogenic acoustic microscope image of, 243
outputs, technology lending itself equally well to visual and auditory outputs, 225
scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as natural extension of acoustic microscopy, 243
“seeing” acoustically, 233
acoustic music, conversion to electronic music in American advertising, 398–399
acoustic tags added to recordings, 188
acoustical engineers, automobile industry, 103, 104–105, 116, 117–118
Acquaviva, John, 519
active engagement in digital games, 358–360
ADAC Motorwelt, 97
adaptive forms of music distribution in Hungary and Czechoslovakia during Communist era, 452
Adidas, 509
adrenal excretion, effects of noise on, 286
Advanced Bionics, 338
Advanced Research Projects Agency, 236
advertising. See marketing and advertising
Advertising Age, 393
The Adventures of Andre and Wally B, 377
Aeolian Company, 463, 464, 472
aesthetics
animated short films, 368, 370, 376
of sonification, 550–553
underwater music, 154, 162
agricultural capitalism, early American industrialization, 43
airplanes
automobile sounds, aircraft industry design and testing, 109–110
earplugs for airplane travel, 289
AISP (associated imagination of sound perception), 115–117
Akai, 510
Akiyama, Mitchell, 250, 544
Akrich, Madeleine, 322, 430
Aladdin, 382
Albert Einstein School of Medicine, 234
Alcoa, 392
alerts and notifications, category of sonification, 548, 553
Alfred-Wegener-Institut for Polar-und Meeresforschung, 167
Allegemeine musikalische Zeitung, 208
Allen, Dr. Arthur A., 133, 138, 142
Allgemeine Automobil-Zeitung, 84, 89–90, 93–95, 97
Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, 211
Alpers, Svetlana, 141
amateur musicians, 459–479
coexistence of live and recorded music, 469
compositional practices of songwriters affected by karaoke, 463
de-skilling of musical performance, 472
development of musical amateurism in age of mechanical music, 459–479
DJing, 469–471
gameplay vs. instrumental play, 473
Guitar Hero, 471–473
hip-hop, 469–471
karaoke, 466–469
machines vs. humans making music, 463
mobile phone music, 473–476
(p. 562)
montages, 465
passive relationship with music, 463, 464, 467, 470
phonographs, 463–466
player pianos, 463–466
rapping, vocal parts added over top of breaks as, 470
ratio of musicians and teachers to U.S. population, historical numbers, 461
schizophonic performance, 473
social aspects of music making, 476
technologies, engagement with, 463
transformation of written musical culture to oral musical culture, 476
American Annals of the Deaf, 324
American Express, 396, 399
American Museum of Natural History, 133
American Optical, 232, 234, 237
American Ornithologists’ Union, 128, 132
The American Otologival Society, 328
America’s Army, 361
Amos, Tori, 488
Amsterdamska, Olga, 266
animals, underwater music, 156, 160–161, 167, 168n
animation
2-D animation, 374–375, 382
3-D computer-generated animation, 367, 374–384
aesthetics, 368, 370, 376
animation, definitions of, 375–376
anthropomorphism, 379, 382
caricaturized vocal performances, 384
cartoon sound, traditional, 378
character-based films, 377–384
characters, humanization of, 378
chase comedy, 378
“cinema of sensation,” 376
collaborative creativity in production, 372
comedic aspects, 369–371, 377–378, 383, 384
computer software, 367–368, 370, 374–375, 383–385
computer-generated images, 367, 374–384
credibility of computer animation, 380
definitions of, 375–376
dialogue, 369, 380
digital technology, 367–368, 374–377
directors, influence of, 372
emotions of characters, 379, 380–381
experimentation, 370, 372
Foley, 369, 372, 385n
geometric shapes in human characters, 377, 384
hyperrealism, 371, 380
immersive experiences, 373–374, 376, 385
innovation, causes of, 373
lamps, animated characteristics of, 379
live action film, realism of, 371–372, 381
magnetic film system, 370
multichannel sound presentation, 373–374
music, use of, 378, 380–382
musicals, 382
narrative voice, 369
online resources, 385
play, notion of, 368, 369, 379, 380
puppetry, 383–384
realism, 371–372
sonification, animation and re-animation of, 553–555
sound design, definitions of, 369–371
sound design in animated short films, 367–386
sound designers
design process, 370
innovation by, 367–368
job duties, 370–373, 376, 385
sound effects, 369, 381
sound samplers, 368, 372–373
sound track, 370–371
special effects, 375–376
speech and language, 382–383
storytelling, 377–384
studio house style
defined, 376–377
Pixar, 377–384
synchronization of image and sound, 380–381, 383, 385
technology
aesthetics, and, 372–377
limitations of, 377
thematic uses of sound, 368
traditional cartoon sound, 378
video games, 376, 385
visual culture, perspectives on realism, 371–372
visual design, job duties, 376
voices, 382–384
The Animation of Lists and the Archytan Transpositions, 213
anthropology of senses as area involved in sound studies, 7
anthropomorphism, sound design in animated short films, 379, 382
antinoise campaigns, 279, 280, 285
in American and European cities, 135
industrial noise abatement, 59
See also noise
Apocalypse Now, 373
Apple, Inc., 338, 499, 548
App Store’s music-related applications, 473
iPhones, 473–476
iPods, 526–543
Appun, Georg A. I., 203
Aquaopera #2, 164
archival preservation
Hungary and Czechoslovakia, nonofficial music practices during Communist era, 453, 454
phonograph, preservation of world languages and music, 188, 189
(p. 563) armed forces. See military
Army Signal Corps, 227
Arnheim, Rudolf, 414, 418
art
art studies as area involved in sound studies, 7
scientific data, sonification of, 253–254, 258–261
boundaries between, 259, 260–261
brainwaves as music, 258
EEG as music, 258
vocabulary of, 259–260
sonification, art vs. science, 551, 552
The Art of the Player-Piano: A Text-book for Student and Teacher, [link]
articulation
articulation theory, described, 547
nonsonic and sonic, sonification as articulation of, 556
phonautograph, 547
The Artificial Ear: Cochlear Implants and the Culture of Deafness, 322
Ash, Eric, 243
Ashley, Holt, 227
ASL (American Sign Language), sign for cochlear implants, 323
associated imagination of sound perception (AISP), 115–117
Association of German Engineers, 60, 61, 73
Asthetik der drahtlosen Telegrafie, 432
Athanasiades, Katherine, 480
Atlas Eclipticalis, 552
“Atmospherics/Weather Works,” 551
Atomic Energy Commission, 238
atomic force microscope (AFM), 244
“Au Claire de la Lune,” 555, 558
audible history, recording and playing back sound, 557
audification, category of sonification, 548, 553
audio cassette tapes. See cassettes and cassette players
audiometers, 289
audiospectrograph, scientific field recordings in ornithology, 142–145
audiotopia, 526–543
defined, 528
See also iPods
audio-visual proximity, digital games, 351–352
auditory culture as area involved in sound studies, 7
auditory display, 547
icons, 548, 553
See also sonification
Auenbrugger, Leopold, 302
Auge, Marc, 534
The Auk, 129
aural history, early American industrialization, 39–41, 54–55
auscultation
autoauscultation, 315–317
for diagnosis, 299–300
history of usage, 301–304
learning to listen, 306
of many hearts, 313–316
obsolescence of, 311–313
training medical students, 308–311
“Australia Council, Artists and new Technology Program,” 213
Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 213
Austrian Academy of Sciences, 190
Auto Revue, 97
Auto-Anzeiger, 87
autoauscultation, 315–317
“Autobahn,” 154
Auto-Doktor hearing device, 83
Auto-Lite, 394
automobiles
acoustical engineers, automobile industry, 103, 104–105, 116, 117–118
advertising automobile sound, 102–103, 105–107, 117
aircraft industry, design and testing, 109–110
Allgemeine Automobil-Zeitung, 84, 89–90, 93–95
artificial head, 111
associated imagination of sound perception (AISP), 115–117
Auto-Doktor hearing device, 83
car mechanics guild, 91–92
car repair manuals, 81, 83, 84
chauffeurs, 81–82
consumers
emotional responses to car sounds, 119–121
sound research, 103
diagnostic listening, 97
drivers, 96
hearing devices for, 83, 87–88
mechanics, 81, 85, 87, 89, 94
sound mapping for, 88
drivers, 81–85
chauffeurs, 81–82
diagnostic listening, 96, 97
listening while driving, 80, 83, 85, 112
repairing cars, 83–84, 94–96
ear training, 82–83
engine, 117
engine sounds, 117
Erlebnisgesellshaft, 103, 119
European automotive industry, 102–122
experience-driven society, 103, 110, 119–120
explorative vehicle evaluation (EVE), 115–116
gasoline cars, 105
German professional trade system, 90–91
horns, “stridency” of, 106–107
interior, 110–113, 117
interviewees, 103–105
(p. 564)
jury testing, loudness of motor vehicles, 107–108
language differences, European, 115
listeners, expert and lay, 113, 117–118, 121
listening mode, 80–81, 85
listening practices, differentiation of, 94–97
listening to, 79–101
loudness of motor vehicles, jury testing, 107–108
manuals for car repair, 81, 83, 84
marketing, 102–107, 118–122
mechanics, 86–89
criticism of, 89–90
diagnostic listening, 81, 85, 87, 89, 94
listening mode, 80–81
mimeticism in training, 94
as physician, 83, 84, 91
sound mapping, 88
training for, 89–92, 94
misunderstandings in sound evaluation, 118
motor horns, “stridency” of, 106–107
noise, 96
history, 105–108
regulation, 106, 118–119
pair comparison test, 113
pilots, aircraft, 109–110, 118
projection in testing, 108, 121
psychoacoustic research, 103, 110, 113–115
repair chaos, 89–92
repairing cars
drivers, 83–84, 94–96
mechanics, 86–89, 94
research, automobile industry, 103, 106–108
scale assessment test, 113
science and technology studies (STS), 103, 108–110
semantic differential scale assessment, 113–115
sensory experiences of consumers, 119–120
“silence” of automobiles, advertising, 105–107
silent car, ideal of, 92–93
simulators, automobile, 111–113
slapping noise, 79
sonar sounds, 114
sound design, 79–101
sound evaluation, 102–122
sound mapping, 88
sound quality index, automotive industry, 116
stethoscope for, 83, 87–88
target sounds, automobiles, 103, 110–111, 116–117, 121
Teknoskop, 87
terminology, 113–118
automobile sounds, 113–118
testing, 109–110
testing automobile sound
European automotive industry, 102–122
evaluation, 110–113
listeners, 113, 117–118, 121
projection, 108
replication, 108–109
science and technology studies (STS), 108–110
tinkering, 95
tree echo, 79
urban traffic noise, 106
World War One and car ownership, 81
Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift, 86
Automotive Industries, 107
Auto-Technik, 86, 88, 89
Avantek, 236
avant-garde music in American advertising, 388, 392
Avatar, 376
Axtell, Harold, 142
b-boys and b-girls, 469
“Baby, I’m Over the Pain,” 485
“A Back Story: Realism, Simulation, Interaction,” 376
Baier, Gerold, 258
Bain, Julian, 496
Bakelite, 285
Bambi, 373
Band, Lothar, 414
Barany, E., 304
Barayon, Ramon Sender, 239
Barclay, Charles, 398
Bardini, Thierry, 239
Barker, Hugh, 508
Barrass, Stephen, 254, 263, 264
Barron, Bebe, 389
Barron, Louis, 389
Barry, Andrew, 551
Barthes, Roland, 431
Bastian, Marc-Jan, 518
Bateson, Gregory, 166
“Battle of Vittoria,” 212
Baudrier, Yves, 153
Baudrillard, Jean, 431
Bay Area workshop, 239
BBC (British Broadcasting Company), 446–448
beat tones, scientific instruments as musical, 204
the Beamis Point, 490
the Beatles, 447, 495
Beatrice, 445, 447
Beauty and the Beast, 374, 382
“Beauty of Labor,” 61
Beaver, Paul, 399
Beck, Henry, 425
Bee Gees, 447
Beethoven, 212, 214
Beiträge zur Akustik und Musikwissenschaft, [link]
Bell, Alexander Graham, 323, 545, 556, 557
gap between Bell’s and Edison’s understanding of sound, 557
Bell Laboratories, 60, 228, 236, 238–240
(p. 565) bell sounds, underwater music, 155–156
Bell Telephone Labratories, 214, 321
Bellevue Hospital, 282
Benjamin, Walter, 535, 536, 540
BeOS Operating System Developer Conference, 518
Bergius, Rudolf, 62–64
Berkeley Labs, 555
Berlin auto mechanics guild, 91
Berlin Heinrich Hertz Institute for Vibration Research, 60
Berlin Institute of Psychology, 177
Berlin laboratory for experimental psychology, 186, 194
Berlin Phonogram Archive, 177–179, 189, 190
“experimental cylinders,” 178
parlograph as specialization in development of phonograph, 186
Berlioz, Hector, 153, 209
Berns, Michael W., 229, 243
Bernstein, David W., 508
Bertenshaw, A.J., 520
Bertrand, Rene, 214
“Beyond the Shores of Time’ed,” 492
Big Blue, 243
bigbít music scene, 444
Biggs, Hermann M., 282
Bijker, Wiebe, 509
Bijsterveld, Karin, 59, 83, 92, 102, 135, 462, 464, 521
Bilger, Robert, 331
bioethics, cochlear implants, 321–322, 324–325, 332
biology
acoustic microscope research, life scientists’ reluctance to use new imaging technology, 241
assigning pitches to amino acid sequences, 552
vibrations of cellular life, sonification of, 549
biomedical research and dissolution of “military-industrial-academic” research arrangements, 226–233, 235–237, 239
bionic rhetoric, cochlear implants, 323–325
Bird, Brad, 376, 384
Bird, C.K., 276, 278, 284
birdsong
use of term, 132
black box technology, 192, 193, 251, 512
cochlear implants, 332
user-friendly design, black-boxing of technology by development of, 417
black culture, racial authenticity, 505–525
segregation, effect on link between music and black empowerment, 505
black culture, racial authenticity in hip-hop music. See hip-hop
Black Noise, 510
Blaserna, Pietro, 209
Blazing Saddles, 350
blind persons, 261
Optacon as device for scanning and converting text into mechanical vibrations, 227
sensor changing pitch according to proximity to objects, 239
sonification as accessibility tool, 553, 554
Bloch, Ernst, 530
blood
anechoic chamber, blood flow as part of environment, 157
body as soundscape, 304
in digital games, 349
noise, effect on blood chemistry and blood pressure, 286
stethoscope, blood flow, 305, 307–308
ultrasonic blood imaging, 231
blood pressure
kymograph use, 179
noise affecting, 286
Blume, Stuart, 321, 322, 324, 325, 328, 331
Boatman, Edwin S., 229, 243
bobolink song transcript, 127
body sounds as diagnostic resource. See stethoscopes
Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN), 321
Bolz, Norbert, 417
bombs
in digital games, 349
earthquakes and bombs, differentiating, 549
Booker T. Washington, 506
Boott Cotton Mills Museum, 39
Borg, Kevin, 80, 86
Born, Georgina, 551
“boundary work,” 258–260
explained, 251
notions of scientificity, 266
as part and parcel of scientific field, 265
user testing in, 264
Boundin’ and One Man Band, 382
Bourdieu, Pierre, 80, 94
boutelliphone, 154
Bowe, David, 484
Braillard, Raymond, 421
brain
brainwaves as music, 258
cognitive science, different regions of brain processing different kinds of sounds, 557
noise, effect on cortical activity, 286
sonification applied to electrical activity of brain, 250
theory of presence in virtual environments, 357
(p. 566) Branchu, Alexandrine Caroline, 209
Brand, Albert, 133–136, 139, 142, 143
Brand, Stewart, 239, 240
Braun, Hans-Joachim, 58
“breaching experiment,” 250
break dancing, 469
Brenton, Harry, 357
Briefkasten, 85, 95, 97
British Birds, 129
British Broadcasting Company, 134, 418, 446, 558
broadcasting via radio, emergence of, 413–417
“Broadcasting without Frontiers,” 420
Brown, Emily, 360
Brunswick phonograph, 464
Bruyninckx, Joeri, 127
Buchla, Don, 238–240
Buchla Box, 239
Bull, Michael, 310, 526
Burch, Susan, 320
Bureau International de l’Espéranto, 418, 419
Burke, Teresa Blankmeyer, 324
Burrows, Arthur R., 418
Burt, Warren, 202, 213, 214, 218
Burtt, Ben, 368, 371, 378
Bush, Kate, 488
Bussey, Gordon, 416
cabinet radios, 416, 417
Caecilia, 210
Cage, John, 154, 157, 163, 166, 168, 217, 238, 394, 552
Cairns, Paul, 360
Calleja, Gordon, 357, 358, 362
Callon, Michel, 122
Cambridge University, 146
cameras
birdsong, camera recordings of, 135, 138, 142
disappearing analog past, 513
in Pixar animation, 373, 374, 377, 381
Cameron, James, 372
campus protestors’ demands for civilian research, 226–241
capitalism and industrialization, 52–54
industrial noise abatement, 73–75
Captain Nemo and the Underwater City, 153
cardiac matters. See heart
caricature sounds, 351
caricaturized vocal performances, 384
Carlos, Wendy, 400
Carnegie Hall, 215
Carpenter, Edmund, 304
Carr, Diane, 358
cars, sound of. See automobiles
cartoon sound
traditional, 378
See also animation
cassettes and cassette players, 11, 511, 527
Hungary and Czechoslovakia, nonofficial music practices during Communist era, 451–454
karaoke, 466, 468
portability, 515
portability plus recording, compact audiocassette enabling, 515
Cassirer, Ernst, 431
The Castle, 291
Caterpillar Diesel Engine Company of Rostock, 72
Catmull, Ed, 374
cause and effect in semiotic theory, 549
CDJ-1000 and digital DJing, 515, 516
cell phone music, 473–476
cells, sonification of inaudible vibrations of cellular life, 549
Cerf, Sigrid, 337
Cerf, Vinton, 337
CertainTeed Corporation, 287
Certeau, Michel de, 540
Chadima, Mikolas, 444, 453, 454
“Chamber of Technology,” 67
Chang, Jeff, 507
Chaos and the Emergent Mind of the Pond, 166
Chaplin, Charlie, 370, 371, 378
Charles, Daniel, 160, 161
chart positions in online music sites, 485
Charta 77, 453
Chase, Victor, 335
Chatfield, Tom, 531
chauffeurs, listening to cars, 81–82
Cherubini, Luigi, 211
Chesworth, David, 164
Chicago women’s club, 465
children
in animation design, 369, 379–381
applications allowing users to create music, 474
fetal ultrasound, 316–317
hospital noise and infant care, 286
music students, 461
native signers, 324
nostalgic notions of childhood play, 369
as radio users, 430, 431
Children’s Hospital Branch of SSUN, 283
Children’s Hospital on Randall’s Island, 282
Chion, Michel, 349, 355, 383
Chlandi, E. F. F., 202, 203
Chorost, Michael, 320, 322, 333, 335, 336, 338
Chouard, Nicolas, 104
Chowning, John, 231, 238, 240
chronographs, 204
chronometers, 201, 207, 209–212
Ciani, Suzanne, 387, 401–404
Cibulka, Petr, 453
cinema. See animation
(p. 567) Clark, Graeme, 332, 333
Clark, Mary Anne, 552
class conflict in early American industrialization, 44
clavicylinders, 203
Clementi, Muzio, 211
Cleophas, Eefje, 102
Clinton, President Bill, 244
Close Encounters of the Third Kind, 371
Coca-Cola, 402, 404
cochlear implants, 320–344
and ability scripts, 323
artifacts, politics of, 323
ASL sign for, 323
and bioethics, 321–322, 324–325, 332
“bionic ears,” 324
bionic rhetoric, 323–325
losses from technological advances, 323
black box technology, 332
communication, philosophy of, 338
“cultural genocide,” 324
Deaf culture, 321–322, 336
bionic rhetoric, 323
“cultural genocide,” 324
protests against cochlear implants, 324–325
deaf futurism, 336–338
deafened individuals
commercial device development, 332–335
experimental process, 329–331
invention of cochlear implants, 325–329
support for cochlear implants, 322, 324
early implants, 330, 332–335
electroacoustics, 321
ethics of usage, 321–322, 324–325, 332
experimental research participants, 322–323
commercial device development, 332–335
cross-purpose collaboration, 323
future technologies, 336–338
invention of, 325–329
commercial device development, 333–335
experimental process, 329–331
inventor House and patient Graser, 329
losses from technological advances, 323
neural-computer interfaces, 320–323
ability scripts, 323
“bionic ears,” 324
electroprosthetics, 321
experimental research participants, 322–323
future technologies, 336–338
neuroprosthetics, 321
neuroprosthetics, 321
photographs of implants, 326, 333
politics of, 323, 327
protests against, 324–325
signal processing, 332–336
commercial device development, 332–336
single channel, 325–331
black box technology, 332
experimental process, 329–331
invention of cochlear implant, 325–329
photograph of implant, 332
stigma symbol, 327
Codding, George, 420
codes of realism in digital games, 358–362
Coffin, Lucy, 133
Cold War, 167, 226
“military-industrial-academic” research arrangements, dissolution of, 226–233, 235–237, 239
and underwater music, 152, 156, 166, 167
The Cold War and American Science, 226
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 359
collaboration
animated short films, collaborative creativity in production, 372
online music sites, 494, 495
sonification of scientific data, 263
Colligon-Wayne, Lynda, 539
Collins, Harry, 94, 109
Coltart, John, 299–301, 306–310, 312–315
COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance), 68
comedy in animated short films, 369–371, 377–378, 383, 384
Committee for Fight against Hearing Damage Caused by Industry, 60
Committee for Industrial Noise Abatement, 60
Committee for Noise Abatement in Industry, 61
Committee of Intellectual, Artistic, and Social Rapprochement, 419
Committee of International Relays, 419
comparative musicology, 194
compositional practices of songwriters affected by karaoke, 463
comprehension
sonification of scientific data, 250
vision, 556
See also knowledge
Computer Music Journal, 552
computers and computer software
animated short films, computer-generated images, 367, 374–384
App Store, music-related applications at, 473
cochlear implants, neural-computer interfaces, 320–323
cochlear implants (CI) as neural-computer interfaces, 321
games. See games
interface design, sounds in, 548
(p. 568)
iPhone as small computer, 475
iPods. See iPods
Metasynth software, 549
sonification
digitization, 11, 549
killer application for, 255–257
sound design in animated short films, 367–368, 370, 374–375, 383–385
visualization of sound, 556
concert recordings, nonofficial music practices during Communist era, 448
The Condor, 129
conférence préliminaire pour une entente internationale en radio-téléphonie, 418
Constant, Edward, 108, 109
consumerism and sound
emotional responses to sounds. See emotion and emotional response
how-to guides, music teachers, and other modes of instruction, 463
karaoke singers’ power in music industry, 467
phonograph, commercial vs. scientific use, 179, 189, 192, 193
sound as commodity, 5
sound research, 103
contests, online music sites, 484, 497
conversion of academic research from military to civilian, 226–233, 235–237, 239
conversion of data to audible representations, 224–248
acoustic microscopy. See acoustic microscope research
“basic” research, 241, 242
life scientists’ reluctance to use new imaging technology and interpret new contrast mechanism, 241
Optacon as device for scanning and converting text into mechanical vibrations, 227
perceiving data in nuanced ways, 226
societal advancement, synesthetic conversion inseparable from, 230
visual representations, scientists’ predilection for, 224
Cooper Ornithological Society, 144, 145
Coppola, Francis Ford, 372
copyright, 396, 462, 483, 484
Cornell University, 133–136, 139, 140, 142
Department of Computer Science, 385
Harmonic Fluids Project, 385
Laboratory of Ornithology, 138
Ornithological Laboratory, 134
cortical activity, effects of noise on, 286
Corvisart, Jean, 302
Coslow, Bucky, 390
Cotex Corporation, 287
cotton mills, early American industrialization, 39, 45, 48–51
County Fair Bread, 394
Cousteau, Jacques, 152, 153
Cowboy, (Keith “Cowboy” Wiggins), 470
CPG (punk band), 452
creative constriction, nonofficial music practices during Communist era, 441, 442, 444, 454, 455
credibility of computer animation, 380
Cross, Charles, 177, 179, 185
Crystal, Billy, 383, 384
Csíkszentmihályi’s concept of flow, 357
The Cult of the Amateur, 477
cultural and ethnographic recordings, 188
cultural genocide, 324
cultural geography as area involved in sound studies, 7
Curtis, Scott, 382
cybernetics, 240
Da Vinci, Leonardo, 548
Daimler-Benz, 111
Dark Side of Earth, 445
Darley, Andrew, 361, 371, 376
The Dark Side of the Moon, 305
Daston, Lorraine, 135
data conversion. See conversions of data
Davies, Ebenezer, 52
Daye, Christian, 552
de Brossard, Sebastien, 210
de Campo, Alberto, 552
de Certeau, Michel, 535
de la Tour, Charles Cagniard, 205, 206
de Martinville, Edouard-Leon Scott, 545
De radio-detective: draadloze ogen, 433
de Roo, Foort, 104
dead voices, 558
deaf futurism, 336–338
deafness
cochlear implants. See cochlear implants
earplugs to prevent hearing loss, 288
industrial noise, hearing loss in workers, 58, 60, 66–67, 69, 73
teaching device for deaf children, 545
Debussy, Claude, 153, 156
The Deep, 153
Defense Department research, dissolution of military-industrial-academic research arrangements, 226–233, 235–237, 239
Delatour, Thierry, 552
Delcampe, David, 104
Delibes, Leo, 163
DeNora, Tia, 440, 450
Der Bau, 277
(p. 569) Designers and Manufacturers of Electronic Music and Musique ConcrËte Devices and Systems, 392
Despretz, Cesar-Mansute, 209
diagnostic invasiveness and growth of noise in hospitals, 279
diagnostic listening, 14
automobiles, 88, 96, 97
hearing devices, 83, 87, 87–88
mechanics, 81, 85, 87, 89, 94
stethoscopes. See stethoscopes
dialects, early American industrialization, 47
dialogue in animated short films, 369, 380
diapason normal, 209
dictation device, parlograph as, 186
Dictionnaire de musique, 210
Diderot, 356, 358
Die Denkumschaltung durch den Rundfunk, 415
Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen, 214
Die Lehre von den Tonempfindugen, 205
Die Reparatur-Werkstatt, 86, 88
Die Sprachlaute, 178, 186
“Die Wesensform des Lautsprechers: Ein Beitrag zurƒsthetik der Technik,” 417
diegetic sound, 349, 350, 361
Diesel Engine Works Rostock, 71, 72
Digidesign, 385
digital audio equipment, 11
Digital Theater System, 368
digital-signal processor (DSP) chips, 354
“dipping in” to nonofficial culture and practices, 441, 446, 451, 453–455
discriminating between sound and noise, 135
dishwasher advertisement, 403
Disney, 369–371, 373, 374, 380, 382
See also animation
Disnformation, 162
distortion in phonograph sound, 177, 178, 181, 185–187, 191, 192
“Distraction from Work by Noise and Music and Its Structural-Typological Context,” 62
DJing, 469–471, 506–520
black-folks art form, DJ and turntablism as, 516, 517
CDJ-1000 and digital DJing, 515
needle drops, mixing, and scratching, 469, 470, 506
techno/electronic DJs, 519
turntable transformed into musical instrument, 470
See also hip-hop
DJ Kool Herc, 515
DJ Soos, 516, 520
DJ Spooky, 519
Djourno, Andre, 325–327
DNA sequences, sonification by assigning pitches to amino acid sequences, 552
“Do You Already Know?”, 88
Docter, Peter, 383
Doctorow, Cory, 338
Dodge, Charles, 552
Dodge, Martin, 431
Doegen, Wilhelm, 189
do-it-yourself (DIY) capabilities with tape cassettes, 453
Dolan, Brian, 464, 472
Dolby Digital, 368, 373
Dolby Laboratories, 385
Dombois, Florian, 264
domestication of electronic sounds in American advertising, 388–389
domestication of radio, 416, 417
“Donatus Subaqua,” 162
Donders, Franciscus Cornelius, 185, 207
“Don’t Beat Your Wife Every Night,” 390
“Don’t Worry, Be Happy,” 382
Double Music, 157
“double sociality,” online music sites, 498
Douglas, Susan, 415
Douglass, Frederick, 506
downloading music. See online music sites
Downs, Roger, 431
Doyle, James, 327
Doyle, John, 327, 328
Draper, Janet, 316, 317
Draper Laboratory, 227
Dresden institute for the Protection of Labor, 67, 68, 70
Drexciya, 154
drip music, 154
“Dripsody: An Etude for Variable Speed Recorder,” 154
Duhamel, Jean-Marie Constant, 203
Dulong, Pierre Louis, 206
Dunn, David, 166
Dunn, John, 552
DuPont, 236
Dylan, Bob, 477
Dyson, Frances, 529
ear defenders, 288
“earcons,” category of sonification, 548, 553
earplugs and earmuffs, 287–290
and airplane travel, 289
foam to improve fit and comfort, 289
industrial noise abatement, 66–67, 70–75
labor unions encouraging use, 289
military use, 288–290
partial deafness in modern populations, 288
to prevent hearing loss, 288
risks of use in sociological, otological, psychological contexts, 288
stigma associated with, 286–288
(p. 570) earthquakes, differentiating between earthquakes and explosions caused by bombs, 549
echnics, 515
echocardiography, 312, 313, 317
echolocation, 553
ecology
acoustic ecology, 7, 362
in underwater music, 165–167
economic progress, early American industrialization, 52–54
Eddie and the Otters, 489
Eddington, Donald, 334
Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, 298, 317
Edison, Thomas Alva, 62, 176, 177, 190, 459, 465, 477, 544–546, 556, 557
gap between Bell’s and Edison’s understanding of sound, 557
educational potential of radio broadcasting, 417
EEG (electroencephalogram) as music, 258
Ehinger, Peter, 104
Ekstrom ice shelf, 167
the Electric Golem, 490
Électricité de France, 325
electricity and underwater music, 159–161
electroacoustics, 229, 321, 324, 327, 338, 349
“Electronic Music in Communication,” 396
Ellis, Elmo, 398
Embargo Act, 45
emotion and emotional response
animated short films, emotions of characters, 379, 380–381
car sounds, 119–121
digital games, 361
electronic music in advertising, 403–404
Employerís Liability Insurance Association, 74
“empty orchestra,” karaoke translated as, 466
Engelbart, Douglas, 239, 240
engine sounds, 117
industrial noise abatement, 71–73
enka (Japanese popular music genre), 463, 468
environmental history as area involved in sound studies, 7
“ephemerality” of sound (uniqueness in time and place), 143
Erb, J. Lawrence, 466
Eric Sunday Archive, 387
Erlebnisgesellshaft, 103, 119
Ermi, Laura, 358, 362
Eshun, Kodwo, 507
ethnology, 5
ethnographic observation of online music website users, 482
ethnomusicology, 194
as area involved in sound studies, 7
Etude, 466
Euler, Leonard, 181
euphones, 203
Europe
mechanics and motorists different “modes” of listening to cars. See automobiles
radio infrastructure, 417–424
testing automobile sound, European automotive industry, 102–122
“European experiment,” 420
European Union’s Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks, 539
Ewing, J. Alfred, 176–181, 184, 185
exhaust gas turbochargers, industrial noise abatement, 71–73
The Exorcist, 383
experience-driven society, 103, 110, 119–120
Hungary and Czechoslovakia, musical experience during Communist era, 441, 445, 448, 449, 455
experimental cylinders, 178
explorative vehicle evaluation (EVE), 115–116
exploratory listening, 14
explosions, differentiating between earthquakes and explosions caused by bombs, 549
eyesight. See vision
Eyriès, Charles, 325–327
Facebook, 480
“fading points” in hearing spectra, 142
Fairchild Semiconductor, 236
Faking It: The Quest for Authenticity in Popular Music, 508
Faler, Paul, 44
Fanon, Frantz, 506
Fantasia, 373
Farber, Gene, 242
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration), 321, 323, 331, 332, 334
Feaster, Patrick, 464
Federal German Society of Engineers, 67
feminism
in underwater music, 163–165
See also gender roles
Fencott, Clive, 357
Fernström, Mikael, 264
Fero, Nagy, 447
fetal ultrasound, 316–317
Fichtel & Sachs, 92
Fickers, Andreas, 411
Fiebig, André, 104
Field Book of Wild Birds and Their Music, 127, 128
(p. 571) “Fight against Industrial Noise,” 61
films. See movie industry
FilmSound.org, 385
Filtatron, mobile phone music app, 474
Finding Nemo, 368
Finnegan, Ruth, 449
first person shooter (FPS) games, 348, 353
haptic feedback, 359
immersion in, 356, 359–362
First Sounds researchers and historians, 544
See also phonautograph
Fish, William, 143, 144
Fist Records, 454
FlashSonar, 553
Fleming, Peter R., 301
Fletcher, Harvey, 214
Florida Keys underwater music festival, 161
Flusser, Vilém, 338
Foley, 369, 372, 385
For the Birds, 369
“For the Repair Shop,” 86
Forbidden Planet, 389
Fordist Technologies, 528
Form und Technik, 431
Forman, Murray, 507
Forty, Adrian, 416
fossils, phonautograms as sonic fossils, 555
Foster, John S., 229, 243
Foucault, Michel, 80, 92, 178
Fouche, Ravon, 505
Fougasse (C.K. Bird), 276, 278
Fourier, Jean-Baptiste Joseph, 183, 184
Fox-Case Movietone Corporation, 133
Frankfurt School, 227
Frauenberger, Christopher, 262
Fred Meyer, 536
Free German Labor Union, 68
free-wage labor, 40, 52–54
frequency
phonautograph, “frequencies are frequencies,” 557
radio frequency regulation, 419–424
“Fresh Air in the Workplace,” 61
Freud, Sigmund, 558
Friedner, Michele, 320
Friedrich-Wilhelms University in Berlin, 188
Friemert, Chup, 432
Frith, Simon, 508
“From the Workshop Practice,” 88
furniture, radio as, 416, 417
The Futurist, 337
Galantai, Gyorgy, 452
Galileo, 206
Galison, Peter, 135, 259
Gallaudet University, 324
Gallican Sisters of Charity, 274
games, digital, 347–366
acousmatic sound, 349–351
first person shooter games, 360
acoustic environment, 362
active engagement, 358–360
audio-visual proximity, 351–352
authentic audio samples, 354–355, 358
caricature sounds, 351
challenge based immersion, 358
codes of realism, 358–362
designers of, 354
diegetic sound, 349, 350, 361
digital-signal processor (DSP) chips, 354
emotional arousal to, 361
first person shooter (FPS) games, 348, 353
haptic feedback, 359
immersion in, 356, 359–362
haptic feedback, 359
imaginative immersion, 358
immersion, 356–359
challenge based, 358
first person shooter games, 359–362
realism, 358, 360–362
themes of, 358–359
total, 362, 363
incorporation in, 357, 362
nondiegetic sound, 349, 350, 361
on-screen and off-screen sounds, 349, 350, 361
player immersion in the game world, 348, 352
presence, 358–360
realism, 358–362
seen sound source, 351
sensory immersion, 358
sound environments, 352–353, 362
sound in, 349–351
cinema theory, 349–350, 355
realism of, 355–356, 360–362
variety of, 353–354
sounds and images, 347–348
in the games, 351–352
soundscape of, 349–350, 360, 362
surities in the game world, 357–358
surprises in the game world, 357, 358
synthesized audio samples, 354–355
technology of, 352–356
authentic audio samples, 354–355, 358
digital-signal processor (DSP) chips, 354
immersion, 356
limitations of, 353, 354
sound environments, 352–353, 362
synthesized audio samples, 354–355
total immersion, 362, 363
ventriloquism effect, 351–352
visualization, 351
See also video games
Garcia, Juan, 358
Garfinkel, Harold, 250
Gaspard, Jean-Marc, 323
Gatewood, Esther L., 62
(p. 572) Gaudeamus Foundation, 217
Gaudeamus Music Week, 216
Gaver, William, 351, 548
Geddes, Keith, 416
gender roles
anti-noisite impulses gendered as female, 285
hearing protection devices, effect on manliness, 66, 75, 76
paternalism underwriting America’s early factory system, feminization of workplace where workers mainly women, 42
radio users, women as, 416, 430, 431
General Electric, 403
Geneva as headquarters for international radio regulation, 418
Geneva Plan, 420
genres in online music sites, 483
Genuit, Klaus, 104, 111, 115, 116
“Geographical Variation in the Vocalization of the Western Meadowlark,” 144
geometric shapes in human characters, animated short films, 377, 384
George, Nelson, 507
Gergen, Kenneth, 250
Gerlich, Christian, 415
German Association of Motorists (Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil Club), 83
German Chambers of Industry and Commerce, 89
German Democratic Republic (GDR), 64, 65, 67, 68, 70, 72–76
German Labor Front, 61, 63
German Lutheran Deaconesses, 274
German Society for Industrial Hygiene, 60
German Sound Archive, 189
German Telefunken Society, 425
“Ghost Shells,” 162
Gibson, William, 529
Giedion, Siegfried, 509
Gieryn, Thomas, 130, 131, 140, 265
Gilmore, J.H., 358
Gimzewski, Jim, 225
global warming, underwater music, 166–167
God Created Great Whales, 156
Goffman, Ervin, 357, 538
“Good Light, Good Work,” 61
Goodman, John, 383
Goodwin, Andrew, 472
Google, 336
Gordon, Andrew, 383
The Gordon Assumption, 164
“Goulash Communism” in Hungary, 442–445
Gouverneur Hospital, 282
Graham, Dan, 552
gramophone, 11, 190
See also phonograph
Gramophone magazine, 465
Grand Opera, 207
Grandmaster Flash, 469, 470, 510
GrandWizzard Theodore, 469
graphic representations
ornithology, scientific field recordings in, 132, 133
psychological graphs, sonification of scientific data, 261–262
Graser, Charles, 320, 328–331
Grau, Oliver, 356
Grew, Sidney, 463
Grimshaw, Mark, 347
The Grindstone, 232, 235, 237, 241
Grond, Florian, 256, 261
Gross, Robert A., 43
Guardian, 526
Guggenheim Foundation, 214
Guitar Hero, 472–474, 476
Guthmann, F., 210
Gutman, Herbert, 46, 47
Haacke, Hans, 552
Hacker, Oskar, 83
Haddon, Leslie, 416
Hagen, Trever, 440
Haight-Ashbury, 239
hair length regulation in Hungary and Czechoslovakia, nonofficial music practices during Communist era, 444
Haley, William D., 53
Halffman, Willem, 259
Half-Life [link] , 361
Hamm’s Beer, 392
“Hands Off,” 94
Hannaway, Caroline, 328, 331
haptic feedback in digital games, 359
Harman, Willis, 239
Harmon, Genevieve, 153
harmonic relations, scientific field recordings in ornithology, 132
Harmonics, 213
Harmonix Music Systems, 472
Harper, Douglas, 94
Harris, Daniel, 159, 160
Harrison, Lou, 157
Hartford Foundation, 233, 234
Hartig, Herbert, 68
Harty, Sir Hamilton, 155
Harvard Medical School, 314
Harvard Psychoacoustic Laboratory, 321
Hastings Center Report, 336
Hauksbee, Francis, 155
Hawtin, Richie, 519
HEAD acoustics, 104, 110–113, 116, 120, 121
headsets
intrinsic to auditory privatization, 529
“hear thinking” vs. “eye thinking,” 415
hearing protection devices. See earplugs and earmuffs
(p. 573) heart
metronome measurement of heartbeats, 207
stethoscopic listening to heartbeats, 305, 307–311
Heated, 165
Heinrichs, Ralf, 104
Heinroth, Oscar, 131, 134
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 183–186, 214
Helmreich, Stefan, 151, 498
Hempel, Thomas, 104, 114
Henderson, J., 535
Hendrix, Jimi, 447
Henriques, Julian, 161
Henry, Pierre, 153, 156
Herald (Melbourne), 332
Hermann, Thomas, 253–255, 258
Hessler, Rudolf, 81
Hewlett-Packard, 236
HiFi Klub, 453
Hinde, Robert, 146
hip-hop, 469–471, 505–525
black culture, racial authenticity, 505–525
control over sound and means of hip-hop, 517
development of new turntables in 1960s and 1970s, 515
digital switch
authenticity and preservation, 515
explosion of digital file sharing, 519
historical representation of hip-hop characterized by analog turntables, needles, and vinyl records, 506
technological switch from analog to digital, 516, 517
DJs. See DJing
rapping, vocal parts added over top of breaks as, 470
real hip-hop heads, 515
Hirsch, Eric, 389
historical matters
automobile sounds, 103, 105–108
everyday life, history of as area involved in sound studies, 7
hospital design and hospital noise, 279, 280
industrial noise abatement, 59
industrialization, historical interpretations of sounds, 39–40, 54–55
phonograph, historical a priori, 178
stethoscope, 300–304
Hitachi, 236
Ho, Patrick, 468
Hollinden, Dave, 481, 484
Homer, 277
Hooke, Robert, 301
Hooker, John Lee, 508
Horbilder aus dem Leben, 414
Horning, Susan, 136
horns, “stridency” of, 106–107
hospital noise, 4, 279–283, 298–299
as agencies of urgency and potency, 286
array of beds in columns and aisles like army barracks, monastic hospices, and church naves, 279
diagnostic invasiveness and growth of noise, 279
history of hospital design, 279, 280
infant care, 286
pavilion model presuming intimate supervision over fewer beds, emphasis on surveillance, and requiring open floor plan, 280
private and semi-private rooms eliminating noise common to open wards, 285
as research laboratories, 279
as sanctuaries from noise, 277
self-noise, 283
technological sophistication, noise associated with, 285
treatment aggressiveness and growth of noise, 279
House, William, 327–331
House Ear Institute, 328
House of Parliament, 313
Hovhaness, Alan, 156
“How to Diagnose Malfunctions of Passenger Cars,” 86
Howard House, 327
Hughes Aircraft, 236
The Hulk, 376
human hearing under water, 157
Hummel, J. N., 211
Hungarian Cultural Center, 453
Hungarian Record Company, 449
Hungary and Czechoslovakia, nonofficial music practices during Communist era, 440–458
adaptive forms of distribution, 452
archival recordings, 453, 454
bigbít music scene, 444
bootleg or second economies, 441–444, 446, 448, 452
Charta 77, 453
collective action, 446, 451, 454, 455
collective-yet-separate listening, 447, 448, 451
concert recordings, 448
contextualization cues, 450, 451, 453, 454
“creative constriction,” 441, 442, 444, 454, 455
de-Stalinization, 442
“dipping in” to nonofficial culture and practices, 441, 446, 451, 453–455
distribution forms, 451–454
do-it-yourself (DIY) capabilities with tape cassettes, 453
excitement of sociopolitical context, 448
gap between ideals of socialist propaganda apparatus and practice within system, 443
(p. 574)
“Goulash Communism” in Hungary, 442–445
hair length regulation, 444
lectures on Czech cultural history as part of private gatherings to list to music, 451–454
licenses and performance fees imposed on musicians, 444
magazine orders, 451, 454
magnitizdat, defined, 441, 442
modes of listening tied to access to technology and recordings, 449
Moscow, interest of, 443
musical experience
collective experience, 448, 455
defined, 441, 455
flexible, liminal space to view and imagine nonofficial and official lifeworlds, 449
regimes’ control making them active participants in, 445
“musicking,” 441
New Economic Mechanism (NEM), 442, 443, 452
“normalization” of Czechoslovakia, 442–445
“official,” defined, 441
overhearing and eavesdropping, 446
postal system distribution, 453
radizdat, 452
defined, 456 n13
rejection of creative constriction imposed by official institutions, 455
repackaging, 452
samizdat, defined, 442
shadow or second economies, 441–444, 446, 448, 452
social interaction cues, 448, 449
Soviet jamming of radio broadcasts, 446, 447
“Stalin’s bagpipes,” 446
technological innovations during era, 445
tinkering with tapes to include political commentary, 452
Hunt, Richard, 132
Hurricane Katrina, 164
Husak, Gustav, 443, 444
Huth, Arno, 418
Huxley, Julian, 134, 140
Huygens, Christiaan, 206
hydrophones, 155–156, 162, 165, 167
Hynde, Chrissie, 488
hyperrealism, 18, 371, 380
I am Sitting in a Room, 552
I Am T-Pain, mobile phone music app, 474
IBM, 231, 236, 243
iBone, mobile phone music app, 474
iconic sounds, 153, 506, 548
“Identitones, Inc.”, 396
identity and reputation in online music sites, 481, 495, 496
Idhe, Don, 554
The Illustrated Insectopedia, 166
images
cameras. See cameras
electronic music in American advertising, relation to images, 394
phonautograph, images on phonautograms as sound, 554, 555
immersion in water, 154, 156–161, 165, 168
immersive experience, 18
in animated short films, 373–374, 376, 385
in digital games, 348, 352, 356–359
challenge based, 358
first person shooter games, 359–362
realism, 358, 360–362
themes of, 358–359
total, 362, 363
Imperial Academy of Saint Petersburg, 182
Imperial Automobile Club (Kaiserlicher Automobil Club), 81
implants. See cochlear implants
incunabula of sound recording, 544
indexicality of sound, 355, 361, 549, 550, 556
effective indexicality, 549
fabrication of, 550
Industrial Light & Magic, 367
industrial noise abatement, 44, 58–78
antinoise campaigns, 59
body types, effects of music on, 63
campaigns for workplace safety, 61
capitalist states, 73–75
compensation for hearing loss, 60, 66, 69, 73
conferences, 61
earmuffs, 66, 70–73
earplugs, 66–67, 70–75
employee responses to, 58–59, 66, 70, 72–73, 76
employer responses to, 58–59, 66, 74–75
engines, diesel, 71–73
exhaust gas turbochargers, 71–73
factory community, 63
funding, 69, 72, 76
gender roles, 66, 75, 76
governmental regulations, 59, 61, 70, 73
hearing loss in workers, 58, 60, 66–67
hearing protection devices, 66–67, 70–75
historical studies, 59
insurance organizations, 59, 66, 73–76
job satisfaction, role of music in, 64–65
labor unions and industrial noise, 60, 68, 289
loudness of engines, 71–73
machine noise, 68–69, 71–73
“manliness” and hearing protection devices, 66, 75, 76
(p. 575)
medical advice on hearing protection, 59, 66, 74–75
metal working, 60, 61, 71, 73–74
mufflers. See earmuffs
music on shop floors, 59, 62–65
noise meters, 60
noise-reduced machinery, 68–69, 74, 75
occupational diseases, 60, 70, 73–74
occupational safety inspectors, 67–68
otoplastics, 70
productivity levels, 62–65, 68–70
propaganda, 60–61
rhythm in music, 62–63
socialist states, 67–73
test runs of diesel engines, 71–73
trade unions, 60, 68
vocal music, 62, 64
volume of music, 64
warning signals, 66–67, 71
well-being of workers, 64, 67, 69
zoning, 59
industrialization, early American, 37–57
agricultural capitalism, 43
aural history, 39–41, 54–55
capitalism, 52–54
class conflict, urban, 44
cotton mills, 39, 45, 48–51
dialects, country, 47
economic progress, 52–54
factories
bells, 50
social history of, 45–46
sounds of, 39–44, 47–51
visual aspects, 40
free-wage labor, 40, 52–54
gender of workforce. See women workers
historical interpretations of sounds, 39–40, 54–55
labor unions and industrial noise, 60, 68, 289
literary representations of sounds, 42, 47–51
looms, noise of, 39, 48–49
loudness of factory shop floors, 39–44, 48–49
“machine in the garden,” 41–44
magazines by workers, 46–51
morals of workers, 45–46, 53
museum exhibits, use of sound, 39–40, 54–55
nature
God and, 48, 54
sounds of, 47–51
noise ordinances, 44
paternalism, 40, 42, 46
quietness of countryside, 41–44
railroads, 41–44
religion and nature, 48, 54
resistance by workers, 46–47, 53
rural production, 44
sectional tensions, 40, 52–54
shoemaking industry, 44
slavery, 40, 52–54
social noise, 44
sounds, braiding of pastoral and machine, 41–42, 48–50
thinking, effect of noise on, 51–52
transition from rural life, 39–55
waterpower, 50
women workers, 40, 41–42, 45–46, 49
Infanti, Andrew, 162
informatics
sonification of scientific data, 255
information turned into sound, 556
insects, aquatic, 166
instructional technologies, 240
insurance organizations and industrial noise abatement, 59, 66, 73–76
Intel, 236
interdisciplinary research vs. discipline-based research shielding engineers from moral consequences of work, 232
interface design, sounds in, 548
International Broadcasting Union, 413, 418, 422–424
International Committee of the Red Cross, 419
International Community for Auditory Display, 250, 252–255, 257, 260, 262, 263
International Telecommunication Union, 419, 420
interstate waters, noise as federal issue requiring statutory revision to authorize municipal regulation, 282
Ionisation, 214, 215
iPhones, 473–476
accelerometer to movement and spatial orientation, 474
iPods, 526–543
App Store, music-related applications at, 473
audiotopia, 531–535
defined, 528
as buffer to reality, 533, 534
as chosen soundworld eradicating preexisting soundworld, 529
“colonization,” 528
entitlement of users to personal space, 539
equilibrium achieved by use of, 533, 538
loudness contributing to hearing loss, 538, 539
as necessities, 526
“objective alienation,” 530
paradox of connectivity producing separation, 540
paradox of sound producing silence, 540
privatization of environment with, 527–538
and retreating from urban environment, 535–538
“secessionists” in iPod culture, 535–538
toxicity of use, 530, 531
and urban life, 527, 528, 532–538
iTunes, 499
(p. 576) Jack-Jack Attack, 368, 384
Jackson, Myles W., 201
Jakubowicz, Karol, 441
Japan, emergence of karaoke, 466
jargon, online music sites, 485
Jasanoff, Shelia, 421
jazz musicians in American advertising, 392, 395
Jazzy Jeff, 519, 520
Jefferson, Thomas, 45
Jenkin, Fleeming, 176–181, 184, 185, 193
Jenkins, Henry, 513
Jewel, 488
Jim’s Ithaca Music Shop, 489
Jim’s Records, 489
jingles, TV and radio, 392–394, 396–398, 400
The Jingle Workshop, 392, 393
Jirous, Ivan, 450
job satisfaction, role of music in, 64–65
Jobs, Steve, 374
John A. Hartford Foundation, 231
John Q. Adams Center for the History of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, 326, 329, 333
Johnston, Trevor, 324
Joint Services Electronics Program, 231
Jones, Robert B., Jr., 398
Jorgensen, Kristine, 360
Journal for Ethnology, 188
Journal of Field Ornithology, 129
Journal of the American Society of Acoustical Engineers, 76
Juolo, Patrick, 255
Jurassic Park, 375
jury testing, loudness of motor vehicles, 107–108
automobile sounds, 107–108
Just Blaze, 510, 511
Kadar, Janos, 442, 443
Kafka, Franz, 273, 277
Kahn, Douglas, 154, 163
Kahrs, John, 383
Kalehoff, Edd, 400, 401
Kammerling, Hermann, 207
Kangol, 509
karaoke, 466–469
translated as “empty orchestra,” 466
Katrina, Hurricane, 164
Katz, Mark, 459, 507
Kearney, Paul, 357
Keaton, Buster, 378
Keen, Andrew, 477
Keil, Charles, 468
Kellogg, Peter, 133, 138, 139
Kercheval, JC, 494
Kiang, Nelson, 329, 331
Kid Creole, 470
King, Martin Luther, Jr, 506
King Edward’s Hospital Fund for London, 276
King Pharoah, 492
King’s College, 204
Kingsley, Charles, 152
Kingston, 517
Kinscella, Hazel, 466
Kish, Daniel, 553
Kitchin, Rob, 431
Kittler, Friedrich, 178, 191, 192, 557
Kluver, Billy, 238, 240
Knick Knack, 382
knowledge
19th-century, seeing and knowing as closely coupled, 555
phonautograph, dissolution of old knowledge about senses, 557
See also comprehension
Knowles, Ian, 104
Kobbe, Gustav, 463
Kobor, Janos, 445
Koch, Heinrich, 208
Koch, Ludwig, 131, 134–138, 140
Koenig, Gottfried Michael, 214, 215
Koenig, Rudolph, 203, 204
Kohler, Robert E., 146
Kolb, Richard, 415
Kompfner, Rudolf, 229–231, 238, 240
Konig, Wolfgang, 120
Kosovsky, Bob, 387
Kouvaras, Linda, 164
Kracauer, Siegfried, 529
Krafthand, 80, 86, 88, 95
Kramer, Gregory, 252, 254, 262, 548
Kratzenstein, Christian Gottlieb, 182
Krause, Bernie, 399
Krebber, Winfried, 104
Krebs, Stefan, 79, 305
Krefeld, 203
Kreith, Marcia, 145
Kretschmer, Ernst, 63
Kruetzer, Conradin, 211
Kuhn, Thomas, 509
“Kunibald, the Smart Customer,” 95, 96
Kursell, Julia, 176
Kwi, Slavek, 162
kymograph, 179–181, 203, 207
mathematically formalizing body’s processes instead of visualizing them, 179
La radiodiffusion: Puissance mondiale, 418
labiograph, 181
labor unions and industrial noise, 60, 68, 289
Lachmund, Jens, 83, 264, 299–301, 303, 311
Laennec, Rene, 300, 302, 310
Laënnec, René-Théophile Hyacinth, 301, 303, 311
lamps in animated short films, 379
Landel, Eric, 104
Lane, Harlan, 323
Lang, Harry, 323
Langdon, J. N., 62
Lange, Bernhard, 104
Lange, Britta, 176
language
automobile sounds, European language differences, 115
jargon, online music sites, 485
MCs (masters of ceremonies), preferred term for rappers, 470
sonification of scientific data, vocabulary of, 259–260
synthesized sounds, language used to describe, 402
Lanyon, Wesley, 143, 144
Laplace, Pierre Simon, 206
Larcom, Lucy, 54
laryngograph, 181
laser scanning of phonautograph cylinders, 554, 555
Lasseter, John, 372, 379, 381, 382
Last, Gunter, 65
Lastra, James, 355
Latour, Bruno, 143, 144, 303, 509, 547
Laurel and Hardy, 378
Le Caine, Hugh, 154
League of Nations, 419
Leber, Sonia, 164
Led Zeppelin, 475
Left 4 Dead, 361
Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, 474
Leitz, 237
Leonardo, 552
Leslie, Bill, 226, 227, 232
Letters to a Young German Princess, 181
Level Green Recording Company, 489
Lever Brothers, 392
Levy, Neil Louis, 431
Lewitt, Sol, 552
licenses and performance fees, nonofficial music practices during Communist era, 444
“Life Music,” 552
Lifted, 371
Ligeti, Gyorgy, 202, 215–218
lightness in electronic music in American advertising, 392, 405n
Lilly, John, 157
liminality of noise, 282
Lindström, Carl, 134
Linvill, John, 227, 228, 230–232, 238–240
Lissajous, Jules, 203, 209
listening
automobiles, listening to, 79–101, 113, 117–118, 121
bird sounds in the field, 127–150
cochlear implants, mediated nature of listening, 338
continually changing ways of hearing and listening, 178
early american industrialization, listening to, 39–57
heroic listening, 277
Hungary and Czechoslovakia, listening to music during Communist era, 440–458
hydrophonic listening, 152, 156, 166
iPods, listening to, 526–543
radio listening simplified, 416, 424–431
scientific data, listening to, 249–270
shop-floor culture of listening to machines, 66
stethoscopes, history of listening through, 300–304
listening modes
diagnostic listening, 14
automobiles, 88, 96, 97
hearing devices, 83, 87, 88
mechanics, 81, 85, 87, 89, 94
distinction between different modes of listening, 98 n 2
exploratory listening, 14
monitory listening, 14, 83
synthetic listening, 14
listening practices
continually changing ways of hearing and listening, 178
differentiation of, 94–97
listening while driving, 80, 83, 85, 112
listening skills
car noises, mechanics’ listening skills, 80–86
medical students, 256, 305, 312
sonification of scientific data, skills needed for, 256, 265
literary studies
as area involved in sound studies, 7
industrialization, literary representations of sounds, 42, 47–51
The Little Magazine, 336
Lockwood, Annea, 154
Locomotive GT, 445
logograph, 181
logos, 390, 393, 396
Loizou, Philip, 336
looms in early American industrialization, 39, 48–49
Lord of the Rings, 375
loudness. See volume
Louvre, 301
“Lowell system,” 45
The Lowell Offering, 46, 48, 49, 51
(p. 578) Lubell Laboratory, 161
Lucas, George, 367, 372, 375
Lucerne Plan, 420, 424
Lucier, Alvin, 258, 552
Ludwig, Carl, 179, 203
lung pressure, kymograph study, 179
Luschan, Felix, 188
Luxo Jr., 368, 370, 377, 379
Lynch, Michael, 145
Maas, Walter, 217
The Machine in the Garden, 41–44
machine sound, 39–124
music as human vs. machine-made sound, 463–466
Machover, Tod, 475
MacKenzie, Donald, 108, 109
Macy’s Department Store, 401
Mademoiselle, 389
Madonna, 484
Magellan, 552
magnetic film system, sound design in animated short films, 370
magnitizdat, 441, 442, 453, 454
Maguire, G.Q., 336
Maillard, Virginie, 104
Malle, Louis, 377
Malzel, Johann Nepomuk, 211, 212
Malzelís, Johann Nepomuk, 211
Mangione, Salvatore, 301
Manhattan Research, Inc., 392
Manovich, Lev, 549, 552
manuals for car repair, 81, 83, 84
Mapping Cybespace, 431
Maps in Mind: Reflections on Cognitive Mapping, 431
Marcuse, Herbert, 530
marketing and advertising, 5
automobiles, 102–107, 118–122
electronic music in
1960s, 389–399
1970s, 399–401
advertising “clutter,” 393, 397
advertising industry budgets, nearly unlimited, 388, 391
avant-garde music, 388, 392
budgets, advertising, 388, 391
communication problems with clients, 398
consumption, post-war America, 391
conversion of acoustic music, 398–399
copyrights, 396
domestication of electronic sounds, 388–389
electronics in the 1960s, 388
emotion and personality in products, 403–404
fame of composers, 395, 396, 399, 401
growth of advertising industry, 391
images, relation to, 394
jazz musicians, 392, 395
jingles, TV and radio, 392–394, 396–398, 400
language used to describe synthesized sounds, 402
“lightness” in electronic music, 392, 405n
logos, sound, 390, 393, 396
middle class, emergence of, 391
musique concrète, 392, 405n
newness of electronic music, 393–394, 397
novelty of electronic music, 400–401
“parity products,” use of music in advertising, 391
perceptions of electronic music, 389–390, 398–400
percolating coffee pot, sounds of, 395–396
poetry in sound, 401, 403, 404
radio station identifications, 397
realism of sounds, 402–404
resistance to electronic music, 388–390, 398–400
science and technology studies (STS), 388–389
science fiction films, electronic sounds, 388–390, 392
strangeness of electronic music, 389–390, 398–400
synthesizers, 388, 399–403
talking dishwasher advertisement, 403
technologies, costs of, 388
tonal music, 396
unfamiliar sounds, use in selling products, 390
variety of sounds, 397
radio sets for consumers, advertising of, 426, 428, 430, 433
Marl, Marley, 520
Marler, Peter, 145
“Martineau and Organ,” 153
Marx, Leo, 41, 43, 509
masking techniques, noise, 290
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 334
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 329
Mathews, Ferdinand S., 127, 128
Mathews, Max, 238, 240
Matsushita Corporation, 515
Maulitz, Russell C., 303, 308
Mauss, Marcel, 80, 86
Max Planck Institute for History of Science, 176
Maxwell House Coffee, 395
Mayer, John, 472
Mayer-Sidd, Eugen, 88
Mayo Clinic, 234
Mäyrä, Frans, 358, 362
McColvin, Lionel, 460
McFerrin, Bobby, 382
McGee, Ellen, 336
(p. 579) McLuhan, Marshall, 304
McMahan, Alison, 357, 358, 360
mechanical “ears” vs. human ears, 129
Mechanical Instruments upon Musical Education, 466
mechanical objectivity, scientific field recordings in ornithology, 135
mechanics. See automobiles
Mechanics and Manufacturers, 44
medical advice on hearing protection, 59, 66, 74–75
medical students. See stethoscopes
“Medicine, Rationality, and Experience,” 314
Meindl, James, 227, 228, 230–232, 240
Memoir of Samuel Slater, 53
mental anatomizing, 314, 316
mermaids, 163
metal working noise, 60, 61, 71, 73–74
Metasynth software, generating sounds from data found in pictures, 549
metronomes, 201, 206–207, 215–218
Metropolitan Hospital on Blackwell’s Island, 282
Meyerbeer, Giacomo, 209
Meyers, Tom, 371
Michaelis, C. F., 208
Michelangelo, 274
Michelson, Robin, 328
Mickey Mouse, 369
micropolyphony, 216
microscience, 244
Microsoft, 548
microtonal music, 132, 213, 218
Mike’s New Car, 383
military
bombs. See bombs
earplugs, use in wartime, 288–290
hospitals’ historic treatment of wounded, 273–275, 277, 286
“military-industrial-academic” research arrangements, dissolution of, 226–233, 235–237, 239
Vietnam-era protest at Stanford University, and history of probe microscopy, 226–241
Miller, Kiri, 472, 473
Miller, Simon, 158
Mills, Mara, 320
Mills College, 399, 401
Ministry of Labor and the German Society for the Protection of Workers, 61
MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), 226, 227, 475
mixing and scratching by DJs, 469, 470, 506
modernity
effect on producing, storing, and reproducing sound, 4
modularity of senses and sensory technologies, 547
Mody, Cyrus, 130, 224
Moffre, Mark, 495
Mohaski, Hank, 486, 493, 496
“Molecular Music,” 552
monitory listening, 14, 83
monochords, 208
Monsieur G., 325
“Monsters, Inc.”, 383
Montefiore, Richard, 495
Montpellier. France, 234
Montreux Plan, 420
Moog, Robert, 388, 399
Moore, Robert, 132, 136
Moravec, Hans, 320
More Songs of Wild Birds, 138
Morley, Angela, 153
Moscheles, Ignaz, 211
motor horns, stridency of, 106–107
Motorola, 236
Mott, Robert L., 369
movie industry
ornithology, scientific field recordings in, 133, 134
science fiction films, electronic sounds, 388–390, 392
See also animation
Mozart, 210, 212
MST, 494
multichannel sound presentation in animated short films, 373–374
Mumford, Lewis, 509
Murch, Walter, 373
Murillo, 274
Murphy, 416
Musée phonographique, 189
museum exhibits, use of sound, 39–40, 54–55
Museum for Industrial Hygiene, 61
Museum of Fine Arts, 335
music and sonification of scientific data, 258–259, 265
music as human vs. mechanical activity, 463–466
“Music for Tuning Forks,” 213, 214
music in animated short films, 378, 380–382
Music Minus One Inc., 466
music on industrial shop floors, 59, 62–65
music teachers, number corresponding to number of amateur musicians, 461
music theory, 128
music websites. See online music sites
“Music while You Work,” 62, 64, 65
“music without musicians,” 389
musical experience. See experience-driven society
musical identity in online music sites, 481, 495, 496
musical instruments, use of water, 154, 169n
(p. 580) musicals, sound design in animated short films, 382
“musicking,” 441
musicology
as area involved in sound studies, 7
phonograph use, 186–188, 190, 191, 194
Musikalisches Lexikon, 208
musique concrète, 392, 405n
Muzac Corporation, 528
My Dinner with Andre, 377
“My Way,” 477
MySpace, 477, 480
myxobacteria, cryogenic acoustic microscope image of, 243
N2IT, 506, 518
nanotechnology evolution, 244
narrative voice, sound design in animated short films, 369
NASA, 228
National Bureau of Standards, 231, 236
National Cancer Institute, 234
National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, 331
National Institutes of Health, 231, 328
National Management of Light Music, 444
National Measurement Laboratory at Monash University, 213
National Nanotechnology Initiative, 244
National Physical Laboratory (NPL), 106, 107
National Science Foundation, 166, 224, 231, 233
National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK), 91
nationalistic use of radio for ideological or propagandistic purposes, 419, 433, 446
“natural” sound, 47–51, 137
Nature, 176, 177, 185
Neal, Mark Anthony, 507
Neate, Patrick, 507
Necker Hospital, 300, 302
needle drop technique, 469
Neuhaus, Max, 157, 158, 163
neural-computer interfaces, cochlear implants, 320–323
neuroprosthetics. See cochlear implants
neuroprosthetics, cochlear implants, 321
New Economic Mechanism (NEM), Communist era, 442, 443, 452
new sounds
electronic music, 393–394, 397
in soundscape, 5
New York City Fire Department, 215
New York Daily Tribune, 282
New York Public Library, 387
Newman, Ernest, 463
Nicholson, Max, 134–136, 138
Nicolson, Malcolm, 303
Nightingale, Florence, 274, 275, 279, 280, 282–286, 290
19th-century, seeing and knowing as closely coupled, 555
19th-century devices rendering invisible aspects of natural world visible, 546
19th-century musical scientific instruments, 202–207
19th-century shift toward machines that treated sound as reproducible effect, 556
Nintendo, 474
noise
automobiles
history, 105–108
noise fanatics, 96
regulation, 106, 118–119
blood pressure, blood chemistry, adrenal excretion, and coronary and cortical activity, effects of noise on, 286
discrimination between sound and noise, 135
earplugs. See ear defenders
hospitals. See hospital noise
industrial noise. See industrial noise abatement
interstate waters, noise as federal issue requiring statutory revision to authorize municipal regulation, 282
liminality of, 282
masking techniques, 290
ornithology, scientific field recordings in, 129, 135–139
and parabolic reflectors, 138–140
signal-to-noise ratio, 140
as ungraspable omnipresence, 134
white noise, 290
Noise Abatement Commission, 68
Noise Water Meat, 154
nondiegetic sound, 349, 350, 361
NORA, 427
normalization of Czechoslovakia, 442–445
North German League, 59
“Notes from the Sick Room,” 275
Notes on Hospitals, 275
Notes on Nursing, 275
Notes ono Nursing for the Labouring Classes, 275
notifications, category of sonification, 548, 553
novelty of electronic music, 400–401
NSKK-Obersturmf¸hrer, 91
nuance, perceiving data in nuanced ways, 226
Obama, Barack, 506
OBELICS, 104, 105, 110, 111, 114–116, 118, 121
Ocarina as instrumental app, 474, 475
occupational disease, industrial noise abatement, 60, 70, 73–74
Ocean of Sound, 165
oceans, underwater music, 152–153, 161, 164, 165, 167–168
“Ode to Joy,” 475
Odysseus, 277
(p. 581) Ogawa, Hiroshi, 467
“Oh, Susanna,” 475
Ohm, Georg Simon, 183, 206
Ohne Chauffeur, 82
Oku, Shinoobu, 468
Oldenburg University, 110, 115, 116
Oleson, Jeanine, 163, 164
Olympus, 237
Omega, 445, 453
On the Meaning of the Phonograph for Comparative Musicology, 187
On the Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music, 183
“On Vowel Sounds, and on Reed-Organ Pipes,” 182
online music sites, 480–502
ACIDplanet and ACID software, history of, 481, 482
chart positions, 485
“chart whores,” 485
collaboration, 494, 495
comments combining technical terms, technical features of music, references to sound of well-known artists, and descriptions of the sounds themselves, 493
contests, 484, 497
copyright infringements, 483
demographics of users, 482
“double sociality,” 498
ethnographic observation of users, 482
features of ACIDplanet site, 482–485
genres, 483
getting music heard, 485
guidance on music-making abilities and production skills, 492
jargon, 485
musical identity, 495, 496
identity detached from physical creation of music, 495
originality of work, requirement for, 483
posting of original music, 483
ProZone, 484
R = R (Review = Review), 491–494
recording studio, computer as, 481
reputation on website, 493, 494, 498
reviews of music posted by “citizens,” 484, 491–494
reciprocation, 491–494
standards for reviewing process, 493
translating sound into words, 492, 493
traces and interactions, 497, 498
“transduction” from sound to other medium, 498
translating sounds into words, use of review feature for, 492, 493, 498
users, 485–490
“citizens” of ACIDplanet, 483
role in shaping website, 496
user profiles, 483
“virtual band,” 494
Ono, Yoko, 154
onomatopoetic sounds, underwater music, 153–154
on-screen and off-screen sounds, digital games, 349, 350, 361
opera, underwater music, 163
Optacon as device for scanning and converting text into mechanical vibrations for blind readers, 227
organ reed pipes, 203
Organisation International de Travail, 419
originality of work, requirement for online music sites, 483
ornithology, scientific field recordings in, 127–150
“a frame of mind,” 141
analysis and description, 142–146
audiospectrograph, 142–145
analysis of geographic variation of Western meadowlark calls, 144
ink tracing of audiospectrogram, 145
birdsong, use of term, 132
bobolink song transcript, 127
camera recordings of sound, 135, 138, 142
context issues, 140
description and analysis, 142–146
“ephemerality” of sound (uniqueness in time and place), 143
“fading points” in hearing spectra, 142
field sound vs. laboratory sound, benefits and restraints, 129–131
graphic representation, 132, 133
harmonic relations, 132
landscape painting analogy, 141
listening as subjective and individual experience, 142
mechanical objectivity, 135
meter, 132
microtones, 132
movie industry collaboration, 133, 134
and music theory, 128
musical notation, history of animal sounds in, 128, 132
graphic representation, 132, 133
mechanization of sound recording, effect on natural sound as object of scientific study, 129
physics as necessary to study, 132
“natural” sound, 137
noise, 129, 135–139
and parabolic reflectors, 138–140
signal-to-noise ratio, 140
objectivity and detachment, 130, 131, 135, 136, 140, 142, 144
oscillograph, 142
parabolic reflectors, 138–141
pitch, 132
positioning of sound source with respect to recording element, 137
recording van photo, 138
(p. 582)
sonic sterility, 130
sound quality, history of animal sounds in musical notation, 128
tape recorders, 138, 139
timbre, history of animal sounds in musical notation, 128
transhistorical idealization of nature of sound, 141
transportation of equipment, difficulties, 134
vibralyzer, 142
visual technologies to study sound, 135, 138, 142–145
oscillograph, 142
Osterwaldt, Klaus, 162
Ostwald, Walter, 92
otoplastics, 70
Oudshoorn, Nelly, 430
outdoor sound recordings. See ornithology, scientific field recordings in
The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine, 306, 311
Painleve, Jean, 153
pair comparison test, 113
Panasonic, 515
Paneuropa der Sender, 414
parabolic reflectors, 138–141
parade, 154
parapsychological synesthesia, 239
Parker Pen, 392
Parkhurst, Winthrop, 460
“Parliament Station, Melbourne,” 164
parlograph, 186
Parlophone record company, 134
paternalism during early industrialization, 40, 42, 46
Paul, Stephan, 104
Payne, Roger, 156
pendulums as musical, 206–207
perception of sound
noise, 66
nonisochronic pulses, 206
phenomenology, superiority of sound for perceiving change over time, 225
phonograph recordings, 194
proprioceptive perception of sound, 231
scientific experimentation, sonic contaminants in, 130
siren experiments, 205, 206
and sonification, 253
and sound-reproduction technology, 557
underwater sound, 157
virtual world vs. real world, 348
vision and hearing as single perceptual event, 347, 348, 351
percolating coffee pot, sounds of, 395–396
percussion solos, 469
Perennial Acoustic Observatory in th