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date: 16 May 2021

(p. 439) Index

(p. 439) Index

Abramovich, Roman, 203
AC Fiorentina, 412
AC Parma, 412
Adams, W., 387
adjusted plus-minus, 99–101, 100t, 112n26
advertising, 295, 405
African American Leagues (AALs), 9–10, 228, 235–39, 237t, 245
age, 150
earnings vs., 138
LPGA and, 148–49
performance under pressure and, 136
age efficiency ratio (AER), 148–50, 149f
Agrawal, Jagdish, 295
Ahn, Seung C., 125–26, 210, 214
Aigner, D. J., 123
Akerlof, George A., 153–54
Alberini, Anna, 336
Albert, James, 95
Alberta, Canada, 347
Alexander, Donald L., 42, 206
Ali, Mukhtar M., 311
all-you-can-eat (AYCE), 387–88, 388t
Álvarez, A., 127–28
American Association (AA), 227, 229–31, 230t, 232t, 239
American Basketball Association (ABA), 245
American Football League (AFL), 246
American League (AL)
1899-1903, 233t
1913-1916, 234t
1958-1962, 243t
beanballs in, 362
brushbacks in, 365
DEFEFF in, 89
DH in, 90–91, 375n5
history of, 231–32
pitching velocity in, 369t
throw-ats in, 366t
Amsler, C., 128
Anderson, Torben, 14
Andreff, Wladimir, 207
Angelos, Peter, 260n3
Angrist, J. D., 22
Anson, Cap, 5
antitrust, 227–29
immunity, 256–57, 260
regulations, 405
arbitrage, 398n12
Arsenal, 203, 212–13
Asch, Peter, 311
Ashenfelter, Orley, 29
Ashton, J. K., 297, 299
Atkinson, Giles, 340, 410
Atlanta Braves, 183–85, 388
Atlantic Coast Conference, 24
attendance
in China Super League, 211–12
customer discrimination and, 12, 17n8, 33
data censoring of, 190–91
elasticity, 187
in EPL, 212–13, 212t
estimates, NFL, 195–99
factors affecting, 201
fan cost index and, 200n7
fan preference and, 214–16
models, 191–95
non-price promotions and, 388–89
over/under line and, 198
in PCL, 239–42
population and, 175–76, 182
profit maximization and, 201–2
racial integration and, 238
television broadcasts and, 201
ticket price and, 200n11
travel costs and, 175–76
utilization rates, 192–93, 193t
(p. 440) winning and, 131
Australian Rules Football, 217n6
Australian Stock Exchange, 296
Averill, Earl, 239
Avery, Sean, 61
AYCE. See all-you-can-eat
Baade, R. A., 264, 323–25, 330, 384
Bae, Kyeong, 146, 149
Baird, Tom, 238
balanced book assumption, 308–9, 309t
Bale, J., 265
Ball, Ray, 285
Baltagi, Badi H., 186–87
Baltimore Orioles, 10, 249, 260n3, 325
Baltimore Ravens, 280
bankruptcy, 328, 412
Barro, Robert J., 331
Barros, C. P., 118, 126
baseball. See also specific baseball leagues
competition in, 229–36
discrimination in, 4
evolution of segregation in, 5–7
farm system, 11
Korean, 118
National Agreement, 9–10
offensive inputs for, 95
preclusion of competition in, 235–44
Sherman Antitrust Act and, 250
Baseball Encyclopedia (Gillette and Palmer), 92n9
base stealing, 85, 90
BasketballValue.com, 112n24
batters
hit, 365
leaning in and, 354–55
plate appearances, 355t, 357t, 358t, 359t, 371t
Battese, G. E., 119, 124–25, 127–29
Baye, M., 415
beanballs, 362
Beane, Billy, 89
Beanie Babies, 389
Becker, Gary, 3–4, 6–7, 21, 23, 63, 178, 215, 374
Beijing Guoan, 211
Beliveau, Jean, 60
Bellotti, Robert, 97
benefit-cost analysis, 336
Bennet, J., 95
Berman, Gabrielle, 292, 296
Berri, David J., 98–100, 103–7, 118–19, 121, 125–26, 156, 176, 178, 206, 209, 381
betting percentages, 304
expected, 306f
MLB, 307f
odds and, 308
betting strategies, 310–13
based on odds, 312t, 313t
home underdogs, 311t
road underdogs, 310t
betting tournaments, 303
bettor biases, 314, 316n4
BetUS.com, 305
Bhabra, Harjeet S., 293
“Big Five” leagues, 417n27
Big Four clubs of EPL, 203t
Binmore, K., 24
Bird, Peter, 179
Birmingham Black Barons, 9
Blackburn Rovers, 203
blackout restrictions, 199n4
blacks. See also African American Leagues
in EPL, 216, 220n29
in MLB, 215
in NBA, 22, 32
in NHL, 55, 71n1
player trades and, 220n27
Black Sox scandal, 11
Bloc Quebecois, 60
Blomquist, Glenn C., 339
Bloom, Matt, 156
Bobinski, George, 293
Bodvarsson, Orn B., 26, 28, 33
Bognanno, Michael L., 136, 156, 415, 423
Bolton Wanderers, 213
Bonds, Barry, 84
bootstrapping, 129–30
Borland, Jeffery, 178
Boston Braves, 235, 240
Boston Bruins, 56
Boston Celtics, 24
Boswell, Thomas, 110n3
Bowers, Benny D., 302
bowling, 422–23
data, 425–26, 431t, 432t, 433t, 435t
prize structure, 429
skewness in, 427
Bowman, John Stewart, 5–6, 8
Boyle, Glenn, 297, 299
Bradbury, John Charles, 79–80, 95–96, 98–100, 108–9, 365, 397
(p. 441) Bradbury model of winning, 79–80, 81t, 82t
Brajer, Vic, 302
Brandeau, M. L., 264
Brastow, Raymond T., 28
Brisebois, Patrice, 61
Bristow, Michael, 211
Bronars, Stephen, 423
Brook, Stacey L., 98–99, 103
Brooklyn Dodgers, 4
Brooks, Robert, 292, 296
Brown, Daniel, 13
Brown, Eleanor, 26, 32–33
Brown, Jennifer, 423
Brown, M., 382, 392
Brown, Phillip, 285
Brown, Robert W., 14, 33
brushbacks, 360, 364–65
Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, 286
Buick Open Golf Tournament, 295
bundled pricing, 387
Buraimo, Babatunde, 176, 186–87
Burdekin, Richard C. K., 33, 35, 215
Bureau of Economic Analysis, 266
Burger, John D., 13, 15
Burke, Matthew, 184
Cabral, L., 392–93
Cairns, J., 205, 217
Callan, S. J., 42
Camden Yards, 325
Cameron, A. Colin, 366–67
Canada, 57–58, 67–68. See also French Canadians
career length, race and, 14
CaribSports.com, 305
Carmichael, Fiona, 118, 122
Carolina League, 206–7
Carson, Richard T., 336
cartels, 254, 405
Casey, S., 311
Casper, G., 415
catchment areas, 176, 184
Caudill, S. B., 127
CCTV, 211
Cebula, Richard J., 206–7
censoring, 190–91, 199n1
Census, 21–22, 25, 176
Center for Research in Security Prices (CRSP), 287, 289
Chandler, Happy, 11
Chelsea, 203, 412
Cherry, Don, 61–62, 69
Chiappori, P. A., 374
Chicago American Giants, 9
Chicago Black Hawks, 56
Chicago Cubs, 84, 210, 219n18, 234
Chicago Whales, 234
Chicago White Sox, 11
Chicago White Stockings, 5
China Super League, 202, 211–12
Chinese Football Association Jia, 211
Chiu, S. S., 264
Choi, Na Yeon, 143–44
Ciesinski, Zack, 150
Cincinnati Bengals, 253
Cirillo, Jeff, 375n8
civic pride, 335, 337
Clark, D., 401
Clark, John M., 294, 299
Cleveland Browns, 257
coaching
black NBA, 22
effect of, 123
efficiency, 120
experience, 126
French Canadian, 70
racial bias and, 14–15
salary discrimination and, 29–30
talent, 120
Coase Theorem, 416n23
Coates, Dennis, 209, 264–65, 321–23, 346
Cobb-Douglas functional form, 75
coefficient of determination, 276–77
Coelli, T. J., 119, 124–25, 127–29
Coleman, B. Jay, 35
Coloma, German, 374
competition
in baseball, 229–36
geographic monopolies and, 249
jointly produced, 248
among leagues, 227
preclusion of, in baseball, 235–44
salaries and, 154–55
competitive balance, 248
revenue sharing and, 253, 409–10
social welfare and, 410–11
uncertainty of outcome hypothesis and, 405
concessionary fares, 181
(p. 442) concession sales, 208–9, 387–89
conflict resolution, 256–59
conjectural variation, 408
consistency, 95–96
adjusted plus-minus and, 100–101
of performance measures, 109t
constant mean model, 299n2
consumer spending, 324
consumption, 328–29
Contest-Nash conjectures, 408
contest success function (CSF), 401, 406–7, 415, 415n2
contest theory, 400, 414–15. See also Tullock contest
application of, 404–14
models, 401–4
Continental League (CL), 228, 242–45, 243t
Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), 336–39
applications, 342–47
hypothetical bias, 339–40
methodological challenges, 339–42
NFL and, 344–45
NHL and, 343–44
survey response rates, 342
surveys, 340
temporal bias, 340
validity tests and, 348
convexity, 138
Cook, S., 311
Cornwell, C., 125–26
Cornwell, T. Bettina, 294, 299
cost complementarities, 75
cost-plus pricing, 204–5
Coulombe, Serge, 64–65, 68
Courty, P., 394
Covers.com, 194
Cowherd, Douglas M., 155
Coyne, Christopher J., 12
Creamer, Paula, 145, 145t, 147
cricket, 118
crime rate, 376n19
crime theory, 354–55, 371–73
Crompton, J. L., 322–24, 326, 336
Crooker, John R., 339–40
Cross, James, 60
crowding in effect, 178
Cuban, Mark, 204
Cuban Stars, 236
Cuesta, R. A., 125–26
cumulative abnormal return (CAR), 291–92, 294–95, 299
Curme, M. A., 66–67
Current Population Survey (CPS), 21–22, 25
Curt Flood Act, 234
Czech Republic, 57, 70
Dallas Cowboys, 253
Dallas Mavericks, 119, 204
D'Antonio, M., 239
Daraio, Cinzia, 139, 150
Dare, W., 305
Daskin, M., 266
data
bowling, 425–26, 431t, 432t, 433t, 435t
brushback, 364
censoring, 190–91
dichotomous choice, 339
gambling, 305–8, 314
NHL, 154
panel, 120, 124–26, 155, 179
quality, 94
salary dispersion, 159–60
truncation, 199n1
data envelopment analysis (DEA), 121, 138
Datastream, 297
Daugherty, G. M., 66–67
Davidson, Sinclair, 292, 296
Dawson, A., 410
Dawson, Peter, 118, 123, 292, 296, 346
DeBrock, Lawrence, 156–57
decision variables, in facility location model, 267
deficit spending, 286
del Corral, J., 118
Deloitte Annual Review of Football Finance, 212–13
demand
definition of, 182
distance and, 185–86
elasticity, 177–80, 183, 187n1
facility location model and, 265–66
fixed effects modeling, 185–86
game-day, 198
models, 186–87
non-price influences on, 185–87
ticket price and, 177–85, 218n7
Demmert, Henry G., 205
Department of Commerce, 266
Department of Transport, 181
dependent variables, 83
Depken, Craig A., 14, 156, 219n17
Deprins, D., 139
Derby Games, 186
designated hitter (DH), 83, 90–91, 375n5
Desser, Arna, 14
deterrence, 377n20, 377n25
Detroit Red Wings, 56
Dey, Matthew S., 28, 30, 33–35
dichotomous choice data, 339
Dietl, H., 402–3, 405, 411–12
DiMaggio, Joe, 239
DirecTV, 253
discounts, 395–97, 396f
discrimination. See also price discrimination; salary discrimination
in baseball, 4
changes in, 70–71
coaching efficiency and, 120
coworker, 23
customer, 12, 17n8, 23, 32–35, 34t, 214–16
economics of, 23–24, 62–64
empirical analysis of, 21–22
employer, 23, 63
entry, 32, 63–64
exit, 32
against French Canadians, 64–69, 120
gender, 30, 52–53
GMs and, 68
hiring, 31t
in labor markets, 4
nationality-based, 215–16
in NBA, 31t
productivity v., 39
quality, 389–90
after racial integration, 13–15
research, 64–66
retention, 31t
segregational, 63–64
skills and, 8, 52–53
sources of, 63–64
statistical, 4
testing for, 46
unions and, 7
wage gaps and, 9–10
distanced income, 266, 268t, 272, 276t
diversity, international, 55–56
Dobb, Anthony, 372
Dobson, Stephen M., 118, 178, 210, 214
Doerr, Bobby, 239
Dolley, James C., 286
Donihue, Michael R., 185, 206
Downward, P., 410
Drinen, Douglas, 365
drive total (DT), 140, 151n6
driving accuracy, 135
driving distance, 135
Drysdale, Don, 375n2
DT. See drive total
dummy variable method of event analysis, 291–92
DuMond, J. Michael, 35
Dupuit, J., 390, 397
Durham, Greg, 91n3
Dye, R. F., 264, 323–25, 330
dynamic pricing, 382, 393
earned-run average (ERA), 77, 86, 88, 90
earnings. See also salaries
age vs., 138
as output, 136
as performance measures, 137
by skills, 47t, 48t, 49t, 50t
East-West All-Star series, 236
eBay, 382
Ebbets Field, 240
econometric analyses, 322–23
economic impacts
of hosting teams, 265, 321
job creation and, 329–30
multiplier effects and, 326–28
studies, 322–23, 332
The Economics of Discrimination (Becker), 3–4, 21
The Economic Theory of Team Sports (Késenne), 260n1
Edmans, Alex, 292, 297–99
Edmonton Oilers, 57
effects model, 126–28
efficiency. See also inefficiency
coaching, 120
conditional, 145t, 148–49
determinants of, 126–28, 131
FDH, in golf, 144t
managerial, 120–23
measures, 118–20
NBA, 119
pitching, 89
statistical inference of, 128–30
unconditional, 144–47
efficient markets hypothesis, 302
effort, in tournament theory, 436n4
Ehrenberg, R., 136, 156, 423
Einolf, Karl W., 121
El Hodiri, Mohammed, 175, 204, 409
Elite Giants, 238
Elmendorf, Douglas W., 286
Emirates Stadium, 212–13
employee prejudice, 6, 16n2
employers
discrimination, 23, 63
least-prejudiced, 10–11
endorsement contracts, 295–96
English Premier League (EPL), 118
attendance in, 212–13, 212t
Big Four clubs of, 203t
blacks in, 216, 220n29
Opta Index and, 122
revenues in, 212–13, 213t
revenues vs. salaries, 202t
salaries, 204f
TCM and, 180–83
team owners in, 203–5
ticket price inelasticity in, 206
English Rugby League, 218n6
Eschker, Erick, 28
estimation window, 290
Europe, 61–62
event analysis, 285–89
advertising and, 295
dummy variable model of, 291–92
errors in, 299
on macro level, 292–93
macro studies of, 296–98
market model of, 290
micro studies of, 293–96
procedure, 289–93
of soccer, 297–98
events
impact of, 287f
leaked information of, 288f
short-lived impact of, 288f
sponsorship of, 289
window, 290
expenditure multiplier, 327
explanatory power, of performance measures, 109t
exports, 324–26
facility location model, 264–66
alpha of, 268–69, 270f
p-median, 265–68
fairness model of salary dispersion, 153, 166
Falconieri, S., 405
Falter, Jean-Marc, 176, 186
Fama, Eugene F., 285, 290
fan cost index, 200n7, 200n10
fans
ancillary revenues and, 381
civic pride and, 335
income of, 182
loyalty, 210, 219n17
over/under line and, 198
preference, 214–16, 336
racial integration and, 238
racism and, 6
time costs for, 181
travel costs for, 179
welfare of, 245
winning percentage and, 193–94
farm system (baseball), 11
Farrell, Kathleen A., 293, 295–96, 299
favorites, 312t, 313t
FC Lugano, 412
FC Valencia, 412
Feddersen, Arne, 204
Federal Baseball Club of Baltimore, Inc. v. National League, 261n6
Federal League (FL), 227, 233–34, 234t
Feehan, Patrick, 176, 178, 206
Fenn, Aju J., 339–40
Ferris, Stephen P., 302
field goal percentage, adjusted, 101–2, 113n29, 115n43
fielding efficiency (DEFEFF), 79, 86, 89, 91n2
Findlay, David W., 14, 185, 206
Finland, 57, 70
5Dimes.com, 305
fixed effects modeling, 185–86
alternatives to, 186–87
(p. 445) OLS vs., 88, 186
Fizel, John, 15, 296
Florida Marlins, 331
Ford, Jon M., 14, 127
foreign players, 57–58, 70–71. See also diversity
Forrest, David, 180, 183, 185–86, 206
four-node network, 268f
Fox Sports, 204
Frame, W. Scott, 293, 299
franchise location inefficiency ratio, 276–77, 276t, 277t
franchises. See teams
Franck, E., 405, 412
free agency
economics of discrimination and, 24
French Canadians and, 67
revenue sharing and, 252–53
salary discrimination and, 28–29
Free Disposal Hull (FDH), 139–42, 144t
Freeman, R. B., 29
free throws, 101–2, 114n40, 115n47
French Canadians, 59–61
coaches, 70
discrimination against, 64–69, 120
Frick, Bernd, 118, 120–22, 156, 160
Fried, H. O., 138
Front de Liberation de Quebec (FLQ), 60
FRONTIER 4.1, 128
FTSE, 297
Funk, Jonas P., 35
G-3 program, 261n14
Gabriel, Paul E., 14
gambling, 302. See also sportsbooks
bettor biases, 314, 316n4
data, 305–8, 314
strategies, 310–13
game scheduling, NFL, 194–95
Game Score measure, 98, 111n19
game theory, 373–74
Gandar, John M., 302, 305
Garcia, Diego, 292, 297–98
Garciá, Jaume, 206, 214
Garcia-del-Barrio, P., 118
Garfinkel, M., 415
Garicano, Luis, 424
general managers (GMs), 68
general play, 104
geographic information systems (GIS), 176
German Bundesliga, 118
Gerrard, Bill, 103–4, 118, 297
Gibson, Bob, 375n2
Gibson, Josh, 236
Gilbert, Rod, 61
Gill, Andrew, 14
Gillette, Gary, 92n9
Gius, M., 28
Glazer, A., 415
Goddard, John A., 178, 210, 214
Goff, Brian, 12, 24, 365
Goldberger, A. S., 26
Goldin, Claudia, 8
Golec, Joseph, 311
golf, 39. See also specific golf organizations
earnings by skills, 47t, 48t, 49t, 50t
FDH efficiencies, 144t
inefficiency, 141–42, 142f
inputs, 140, 146t
outputs, 140
performance measures, 135–36, 141t
price discrimination in, 384
production function, 41–43
skills, 43–46
women's earnings in, 137
Gomez, Rafael, 156, 160
government
antitrust immunity and, 260
direct expenditure by, 326
funding of stadiums, 331
multi-part policy, 341
recession and, 330–32
regulation, 256–57, 257t
stadium construction and, 259–60
subsidies, 252, 255t, 335
Gradstein, M., 415
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings law, 286
Grant, Charlie, 10
Grant, Frank, 16n3
Greene, William, 126, 191
greens in regulation (GIR), 140
Grenier, Gilles, 64–68
Griffey, Ken, Jr., 215
Griffith, R. M., 311
(p. 446) Groothuis, Peter A., 14, 32, 339
Groseclose, T., 374
Grossman, M., 402–3
Gurtler, O., 405, 415
Gustafson, Elizabeth, 75, 118
Gwartney, James, 12
Haas, D., 118, 121–22
habit formation, 210
Hadley, Lawrence, 118, 206
Hakes, Jahn K., 180, 182–84
Hakimi, S. L., 265–66
Hamilton, B. H., 28
handicapping, 148
Hanssen, Andrew F., 12
Hartford Whalers, 57
Haupert, Michael J., 9
Hausman, Jerry A., 186–87
Hausman-Taylor estimator, 186–87
Haworth, Charles, 12
Heeren, Dave, 97
Heilmann, Ronald L., 209
Hill, James Richard, 14, 32
Hoang, Ha, 32–33, 215
Hofler, Richard A., 118
holding period return, 287f, 298
Hollinger, John, 97, 99, 105, 110n13
Home Park Indices, 84, 91n7
home/road biases, 305, 309f, 310t, 311t
Horrace, W. C., 129
horseracing, 210
Hossfeld, Richard T., 35, 215
Houston Astros, 219n18
Howard, Dwight, 100
Hsu, Shih-Hsun, 374
Huang, C. J., 118, 127
Huang, Chen-Yin, 374
Hudson, I., 322, 326
Hudson, R., 297
Humphreys, Brad R., 29–30, 209, 264–65, 321, 391
Hurdle Poisson model, 367–68
Hurricane Ike, 219n18
hypothetical bias, 339–40
Idson, Todd L., 33, 215
imports, 324–25
incentives
effects of, 435
prize structure as, 430
risk-taking, 423
soccer, 424
tax, 280
tournament, 427
income
distanced, 266, 268t, 272, 276t
of fans, 182
local development policy and, 327
nodes, 268–69
psychic, 336
from revenues, 324
Indianapolis 500, 294
industrial engineering, 264
industrial organization, 247–48
inefficiency. See also efficiency
equation, 127
estimating, 128–29
golf, 141–42, 142f
ratios, 276t
time-invariant, 124–25
time-variant, 125–26
inputs
defensive, 85–86, 122
in facility location model, 266
golf, 140, 146t
managerial, 84–85, 91, 92n8
offensive, 85–86, 89, 95, 122
skills as, 136
interleague games, 88
International Journal of Sports Finance, 303
International League, 6, 239
International Olympic Committee (IOC), 346–47
invariance proposition, 409
irrational exuberance, 289
Jacksonville Jaguars, 344–45
James, Bill, 84, 91n7
Jamison, Antawn, 328
Jennett, N., 205, 217
Jewell, R. Todd, 14, 33, 156
Ji, Eun-Hee, 136
Jiang Heping, 211
job creation, 329–30
Johnson, Anthony, 99
Johnson, Arthur T., 265, 330
Johnson, Bruce K., 322, 338–41, 346
Johnson, Curtis, 14
Johnson, D., 28
(p. 447) Johnson, R. Stafford, 305
Johnson, William R., 8
joint-product characteristic, 130–31
Jondrow, J., 124, 129
Jones, J. C. H., 65–66
Jones, K. C., 24
Jones, Sam, 24
Journal of Prediction Markets, 303
Joyce, Gare, 61–62
Jozsa, F. P., 229
Kahane, Leo, 43, 69, 120–22, 126, 206, 215
Kahn, James R., 336
Kahn, Lawrence M., 13, 22–30, 32, 35, 215
Kalist, D. E., 138
Kalussen, Franc, 374
Kamakura, W., 295
Kanazawa, Mark T., 35
Kansas City Monarchs, 11–12, 235–37
Kansas City Royals, 214
Karafiath, Imre, 291
Kasimati, Evangelia, 292, 296
Katz, Lawrence F., 8
Keenan, Diane, 26, 32–33
Kelliher, Margaret, 331
Kern, W., 42
Kerr, Christie, 136, 146
Késenne, Stefan, 205, 260n1, 405, 408
Kim, M., 128–30
Klumpp, T., 415
Knowles, S., 118
Koch, James V., 26
Kocher, M. G., 118
Koppett, Leonard, 11, 244
Koreans, 118, 137
Kovenock, D., 415
Krakel, M., 415
Krautmann, Anthony C., 178, 206, 209, 381
Krueger, Alan B., 22, 219n16
Kubatko, Justin, 103
Kumbhakar, S. C., 125–27
Kung, Candie, 142–43, 143t
Kuziemko, Ilyana, 8
labor markets
discrimination in, 4
empirical analysis of, 21–22
employer discrimination and, 63
endogenous, 7–8
LaCroix, Sumner J., 14
Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA), 39–40
age and, 148–49
conditional efficiency, 145t, 148–49
earnings vs. age, 138
efficiency, 145t
Koreans on, 137
performance under pressure in, 136
PGA vs., 138
statistics, 44t45t
unconditional efficiency, 144–47
Lafleur, Guy, 60
Lakeland, Florida, 269
Lallemand, Thierry, 156–57
Lambrinos, J., 138
Lanctot, Neil, 8
land grants, 326–27
Landis, Floyd, 295
Landis, Kenesaw Mountain, 11
Land Shark Stadium, 250
Lang, M., 405, 411–12
Langton, Nancy, 155
Laporte, Pierre, 60
Lausanne Sports, 412
Lavoie, Marc, 64–69
layoffs, 32
Lazear, Edward P., 153–55, 157, 424, 434
Lazzeri, Tony, 239
League of Colored Base Ball Clubs, 16n4
leagues
centralized marketing by, 405
competition among, 227
conflicts with teams, 254–56
eight-team, 269t, 270f
expansion, 278–79, 280t
mergers, 245–46
single entity status of, 228
stability of, 256–57
two-team model for, 175, 257t
value creation in, 405–6
leaning in, 354–55, 359–60
least squares linear regression (LSLR), 95
Lee, L-F., 124–25
Lee, Soonhwan, 214
Lee, Young H., 118–19, 121–23, 125–26, 210, 214
Leeds, Eva Marikova, 294, 297
Leeds, Michael A., 204, 292, 294–95, 297, 389
Leger, G., 311
Lemieux, Mario, 60
(p. 448) Levine, David I., 153, 155
Levitt, Steven D., 303, 310, 314, 374
Lewin, David, 111n15
Lewis, Michael, 76
Lewis, Rashard, 99
Lexington, Kentucky, 343
Liaw, T., 42
life satisfaction, 348
Likelihood Ratio, 376n14
Lindsey, George, 95
Link, Charles R., 13
Linnen, Brian, 374
litigation, 415
Liu, J.-T., 127
Liverpool, 203
local development policy, 326–27
Lockard, A., 415
Lombardi, Ernie, 239
London, England, 346–47
Long, Judith Grant, 344
Longley, Neil, 66–68
Longo, Alberto, 346
longshots, 310–11
Los Angeles Coliseum, 242
Los Angeles Dodgers, 204, 240–41, 388
Loury, Glenn C., 8, 415
Lowenfish, L., 242
Lundberg, Shelly J., 8
Lurie, Bob, 261n7
luxury seating, 220n24, 250–52
Lynch, Allen K., 35
Macdonald, Robert, 178
Mack, Connie, 10, 261n7
MacKinlay, A. Craig, 290–91, 298–99
macroeconomic multiplier, 327
Madalozzo, Regina, 218n10
Madden, Janice Fanning, 24
Maennig, Wolfgang, 204
Magnus, Jan, 374
Major League Baseball (MLB). See also American League; National League
1947, 237t
antitrust and, 227–29
AYCE in, 388, 388t
base stealing in, 85, 90
betting data in, 305–8
betting percentages, 304, 307f
blacks in, 215
crime theory and, 354
cross-league differences, 83, 88–89
data envelopment analysis of, 121
expansion, 278, 278t279t
expected betting percentages, 306f
fan loyalty in, 210
franchise location inefficiency ratio, 276
geographic monopolies in, 249
history of, 235
interleague games, 88
managerial input in, 84–85
optimal team location in, 271–72, 271t
price discrimination in, 385t, 397
production function of, 118
production technology in, 75, 83–86
revenues vs. wages, 202t
salary dispersion in, 156
secondary markets and, 394–95
smaller market teams, 214
sportsbooks, 305–8
stadiums, 84
summary statistics of, 80t81t
TCM and, 183–85
team relocations, 251t
ticket price inelasticity in, 206
Malkiel, Burton G., 311
Malloy, Jerry, 5–8
Maloney, Michael, 156, 424
management science, 264
Manchester United, 203, 212–13, 411–12
Manley, Effa, 236
manufacturing industry, 122
Marburger, Daniel R., 178
marginal products (MP), 76
marginal propensity to consume, 328–29
marginal revenue product (MRP), 13, 76
marketing, centralized, 405
market model of event analysis, 290
market overlap, 187
market size, 175
attendance elasticity and, 187
GIS and, 176
Marple, D., 137
Marr, M. Wayne, 302
Martinez, Amy, 215
match fixing, 211
match play statistics, 122
Matheson, V., 384
Matlab code, 151n3
Matthews, P. H., 138
(p. 449) Maxcy, Joel, 156, 235
McCormick, Robert E., 12, 24–25, 28, 156
McDonald, M., 388
McDonald's, 228, 245
McEvoy, C., 382, 392
McFadden, Peter, 75
McGarrity, Joseph, 14, 374
McGlothlin, William H., 311
McGoldrick, K., 121–22
McGraw, John, 10
McNary, Kyle, 11
McNeil, Chris R., 296
mean abnormal return, 291
Medeiros, M. D., 239
Medoff, Marshall H., 14
Meehan, James W., 12
Meeusen, W., 123
Melbourne Cup, 210
merchandising, 405
metropolitan statistical areas (MSA), 266
Mexican League, 236
Miami Dolphins, 250
microeconomics, 94
Miles, Scott E., 14
military conflicts, 415
Miller, Phillip, 214
Milwaukee Brewers, 214
Minnesota Vikings, 252, 331, 345
minority groups, in NHL, 58–62
Mirikitani, John M., 292
Mishra, Debi P., 293, 299
Mitchell, Mark L., 286
Mitchell, Robert Cameron, 336
mixed bundling, 387
mixed-strategy equilibrium, 374
Miyazaki, Anthony D., 294, 299
Moldovanu, B., 415n5
Mondello, Mike, 156, 339–41, 392
Moneyball (Lewis), 76
Monks, James, 14
monopolies
cartels and, 254
geographic, 249, 259–60
monopsony power, 112n22
Montreal Canadiens, 56, 60–61
Morgan, Angela G., 294, 299
Moses, Robert, 240
motorcycle racing, 424–25
Mourato, Susana, 340
Moy, R. L., 42
Mulherin, J. Harold, 286
Mullane, Tony, 16n6
multi-part policy, 341
multiple comparisons with the best (MCB), 129
multiplier effects, 321–23
economic impacts of, 326–28
of salaries, 327–28
multi-product firm pricing, 381
multi-tiered pricing, 390–91
Municipal Stadium, 344
Murdoch, Rupert, 204
Nadeau, Serge, 66
Nagel, M., 382, 392
Nalebuff, B., 415
Nam, E. A., 137
Narayan, Paresh Kumar, 210–11
Nardinelli, Clark, 14
Nash bargaining, 28
Nash equilibrium, 256–59, 258f, 356, 414
National Agreement (baseball), 9–11, 229, 232, 245
National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), 294–95
National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, 229
National Basketball Association (NBA)
adjusted field goal percentage, 101–2, 113n29, 115n43
blacks in, 22, 32
customer discrimination in, 32–35, 34t, 215
Developmental League, 25
discrimination, 31t
efficiency of, 119
empirical analysis of discrimination in, 22
expansion, 278, 279t
factors on wins in, 106t
franchise location inefficiency ratio, 276–77
individual performance measures, 103
inelastic ticket price in, 218n6
(p. 450) merger with ABA, 245
optimal team location in, 272, 274t275t
performance measures in, 109t
positions, 115n45
PPS in, 115n43
revenues vs. salaries, 202t
salary discrimination in, 25–30
salary dispersion in, 156
scoring models for, 96–99, 109t
stochastic frontier model in, 121
team relocations, 251t
wage gaps in, 24, 27t
Win Shares, 101–3
Wins Produced, 103–8
National Committee on Pay Equity, 39, 50
National Football League (NFL)
antitrust immunity in, 257
attendance estimates in, 195–99
betting percentages in, 204
composition of, 200n13
CVM and, 344–45
DirecTV and, 253
expansion, 278, 279t
franchise location inefficiency ratio, 276
G-3 program, 261n14
game scheduling, 194–95
inelastic ticket price in, 217n6
latent demand in, 190–91
merger with AFL, 246
optimal team location in, 272, 273t, 274f
over/under line, 194
revenues vs. salaries, 202t
salary caps, 121, 253
salary dispersion in, 156
stadium construction and, 259–60
team quality in, 193–94
team relocations, 250–52, 251t
team rivals in, 194
utilization rates, 192–93, 193t
National Hockey League (NHL), 55
blacks in, 55, 71n1
CVM and, 343–44
data, 154
descriptive statistics for, 160t
economics of discrimination and, 62–64
Europe and, 61–62
expansion, 278–79, 279t
foreign players in, 70–71
franchise location inefficiency ratio, 277
French Canadians in, 120
GMs, 68
history of, 56–57
international diversity in, 55–56
merger with WHA, 245–46
minority groups in, 58–62
optimal team location in, 272, 275t
players, 57–58
playoffs, 164t, 165t
salary discrimination in, 64–69
salary dispersion in, 156, 160–65, 161t, 162t, 164t, 165t
salary estimations in, 170, 171t
team relocations, 251t
National League (NL), 227
1881–1885, 230t
1889–1892, 232t
1899–1903, 233t
1913–1916, 234t
1958–1962, 243t
beanballs in, 362
brushbacks in, 365
DEFEFF in, 89
history of, 229
pitching velocity in, 369t
Robinson, Jackie, and, 4
stadium factors in, 84
throw-ats in, 366t
NBA efficiency measure, 96–99, 112n21
Neal, Derek A., 8
Neale, Walter, 76, 415
Negro American League (NAL), 235, 238
Negro Leagues, 9–10. See also African American Leagues
Negro National League (NNL), 9, 235, 238
Nero, P., 42
Nethercutt, Leonard L., 286
Newark Eagles, 236, 238
Newberry, Peter W., 185, 206
New York Black Yankees, 238
The New Yorker, 295
New York Giants, 252, 253
New York Jets, 252
New York Mets, 249, 392–93
New York Rangers, 56
New York Yankees, 249
New Zealand, 297
Nitzan, S., 415
(p. 451) Noll, Roger, 177, 191, 204–6, 329
non-price promotions, 388–89
Norli, Oyvind, 292, 297–98
Northwest League, 5, 229
Nunn, S., 265
Oakland Athletics, 89, 214
Oakland Raiders, 252, 257
Oaxaca, Ronald, 40–41
Obama, Barack, 330
Ochoa, Lorena, 144–46, 148
“October Crisis,” 60
odds, 304
betting percentages and, 308
betting strategy based on, 312t, 313t
fractional, 315n1
shading, 315
O'Doul, Lefty, 353
Oettinger, Gerald, 423
offensive rebound percentage, 101–2, 113n31
Oh, Ji Young, 142–43, 143t
Old Trafford, 212–13
Oliver, Dean, 101–3, 105
Oliver-Berri model, 109t
Olympics
hockey and, 57–58
London, 346–47
macro effects of, 296–97
sponsorship, 293–94
stock prices and, 296–97
willingness-to-pay for, 340
O'Malley, Walter, 240–41
on-base percent (OBP), 77, 85–86, 89–90, 92n12, 122–23
OPS, 77, 85, 110n1
Opta Index, 122
Orange Bowl, 250
order-m FDH, 136, 139–40, 144t, 151n11
ordinary least squares (OLS), 75, 167n3
attendance estimates and, 196, 197t198t
estimates of production function models, 82–83
fixed effects model vs., 88, 186
Orea, Luis, 126
Organized Baseball, 9–10
Orlando Magic, 99–100, 100t
outputs
earnings as, 136
golf, 140
measures, 167n4
Ovechin, Alexandre, 62
overinvestment problem, 411–14
over/under line, 194, 198
Owen, Jeffrey, 34, 345
Ozdemiroglu, Ece, 340
Pacific Bell Park, 84
Pacific Coast League (PCL), 10, 228, 239–42, 239t
Paige, Satchel, 9, 236
Palacios-Huerta, Ignacio, 374, 424
Palmer, Harvey D., 14
Palmer, Pete, 92n9, 95
Palomino, F., 405
Pankoff, Lyn D., 302
Park, Kwang Woo, 214
Parsons, Christopher A., 15
Parti Quebecois, 59–60
Partridge, Mark D., 26, 33
Paul, Rodney J., 303–4, 311
Pauwels, Wilfried, 205
Payne, James E., 118
payroll
relative, 162–63
superstars and, 77
team quality and, 194
winning and, 78t
Pedace, Roberto, 216
perceptions, 108–9
Perez, Stephen J., 28
performance measures, 109t, 121–22
earnings as, 137
evaluating models of, 95–96
golf, 135–36, 141t
individual player, 103
in NBA, 109t
positional, 122, 131
research in, 108–9
salaries and, 95
scoring models for, 96–99, 109t
win models of, 101–8
Win Shares model of, 101–3
Wins Produced model, 103–8
performance under pressure, 135–36
AER and, 148
measuring, 139–40
performance under pressure index (PUPI), 141, 147
(p. 452) Perignon, Christophe, 176, 186
personal seat licenses (PSL), 389
Peschiera, F. J., 138
Peterson, Robert, 8–10
Pfeffer, Jeffrey, 155
Pfitzner, C. B., 137
Philadelphia Athletics, 10, 240
Phlips, L., 383
Phoenix Coyotes, 261n14
Phonak, 295
Pietrusza, D., 229
Pigou, Arthur, 383, 397
Pistolet, Irina, 294, 297
pitching, 354
brushback, 360, 364–65
efficiency, 89
fastball, 375n2
inside, 365
performance, 376n16
statistics, 363t364t
theory, 355–59
velocity, 360, 360f, 361f, 362f, 364–65, 368–70, 369t
wild, 360–61
Pitt, M., 124
Pittsburgh Penguins, 343–44
Pittsburgh Steelers, 280
Plasman, Robert, 156
plate appearances, 355t, 357t, 358t, 371t
Platt, L., 22
player drafts, 252–53
Player Efficiency Rating (PER), 97–98
players
bankruptcy by, 328
factors on wins of, 106t
foreign, 57–58, 70–71
individual performance measures, 103
NHL, 57–58
residence of, 329
trades, 220n27
Players League (PL), 227, 231, 232t
playoffs, NHL, 164t, 165t
plus-minus model, 92n9, 99–101, 109t, 112n25. See also adjusted plus-minus
p-median model, 265–68, 280
Pogemiller, Larry, 331
Points Created model, 97, 110n13
points-per-shot (PPS), 113n37, 115n43
Poisson regression, 366–68
Poitras, Marc, 14, 118
Polborn, M., 415
police effort, 371–72
political campaigns, 415
Polo Grounds, 240
population
attendance and, 175–76, 182
market overlap within, 187
Porter, P., 118
Portland, Oregon, 345–46
positions
NBA, 115n45
performance measures of, 122, 131
salaries and, 131
possessions, 104–5
Preston, Ian, 216
Price, Joseph, 26, 29
price discrimination, 383–84
bundled pricing, 387
first-degree, 384
loaded tickets and, 387–89
in MLB, 385t, 397
multi-tiered pricing, 390–91
personal seat licenses and, 389
second-degree, 384–95
taxonomy of, 385t
third-degree, 395–97
two-part tariff and, 389
variable pricing, 391–93, 392f
volume discounts, 386
price dispersion, 391
pricing integrity, 381
Primera Division, 412
private goods, 337
prize structure, 422
bowling, 429
dispersion and, 426
gaps in, 434
as incentive, 430
productivity and, 435
skewness, 426–28
sponsorship and, 424–25
production function
accuracy of, 131
estimations of, 119
of golf, 41–43
of MLB, 118
models of, 80–83, 80t81t
of WINS, 87t
(p. 453) production technology
alternative models of, 76–83
defensive inputs in, 85–86
empirical estimation of, 87–90
in MLB, 75, 83–86
offensive inputs in, 85–86, 89
productivity
discrimination v., 39
firm, 154–56
joint, 248
measures, 121
prize structure and, 435
salary dispersion and, 155–56
team, 157–59
variables for, 121
Professional Bowling Association Tour, 425
Professional Golfers Association (PGA) Tour, 423
LPGA vs., 138
statistics, 44t
women on, 39–40
profit maximization, 409–10
alternatives to, 203–5
attendance and, 201–2
concession sales and, 209
inelastic ticket pricing and, 205–10
short-run vs. long-run, 210
sportsbooks and, 303–4
ticket price and, 216, 381–82
promotion and relegation system, 249
Pronovost, Marcel, 61
Prospal, Vaclav, 61
Pruitt, Stephen W., 286, 294, 299
public goods, 337, 343–44
public transport, 184
punishments, 376n18
putts (PUTT), 135, 140
Pylypiak, B., 311
quality discrimination, 389–90
Quandt, Richard E., 311
Quebec Major Junior League, 61, 65
Quebec Nordiques, 57
Quirk, James, 175, 204, 207, 250, 252–53, 405, 409
race
bias, 14–15
career length and, 14
player trades and, 220n27
racial integration, 12
AALs and, 228
discrimination after, 13–15
fans and, 238
racism, 13–15
fan preference and, 215
fans and, 6
Rakers, Aaron, 375n8
random effects probit estimation, 160
Rappaport, J., 344
Rascher, Daniel A., 32–33, 215, 217n1, 382, 388, 392
Rascher, Heather, 217n1
Ratelle, Jean, 61
recessions, 322, 330–32
referees, 377n22
Reid, Clifford E., 14
Reifschneider, D., 127
relative payroll (RELPAY), 77, 91n1
rent seeking, 167n2, 415
reserve clause, 7, 252
ReVelle, C., 266
revenues
additional, 207–8
ancillary, 381
concession sales, 208–9
CSF and, 406–7
elasticity of, 218n12
in EPL, 212–13, 213t
franchise location inefficiency ratio and, 277t
game day, 220n23
income from, 324
luxury seating, 250–52
overinvestment problem and, 411–12
salaries vs., 202, 202t
stadiums and, 212–13, 252
television broadcast, 207
value creation and, 405–6
revenue sharing, 252–53, 255t
acceptance of, 256
competitive balance and, 253, 409–10
geographic monopolies and, 249
reverse favorite-longshot bias, 304–5, 310–11
reverse regression tests, 26–27
Richard, Maurice, 60
Rickey, Branch, 4, 11–12, 236–37, 242–44
Riis, C., 401
Rishe, Patrick James, 42, 392
(p. 454) Rishel, T. D., 137
robbery, 373
Robbie, Joe, 250
Robinson, Jackie, 4, 11–12, 13, 237
Robinson, Joan, 24
Robinson, Michael, 14
Rodríguez, Plácido, 206, 214
rookies, 28–29
Rosen, Sherwin, 153, 384, 415, 427, 434
Rosenbaum, Dan, 111n15
Rosenfeld, A., 384
Rosentraub, M., 265
roster stability, 119, 126
Rottenberg, S., 405, 409
RS. See runs scored
Rubinstein, A., 24
rugby, 218n6, 297
Ruggiero, J., 118
Runs Differential (RUNDIF), 79
runs scored (RS), 85–86
Russell, Bill, 24
Russia, 58, 70
Rycx, François, 156
sabermetrics, 17n12, 92n9, 121
Sacramento Kings, 333n5
Sakovics, J., 405
salaries, 121–22. See also earnings
in ALLs, 236
competition and, 154–55
compression, 153–54
efficiency measures and, 119
in EPL, 204f
estimation of, 170, 171t
multiplier effects of, 327–28
non-athlete, 329–30
performance measures and, 95
positional, 131
revenues vs., 202, 202t
team productivity and, 157–59
salary caps, 405
decomposition of, 51t, 52t
NFL, 121, 253
salary discrimination, 25–30. See also wage gaps
in NHL, 64–69
research, 63–64
salary dispersion, 153
conditional vs. unconditional models, 156–57
data, 159–60
fairness model of, 153–54, 166
firm production and, 154–56
in MLB, 156
in NBA, 156
in NFL, 156
in NHL, 156, 160–65, 161t, 162t, 164t, 165t
panel data and, 155
productivity and, 155–56
skills and, 157
tournament model of, 153, 166
Salkever, David, 291
Samsung World Championship (golf), 143
San Antonio Spurs, 119
Sanders, Tom, 24
Sanderson, A., 410
San Diego Padres, 214
sand saves (SS), 135, 140
San Francisco Giants, 84, 240–41, 382
Santo, Charles, 345
Sauer, Raymond D., 302
save efficiency (SAVEFF), 86, 89
scaling property, 127–28
scalping, 382, 393–95
Schmidt, Martin B., 98–99, 103, 176
Schmidt, P., 124–26, 129
Schofield, J. A., 118
scoring models, 96–99, 109t
Scriabin, Michael, 311
Scully, Gerald, 42, 77–79, 118, 215
Scully/Zimbalist model of winning, 77–79, 81t82t
Seals Stadium, 242
Seattle Mariners, 215
secondary markets, 393–95
segregation, 14–15
discrimination, 63–64
evolution of, 5–7
of French Canadians, 59
talent raiding and, 236
Sela, A., 415n5
Selig, Bud, 331
Senior Professional Golf Association (SPGA), 138
sensitivity training, 61
separability, 75
Sergas, Giulia, 147–49
(p. 455) Servette Genf, 412
Shah, M., 22, 24–25, 28–30, 35
Shanghai exchange index, 297
Shea, William, 242–44
Sherer, Peter D., 26–27, 30
Sherman Antitrust Act, 250, 257
Shin, E. H., 137
Shin, Jiyai, 143
shirking, 372
Shmanske, Stephen, 39–40, 138, 206, 215, 384
shooting efficiency, 106–7
Shropshire, K. L., 22, 265
Shughart, William, 365
Sickels, R. C., 124–26
Siegfried, J. J., 118, 264, 321, 325–26, 410
Siegler, Mark V., 28
Simar, Leopold, 139, 150
Simmons, Rob, 120–22, 176, 178–79, 185–86, 206
Simon, Curtis, 14
Singell, Larry D., Jr., 14
Skaperdas, S., 401, 415
skewness, 426–28, 436
effect of, 432–34
measures, 428
skills
assessing, 43
discrimination and, 8, 52–53
earnings by, 47t, 48t, 49t, 50t
of French Canadians, 64–65
golf, 43–46
as input, 136
salary dispersion and, 157
Skybook.com, 305
Sloane, Peter J., 205, 217
Slovakia, 70
slugging percent (SLG), 77, 85–86, 89–90, 92n13, 122–23
Smaby, Timothy, 296
Smith, Janet Kilholm, 35, 215
Smyth, Russell, 210–11
Snyder, L., 264
soccer. See also specific soccer leagues
“Big Five” leagues, 417n27
decline in, 207
event analysis of, 297–98
incentives, 424
reduced dependence on tickets in, 208t
social welfare, 373, 410–11
Society of American Baseball Research (SABR), 17n12
Soebbing, B., 391
Sommers, P. M., 138
Sorenstam, Annika, 39, 145, 151n9
Sosa, Sammy, 84
Soviet Union, 58
Spanish First Division football, 214
Spanish football league, 118
Spiro, Richard, 26, 32–33
sponsorship, 405
of events, 289
NASCAR, 294–95
Olympic, 293–94
prize structure and, 424–25
stock prices and, 294
SportBet.com, 305
Sporting Life, 5
sports
amateur, 347
benefit-cost analysis of, 336
benefits of, 335–36
individual, 416n13
individual vs. team, 404–5
Sportsbook.com, 305
sportsbooks, 302–5
balanced book assumption, 308–9
MLB and, 305–8
pricing, 314–15
Sports Economics (Fort), 77
Sports Geography (Bale), 265
Sports Insights, 305–8
Sportsinteraction.com, 305
SS. See sand saves
St. Louis Browns, 233–34, 240
St. Louis Cardinals, 388
St. Louis Rams, 252
St. Louis Terriers, 233–34
stadiums
for AALs, 236
all-seated, 210
in China Super League, 211–12
construction, 259–60
distance to, 182–83
expansion of, 219n22
factors, 84
government funding of, 331
illusion, 346
MLB, 84
multiplier effects and, 322–23
PCL, 242
price discrimination and, 384
price dispersion and, 391
quality of, 380–81
revenues and, 212–13, 252
subsidies, 252, 255t
transport to, 184
usage rates, 195
Stanford University, 391
Stanley, L., 410
Stanley v. USC, 30
Stanton, Timothy J., 14
Startz, Richard, 8
STATA program code, 128
statistical analysis, 94
statistical inference, of efficiency, 128–30
Stats LLC, 364
steals, 116n48
Stevens, David, 6–7
Stevenson, R., 127
Stigler, G., 383
Stiglitz, Joseph, 415
stimulus package, 330
stochastic frontier models, 121
cross-section, 123–24
joint-product characteristic and, 130–31
latent class, 126
overview of, 123–26
panel data, with time-invariant inefficiency, 124–25
panel data, with time-variant inefficiency, 125–26
stock prices
event impact on, 287f
impact of leaked information on, 288f
Olympics and, 296–97
short-lived impact and, 288f
sponsorship and, 294
Stone, E. W., 35
Stonheham, Horace, 240
Stovey, George, 6
strikeout-to-walk ratio (SO/BB), 77
structural equations (SE), 103–4
StubHub, 382, 394
student discounts, 396, 396f
subsidies
government, 335
for stadiums, 252, 255t
substitution spending, 324–25
Sunde, Uwe, 423–24
superstar effect, 138, 423
superstars model, 77
survey response rates, 342
Sutter, M., 118
Swain, R., 266
Sweden, 57, 70
Sweeting, A., 394
Szymanski, Stefan, 203, 216, 340, 408
Tagliabue, Paul, 257
talent
coaching, 120
raiding, 236
supplies, 407–9
Tamarkin, Maury, 311
Tampa Bay Rays, 331
Tang, Cheng-Tao, 374
Tang, Danna, 292
Tauer, L. W., 138
taxes, 328–29
hypothetical bias and, 349
incentives, 280
local development policy and, 326–27
luxury, 126, 253
Taylor, C., 415
Taylor, William E., 186–87
Team Marketing Reports, 192, 200n10
team owners, 203–5, 254
teams
bankruptcy, 412
conflicts with leagues, 254–56
consumption benefits of, 322
economic impacts of, 265, 321
factors on wins of, 106t
hosting, 265, 321
location, 263–64, 276–77
as multi-product firms, 178
optimal location of, 269t, 270–72, 270f, 271t, 273t, 274f, 274t275t
ownership of, 203–5
productivity, 157–59
quality of, 193–94
relocations, 250, 251t, 255t
rivals, 194
smaller market, 214
technical progress, 76
(p. 457) telemarketing, 352
television broadcasts
attendance and, 201
contracts, 254
revenues, 207
team location and, 276–77
temporal bias, 340
TENDEX model, 97, 110n13
Tennessee Titans, 325
tennis, 424
Terkun, Kristina, 424
Thanksgiving Day, 196
Theberge, N., 137
Thomas, Dennis, 118, 122
Thomas, J. M., 42
throw-ats, 360, 360f, 361f, 362f, 363
by league, 366t
percentage, 367f
pitching velocity and, 368–70
TicketExchange, 394
ticket price. See also price discrimination; variable ticket pricing
attendance and, 200n11
bundled pricing, 387
in China Super League, 211–12
cost-plus pricing and, 204–5
demand and, 177–85, 218n7
discounts, 395–97, 396f
dynamic pricing, 382, 393
endogeneity of, 211–14
game-day demand and, 198
inelastic, 205–10, 217n6
multi-tiered pricing, 390–91
profit maximization and, 216, 381–82
self-reported, 188n5
with smaller market teams, 214
strategies, 217
time series analysis of, 178–79
travel cost in, 182
variable, 391–93, 392f
volume discounts, 386
tickets
brokers, 382
counterfeit, 382
latent demand for, 192
loaded, 387–89
luxury box, 220n24
packages, 213
reduced dependence on, 207–8, 208t
season, 184
secondary markets for, 393–95
time costs, 181
time series analysis, 178–79
Tiruneh, G., 138
Tobit model, 196, 197t198t
Tokohama, Charlie, 10
Tollison, Robert D., 12, 24–25, 28, 365
Tomlin, Jonathan T., 286
Toronto Maple Leafs, 56
Torre, Pablo, 328
Total Average, 110n3
total games won (WINS), 80, 83, 87t, 88t
Tottenham Hotspur, 217n3
Tour de France, 295
tournament model of salary dispersion, 153, 166
tournament theory, 422–23, 436n4
transfer costs, 217n2
transfer restrictions, 405
Travel Cost Method (TCM), 180
EPL and, 180–83
MLB and, 183–85
travel costs, 175–76, 179
estimating, 181
in ticket price, 182
Trivedi, Pravin, 366–67
truncation, 199n1
Tryfos, P., 311
Tschirhart, J., 410
Tsebelis, George, 377n26
Tulkins, H., 139
Tullock, G. E., 415
Tullock contest, 400
basic, 401–2
transitional dynamics in, 402–4
turnover percentage, 101–2, 113n30
two-part tariff, 389
two-team league model, 175
Tyner, J., 138
uncertainty of outcome hypothesis, 405, 410, 417n26
underdogs, 304, 310t, 311t
Union Association (UA), 227, 229–31, 230t
unions, 7
University of California at Berkeley, 391
University of Kentucky (UK), 343
University of Southern California, 30
U.S. Women's Open (golf), 136
utility levels, 337
(p. 458) utility maximizers, 254
utilization rates, in NFL, 192–93, 193t
validity tests, 348
valuation questions, 338–39
value creation in leagues, 405–6
ValuJet Airline, 286
Vancouver Canucks, 70
van den Broeck, J., 123
Vander Hill, C. Warren, 26
van Ness, Robert, 294
variable bias, 216
variable ticket pricing (VTP), 382
Varian, H., 388
Veeck, Bill, 10
Veraros, Nikolaos, 292, 296
Vergin, Roger C., 311
Villar, Rodrigo Berber, 218n10
Virginia Baseball Stadium Authority, 325
Voeks, L., 121–22
volume discounts, 386
Volz, Brian, 14–15
von Allmen, Peter, 204, 389
Vrooman, John, 409
Vuong statistics, 367–68
wage gaps. See also salaries
calculation of, 40–41
discrimination and, 9–10
in NBA, 24, 27t
women and, 39–40
Wagerweb.com, 305
Walker, Jack, 203
Walker, Mark, 374
Walker, Moses Fleetwood, 5–6
Wallace, M., 26
The Wall Street Journal, 293
Walrasian fixed-supply conjecture, 408–9
Walsh, William, 64–66
Walter, Brett, 297
Walters, Stephen J. K., 13, 15
Walton, Harry, 346
Waner, Paul, 239
Wang, H. J., 127–28
Ward, John Montgomery, 5–6
Ward, R., 118, 122
Wärneryd, K., 415
Warren, R. S., Jr., 35
Washington Nationals, 249, 325
Washington Wizards, 326, 328, 333n5
Webb, Karrie, 145–47
Webster, Cheryl, 372
Weinbach, Andrew P., 303–4, 311
Welki, Andrew M., 191–92
Wendling, Wayne R., 209
Werner, S., 405, 411
White, Sol, 5–8
Whitehead, John C., 322, 337, 339–41, 346
Wie, Michelle, 39
Wigan Athletic, 213
Wilf, Zygi, 331
Wilkerson, C., 344
Williams, Ted, 239
willingness-to-pay (WTP), 340–41
first-degree price discrimination and, 384
life satisfaction and, 348
London Olympics and, 346–47
for Minnesota Vikings, 345
for public goods, 343–44
Wilson, Dennis P., 216
win maximization, 216, 409–10
win models, 101–8
winning
attendance and, 131
Bradbury model of, 79–80, 81t, 82t
as determinant of efficiency, 126
factors on, 106t
payroll and, 78t
Scully/Zimbalist model of, 77–79, 81t82t
superstar model of, 77
winning percent (WPCT), 83, 125, 193–94
Winnipeg Jets, 57
WINS. See total games won
Win Shares, 101–3, 102t
Wins Produced, 103–8
Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 155–57
wisdom of crowds, 314
Wolfers, Justin, 26, 29
Wolff, R., 241
Wolinsky, A., 24
women
earnings, in golf, 137
gender discrimination and, 30, 52–53
golf skills of, 43–46
on PGA Tour, 39–40
wage gaps and, 39–40
Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA), 121
(p. 459) Won, Dong C., 210, 214
Wooders, John, 374
Woodland, Bill M., 304–5
Woodland, Linda M., 304–5
Woods, Tiger, 295–96, 423
Woolcock, Geoffrey, 184
World Hockey Association (WHA), 56–57, 245–46
WPCT. See winning percent
Wrigley, Phillip, 241
Wrigley Field, 84
Yawkey, Tom, 12, 241
Yellen, Janet L., 153–54, 387
Ying, Yung-Hsiang, 216
Zaharias, Babe, 39
Zak, T. A., 118
Zimbalist, Andrew, 77–79, 208, 253, 264, 321, 325–26, 329
Zingg, P. J., 239
zip code, 184
Zlatoper, Thomas J., 191–92
Zoss, Joel, 5–6, 8
Zuber, Richard A., 302, 305
Zweimüller, Josef, 155–57 (p. 460)