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date: 16 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article summarizes how travel cost and population have been treated in the attendance demand literature and argues that those who have exploited geographic information systems (GIS) have succeeded in offering new insights in sports economics. It also carefully pursues the insight that the full cost of attending a sporting event includes the ticket price, the time costs, and the travel costs incurred by the fans. It then explains the Travel Cost Method (TCM) and applies it using a detailed data set collected in an annual survey of consumers of games sponsored by the Football Association (FA) Premier League in English football. Study of travel cost itself offers a route to an econometric framework that appears to avoid pitfalls encountered in more conventional approaches to modeling attendance demand. The estimated elasticity of attendance with respect to the size of the population within five miles of the stadium was only 0.4.

Keywords: Travel Cost Method, Football Association, Premier League, population, attendance demand, geographic information systems, sports economics, ticket price, time costs, travel costs

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