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date: 12 December 2019

(p. 501) Index

(p. 501) Index

A. O. Smith Corporation,204
Abere, Andrew,331
Abramovich, Roman,17n15, 68t
Abrevaya, Jason,184
Academy Awards,471
academy system,292–93, 295295t
AC Milan,68
Active People Survey,444446n18
Adams, Bud,248
Adams, Christopher,214
Adelman, M. A.,236
Adolescence,420n1
advertising
on CBS,230
Flutie Effect and,376
playoffs and,69–72
Super Bowl,69–72472t
Africa,146
age heterogeneity,297
age restrictions,89–90497n8
Aikman, Troy,241
Alamar, Benjamin C.,212
Alchian, Armen,339343
All America Football Conference (AAFC),223248255n2
All-American Girls Baseball League,405
Allegheny Athletic Association (AAA),247
Allen, George,232
Allen, M.,353
Allen, W. David,167
Allen, William R.,339343
Amateur Athletic Union (AAU),247405
amateurism,341
Amato, Louis,361366 377–78
American Baseball Guild,102–3
American Broadcasting Company (ABC)
AFL and,226
FIFA television rights and,452
growth in network revenues for,228–29
NCAA and,230
American Federation of Labor,100
American Football Conference (AFC),229
American Football League (AFL),91242
ABC and,226
birth of,248–49
American Hockey League (AHL),178179t
American League (AL),100–101, 117–18
American League Division Series (ALDS),69
American Le Mans Series,322
American Needle vs. NFL,251254
American Professional Football Association (APFA),247
analysis of competitive balance (ACB),26–27, 29–30, 34
Anderson, David L.,226
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation,356
ANOVA,22
Anson, Adrian,98
anticompetition,83
antitrust laws
exemption from,82 84–86, 93–94
history of,82–83
league cooperation and,82
MLB and,103–5
Antonioni, P.,264
Arena Football League,250
Arrow, Kenneth,152
Ars Conjectandi (Bernoulli),197
Arsenal,68287
Asian Football Confederation (AFC),450
Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW),405–6
Atkinson, G. S.,430
Atkinson, Scott E.,232–33
Atlanta Braves,6673
attendance
after hosting World Cup,456–57
March Madness and,379–80
NHL,161–62162f
outcome uncertainty,29
success and,16n11
UOH research and,29
violence and,163–66
auctions, all-pay,616n5
Automobile Racing Club of America (ARCA),320
Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH),432
Baade, Robert A.,356–57, 378428 453–55, 472478480
Balsdon, Ed,379
Baltimore Colts,223–24, 241
Banerjee, Anurag N.,184–85
Barcelona,68
Barclays Scottish Open,306
Barnes, G. M.,419n1420n1
Barney, J. B.,284
Barro, Robert,339
Barros, C. B.,490
Base Ball Players’ Fraternity,101
“The Baseball Players’ Labor Market” (Rottenberg),117
basketball.See also March Madness; National Basketball Association; National Invitational Tournament
in China,152
fixed-effects models,415t, 416t
global structure of leagues,152
men's coaches, NCAA,412–14, 412t, 413t
NCAA,360
Olympic,461
Bass, Ellen,379
Bauman, A.,431
Baumann, Robert,480
Beane, Billy,51–52, 73
Becker, Gary,167 285–86, 339
behavioral economics,214–15
Belichick, Bill,199
Bell, Bert,224248
Bellman, Richard E.,200
Bellman equations,200–201
Berkowitz, Steve,351
Berlin Wall,174n1
Berman, G.,428
Berman, S. L.,285293296
Bernard, A.,438
Bernoulli, Jakob,197
Bernstein, L.,419n1
Berra, Yogi,476
Berry, Robert C.,247
Bertsch, Shane,303313
betting odds,29
Big Five leagues,289–90
foreign players in,291t
globalization of,290–91
local talent in,295t
revenues,289t
salary caps in,133
television ratings,72
Bird, Larry,75n10, 129
Bird, P.,458
Blackmun, Harry,104
blackout restrictions,93 225–26, 242
“blood lust” effect,165 169–72
Blue, Vida,109
Bodvarsson, Orn B.,144–45
Bognanno, Michael L.,192302316
bonuses.See player bonuses
Borghesi, Richard,252
Borland, Melvin V.,352
Boronico, Jess S.,207
Bosman, Jean Marc,261278
Bosman ruling,137259 261–63, 290
impact of,263–66, 460
youth development and,293
Boston College,360
Boston Red Sox,63
Boulier, Bryan,252378
Bourgheas, S.,279n2
Bowen, William G.,355357360 365–67 (p. 503)
Bowl Championship Series (BCS),362415
Boyer, Bill,248
Bradshaw, Terry,241
Brady, Tom,241
Brandes, Leif,151
branding,319341
Brastow, Raymond T.,144–45
breast cancer,419n1
Bremmer, D. S.,361
Brimberg, Jack,185
British Household Panel Survey (BHPS),433445n9, 446n17
British Open,304307
Broadcasting,230
broadcast networks,223–25
NFL and,253–54
playoff advertising revenue and,69
Brocas, Isabelle,185
Bronsteen, Peter,331
Brook, Stacy,198252
Brotherhood of Professional Base Ball Players,100
Brown, Eleanor,144–45
Brown, Paul,199
Brown v. Pro Football, Inc.,95n22
Brunkhorst, John P.,252
Bryan, Kevin,378
Bryant, Bear,411418
Bryant, Kobe,72
Bunning, Jim,103
Burdekin, Richard C. K.,145
Bush, George H. W.,407
Bush, George W.,407–8
Busse, M.,438
Buzzacchi, Luigi,12
C5-index,24–25
Camp, Walter,216n3
Canada,146165
Canadian Football League (CFL),250
capability-building,287
capacity constraints,477
career length
in GBL,489–90
hazard function of,495f, 496f
in Manchester United,292t
in NBA,146
of referees,487–96, 490f
statistical analysis of,491–92, 493t
survival function of,495f
Caribbean,146
Carmichael, Fiona,202
Carmichael, H. Lorne,304
Carolina Panthers,231
Carpentier, Patrick,321
Carr, Joe,247
Carrillo, Juan D.,185
Carroll, Bob,214249251
cartels,304–7
enforcement of,345–47
NCAA as,339–42
Carter, Robert,355
Carter, Virgil,201 204–7, 213–14, 378
Cassing, James,110
Caudill, Steven B.,365–66, 378
Cave, Martin,232–33
Centenary College,410
ceteris paribus,6
Chadwick, Henry,198
Champ Car,321332n14
champion effect,52–54, 54f
factors in,72
instability of,56–58
open and closed case of,54f
playoff rules and,58–61
post-season play and,55 55f
post-season play prizes and,61–64
preconditions, 73t
regular seasons and,61
Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART),321
championship distribution,32 240t
Chandler, Albert,102
Chau, Nancy H.,152
Chelsea,68
Chicago Bulls,72
Chicago Tribune,248
China,152152n2
Chow test,148
Chressanthis, George A.,355365 (p. 504)
Cincinnati Red Stockings,98
Cisco,307
Civil Rights laws,404
Clarett v. NFL,90
Clemson University,355
Cleveland Browns,223241
Cleveland Cavaliers,72
Cleveland Indians,63
climate,444
Clinton, Bill,407
closed leagues,411
champion effect in,53–54, 54f
inequality of,12
practical implications of,12–15
resource redistribution in,12–13
Clotfelter, Charles,355368
club-revenue functions,38–39
linear marginal,41
quadratic,41
variables for,40
coaches
career length of, in GBL,489–90
men's basketball,412–14, 412t, 413t
NCAA football,414–15
NCAA panel data for,415–18, 415t
salaries,411421n13
Title IX and,410–11
coaching efficiency,283–84
Coase, Ronald,108
Coase theorem,20
Coates, Dennis,353 478–80
Cobb, Ty,99
collective bargaining agreements (CBAs)
effect on competitive balance of,29
luxury taxes and,118–19
NFL,254
player bonuses and,64–66, 65t
provisions,127
salary caps, setting of,124–26
Collins, Eddie,109
collusion,94n12
cartel enforcement and,345
in free agency,87–88
NCAA as cartel and,341
reserve clause and,99
in sale of television rights,92–93
Colorado Rockies,63
Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
advertising on,230
growth in network revenues for,226–29
NFL television rights and,224–25, 254
Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (CIAW),405–6
Commonwealth Games,437
communication costs, team diversity and,151–52
compensation schemes,192n1
competition,3
economic,5
free agency collusion and,87–88
restrictions,12–13
sporting v. economic,5
competitive balance,18–20. See also analysis of competitive balance
CBAs and,29
as club-revenue function variable,40
defense,6 9–10
effects on,28–29
financial determinism and,282
Gini coefficient and,23–24
HHI and,23
MLB player drafts and,89
network broadcast revenue sharing and,232–41
in open leagues,31
optimal,44–47
profit-maximization and,38–44
in promotion-and-relegation systems,31–33
strands of,27
taxes and,127–28
in UCL,72
UOH research and,29–30
well-behaved MR curve compared with,45f
win-maximization and,38–44
competitive-balance ratio (CBR),2228
computable general equilibrium (CGE),428
computers,199
concavity,38–39
concentration ratio (CR),24
Confederation Africaine de Football (CAF),450 (p. 505)
Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF),450
Conlin, M.,252
consumer price index,149
contestants,7–8
contests,4–6
economic models of,6–12
individualistic,7–9
promotion-and-relegation system in,10–12
team-sport,9–10
contingent valuation method (CVM),430
contract length,110260 264–65. See also Standard Player Contract
Cook, Earnshaw,198
Coon, Larry,131
cooperation,81–82
corporate sponsorship, of stadiums,457–58
Corral, Del,29
Cottle, Rex,304–5, 307
Council for Aid to Education,356
Coupé, T.,459
Cowher, Bill,199
Cox, Bobby,73
Crandall, Robert W.,232–33
Crompton, John L.,428
Cross, Michael,377
cross-subsidization,282
crowding out,476
Cubbin, J.,264
cumulative density function (CDF),56 58f
Curt Flood Act of 1998,104–5
Curtis, Ben,303313
Daley, Arthur J.,373–74
Dallas Cowboys,199241242
Dallas Texans,223
data envelopment analysis,203217n11, 284
Davidson, Gary,249
Davis, Al,249
Davis, Michael C.,479
Dawson, P. M.,283–84, 428
Daytona500320
Daytona International Speedway,320
decision making, on fourth down,213–15
defense,73–74
deferred compensation,127
demand
in NBA labor market,143
for violence,166
de Moivre, Abraham,197
Denver Broncos,232
Department of Education,407
Department of Health Education, and Welfare (HEW),407420n2
Depken, Craig,168331353380480
depression,419n1
Detroit Lions,241
Detroit Red Wings,6672
Detroit Tigers,63
Dey, Matthew S.,144–45
DiMaggio, Joe,102
DirecTV,228254
discrimination.See also Title IX
in EPL,265
gender,405
matching,145
referees and,144
wage,144
discriminatory power,611
Ditka, Mike,249
D'itri, M.,283
diversity, in teams,150–52
Dodge, T.,419n1
donations
institutional,354–58
opportunity costs of,358–59
Dona v. Mantero,261
Donley, Thomas,143
Donovan, John,477
Douglas, Richard W.,110
Dover Motorsports,325–26
Downward, P,279n2, 435
drag racing,322
Drea, John,379
drive analyses
individual,205t
mean points per drive,206f
outcomes,205f
team-season,205t
drug testing, in NFL,254–55
drug use,419n1
Drysdale, Don,95n16
Dubai World Championship,306
Duderstadt, James,350 (p. 506)
Dumant Television,225
du Plessis, S.,451–53
Duryea, J. Frank,319
dynamic programming modeling,200–201, 207–8, 217n7
Eastham, George,261
Eastman, B.,463
Easton, Stephen T.,184
Eckhard, W. Woodward,98–99
Economics Research Associates,428
Ehrenberg, Ronald G.,192302316
Einolf, Karl W.,203
El Hodiri, Mohammed,232251
Elzinga, Kenneth G.,331
Emerson, P.,252
employment patterns
by age,269t
by birthplace,270t
in England and Wales,266–78
Olympics and,428
Super Bowl and,478–79
by tier,268t
transition probabilities in,276t, 277t
turnover in,274t
World Cup and,454
End, Christian M.,479
enforcement, violence and,167–69
Engelstadt, Ralph,358
England, employment patterns in,266–78
English Premier League (EPL),517n15, 464
Big-Four of,63–64, 63t
by birthplace,273t
by birthplace and tier,272t
champion effect and,57–58
championship distribution in,6868t
competitive balance in,32
discrimination in,265
employment patterns by age,269t
employment patterns by birthplace,270t
employment patterns by tier,268t
employment patterns in,266–78
foreign players in,293–94
human capital formation in,288–95
local player quotas in,465
local talent in,294t
meltdown in,465
playoff rules,60t
playoffs and,52
post-season revenues in,62t, 63
SDWPCT in,33
structure of,289
team performance measures in,282–88
team wage bill disparities in,133
turnover in,274t
Entering-Player Pool, of NFL,128
Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN)
FIFA television rights and,452
growth in network revenues for,226–29
success of,238
Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA),416422n23
Ericson, T.,264
Eschker, Erick,148
Eurobarometer Surveys,430455
Europa League,57
Europe
golfers in,312–15
NBA specialization and,146
promotion-and-relegation system in,31–32
World Cup host country selection and,452
European Broadcasting Union (EBU),426
European Championship (soccer),437452
European Court of Justice,137 261–62, 290
European Open,306
European Tour,302–4
cartels and,304–7
Official World Golf Ratings and,314t
Order of Merit,308
preferences in,316
prizes,302 308–9
standard deviation on,308t
strength of,310–12
Ewing, Buck,100
experience, dimensions of,286–87
F1.See Formula 1
Falter, Jean-Marc,458466
Fanney, S. Brandon,379
fans
crowding out by,476
demand function of,7
(p. 507)
in promotion-and-relegation system,14
SDWPCT and,22
utility function,45
violence and,162–63
World Cup hosting and,456–58
Farrell, L.,435
Farrell, M. P.,419n1–420n1
Favre, Brett,242
Feddersen, Arne,454457
Federal Baseball Club of Baltimore, Inc. v. National League of Professional Baseball Clubs,84–85, 103–4
Federal League,101–4
Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA),449–50. See also World Cup
Bosman ruling and,263
Executive Committee,450–51
referee rules and,488
stadiums and,457–58
television rights,452
Federation Internationale de L'Automobiles (FIA),321
Fees, E.,264–65
Feller, Bob,102
female participation,405t
The Feminine Mystique (Friedan),405
Fenn, Aju J.,252–53
FexEx Cup,304–5
field position value,204–7, 206f, 213215
financial determinism,281–82
Fingers, Rollie,109
Finley, Charles O.,105–6, 109
five forces model,284
fixed-effects models,361392n16, 415t, 416t, 417t
fixed-talent supply model,40
Fizel, John L.,283366
Fleisher, A. A.,347
Flood, Curt,85104
Flood v. Kuhn,85–86
Flutie, Doug,360
Flutie Effect,376391n4
Fong, Lesley,379
football (American).See also National Football League
Division 1A,410
economic literature on,250–53
fixed-effects models,417t
history of,246–50
NCAA coaches,414–15
quantitative analysis of,198–203
The Football Abstract (Palmer),199
Football Association (FA),260
Cup,416n3
pyramid,288
Football League (FL),3260 266–78
by birthplace,273t
by birthplace and tier,272t
Championship,289
employment patterns by age,269t
employment patterns by birthplace,270t
employment patterns by tier,268t
turnover in,274t
Ford Motor,230
foreign players
in Big Five leagues,291t
in EPL,293–94
local player quota and,465–67
in NHL,28
wages for,148–50, 149t, 150t, 151t
Formula 1 (F1),321–22
Forster, John,260
Forsund, F.,203
Fort-Zimbalist exchange,25–30
Foss, Joe,226
fourth down decision making,213–15
Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX)
growth in network revenues for,226–29
NFC and,231
NFL television rights and,254
France, James C.,334n37
France, William H. G.,320332n2
France Family Group,334n37
Franchitti, Dario,321
Franck, Egon P.,185
Frank, Robert H.,351
Frazee, Harry,109
free agency
collusion in,87–88
effect on competitive balance of,28–29
Flood v. Kuhn and,85
in MLB,109–10
MLB CBA and,86–87
(p. 508)
MLBPA and,105–7
in NFL,238
in NHL,166
salaries and,105–7, 107t
in soccer,260–63
youth development and,293
French Ligue1290
Frick, Bernd,264–65, 460–62, 490
Friedan, Betty,405
Friend, Bob,103
Fulks, D. L.,351
Fultz, David,101
Funk, Jonas P.,145
game strategy,197–98
Gardella, Danny,102
GAUSS,310
Gauss-Hermite quadrature,438
gender equality,404–5
Gender Equity Report, of NCAA,407–8
General Accounting Office (GAO),409420n6
Georgia State University,368
Georgia Tech,355–56
Gerking, Shelby,356378
German Bundesliga league (GBL),290450456
coach career length,489–90
history of,497n6
player career length,489–90
referee career length,489–90, 490f
salaries,462–63, 462f
team wage bill disparities in,133
German Olympic Federation,453
German Organizing Committee,452
German Premier League (DFL),453
German Soccer Association (DFB),453489
Gerrard, B.,283 285–86, 293 296–97
Getz, Malcolm,355364
Ghana,460
Gillett, George,68t
Gillium, Jack,351
Gini coefficients,23–24, 28–29
Glazer, Malcolm,68t
globalization,137
of Big Five leagues,290–91
of NBA,140f
youth development and,293
global welfare,140–41
Goddard, John A.,265–66
Goff, Brian L.,347352 355–56
golf.See also Professional Golfers Association
in Europe,312–15
participation,315t
prizes,308–9, 311f
professional,303–7
Gompers, Samuel,100
Gompertz model,492
Goodell, Roger,254
Government and the Sports Business (Noll),111
government support,353–54
Graham, Otto,241
Grand-American Road Racing Association,322
Grand National series,320
Gray, Philip,207
Gray, Stephen F.,207
Green Bay Packers,224–25, 242
Griffith, Clark,100
Grim, Alan K.,226
Grimes, Paul W.,355365
Grinblatt, M.,302
Groothuis, Peter A.,146
Grove City College,407
grunt players,166
Gürtler, O.,490
Gustafson, Elizabeth,123
Hadley, Lawrence,123203214
Hagn, F.,454–55
Halas, George,247–48
Hald, Anders,197
handicapping, in individualistic contests,8–9
Hanisch, R.,419n1
Harris Interactive poll,224
Harrison, William B.,354
Hausman test,392n16
hazard modeling,492
Heckelman, Jac,168
Hefflinger, William,247
height, NBA and,28143
Heisman Trophy,360
Heldenfels, Rich D.,225
Henderson, B.,419n1
Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI),22–23, 28–29 (p. 509)
Hertha Berlin,456
heuristics,199215
Heyne, M.,455
Hicks, Tom,68t
The Hidden Game of Football (Palmer),199
Hill, James Richard,144146
Hilton, Barry,248
Hjalmarsson, L.,203
Hoang, Ha,144
hobby losses,234–35
Hoehn, T.,15
Holmes, Jessica A.,367
Holmes, Oliver Wendell,85104
Hood, Matthew,302316
Hoop Scoop talent index,283
Hornish, Sam, Jr.,321
Horowitz, Ira,236
Hossfeld, Richard T.,145
Hotchkiss, Julie L.,453–54
household dynamics,443
housing prices, Olympics and,432–33
Houston Sports Association,248
Howsam, Bob,248
HSBC,307
Hugman, B.,267
Huizenga, Wayne,234
Hulbert, William,98
human capital
formation,288–95
multidimensional model,282–88, 296
theory,166
Humphreys, Brad R.,353357435453 478–79
Humphreys, Jeffrey M.,428 474–75
Hunt, Lamar,248249
Hunter, Jim “Catfish,”105–6
Hurley, Bill,185
Husch, J.,466
Hutchins, Robert,349
Hyde, Dave,234
Idson, Todd L.,145
illegality, culture of,168
immigration,141–42, 465
IMPLAN (IMpact analysis for PLANing),476
IMSA.See International Motor Sports Association
incentives
compensation schemes and,192n1
in individualistic contests,8
salary caps and,134
in team-sport contests,9
income distribution research,21
in-contest strategy,200202215
Indianapolis500322
Indianapolis Motor Speedway,322
individual play,200
industrial organization,21
Indy Racing League (IRL),321–22, 332n14
Infineon Raceway,326
information asymmetries,109–10
information theory,21
institutional revenues
direct effects of,350–52
donations and,354–58
government support and,353–54
indirect effects of,352–53
intangible effects
of Olympics,429–31, 429t–430t, 431t
of Super Bowl,481–82
of World Cup,455
Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System,357383
intellectual property rights,95n34
Intercollegiate Athletic Association,247
inter-conference telecasts, in NFL,229
Internal Revenue Service (IRS),234–35
International Federation of PGA Tours,305
International Motor Speedway,321
International Motor Sports Association (IMSA),322
International Olympic Committee (IOC),425–26
International Review for the Sociology of Sport,420n1
International Speedway Corporation (ISC),320 323–24
revenues,333n28
vertical integration with NASCAR and,327–28
interstate commerce,85
invariance proposition,2033 47–48, 279n2
Italian Serie A,289–90
Jaccard, J.,419n1
Jacksonville Jaguars,231
Jasmand, S.,428
Jennings, Hugh,100
Joe Robbie Stadium,234
Johnston, Rick,201214
Jones, John Colin Henry,163–66
Jordan, Jeremy D.,207
Jordan, Michael,72
Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports,217n5
Journal of Sports Economics,1820 25–26, 32
Jozsa, Frank P.,251
Kahane, Leo,331
Kahn, Lawrence M.,110 144–45, 339
Kamerschen, David R.,380
Kanazawa, Mark T.,145
Kasimati, E.,428
Kavetsos, G.,430432455
Keenan, Diane,144–45
Keloharju, M.,302
Kennedy, Lesa France,334n37
kernel density plots,499n21
Késenne, Stefan,123233263
Kesselring, R. G.,361
Kicker,489
Kiis, Mike,232
Killefer, Bill,101–2
knock-out format,4
Koch, James V.,144–45
Korr, Charles,103
Koufax, Sandy,95n16
Kovash, Kenneth,201 206–7, 209213
Krautmann, Anthony,86–87, 143
Kuenn, Harvey,103
Kuethe, Todd,378
Kuhn, Bowie,85104109
Kuper, S.,466
Kuypers, T.,260283
labor issues, in MLB,88–90
labor markets
features of sports,260
fixed-supply,42
in global era,140–42
human capital formation and,288–95
international,137–38
regulations,282
teams in global,138–40
theories,107–9
labor mobility,137–38, 140–41
Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA),303
Lahman, Sean,199
Lajoie, Napoleon,101
La Liga,464
“Larry Bird” exception,75n10
Larsen, A.,252
Las Vegas Motor Speedway,326
Lauze, Michael A.,355
Lazear, Edward P.,150303
leagues.See also closed leagues; open leagues
closed v. open,4
competitive balance defense and,10
cooperation within,81–82
expansions,250–51
global structure of,152
home-and-away,7
mixed with profit- and win-maximization,44 47–49
profit-maximization,38
quality of,40
restrictions on entry and,90–91
structures,4–6
win-maximization,38
leakages,476–77
Leeds, E. M.,466
Leeds, M.,428–29, 466
Leeds United,68
left-censored (at zero) model,209218n18
Lehn, Kenneth,109–10, 143
leisure participation,433434f, 434t
Lenz, Heinz Otto,261–62
“Letter to a Friend on Sets in Court Tennis” (Bernoulli),197
Levitt, Steven D.,201 206–7, 209213
Lewis, Michael,51215
Lima, Anthony,95n27
Litan, Robert E.,357361422n26
Liverpool,68
Lloyd, Earl,140
Lockett, A.,285–86, 293 296–97
Logit regression,57310 315t
Lombardi, Vince,242
London Stock Exchange,432
Long, James E.,365–66 (p. 511)
Los Angeles Lakers,6672132
Los Angeles Olympics of 1984,426–27
Lotka curve,241
Lovell, C. A. K.,203
Lowenthal, Franklin,95n27, 184
Lucifora, C.,460–61
luck,73–74
luxury taxes,118–19
effects of,128–33
institutions,124–28
literature on,119–24
MacCambridge, Michael,224
Machol, Robert E.,201 204–7, 213–14
Mack, Connie,109
Madden, J. F.,428
Maennig, W.,428 451–55
Major League Baseball (MLB).See also World Series
Actual Club Payroll,127
age restrictions in,89
antitrust exemption of,82 84–86, 93–94
antitrust laws and,103–5
champion effect and,57–58
championship distribution in,67–68, 67t
coaching efficiency in,283–84
contraction of,91–92
dynamic programming models in,200–201, 217n7
free agency in,109–10
inequality in,12
labor issues in,88–90
luxury taxes and,118–19
Markov switching in,28–29
MRP and,51–52
NASCAR compared with,329–30, 330t, 331t
NASN and,93
plate appearances in,217n8
player drafts,89
playoff advertising revenue of,69–72
playoff rules,59t–60t
post-season player bonuses in,64–66
post-season revenues in,62t, 63
relative entropy and,24
reserve clause,84–86
elimination of,86–88, 108
revenue sharing in,134n9
rivalries,81
roster size in,90
SCWP in,28–29
strike of 1994-1995104
television ratings,69
Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA),95n27
formation of,103
free agency and,105–7
growth of,110–11
reserve clause, elimination of, and,86–88
Major League Soccer (MLS),118135n13
Makadok, Richard,287
Malone, Karl,72
Malone, Keith D.,252
managerial efficiency, stochastic analysis,202–3
Manchester United,68
academy system of,292–93
career length in,292t
resource-picking by,287
Mara, Tim,248
Maraniss, David,225
Marburger, Daniel,110 123–24
March Madness,4 373–77
analysis of,386–89
attendance and,379–80
benefits of,387t
data for,383–85, 383t–384t, 385t–386t
empirical strategy and,380–82
literature review of,377–79
Sweet Sixteen of,391n5
marginal revenue (MR) curve,39f, 45f
marginal revenue product (MRP)
champion effect instability and,56
MLB and,51–52
MLB CBA and,87
NCAA as cartel and,342
production function analysis and,202
violence demand and,166
margin of victory,28
market equilibrium,41–43
marketing rights, Olympics and,425
Markov switching,24–25, 28–29
Marsh, H. W.,420n1
Marshall, George,248
Mason, Daniel S.,237
Masters,304
Match of the Day,458
Matheson, J.,428 453–55, 472 477–80
maximand,200 (p. 512)
McCann, M.,251
McCormick, Robert E.,145355361
McEvoy, Chad,361
McKenzie, R. B.,341
McNally, Dave,86106
media fragmentation,69
media rights.See also television rights
fees,74n7
playoff advertising revenue and,69
regular season,69
revenue sharing and,73
Melnick, M. J.,419n1420n1
meltdown,465
Memphis Southmen,91
Meserve, Lauren A.,357
Messersmith, Andy,86106
Mexican Baseball League,102
Miami Dolphins,234
Mickelson, Sig,224
Middlebury College,367
Miller, K. E.,419n1420n1
Miller, Marvin,86103105
Miller Brewing,230
Mills, A. G.,98
minimax theory,209
Minnesota Vikings,242249253
Minto, T. C.,361
Mississippi State University,355
Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.,361
Mokwa, Michael,481
Monday Night Football (MNF),229–30
Mondello, Michael,357
Moneyball science,73
Monks, J.,466
Monks, James,355
monopolies,82–83
NCAA and,342–44
restriction on entry and,90
monopsony,139
Montana, Joe,241
Montgomerie, Colin,309
Montoya, Juan Pablo,321
Montreal Canadiens,160
moral hazard,143
Morgenstern, Oskar,200
Mornhinweg, Marty,218n22
motorsports,319–24
Mottley, Charles M.,203–4
Muehlheusser, G.,264–65
multiplier effects,428
Mundell, Robert,138
Murphy, N.,431
Murphy, Robert G.,102–3, 361377
Murray, Charles,240–41
Mutombo, Dikembe,152
Nash-Cournot equilibrium,42–43
NASN.See North American Sports Network National Association for Stock Car Auto
Racing (NASCAR),173 318–19, 332n2
Craftsman Truck series,320
Cup Series Races,323t, 324t
economics of,324–28
growth of,322–24
history of,319–24
host tracks,324–28
Nationwide series,320
network revenues,325t
other sports compared with,329–30, 330t, 331t
racing series,319–20
revenues,324–28
Sprint Cup series,320
Strictly Stock series,319
television rights,323
UOH and,328–30
vertical integration with ISC and,327–28
National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP),98
National Association of Professional Base Ball Clubs,3
National Basketball Association (NBA)
Basketball Related Income,124–25
career length in,146
championship distribution in,67t, 68
Determination of Salary,128
discrimination in,139–40, 144–45
dominance of,139
finals,471
(p. 513)
global distribution of position in,147t
globalization of,140f
height and,28143
labor market,143–45
labor mobility in,137–38
“Larry Bird” exception of,75n10
luxury taxes and,118–19, 128–33
NASCAR compared with,329–30, 330t, 331t
playoff advertising revenue of,69–72
playoff rules,59t–60t
playoff television ratings,71t
post-season player bonuses in,64–66
post-season revenues in,61–62, 62t
revenue sharing in,126t
salary cap and,128–33, 129f
soft salary cap in,129
specialization in,145–46
team continuity in,72
team diversity in,150–52
team wage bill of,129f
National Broadcasting Company (NBC)
growth in network revenues for,226–29
NFL television rights and,224
Olympics and,425
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).See also March Madness
ABC and,230
basketball and,360
basketball coaches,412–14, 412t, 413t
Big-Six conferences of,381–82, 389–90
branding and,341
as cartel,339–42
cartel enforcement and,345–47
distribution report of,374 375t–376t
Division 1A football of,410
division status within,392n15
economic approach to,340
effects on students of,365–68
explanations of,341–42
football,28360410
football coaches,414–15
formation of,344–45
Gender Equity Report of,407–8
HHI and,23
men's basketball coaches,412–14, 412t, 413t
as monopoly,342–44
panel data, for coaches,415–18, 415t
television ratings,75n13
television rights of,342–43
transparency in,340
winning percentage in,381
women and,406–7
National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma et al.,340 342–43
National Football Conference (NFC),229231
National Football League (NFL).See also Super Bowl
AFL and,91
age restrictions in,90
behavioral economics considerations for,214–15
birth of,247
blackout restrictions,93 225–26, 242
broadcast networks and,253–54
CBA,254
championship distribution,67–68, 67t, 240–41
decision making on fourth down,213–15
drive analyses,205f, 205t, 206f
drug testing,254–55
dynamic programming modeling and,200–201
economic issues pertaining to,253–55
Entering-Player Pool,128
expansion of,223
free agency in,238
growth of,242
history of quantitative analysis in,198–99
individual play,200
inter-conference telecasts,229
measuring competitive balance in,235–37
merger of,229
NASCAR compared with,329–30, 330t, 331t
passing premium puzzle,209–13, 216
playoff advertising revenue of,69–72
playoff rules,59t–60t
post-season player bonuses in,64–66
post-season revenues in,6162t
revenue sharing in,126t
rule changes in,207 208t
salary caps,130f, 242–43
SBA and,92–93
“Special Eligibility” rule of,90
stadiums,253
team relocations,250–51
team wage bill of,130f
(p. 514)
television rights,223–25, 254
television rights relative to salaries,228–29
Total Revenues,124–25
value of yard gains in,207–9
WFL and,91
National Football League Players Association (NFLPA),124
National Hockey Association,160
National Hockey League (NHL).See also Stanley Cup Actual Club
Salary,127–28
additional referees in,167–69
attendance and violence in,163–66
attendance in,161–62, 162f
championship distribution in,67t, 68
fights per game in,160–61, 161f
fines in,159
foreign players in,28
formation of,160
free agency in,166
grunt players in,166
history of violence in,160–62
Hockey Related Revenues,124–25
NASCAR compared with,329–30, 330t, 331t
one-point guarantee,178–79, 192n4
overtime games in,177–78
overtime rule changes in,178–80
overtime rule statistics,186t
penalties in,167–68, 174n9
playoff rules,59t–60t
point-award parameters in,181–82
point schemes in,180t
post-season player bonuses in,64–66
post-season revenues in,62–63, 62t
regulation play,183–84
revenue sharing in,126t
Rule56160
salary cap in,131 132f
shootouts in,179182
suspensions in,159
team wage bill of,132f
violence in,159–60
work stoppages,185
National Hockey League Players Association (NHLPA),124
National Hot Rod Association (NHRA),322
National Invitational Tournament (NIT),373–74, 379–80
analysis of,386–89
attendance for,390n1
benefits of,387f
data for,383–85, 383t–384t, 385t–386t
empirical strategy and,380–82
impact of attendance of,379–80
National Labor Relations Board,102
National League (NL),298
expansion of,16n2
salary caps and,117–18
unions and,100
NCAA Football,230
Neale, Walter,318
network revenues
competitive values and,227t–228t
growth in,226–29
least-squares estimate of,231
NASCAR,325t
Olympics and,426
revenue sharing and,232–41
size of,242–43
Newbert, Scott L.,207
Newcastle United,6468261
New England Patriots,66199241
New England Sports Ventures,68t
New Hampshire International Speedway,322
New Jersey Devils,66
New Jersey Nets,72
New York Giants,224–25, 248
New York Knicks,132–33
New York Yankees,6669
NFL Network,228 253–54
NFL Sunday Ticket,254
Nicklaus, Jack,240
Nielsen ratings.See television ratings
Noll, Roger,13111232251318350
non-cash inducements,126 (p. 515)
North America, promotion-and-relegation system in,31–32
North American Sports Network (NASN),93
North Carolina State,360
Northwestern University,355–56
Oakland Athletics,5273109
Oakland Raiders,242249
Oanda,310
Oceania Football Confederation (OFC),450
Office of Civil Rights (OCR),407–9
Official World Golf Ratings,310 314t
Ohio League,247
Oklahoma State University,343
Olajuwon, Hakeem,152
Oliver, Dean,198
Olympic Partner Programme (TOP),425
Olympics,425–27
announcement of,433–44
background of,427–31
basketball,461
cost of,427
economic impact of,427
employment and,428
housing prices and,432–33
intangible effects of,429–31, 429t–430t, 431t
leisure participation and,433
London, 2012 426–27, 432–44
Los Angeles, 1984426
NBC and,425
revenues,426t
sports participation and,433444446n19
stock market and,428–29, 432
Sydney, 2000431
one-point guarantee,178–79, 192n4
Open de France ALSTOM,306
open leagues,4. See also promotion-and-relegation system
champion effect in,53–54, 54f
competitive balance in,31
practical implications of,12–15
open-wheel racing,321
opportunity costs,358–59, 363–64
options clauses,127
ordinary least squares (OLS),144
Orszag, Jonathan M.,302357361422n26
Orszag, Peter R.,357361422n26
Osborne, Evan,145151350360
Ottawa Senators,160
outcome uncertainty.See uncertainty-of-outcome hypothesis
overtime games
empirical analysis of,185–91
framework of,180–84
literature review of,184–85
in NHL,177–78
rule changes in,178–80
overtime rules
frequency of,187f
incentives,191
in NHL,178–80
regression results of,188t, 190t
shootouts and,189
statistics for,186t
wording of,192n3
Pacific Coast League,117–18
Page, R. M.,419n1
Paige, Rodney,408
Palmer, Arnold,240
Palmer, Pete,199
Palomino, Frédéric,233
Pan, David W.,378–79
pareto distribution,7–8
Partridge, Mark D.,145
passing premium puzzle,209–13, 216
penalties
as measure of violence,165–66
in NHL,167–68, 174n9
soccer,488
pensions,102–3
Percentage Baseball (Cook, E.),198
performance data,283
Peterson, Steven P.,354
Petty, Richard,319
Philadelphia Phillies,65
Philip Morris,230
Pickens, T. Boone,358
Pittsburgh Steelers,65–66, 241
plate appearances,217n8
Plato,365
player bonuses.See also prizes
CBAs and,64–66, 65t
in playoff finals,66t
(p. 516)
for post-season play,64–66
signing,127
UCL,75n9
player drafts
MLB,89
reverse-order,31
players.See also foreign players
career length of, in GBL,489–90
collegiate,340
grunt,166
locally born,266
local quotas,465–67
movement,108 464t
after participating in World Cup finals,459–64
playoffs.See also post-season play
advertising revenue and,69–72
champion effect and,52
contradictions in,73
EPL,52
parity in,73
player bonuses in,66t
probability estimates,57t, 58f
rules,58–61, 59t–60t
seeding in,74n4
television ratings of,70t–71t
Plummer, M. K.,428
Pocono Raceway,322
Poisson regression models,203
Pope, Devin G.,362 377–78
Pope, Jaren C.,362 377–78
Porter, Philip K.,202–3, 284478
portfolio theory,213
post-season play. See also March Madness; playoffs
champion effect and,55 55f, 61–64
Moneyball science in,73
player bonuses for,64–66
prizes,61–64
revenues,55 61–64, 62t
POWERade series,322
Prat, Andrea,151
Price, Joseph,144
Primera Liga,290
Princeton University,247
The Principles of Scientific Management (Chadwick),198
Prinz, J.,490
prizes.See also player bonuses
in European Tour,302 308–9
golf,308–9, 311f
in individualistic contests,8
post-season play,61–64
in team-sport contests,9
probability distribution function (PDF),56
probability theory,198
Pro Bowl All-Star game,229
production function analysis,202209
product market regulations,282
Professional Footballers’ Association (PFA),269–70, 292–93
Professional Golfers Association (PGA)
championship,304
championship distribution,240–41
exemptions,306 313–15
fall tour,305
major events,304
membership in,302–3
NASCAR compared with,329–30, 330t, 331t
prizes,308–9
sports economics and,302
tour,303–7
profit maximization
champion effect and,53
competitive balance and,38–44
equilibrium with win-maximization,39f
leagues,38
mixed with win-maximization,44 47–49
optimal competitive balance and,46–47
retain-and-transfer system and,47
revenue sharing and,48
salary caps and,122
promotion-and-relegation system,3–4, 10–13. See also open leagues
competitive balance in,31–33
criticism of,14–15
fan excitement in,14
geographic differences in,31–32
inclusiveness in,14
SDWPCT in,33
protectionism,145
Protective Association of Professional Baseball Players,100–101
psychology,365
Pulsinelli, Robert W.,352
Pyle, C. C.,248
Q-school,306 (p. 517)
quantitative analysis,198–214
quantity restrictions,141–42, 142f
Quinn, Kevin G.,201204 206–9, 212–13, 218n18, 252
Quirk, Fort, and Vrooman model (QFV),52
Quirk, James,4252118 120–21, 232251
Quirk/Fort model,42
R. J. Reynolds,320
Race to Dubai,306
racetracks
costs,333n34
income,325–26
NASCAR host,324–28
NASCAR revenue sharing with,326–27
racism,144–45. See also discrimination
random effects estimator,386392n16, 394t–399t
random effects probit,438 439t–443t
Rascher, Daniel A.,120 144–45
Rather, Dan,365
Ratings Percentage Index (RPI),378
Reagan, Ronald,407
Real Madrid,68
recruitment, of student athletes,364
red cards,488
Rees, Daniel,354
referees
additional, in NHL,167–69
age restrictions for,497n8
assistant,497n3
career length of,487–96, 490f
discrimination and,144
foreign,498n20
rules,488
salaries,489
selection of,489
Regional Input-Output Multiplier System (RIMS II),476–77
regional sports networks (RSN),69
regression analysis,284
regular seasons
champion effect and,61
media rights,69
regulation play, framework of,183–84
relative entropy,24
relegation effect,57–58, 64
relocations
decisions,95n34
reserve clause,84–86
collusion and,99
end of,86–88, 108
labor market theories and,107–9
origin of,97–99
production function analysis and,202
Sherman Act and,102
union opposition to,100–103
resource-picking,287
restrictions on entry,90–92
retain-and-transfer system,47
revenues. See also institutional revenues; network revenues
Big Five leagues, 289t
convexities,5764
differences in,135n12
ISC,333n28
NASCAR,324–28
Olympics and, 426t
optimal competitive balance and,44–45
playoff advertising,69–72
post-season,55 61–64, 62t
redistribution of,10
salary caps and,119–22
Super Bowl,74n5
team,4–5
World Cup,450
revenue sharing
in closed systems,12–13
defined,126t
in HFL,126t
invariance proposition and,48
league cooperation and,81–82
media rights and,73
in MLB,134n9
NASCAR,326–27
in NBA,126t
network revenues and,232–41
in NHL,126t
non-cash inducements and,126
product market regulations and,282
salaries counted towards,127t
salary caps and,118
revolving,97–98
Reynolds, Gretchen,365
RFC Liege,261278
Rhoads, Thomas A.,303 315–16, 356378
Richmond International Raceways,326
rings,66
Riordan, J.,435
Rishe, Patrick James,363–64, 378
risk aversion,215
rivalries,81
Rizzo, Fernando,310
Roberts, Robin,103
Robinson-Patman Act,92
Rockerbie, Duane W.,184
Rodriguez, Alex,108110
Rogers, John,247
Rolex Sports Car series,322
Romer, David,201 214–15
Rooney, Art,248
Roosevelt, Theodore,247
Rose, A.,429
Rosen, Sherwin,15303
Ross, R.,419n1
Ross, Stephen F.,17n18
Ross, Stephen M.,234
roster size,90
Rottenberg, Simon,19–21, 107–8, 111112n30, 117–18, 318
Rozelle, Pete,224–26, 229
Rudi, Joe,109
Rugby World Cup,438
rules. See also overtime rules changes, in
NFL,207 208t
enforcement, violence and,167–69
overtime changes, in NHL,178–80
playoff,58–61, 59t–60t
referee,488
violence and,163
rules-of-thumb,199
Ruseski, J.,435
Rutgers University,247
Ruth, Babe,99109
Ryder Cup,306
Sabo, D.,419n1–420n1
Sacerdote, Bruce,367
Sackrowitz, Harold B.,201
Sahi, S.,207
Sákovics, József,233
salaries. See also wages
American Baseball Guild and,102–3
coaches,411421n13
counted towards revenue sharing,127t
determination of,128
Federal League and,101–2
free agency and,105–7, 107t
GBL,462–63, 462f
MLB CBA and,87
after participating in World Cup finals,459–64
referee,489
Rookie Scale,128
soccer,464
television rights relative to,228–29
toting up,127–28
violence and,166
salary caps
in Big Five leagues,133
CBAs and,124–26
effect on competitive balance of,28–29
effects of,128–33, 129f, 130f, 132f
incentives and,134
literature on,119–24
MLS,135n13
NBA,128–33, 129f
NFL,130f, 242–43
NHL,131 132f
pure,134n6
revenues and,119–22
SDWPCT and,130f, 131f, 132f
soft,68129
talent and,123
winning percentage and,121–22
San Antonio Spurs,72
Sanderson, Allen R.,15233481
Sandy, Robert,354360
San Francisco 49 ers,223
Saposnik, Rubin,251
SAT scores,360–63, 377–78
Saturday Night Game of the Week,225
Schmidly, David,353
Schmidt, Martin,198
Schmidt, P.,203
Schnepel, Kevin T.,354
scholarships,343
Schramm, Tex,199
Schurr, K. Terry,379
Schwalbe, Ulrich,197200
Schwartz, Jeremy,331
Schwertman, Neil C.,378
scientific evaluation technique,52
Scoggins, John,143 (p. 519)
Scully, Gerald W.,86–87, 94n6, 109 202–3, 283–84
Seitz, Peter,105–6
Selection Sunday,374
sexual risk,419n1
Seymour, Harold,111
Shanahan, Mike,232
Shannon, Claude E.,236
Shannon, K. Mitchell,354
Shapiro, Stephen,378
shared experience, within teams,285–86
sharing-cap plan,118
Sheehan, Richard,134
Shenandoah University,363
Sherer, Peter D.,144–45
Sherman Act,82–85
blackout restrictions and,226
reserve clause and,102
SBA and,92–93
team relocations and,251
Shibe, Ben,247
Shields, M. A.,435
shirking,143
Shmanske, Stephen,184301
shootouts
incentives,191
NHL,179182
overtime rule and,189
in soccer,185
Shubik, M.,207
Shulman, James,355357360 365–67
Siegfried, John J.,233355
Sigelman, Lee,355378
signing bonuses,127
Simmons, Robert,208252264 460–61, 463
skills
acquisition,286–87
dimensions of,286–87
diversity,297
Skoglund, H. P.,248
Sky Sports Football Yearbook,266
Sloane, Peter,111269354360
Smaby, Timothy,366
Smith, D. Randall,362
Smith, DeMaurice,254
Smith, Janet Kilholm,145
Smith, R.,283
Smith, Tyler,378
Smith v. Pro Football, Inc.,89
smoking,419n1
Snow, Arthur,380
soccer. See also specific leagues
coaching efficiency in,283
free agency in,260–63
penalties,488
referee rules,488
salaries,464
shootouts in,185
youth development of,291–93
social-welfare functions,45–46
Sociology of Sport Journal,420n1
Sommers, Paul M.,301
South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL),450
Soviet Union,174n1
Spalding, Albert,98
Spearman rank correlation coefficient (SRCC),23 28–29
“Special Eligibility” rule, NFL,90
specialization,145–46
spectators. See fans
Spiegel, M.,429
Spiro, Richard,144–45
Sports Broadcasting Act (SBA),92–93
Sports Car Club of America (SCCA),322
sports economics,302
Sports Illustrated,224238
Sports Management Research Institute (SMRI),473
sports participation,405t, 419n1, 433 434f, 444446n19
sports-scholarship partnership,349–50
St. Louis Cardinals,63
Stadiums corporate sponsorship and,457–58
FIFA and,457–58
NFL,253
Super Bowl and,473
Stair, A.,252
standard deviation of win percentage (SDWPCT),21–22
in EPL,33
idealized,27
in MLB,28–29
(p. 520)
in promotion-and-relegation system,33
salary caps and, 130f, 131f, 132f
Standard Player Contract (SPC),127
Stanley Cup,71t, 72471
stare decisis,104
Stark, Oded,152
Starr, Bart,242
STATA,438
statistical analysis,199 491–92, 493t
STATS, Inc.,201
Staudohar, Paul,95n27
Steeg, Jim,473
Stekler, H. O.,378
Stern, Hal S.,198–99, 214
Stevens Institute of Technology,363
Stewart, Kenneth G.,164–65, 169–72
Stewart, Tony,321
Stiroh, Kevin,143
stochastic frontier analysis,202–3, 284
stock market,428–29, 432
strikes, in MLB,104
StubHub,470
students
athletes,342364
effect of NCAA on,365–68
substitute effect,475–76
Suggs, Welch,367
suicide,420n1
Sullivan, E. T.,341
Sullivan-Halley, J.,419n1
Sundberg, Jeffrey O.,356–57, 378
Super Bowl,229
advertising,69–72, 472t
capacity constraints and,477
crowding out at,476
economic impact of,471–78, 474t
empirical studies of,478–81
employment patterns and,478–79
intangible effects of,481–82
locations,475t
player bonuses,64–65
revenues,74n5
rings,66
stadiums and,473
substitute effect and,475–76
taxes and,479–80
television ratings,6970t, 470–71
ticket distribution,476
tickets, 470t
tourism and,482
suspensions, in NHL,159
Süssmuth, B.,455
Swarthmore College,366
Swinnen, Johan F. M.,184–85
Tagliabue, Paul,254473
Talent
local
in Big Five leagues,295t
in EPL,294t
in market equilibrium,43
pareto distribution and,7–8
playing,283
salary caps and,123
Tampa Bay Rays,65
taxes.See also luxury taxes
competitive-balance,127–28
hobby losses and,234–35
Hunter and,105–6
network broadcast revenue sharing and,233–35
sales,353
Super Bowl and,479–80
transfer fees and,141
Taylor, George,103
Taylor, Gordon,465
Taylor, Harry,100
Taylorism,198
team owners, network broadcast revenue sharing and,233–35
teams
asymmetry of,12
competitive balance defense and,10
continuity,72
culture of illegality in,168
diversity within,150–52
dominance of,66–68
in global labor market,138–40
internationalization of,465–67
large-market,44
NASCAR,318–19
national,461
network broadcast revenue sharing and,233–35
performance,282–88, 295 295t
quality measurements of,283–85
relocation of,250–51
(p. 521)
revenues,4–5
shared experiences within,285–86
small-market,44
wild-card,73–74
team wage bill
disparities,133 133f
of NBA, 129f
of NFL, 130f
of NHL, 132f
television ratings,69 471t
of Big Five leagues,72
MLB,69
NCAA,75n13
playoffs, 70t–71t
Super Bowl,69 70t, 470–71
World Cup,450
television rights. See also media rights
collusion in sale of,92–93
FIFA,452
NASCAR,323
NCAA and,342–43
Olympics,426
relative to salaries,228–29
UCL,63
Terry, N.,252
Tervio, M.,264
Thamel, Pete,352
Thayer, Mark A.,379
Theil, Henri,236
Theiler, Philipp,185
Thomas, Dennis,260
Thorpe, Jim,247
tickets
as club-revenue function variable,40
secondary market,470 470t
Super Bowl, 470t, 476
violence and,164 169–73, 171t
Tierney, Michael,368
time series econometrics,30
Timmer, C.,203
Tinsley, Maurice,355361
Title IX,404–5
coaches and,410–11
future of,410–11
history of,405–9
TOBIT production function model,209 210t–211t
Tollison, Robert D.,145331347
Toma, J. Douglas,377
Toolson v. New York Yankees, Inc.,85
Toronto Arenas,160
total effort,8
tourism, Super Bowl and,482
trade/transfer window,56 56f, 74n2
Trandel, Gregory A.,361377
transfer fees
damage by,265
tax-financed,141
UEFA and,261–62
transition probabilities, 276t, 277t, 434–35, 434t
transparency, in NCAA,340
Treaty of Rome,290
Trevino, L. J.,361
Tucker, Irvine B.,357 361–52, 377–78
Tucker, L. A.,419n1
Turnen movement,15n1
Turner, Sarah E.,357
Turner Broadcasting System (TBS),228
two-team model,121
UEFA Champions’ League (UCL),57452464
championship distribution in,68 68t
competitive balance in,72
EPL Big-Four and,63–64, 63t
final,472
player bonuses,75n9
playoff rules, 60t
post-season revenues in, 62t, 63
qualification for,289
television rights,63
uncertainty-of-outcome hypothesis (UOH),5–6, 18–20
ACB and,26
CBR and,22
future directions for,34
maximizing,44
NASCAR and,328–30
research,29–30
Rottenberg and,20–21
Understanding Society,446n17
Union for European Association (UEFA),57
Bosman ruling and,263
transfer fees and,261–62
(p. 522)
World Cup host country selection and,450
unions,100–103. See also specific unions
United Football League (UFL),250
United States, “blood lust” effect in,165
United States Automobiles Club (USAC),321–22
United States v. Grinnell Corp.,9194n2
United States v. National Football League et al.,226
United Steelworkers Union,103
Unites States Football League (USFL),230242 249–50
universities,350 359–64. See also Title IX
institutional revenues, direct effects of,350–52
University of Alabama,411
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA),374390n2
University of Chicago,108349
University of Connecticut,353
University of Miami,360
University of New Mexico,353
Univisión,452
Upton, Jodi,351
urban planning,427
US Open (PGA),304
Utah Jazz,72
utility function, of spectators,45
Valletti, Tommaso,10–11
Valvano, Jim,360
Vander Hill, C. Warren,144–45
variance,21
Veal, A. J.,431
Ventura, Jesse,250
Veraros, N. E.,428
Verizon,254
Vincent, C.,463
violence
acceptance of,173
attendance and,163–66
demand for,166
enforcement and,167–69
fans and,162–63
fights and,160–61, 161f
history of, in NHL,160–62
likelihood estimates of, 172t
literature on,162–63
measures of,164–66
models of,169–70
NCAA formation and,344
in NHL,159–60
in non-hockey sports,173–74
rules and,163
salaries and,166
ticket demand and,164 169–73, 171t
win percentage and,169–70
Volvo Masters,307
von Allmen, Peter,201204 206–9, 212–13, 218n18, 331
von Neumann, John,200209
Vrooman, John,52109 120–22, 233 250–52
W. P. Carey MBA Sports Business Program,472–73, 481
wages. See also salaries
discrimination,144
for foreign players,148–50, 149t, 150t, 151t
immigration and,141–42
NBA labor market and,143
Wald test,492
Wales,266–78
Walker, Paul,197200
Walls, Thomas L.,379
Wall Street Journal,326
Walras fixed-supply conjecture,42
Walt Disney Company,228
Walton, H. A.,430
Ward, Arch,248
Ward, John Montgomery,100
Washington Redskins,232242
Weersink, Alfons,184–85
welfare
contributions,253
global,140–41
optimization,45–46, 49
Wernerfelt, B.,284
Western Kentucky University,352
Wiendl, A.,490
Williams, Edward Bennett,232
Williams, Kevin,254–55
Williams, Pat,254–55
Williams, Ted,102
Wilson, Dennis P.,168 (p. 523)
Wilson, J. O. S.,265
win distribution,21
win maximization
competitive balance and,38–44
equilibrium with profit-maximization,39f
leagues,38
mixed with profit-maximization,44 47–49
optimal competitive balance and,46–47
retain-and-transfer system and,47
revenue sharing and,48
small-market teams and,44
winner's curse,110
winning effort,8
winning percentage,41–42, 164
as club-revenue function variable,40
in NCAA,381
optimal,45 46f
salary caps and,121–22
violence and,169–70
Winston Cup series,320
Winter, Max,248
Wolfers, Justin,144
women
in collegiate sports,405–10, 408t
NCAA and,406–7
sports participation,405t
Women's Sports Foundation,419n1, 420n1
Wood, William,331
Woods, Tiger,240
work stoppages, NHL,185
World Cup,427437 449–50
attendance after hosting,456–57
benefits from participating in,459–64
economic benefits of hosting,453–56
employment patterns and,454
fan benefits of hosting,456–58
host countries,451t
host country selection,450–53
intangible effects of,455
player bonuses,459–60, 460t
winners,451t
World Football League (WFL),91249
World Golf Championships,304–5, 305
World Hockey Association (WHA),161
World League of American Football (WLAF),250
World Match Play,307
World Series,471
player bonuses,64–65
post-season revenues and,63
television ratings,69 70t
World Wrestling Federation,250
wrestling (professional),173
Wunnava, Phanindra V.,355
XFL,250
Yahoo!,310
Yankee paradox,53–54
yard gains, value of,207–9
Yates, Andrew,168
yellow cards,488
youth development, in soccer,291–93
Yugoslavia,146
Zak, Thomas A.,202
Zengerle, Jason,353
Zermelo's Theorem,197
Zimbalist, Andrew,25–30, 109350361365453
Zimmer, Charley,100
Zimmer, Timothy,378