Abstract and Keywords
This article explores the history of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the three cases of competition from rival leagues. The early history shows the rough and tumble competition outcomes for the American Association (AA), Union Association (UA), Players League (PL), and Federal League (FL). It also reveals the decidedly different outcome that reduced competition in the case of the African American Leagues (AALs), the Pacific Coast League (PCL), and the Continental League (CL). There is no evidence of concerted collusive effort to end the PCL's chance as a rival major league. The welfare of fans at the major-league level was reduced, on net. It might be argued that minor league-level play was replaced by major league level play and then AAA baseball spread to cities that previously had enjoyed even lower-level classifications.
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