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date: 22 November 2019

(p. 981) Index

(p. 981) Index

Note: Material in figures or tables is indicated by italic page numbers.

Abandoned Property Fund, 317, 318
Abrams, Robert, 323, 328–329, 331, 333, 343–344
AccelerateU consortium, 588
accessibility, definition, 831
accounting rules
accrual accounting method, 537
balanced budgets (GAAP vs. cash methods), 536, 537, 538
budget deficits (GAAP vs. cash methods), 538, 539
business-type activities, definition, 538
capital investments (GAAP vs. cash methods), 537
capital project funds, definition, 536
cash-basis fund accounting, 536–538, 539
component units, definition, 538
depreciation, 537
general fund, definition, 536
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), 279–280, 536–538, 539
Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB), 316, 535–536
government-wide perspective vs. narrower fund accounting, 538
retiree health benefits (GAAP vs. cash methods), 316, 537
Sarbanes–Oxley corporate accounting law, 446
special funds, definition, 536
accrual accounting method, 537
Acid Deposition Control Act (ADCA), 821
acid rain, 344, 793, 820–821
activist government
Lyndon B. Johnson as activist president, 432
New York as activist innovator state, 24, 169, 403–404, 406–408
in proposed constitution of 1967, 34
public support for activist government, 404 See also fiscal federalism
Addabbo, Joseph P., 99–100
Adirondacks
Adirondack Council, 809
Adirondack Forest Preserve “forever wild” clause, 21, 31, 36–37, 795, 806–807, 809
Adirondack Park Agency (APA), 394, 807, 808–809
Adirondack Park “blue line,” 806
Adirondack Park Enabling Act of 1892, 806
Adirondack Park in the twentieth century, 808–809
Adirondack Park Agency, 394
Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks, 809
Catskills and Adirondack Forest Preserve, 795
Commission on the Adirondacks in the 21st Century, 809
history of preservation movement, 805–807
League of Adirondack Citizens Rights, 808–809
New York Forest Preserve and Adirondack Park, 805–807
private land use and development plan (PLUDP), 808
Temporary Study Commission on the Future of the Adirondacks, 808
AIDS and HIV, 602, 607, 620
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 771, 773
Alaska per capita revenue, 435, 540
Albany Times Union, 193, 202–203, 204, 207, 208
Albany Waterworks Company, 800
Alfred University, 682, 688
Algonquian nation, 511
Alliance for Clean Energy New York Inc. (ACE NY), 876
American Association of Public Opinion Research (AAPOR), 114, 118
American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), 841
American (Know-Nothing) Party, 405
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 443–444, 564, 815
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 336, 441, 625
AMTRAK (National Railroad Passenger Company), 840, 848
Anderson, Floyd, 5
Anderson, Warren M., 5, 84, 86, 87, 850
Anglin, Laura, 676, 690
Anti-Insane Asylum Society, 724
Arthur, Chester A., 413
Associated Press (AP) Albany bureau, 193, 202–203, 205, 213–214
Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI), 883
(p. 982) Atomic Energy Act, 813
attorney general
affirmative role in suing the governor, 335–336
duties, 325
election, 23, 385, 390, 640
environmental protection, 328, 343–345
and federalism, 339–346
foreign policy issues, 511
history and constitutional design, 322, 323–324, 385
independence from governor, 23, 385, 390
lawsuit against handgun industry, 341–342
and Medicaid fraud, 329, 331, 345–346
modern office development, 327–331
origins of power, 322–323
parens patriae authority, 326–327
predatory lending and subprime mortgages, 340–341
protection of charitable trusts, 338–339
public interest and consumer protection representative, 327–328, 330–331, 339
regulatory power on a national scale, 339–340
role conflicts, governor vs. judiciary, 337–338
role conflicts, governor vs. legislature, 337
role conflicts, representative for state vs. people, 331–334, 336–337
role conflicts, state agencies, 338–339
state regulation of financial market practices, 342–343
statutory vs. common law powers, 325–327
as stepping-stone to the governorship, 322
Attorney General of New York v. Soto-Lopez, 233
attorney general's office, organization
Appeals and Opinions Division, 331
Charities Bureau, 338
Civil Rights Bureau, 328
Consumer Frauds and Protection Bureau, 329
Consumer Frauds Bureau, 328
Criminal Division, 329
Criminal Prosecution Bureau, 328
district attorneys, establishment and history, 324, 325, 326, 640
Environmental Protection Bureau, 328, 343–344
Investor Protection Bureau, 343
Legislative Bureau, 329
Medicaid Fraud Control Unit (MFCU), 329, 331, 345
Nursing Home Special Prosecutor, 328, 329, 345
Organized Crime Task Force, 325, 328, 329, 331
Public Advocacy Division, 328, 337
Public Integrity Unit, 330
State Counsel Division, 328, 329, 331, 334, 337
Authority Budget Office, 399
backdoor financing, 34, 39, 306, 552, 554
Baker, Michael G., 343
Balboni, Michael, 271
Barnburners, 405
Battery Park City Authority, 557
Bayonnne Bridge, 843
Beame, Abe, 268
Beers, Clifford W., 725
Bellamy, Carol, 293
Belmont, Earl of, 795
Benjamin, Gerald, 232, 264–265, 397, 650
Benjamin, Michael, 654–655
Berle, Peter A. A., 809
Beyle, Thad, 275–276, 278, 384
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 586
Binational Economic and Tourism Alliance, 509
Binational Planning and Coordination Committee, 527
Binational Tourism Alliance (BTA), 508–509
Birney, James, 405
Blaine Amendment, 31
Bloomberg, Michael
campaign spending, 96
congestion pricing, 856–857
Dignity for All Students Act, 489
educational reform, 575, 587
food stamp eligibility and workfare, 782
leadership after September 11, 270
mayoral control of schools, 483, 490, 577, 578
Operation Impact, 647
public opinion polling, 117
relationship with George Pataki, 497
“safest big city in America,” 641
SNAP benefits and sweetened beverages, 780, 782
Taskforce on Energy Policy, 888
term limit proposal, 96
on Urstadt Law repeal, 490
blue sky laws, 342, 343
Boardman, Joseph H., 830
Board of Commissioners of Public Charities, 388
Board of Equalization, 388
Board of Health, 388, 406, 795
Board of Regents
election by legislature, 23, 242, 565, 667
independence from governor, 23, 385, 390
power and functions, 385, 392–393, 565–566, 667–669 See also Department of Education
Board of Tax Commissioners, 388
Board on Electric Generation Siting and the Environment, 879, 888
Bonacic, John, 245
Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), 872
Border Governors Conference, 527
Boundary Waters Treaty, 800
Bowen, Barbara, 687–688
Bratton William, 641, 642, 644–645, 646
Breitel, Charles, 360, 369
Brennan Center for Justice
on dysfunctional legislature, 35, 40, 196–197, 225–226
(p. 983) on legislative leadership, 238, 240
on legislative reform, 9, 10, 197, 242
Briffault, Richard, 466
Brodsky, Richard, 197, 200
Bronx River Parkway, 842
Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel, 843
Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce, 613
Brooklyn Health Works, 613
Brooklyn–Queens Expressway, 844
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT), 837
Brooklyn Union Gas Company, 876, 877
Brown, Jerry, 332–333
Brown, Joseph, 792
Brown, Kristin, 779
Brownfields Cleanup Program of 2003, 796, 815
Brown v. Board of Education, 419
Bruno, Joseph
conflict with Eliot Spitzer, 118, 192, 204, 271–272, 332
investigation and conviction for corruption, 192, 271, 272–273, 332
on legislative process, 240
Buckley v. Valeo, 81, 83, 90
budget
argument for balanced state budget, 279–280
comptroller's state budget commentary, 307–308
cost of state government, 169, 231, 435–437
discretionary spending growth, 169
disputes over judicial budgets, 371–372
disputes over judicial salaries, 337, 372
Division of the Budget (DOB), 280, 296, 431, 536, 538, 557
enactment by legislature, 231–232
executive budget amendment, 391
executive budget preparation by governor, 9, 231, 232–233
expansion of governmental agenda, 169
federal funds as share of New York revenue, 437
Governor Carey, 268
Governor Mario Cuomo, 263, 269, 277, 283
Governor Pataki, 263, 270–271, 558, 755
Governor Paterson, 213, 263–264, 272–275, 278, 280, 281
governor's line item veto, 23–24, 232, 752
Governor Spitzer, 272, 282
incentives to seek expanded federal assistance, 436–437
legislative power of the purse, 227, 231–233, 241–242
Mayor Giuliani, 155
Medicaid and aid to education as largest items, 173–174, 436, 548, 550
member item funding, 226, 232, 242, 270, 272, 280, 282
New York State Bankers Association v. Wetzler, 231
New York State spending by service function, 438
scope and cost of New York government, 435–437 See also government spending; public fisc in New York State; revenue; taxes
Buffalo News, 182, 202–203, 204–205, 207
Building Aid Revenue Bonds (BARBs), 552
Bundy, McGeorge, 692
Bundy Aid to private institutions, 674–675, 688, 692–693, 694, 699
Bush, George H. W., 451, 795, 821
Bush, George W.
energy policy, 867
federal income tax cuts in 2001, 449
Medicaid program waivers, 619, 622, 624
micro-targeting campaign techniques, 179
No Child Left Behind Act, 451
Texas–Mexico border issues, 526–527
Business Council of New York State, 568, 737, 777
Business Group on Health, 613
C&A Carbone Company v. Clarkstown, 794, 817
Caemmerer, John D., 852
Cahill, Kevin, 890
Caldwell, Lynton K., 7, 8
California
attorney general, 332–333
congressional delegation, 736
debt, 39
elections, 144
lobbying, 172, 176, 183–184
Medicaid, 440
news media, 206
per capita revenue, 540
poverty rates, 769
Caltech–MIT Voting Technology Project, 153
campaign finance in New York City
campaign finance laws, 88–90
citizen participation by small donors, 95, 96–99
contribution and spending limits, 88–89
large and small donors, 95–99
multiple matching fund system, 89, 95–96, 98–100, 103
New York City Campaign Finance Board (CFB), 89
pay-to-play law, 90, 91
campaign finance in New York State
“An Act to Suppress Political Assessments” (1883), 80
antiassessment laws, 81
campaign contributions and fundraising by lobbyists, 182–184, 185
campaign finance laws, 1829–1974, 80–81
campaign spending limit proposals, 100–101
candidate emergence, 101
citizen participation by small donors, 80, 94, 95, 102–103
Commission on Government Integrity (Feerick Commission), 87, 88, 300
(p. 984) Commission on Integrity in Government (Sovern Commission), 86
compensatory public funding proposals, 100, 103
comptrollers’ campaigns, 296, 300
contribution limits, 82–83, 84, 85–86, 90–91, 101
current law, 82–84
“donation laundering process,” 182
effects on competition, 101–102
future policy directions, 99–103
large and small donors, 79, 90–95, 97, 102–103
major proposals, 1980–2008, 84–88
multiple matching funds bills, 99–100
overview, 79–80
public funding proposals, 84, 86–88, 99–100
spoils system, 27, 80
campaign finance in other states and nationally
Buckley v. Valeo, 81, 83, 90
campaign spending limit proposals, 100–101
candidate emergence, 101
citizen participation by small donors, 94, 95, 102–103
contribution limits, 83, 85–86
effects on competition, 101–102
federal antiassessment laws, 80–81
Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments of 1974 (FECA), 82–83
future policy directions, 99–103
large and small donors, 91–94, 101, 102–103
Randall v. Sorrell, 93
tax credits and rebate programs, 94
Campaign Finance Institute (CFI), 79, 91, 93
Campaign for Fiscal Equity v. State of New York, 38, 229–230, 487, 568, 583
Campbell, Alan K., 7
Canada Day in Albany, 513
Canada–U.S. Smart Border Declaration, 510
Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA), 849
capital punishment
and Governor Carey, 268, 648
and Governor Mario Cuomo, 269, 648
and Governor Pataki, 270–271, 648
history in New York, 648
People v. LaValle, 372
Cardozo, Benjamin, 418
Carey, Hugh L.
budget, 268, 686
campaign finance proposal, 84
court reform, 369
and death penalty legislation, 268, 648
economic development policy, 751–752
energy policy, 882, 884
fiscal crisis of 1975 in New York City, 263, 267–268, 277, 751
higher education budget cuts, 686
Love Canal, 813
New York State Returnable Beverage Container Act, 816–817
record as governor, overview, 263, 267–268
recycling, 816
special prosecutor for Medicaid fraud, 345
transportation policy, 851–852
West Valley remediation, 813
Carson, Rachel, 793
Carter, Jimmy, 814, 892
Carville, James, 446
cash-basis fund accounting, 536–538, 539
Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, 809
Catskills and Adirondack Forest Preserve, 795
Catskills State Park, 807, 809–810
Center for Governmental Research (CGR), 4
Center of Excellence in Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology (CENN), 740, 759
Centers of Excellence program, 740, 754, 758–759
Central New York Regional Transportation Authority (CENTRO), 849
Central Park, 804
Central Pine Barrens Comprehensive Land Use Plan, 810
Charter Revision Commission, 88, 89
charter schools, 441–442, 562–564, 586–587
Charter Schools Institute (SUNY), 442
Chateaubriand, Rene de, 805
Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe, 893
Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), 784
Child Care That Works Campaign, 778
Child Health Plus, 605, 610, 624
Christie, Chris, 746
cities (organization, characteristics, and services), 457, 458, 460 See also local government
Citizens’ Committee for Children, 779
city charters, 460, 463, 484
City of San Diego's Emergency Management Department, 527
City University of New York (CUNY)
community colleges, 672, 681–682
diversity and demographics, 672
economic impact, 666
employee unions, 673, 687–688
fiscal crisis and state aid cuts since 1990, 683–685, 686–688
history, 669–672
impact of 2008 recession, 672–673
NYSUNY2020, 691, 698, 699
open admissions, 671–672
overall cost to students, 675
overview, 665, 669–673
Public Higher Education Empowerment and Innovation Act (PHEEIA), 673, 682, 695, 696–698, 699
Search for Education, Elevation, and Knowledge (SEEK), 671, 689
tuition increases used to close state budget gap, 687 See also higher education
(p. 985) Civil Rights Bureau, 328
Civil Service Commission, 385, 388, 392
Clay, Henry, 405
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 796, 821
Clean Air Act of 1970, 344, 794–795, 820, 867, 877, 881, 884
Clean Water Act, 794
Cleveland, Grover, 413, 416, 420, 805
climate change, 821–822, 889
Clinton, Bill
Kyoto Protocol, 821
Medicaid demonstration waivers, 618–619, 628
Medicaid program waivers, 624
and performance management, 395
public opinion polling, 117
quote regarding Monica Lewinsky, 212
Clinton, DeWitt, 27, 358, 406, 496
Clinton, George, 5
Clinton, Hillary, 192, 207
Clinton v. Cedar Rapids and the Missouri River Railroad, 484
closed primaries, definition, 51
Code of Judicial Conduct, 364
Cole, Thomas, 806
Collect Pond, 796, 797
Colvin, Verplank, 804
Commission for the United Nations Consular Corps and Protocol, 520–522, 528
Columbia University, 6, 86, 663, 687
Commission on Corrections, 639, 652
Commission on Government Integrity (Feerick Commission), 87, 88, 300
Commission on Health Care Facilities in the Twenty-First Century, 622–623
Commission on Independent Colleges and Universities (CICU), 663, 666, 674, 676, 688, 690, 693
Commission on Integrity in Government (Sovern Commission), 86
Commission on Judicial Conduct, 34, 360, 365, 394
Commission on State Parks, 795, 804–805
Commission on the Adirondacks in the 21st Century, 809
Commission on the Future of Indigent Defense Services, 366
Commission to Promote Public Confidence in Judicial Elections, 370
Commonwealth Edison, 869
community colleges, 665, 672, 679, 681–682 See also higher education
Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act, 715
Community Mental Health Services Act, 394, 715
Community Reinvestment Act, 717
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA; Superfund Law), 814
CompStat
application of additional police resources, 645–646
crime reduction in New York City, 636, 641, 642, 643, 647, 656
diffusion to other jurisdictions, 642, 645
goal of reducing crime and increasing public safety, 642, 644–645
hot spot policing, 647
interdependence of parts of the system, 646
key elements to produce intended outcome, 644–645, 656
management tools and accountability, 646, 647
Operation Impact, 645, 647, 655
revised CompStat model, 647, 656
Safe Streets, Safe City legislation, 645–646, 656
shift from previous dispatch, rapid response model, 643–645
comptroller (New York State Comptroller's Office)
accounting policy, 316
additional funds administered by comptroller, 317–318
administrative complexity of New York State Common Retirement Fund, 305
agency internal controls vs. program resources, 316
annual audit cycle, 312
annual bills to employers for Common Retirement Fund, 303–304
annual returns of the pension fund, 301
auditor independence, 312
audits aimed at recovering money, 312
audits aimed at reviewing management performance, 312
audit selection, 312
budget discipline, 296
campaign finance and comptrollers, 296, 300
City of New York fiscal oversight, 307, 309–310
comprehensive annual financial report (CAFR), 297, 315
comptroller as agency head, 295–297
comptroller as chief accountant, 315–317
comptroller as chief fiscal officer, 306–310
comptroller as chief procurement officer, 314–315
comptroller as retirement administrator, 303–305
comptroller as sole trustee of New York State Common Retirement Fund, 297–302
comptroller as state auditor, 310–314
constitutionally mandated election of comptroller, 23, 29, 287
debt management, 306, 308
demands from retirees for increased benefits, 304–305
economic foreign relations, 511
(p. 986) efforts against pension fund fraud, 301, 305
ethics and use of staff, 296
findings and recommendations in audit releases, 311–312
future of the defined benefit plan, 305
historical background, 287–288, 290–294, 385, 388
independence from governor, 23, 385
lead plaintiff role in pension fund class action litigation, 301
local election audits, 313
local government audits, 312–314
local government fiscal oversight, 306–307
local government fiscal reporting, 308–309
monitoring and comments on state budget and policy issues, 307–308
New York State Financial Control Board, 307, 310
open meetings law and local audits, 313
overview, 287–288, 318–319
payroll, union contracts, and union leadership, 316–317
pension fund allocation formula and the basket bill, 301
pension fund shareholder responsibility and fiduciary role, 301–302
political use of staff and resources, 296
preaudit function, 316
raids on the pension fund, 304
reports from Industrial Development Agencies (IDAs), 307, 309
resignation and selection by legislature, 296–297
state control of pension fund cost to local governments, 544–545
stresses of administering Common Retirement Fund, 299–302
tobacco issues, 288–290
union pressure on comptroller, 295–296
Coney Island development, 491
Connery, Robert, 650
Conrail (Consolidated Rail Corporation), 849, 850
Conservation Commission, 407, 795
Conservation Department, 394, 749, 795
conservationists, definition, 793
Conservative Party, 53–54, 58, 67, 174
Consolidated Edison Company of New York, 878
Constantine, Lloyd, 6
constitutional commissions, 30
constitutional conventions
1777 Fourth Provincial Congress, 25
1801 convention, 26–27
1821 convention, 27–28, 291, 358
1846 convention, 4, 28–29, 287, 291, 358–359
1867 convention, 29–30, 359
1894 convention, 19, 30–31, 148–152
1915 convention, 3, 4, 31–32, 292, 389
1938 convention, 4, 22, 32–33, 292
1967 convention, 4, 33–34
advance research, 4–5, 7
number of, 19, 22
referendums regarding, 4–5, 7, 21–22, 29, 183
reform agenda in twenty-first century, 35–36, 41–42 See also New York Constitution, general
constitution of New York. See New York Constitution
Continuing Legal Education Board, 365
Conway, Vergil, 854
Cooper, James Fenimore, 805
Cornell, Alonzo T., 805
Cornell, Ezra, 682
Cornell University, 7, 663, 677, 682, 688
correctional facilities
closing or scaling back facilities, 650, 652
Commission on Corrections, 639, 652
county jails, 652–653
Department of Correction, 289, 386
Department of Correctional Services (DOCS), 648, 718, 723–724
locations of facilities, 650, 651
mental health services for prisoners, 720, 723–724, 732
New York City jails, 652
policy regarding role of prisons, 650
probation, 653
programs for prisoner transition back to society, 649–650
state prison population, 648–649, 650, 652
cost neutrality, definition, 624
Council of Appointments, 25–27, 290, 291, 324, 385, 387
Council of Farm and Markets, 390
Council of Great Lakes Governors, 800
Council of State Governments (CSG), 513
counties (organization, characteristics, and services), 457–460 See also local government
county board of legislators, 459
county board of supervisors (BOS), 458–459, 471
county charters, 459, 484
county commissioners, 459
county executives, 459
Cox, Ed, 57
crime statistics
decline in New York City crime, 636, 641, 642, 643, 647, 656
New York State CrimeStat Report, 636
regional differences in crime trends, 636, 652
“safest big city in America,” 641, 642, 646
“safest large state in the nation,” 636 See also CompStat
criminal defense attorneys, 638
Criminal Justice Agency, 639
criminal justice system, definition, 635
Cross-Bronx Expressway, 844, 847
cross-endorsement of candidates, 52–54, 369
(p. 987) “Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century,” 727
Croton Aqueduct, 797, 801
Croton Reservoir, 493, 797
Crown Point Bridge, 746
Cuomo, Andrew
campaign finance proposals, 100
consolidation of local government units, 467
efforts to reorganize government, 397–398
election as governor in 2010, 54, 56–57, 70–71, 117, 322, 498–499
and executive compensation at financial institutions, 343
fight against public corruption, 329
Hevesi scandal, 294, 300
higher education budget cuts, 686
limit on Medicaid costs, 440
Medicaid Redesign Team (MRT), 622
Medicaid waivers, 600
NYSUNY2020, 698
Paterson investigation, 273
pension reform proposals, 294
property tax cap proposal, 110, 133, 744
protection of charitable trusts, 338
and public opinion polling, 117
record as governor, overview, 263
reduction in the number of local governments, 469
state government reorganization effort, 9
state income tax rate, 743–744
taxes on Native American cigarette sales, 511
Townsend v. Spitzer, 337
Cuomo, Mario M.
attempt to change drinking age, 169–170
budget, 263, 269, 277, 283
campaign finance proposals, 84, 86–87, 88
Commission on the Adirondacks in the 21st Century, 809
Council of Great Lakes Governors, 800
and death penalty legislation, 269, 648
diary, 5–6
earned income tax credit (EITC), 777
economic development policy, 752–753
efforts to reorganize government, 395
election as governor in 1982, 54, 68, 268
energy policy, 876, 882, 883, 884, 885–886
on federal deductibility of state and local taxes, 446
health insurance reform, 607
higher education budget cuts, 686
on lack of judicial diversity, 369–370
loss to George Pataki in 1994, 54, 56, 68–69
media relations, 201
popularity in suburbs and upstate urban areas, 68
powers of persuasion, 277
record as governor, overview, 268–270
Safe Streets, Safe City legislation, 645–646, 656
Shoreham nuclear plant, 880, 891
Times Square redevelopment, 492
transportation policy, 852, 855
voter registration executive order, 60, 153, 154
Curiale, Salvatore, 607
D'Amato, Alphonse, 56, 181, 608, 620–621
death penalty legislation
and Governor Carey, 268, 648
and Governor Mario Cuomo, 269, 648
and Governor Pataki, 270–271, 648
history in New York, 648
People v. LaValle, 372
debt and debt management
amount of state debt, 552, 554, 555–556, 557
backdoor financing, 34, 39, 306, 552, 554, 557
borrowing by authorities, 39, 306, 552, 554, 557, 750
Building Aid Revenue Bonds (BARBs), 552
constitutional limits, 29, 34, 551–552
debt management by comptroller, 306, 308
Debt Reform Act of 2000, 557
Erie Canal debt and Constitution of 1846, 29
full faith and credit debt of New York, 34, 39, 552
general obligation bond proposals, 1946–2005, 552, 553–554
general obligation bond use for capital projects, 551
general obligation share of state debt, 552
Local Government Assistance Corporation (LGAC), 306, 552
Sales Tax Asset Receivable Corporation (STARC), 552
securitization, 552
state control of New York City debt limit, 485–486
Tobacco Settlement Asset Securitization Corporation (TSASC), 486, 552
Transitional Finance Authority (TFA), 486, 552 See also public fisc in New York State
DeBuono, Barbara, 620
Dedicated Highway and Bridge Trust Fund, 854, 855
deinstitutionalization
community-based care, history, 714–718
community residences funding, 717, 718
continuing role in New York mental health policy, 718
facility closure policy, 717, 718–719
federal government role, 715–716
institutional model of care, 714, 725
Medicaid 1915c waivers and HCBS, 624, 625, 627
Olmstead decision, 625
patients homeless or living in shelters without transition programs, 717, 725
residential alternatives to hospitalization, 717, 718
Willowbrook State School, 6, 268, 394, 625, 752 See also mental health consumer movement; mental health policy
(p. 988) Delaware County Electric Cooperative, 872
Democratic Party
Barnburners, 405
changing major party balance, 59–62, 177
Democratic Party politics in New York City, 496, 498
Hunkers, 405
interest group ratings of parties, 67
party balance in the legislature, 62–63, 119, 498
positions on public policy, 66–67
demonstration waivers. See Medicaid demonstration waivers
Department of Agriculture and Markets, 394, 795
Department of Audit and Control, 23
Department of Commerce, 392, 395, 737, 749–750, 752
Department of Correction, 289, 386
Department of Correctional Services (DOCS), 648, 718, 723–724
Department of Economic Development, 395, 752, 753, 755
Department of Education
Board of Regents, election by legislature, 23, 242, 565, 667
Board of Regents, independence from governor, 23, 385, 390
Board of Regents, power and functions, 385, 392–393, 565–566, 667–669
commissioner of education, 23, 385, 491, 565–566, 589, 689
functions, 667–668
Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP), 668, 689, 690, 691
lobbying office in Washington, DC, 447
Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC)
acid rain, 820–821
efforts against polluters, 343–344
environmental quality review, 811
executive branch organization, 388, 394, 793, 795, 816, 879
hazardous substance storage and discharge regulation, 814–815
hydrofracking, 822
landfill regulation, 816
Mobro Barge, 816
New York City water filtration avoidance, 493
New York Environmental Protection and Spill Compensation Fund, 317
Department of Family Assistance, 396
Department of Farm and Markets, 388
Department of Health, 391, 394, 398, 616–617, 795
Department of Labor, 396, 438, 443, 757, 768
Department of Law, 23
Department of Mental Hygiene, 394–395, 439, 713, 714, 723
Department of Motor Vehicles, 395, 510
Department of Public Instruction, 387–388
Department of Public Service (DPS), 869, 873, 882–883
Department of Public Works, 387, 841, 850
Department of Social Services, 396, 768
Department of State, definition, 502
Department of Taxation and Finance, 769
Deukmejian, George, 332–333
Deutsch, Ron, 779
Dewey, Thomas E.
Department of Commerce, 392, 749
efforts to reorganize government, 392–393
governorship, 9, 151, 262
moderate policies, 68
New York State Thruway, 844
presidential nomination, 9, 262, 413
public relations, 201
State University of New York, 677–678
Dicker, Fred, 204, 211
Dignity for All Students Act, 489
Dillon, John F., 466, 484
DiNapoli, Thomas
audits of state agencies, 311
economic foreign relations, 511
efforts against fraud, 305
public campaign funding proposal, 296
reelection, 294
reforms, 294, 296, 311
school district audits by comptroller's office, 294, 312–313
selection as comptroller, 272, 294, 296
withholding state senators’ pay, 199
Dinkins, David, 54, 154–155, 497, 519–520, 646
directive opinion, 122
district attorneys, establishment and history, 324, 325, 326, 640
Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 393
Division of Commerce, 749
Division of Criminal Justice Services, 654, 655
Division of Economic Development, 737, 749
Division of Fish and Game, 795
Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services, 510, 640, 894
Division of Housing, 393
Division of Inland Waters, 795
Division of Lands and Forests, 795, 807
Division of Parks, 795, 808
Division of Parole, 639
Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 814, 816
Division of Veteran's Affairs, 392
Doherty, Joseph, 520
(p. 989) Donohue v. Copiague Union Free School District, 229
donor states, 409, 410
Dormitory Authority–State of New York (DASNY), 693–694
Dreifus, Claudia, 685
Dufferin, Lord, 805
Dunne, John, 284
dysfunction in state government
Brennan Center on legislative leadership, 238, 240
Brennan Center on legislative reform, 9, 10, 197, 242
Brennan Center on legislature, 35, 40, 196–197, 225–226
and budget reform, 278–280
diagnosing the dysfunction, 274–284
effects of biography and psychology on ability, 276
Governor Paterson's analysis, 274–275
hybrid models of executive power, 278
impact of 1975 fiscal crisis, 268, 279–280, 281
institutional powers of the governor, 275–276, 384
legislative branch, 29, 35, 196–197, 225–226
news media reactions, 185, 195, 225
persuasive power as key to success, 276–277
situational power and strategy, 276
symptoms, 274
systems theory models, 280–284
“three men in a room” decision making, 40, 272, 281, 581
view of state government as dysfunctional, 35, 185, 196–197, 213, 263
early childhood education, 570
earned income tax credit (EITC), 776–778, 784, 785
Earth Day, 394, 879
economic conditions and performance in New York
access to capital, innovation, and technology, 742
aging infrastructure, 746–747
agriculture, 736, 738–739
availability of transportation and infrastructure, 742
census data and population trends, 736
economic climate, overview, 741–742
economic conditions in 2011, 735–737
economic growth index, 737–738
education level of the workforce, 742
energy costs, 743, 889
financial services, 736, 748
government size and growth, 737, 740, 744–745
home rule impact on land use decisions, 489, 745, 794, 810–811
immigration, 736
jobs by economic sector, 740, 741
labor unions, effect on economy and business, 742
location of large corporate headquarters, 742
manufacturing, 736, 738, 739, 741
New York's real gross domestic product (GDP), 737, 738
number of congressional districts, 736
public employee unions, 744–745
publishing, 736
quality number of educational institutions, 742
quality of living environment, 742
regulatory environment, 745–746
state and local taxes, 743–744
tourism, 740, 752, 760
upstate/downstate economic differences, 747–748
economic development in New York
Centers of Excellence program, 740, 754, 758–759
economic development climate, overview, 741–748
Economic Development “Opportunity” Zones (EDZs), 753
Empire Zone (EZ) program, 493, 753, 754, 756–758
future directions, 761–763
Governor Carey, 751–752
Governor Mario Cuomo, 752–753
Governor Pataki, 753–754
Governor Paterson, 748–749, 755–756, 757
governors’ development policies, 749–756
Governor Spitzer, 735, 737, 754–755
Governor Wilson, 751
home rule impact on land use decisions, 489, 745, 794, 810–811
Industrial Development Agencies (IDAs), 307, 309, 756, 758
Omnibus Economic Development Act, 752–753
other states’ economic development models, 760–761
overview, 735–737, 761–763
policy and structure overview, 748–749
programs for economic development, 756–761
Restore NY, 756, 758
small business programs, 759–760
Economic Development “Opportunity” Zones (EDZs), 753
Edison, Thomas, 890
Edison Electric Illuminating Company, 890
education: P–12 schools in New York
academic achievement in New York, 570–572, 573
achievement gaps between White, Black, and Hispanic students, 571, 572, 578–579, 589
“Big Five” school districts, 567, 569, 570, 581
Board of Education Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES) schools, 567, 579, 588
charter schools, 441–442, 562–564, 586–587
(p. 990) curriculum standards and graduation requirements, 574–575
early childhood education, 570
General Educational Development (GED) programs, 575
graduates immediately attending postsecondary institution, 571, 572
local diplomas, 574–575
magnet schools, 586
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 566, 571–572, 573, 579
online education, 588
on-time high school graduation, 571
overview, 569
performance on standardized tests, 571–572, 573
Regents exams, 574–575, 576, 577, 580
school administrators, 567
school- and district-level accountability, 575–578, 589–590
school choice, 585–586
student characteristics, 569 See also Department of Education; special education
education policy, law, and funding
AccelerateU consortium, 588
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 441
Campaign for Fiscal Equity v. State of New York, 38, 229–230, 487, 568, 583
Comprehensive Assessment Report, 576, 577
Contracts for Excellence, 576
curriculum standards and graduation requirements, 574–575
Department of Public Instruction, 387–388
Donohue v. Copiague Union Free School District, 229
education data systems, 590
federal aid for job training programs, 443
federal stimulus spending during recession, 564, 588–589
fiscal and programmatic impact on state, 440–443
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 440–441
interest groups, 173–174, 436, 568
lawsuits over school funding disparities, 38, 229–230, 333, 487, 568, 582–583
Levittown Union Free School District v. Nyquist, 333, 582–583
local government spending on schools, 544, 564
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 566, 571–572, 573, 579
need for research and documentation, 590
New York Constitution article, 20, 38, 229–230
No Child Left Behind Act, 441, 451, 564–565, 572, 576–577, 578
Office of Vocational Education Services for Individuals with Disabilities (VESID), 441, 443
online education, 588
policy and politics, overview, 562–564
Race to the Top (RTTT) program, 441–443, 451, 564, 578, 587, 589
revenues and expenditures for New York schools, 580, 581
school- and district-level accountability, 575–578, 589–590
school choice, 585–586
school finance policy, 580–583
school report cards, 576
Schools Under Registration Review (SURR), 491, 576, 577
School Tax Relief (STAR) program, 581, 744
Specialized High Schools Admissions Test, 586
state aid to education, 487, 544, 548, 580–583
state-level institutions, 565–566
state support for higher education, 548, 550–551
Statewide Learning Technology Plan, 588
teacher certification, 583–584
Teacher Data Initiative in New York City, 578
teacher education, 583–584, 589
teacher unions, 173, 442, 568, 578, 584–585
Triborough Amendment, 585
Edwards, George C., 277
Einstein, Albert, 456
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 116, 121, 432, 522
Elazar, Daniel, 403, 466
election administration
bipartisan police boards in nineteenth century, 147–148
constitutional provisions, 31, 51, 142, 144, 147–152
debate over New York electoral rules, 142
decentralized administration, 142, 144
disenfranchisement of voters by election systems, 141, 142–143, 152, 154
effect on voter participation and turnout, 141–142, 143, 149–151, 152
election administrator duties, 141, 158
election boards, duties and functions, 60, 61, 143
election boards, selection in New York, 142, 145–146
election day registration (EDR), 142, 158
election fraud, 142, 143, 149, 154
Help America Vote Act (HAVA), 144, 153–154, 155–157, 158
National Voter Registration Act (NVRA), 153–155
in New York City, 147–149
New York State Board of Elections (BOE), 60, 61, 82, 145, 156–157, 394
overview, 141–143, 158–159
(p. 991) party leaders as election officials, 51, 142, 158
permanent personal registration (PPR), 150–151
reform proposals in New York, 146, 149, 152–155, 157–158
responsibility of states, 144
selection methods for local election officials, 144–146
voter registration and access to ballots, 60, 61, 143, 149–152, 153–155
voting by mail, 158
voting technology, 142, 152–153, 156, 157
election day registration (EDR), 142, 158
elections
ballot organization by office, 52
closed primaries, definition, 51
cross-endorsement of candidates, 52–54, 369
election fraud, 142, 143, 149, 154
first Republican gubernatorial primary, 57, 70
gubernatorial election bases, 68–71
New York candidates and presidential elections, 413, 414
party voting, 71–72
political party leaders as election officials, 51, 142, 158
split-ticket voting, 71, 72
electric power transmission and distribution
capacity increases under New York Power Authority, 873–874
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulation, 883–884, 891–892
Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), 876–877
New York Independent System Operators (NYISO), 891–892
public vs. private ownership debate, 866
regulation by Public Service Commission, 873
separation from power plants through utility industry restructuring, 875–876, 886, 891
wholesale energy markets, 883–884 See also energy policy and politics
electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and geomagnetic storm risks, 894–895
Emergency Financial Control Board (EFCB), 267, 307, 310, 485, 751
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 806
Emmons, Ebenezer, 804
Emotional Intensity Scale, 124–126, 129–135
Empire Blue Cross–Blue Shield, 338, 606–610
Empire Justice Center, 779
Empire State Development Corporation (ESD)
Centers of Excellence, 759
economic development packages, 889
executive branch organization, 395, 507, 737, 753, 755
oversight and enforcement responsibility, 754, 757
small business programs, 759–760 See also Urban Development Corporation (UDC)
Empire State Economic Development Fund, 753
Empire State Petroleum Association (ESPA), 875
Empire Zone (EZ) program, 493, 753, 754, 756–758
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), 605
Employees Retirement System (ERS), 297, 303
Energy Association of the State of New York, 874–875, 876
Energy Coalition of New York, 875
Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976, 878
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, 867
Energy Planning Board, 882, 885
Energy Policy Act of 1992, 867
Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), 867
Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, 878
energy policy and politics
Board on Electric Generation Siting and the Environment, 879, 888
canals for transporting coal, 866–867
consolidation of electricity providers, 868–869
cybersecurity risks, 894–895
electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and geomagnetic storm risks, 894–895
Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976, 878
energy conservation programs, 874, 878, 881, 882
energy efficiency programs, 867, 874, 876, 880–882, 885–887, 890–891
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, 867
energy industry associations, formation of, 874–877
energy institutions evolution, 882–890
energy markets evolution, 883, 886, 891–895
Energy Planning Board, 882, 885
Energy Policy Act of 1992, 867
Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), 867
Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, 878
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), 875, 883–884, 891–892
Federal Power Commission (FPC), 794, 884
Federal Water Power Act, 870
legislative committees, 882
Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), 876–877, 880, 883, 886, 890
National Energy Act, 880
National Energy Policy Act, 875
Natural Gas Policy Act, 878, 884
New York Independent System Operator (NYISO), 875, 883, 891–892
New York Power Pool, 891
New York Public Service Law section 66-c, 875
New York State Atomic and Space Development Authority, 874
(p. 992) New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), 874–875, 883, 886, 890–891
New York State Reliability Council, 875
Niagara Redevelopment Act, 872
nuclear power plant policies, 879–880
oil embargo following Iranian Revolution in 1979, 867
OPEC oil embargo of 1973, 865, 866, 867, 877–878, 884, 892
overview, 865–868, 892–895
Petroleum Overcharge Restitution (POCR) fund, 881, 885
policy evolution, 1970 to present, 865–866, 867–868, 877–881
policy evolution, early twentieth century, 867, 868–873
Power Authority of the State of New York (NYPA), 871–874, 878, 883, 886, 888–890
Power New York Act of 2011, 888
power plant siting process, 879, 888
public benefits programs, 874, 886
Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA), 872
Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), 867, 875, 880, 891
public vs. private power debate, 866, 867, 870–873
Recharge New York program, 874, 888, 890
reduced petroleum and coal use, 878, 884
regional transmission organizations (RTOs), 891–892
regulation of utilities, 869–873
Renewable Energy Task Force, 885, 886, 888
revenue decoupling mechanism for utilities, 885
Rural Electric Cooperative Law, 872
rural electric cooperatives, 872–873, 877
Shoreham nuclear plant, 269, 876–878, 879–880, 885, 891, 893
six cent law, 880–881
State Energy Office (SEO), 878, 882–883, 891, 892
state energy plan, 882, 884–885, 888
system-benefits charge (SBC), 886
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 874, 881, 883, 895
utilities viewed as natural monopolies, 868–869
utility industry restructuring by Pataki administration, 875–876, 886, 891
vertically integrated utilities, 869, 891
Environmental Defense Fund, 793
Environmental Facilities Corporation, 557
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
automobile emissions and gasoline additives regulation, 820
cleanup of Superfund sites, 814–815
creation, 795
federal fuel economy standards, 820
Federal Surface Water Treatment Rule, 798
Massachusetts v. EPA, 821
Mission 5000 to encourage closing of open dumps, 816
multistate suit over lack of acid rain enforcement, 344
national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), 820
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River, 814
study on municipal water systems, 747
Environmental Protection Bureau, 328, 343–344
Environmental Quality Act, 847
Environmental Quality Bond Act, 803
environment and the environmental movement
acid rain, 344, 793, 820–821
Adirondack Forest Preserve “forever wild” clause, 21, 31, 36–37, 795, 806–807, 809
Adirondack Park Enabling Act of 1892, 806
air quality protection, 793
Aqueduct Commission, 797
Ashokan Dam, 797
Audubon Society, 794
birth of environmental movement in Hudson River Valley, 745
Board on Electric Generation Siting and the Environment, 879, 888
Boundary Waters Treaty, 800
Catskills and Adirondack Forest Preserve, 795
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 796, 821
Clean Air Act of 1970, 344, 794–795, 820, 867, 877, 881, 884
Clean Water Act, 794
climate change, 821–822, 889
Commission on State Parks, 795
Conservation Commission, 407, 795
Conservation Department, 394, 749, 795
conservationists, definition, 793
Council of Great Lakes Governors, 800
Croton Reservoir, 493, 797
Department of Health, 795, 801
Division of Fish and Game, 795
Division of Inland Waters, 795
Division of Lands and Forests, 795, 807
Earth Day, 394, 879
Environmental Defense Fund, 793
Environmental Quality Act, 847
Environmental Quality Bond Act, 803
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 793
Fisheries Commission, 795, 804
Forest, Fish, and Game Commission, 795
Forest Commission, 388, 795, 806, 807
(p. 993) Forest Preserve Board, 795, 804
Freshwater Wetlands Act, 803
greenhouse gases, 793, 821–822, 888–889
Hudson River Estuary Program, 799
International Joint Commission on the Great Lakes, 800
International Waterways Commission, 800
local government role, 794
logging industry, 793, 795, 804–805, 807
municipal solid waste management, 815–819
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 745, 794, 795, 811–812, 879
Natural History Survey Report (Emmons), 804
Natural Resources Defense Council, 793
Nature Conservancy, 794
New York City water filtration avoidance determination, 493, 798
New York State Forest Preserve, 795, 806
New York State Land Commission, 803
organization of state government, 794–796
overview, 792–794, 822–823
pesticide regulation, 793
preservationists, definition, 793
recreationalists, definition, 793
recycling, 816–817
reduced petroleum and coal use, 878, 884
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), 793, 821, 889
sanitation and disease prevention, 792–793, 797
science-driven environmental policy, 793
sewer system construction, 793, 801–802
Silent Spring (Carson), 793
State Environmental Quality Review Act (SEQRA), 745–746, 752, 794, 812, 879
Storm King Mountain pumped hydroelectric proposal, 745, 794
Tidal Wetlands Act, 802
Water Resources Commission, 795
water supply, Hudson River Valley, 799
water supply, New York City, 796–798
water supply, New York State, 796–800
water supply, northern and western New York, 799–800
wetlands, 803
Wetlands Task Force, 803
Erie Canal
benefits to New York economy, 406, 738
creation of Department of Public Works, 387
debt structure and Constitution of 1846, 29
destruction of the Iroquois, 420
opposition to federally funded improvements, 406, 408
public investment in canal, 403, 406
Espada, Pedro, 63, 185, 206, 330, 498
Excelsior Jobs Program, 757–758
executive branch
enforcement networks, 510–511
harmonization networks, 512
history, 385, 387–388
hybrid models of executive power, 278
information networks, 507–509
institutional powers, 275–276, 384–386, 404
overview, 23, 384–387
relationship to local governments, 386, 392 See also governor of New York; secretary of state
executive branch organization
Adirondack Parks Agency, 394
administrative reorganization efforts, 388–399
agencies, 386–387, 393
Authority Budget Office, 399
Board of Commissioners of Public Charities, 388
Board of Equalization, 388
Board of Health, 388, 406, 795
Board of Tax Commissioners, 388
Civil Service Commission, 385, 388, 392
Commission on State Parks, 795
commissions, 385, 406–407
Conservation Commission, 407, 795
Conservation Department, 394, 749, 795
constitutional limit of 20 departments, 23, 392–393, 395
Council of Farm and Markets, 390
Department of Agriculture and Markets, 394, 795
Department of Commerce, 392, 395, 737, 749–750, 752
Department of Correction, 386
Department of Economic Development, 395, 752, 753, 755
Department of Environmental Conservation, 388, 394, 793, 795, 879
Department of Family Assistance, 396
Department of Farm and Markets, 388
Department of Health, 391, 394, 398, 616–617, 795
Department of Labor, 396, 757, 768
Department of Mental Hygiene, 394–395, 713, 714, 723
Department of Motor Vehicles, 395, 510
Department of Public Instruction, 387–388
Department of Public Service (DPS), 869, 873, 882
Department of Public Works, 387, 841, 850
Department of Social Services, 396, 768
Department of Transportation, 386
“divided executive” at the state level, 23, 324, 384–385
Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 393
Division of Commerce, 749
Division of Economic Development, 737, 749
Division of Fish and Game, 795
(p. 994) Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services, 510, 640, 894
Division of Housing, 393
Division of Inland Waters, 795
Division of Lands and Forests, 795, 807
Division of Parks, 795, 808
Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 814, 816
Division of the Budget (DOB), 280, 296, 431, 536, 538, 557
Division of Veteran's Affairs, 392
Empire State Development Corporation, 395, 507, 737, 753, 755
Executive Department, 392, 393, 397, 399, 749
Forest, Fish, and Game Commission, 388, 795
Forest Commission, 388, 795, 806, 807
Forest Preserve Board, 795, 804
Governor's Office of Regulatory Reform, 395, 746, 753
Governor's Task Force for Information Resource Management, 397
New York Bureau of Municipal Research, 4, 6, 388–389
New York State Department of Efficiency and Economy, 389
New York State Ethics Commission, 399
Office for Technology, 397, 398
Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services, 717
Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (OASAS), 394, 769
Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS), 396, 768
Office of Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure Coordination, 398
Office of General Services (OGS), 393, 398
Office of Homeland Security, 398, 510, 653–654, 894
Office of Mental Health, 386, 394, 713, 716–717
Office of Mental Health (OMH), 386, 394, 713, 716–717
Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (OMRDD), 386, 394–395, 625, 717
Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation, 808
Office of Parks and Recreation, 394
Office of Public Security, 510, 894
Office of Temporary Disability Assistance (OTDA), 396, 617, 768–769, 785
overview, 23, 384–387, 397–399
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, 386, 839, 843
public authorities, 385–386
public management initiatives, 397
Public Service Commission (PSC), 385, 837, 869, 873, 882–883
Racing and Wagering Board, 394
State University of New York (SUNY) system, 386, 392–393
Tax Department, 388
Temporary State Commission on Lobbying, 175, 181, 399
Executive Department, 392, 393, 397, 399, 749
executive federalism, overview, 600, 617–618, 629
Ex Parte Curtis, 81
expenditure effort, 435
expenditures by government. See government spending
Fair Labor Standards Act, 408
Family Assistance (FA), 771–774, 779
Family Health Plus, 559, 610, 617, 622, 623
Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments of 1974 (FECA), 82–83
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), 875, 883–884, 891–892
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 793
Federalist, The, 403
Federal Marine Protection Act, 818
Federal Power Commission, 794, 884
Federal Water Power Act, 870
Feerick, John D., 269
Fenton, Maria Toro, 779
Fenton, Reuben, 406
Ferrer, Fernando, 96
Fillmore, Millard, 291, 405, 413
financial aid to students
Equal Opportunity Program (EOP), 689
Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP), 668, 689, 690, 691
Higher Education Services Corporation, 668, 680
NYSUNY2020, 691, 698, 699
overview, 689–692
Regents Scholarship, 663, 682, 688
Search for Education, Elevation, and Knowledge (SEEK), 671, 689
student loans, 691
Tuition Assistance Program (TAP), 663, 675, 687, 689–691, 694, 699 See also higher education
Financial Emergency Act of 1975, 267, 310
Fink, Stanley, 84, 86, 170, 394
fiscal crisis of 1975 in New York City
effect on city–state relations, 485
effect on state budget reform proposals, 278–280
Emergency Financial Control Board (EFCB), 267, 307, 310, 485, 751
Financial Emergency Act of 1975, 267, 310
and Governor Hugh Carey, 263, 267–268, 277
lessons learned by governors and executive branch, 279, 281
lessons learned by the legislature, 268, 279–280, 281
(p. 995) and mayor Abe Beame, 268
related legislation, 268
fiscal federalism
balance of payments between New York and federal government, 409, 410, 447–449, 450
education, fiscal and programmatic impact, 440–443
federal aid to state and local governments by program area, 434
federal funds as share of New York revenue, 437
federal funds for local governments, 443–444
federal role in New York government today, 437–443
fiscal initiatives of Franklin Roosevelt, 430–431
health care reform legislation, 235, 447, 449–450
implications and outlook, 449–451
incentives to seek expanded federal assistance, 436–437
increasing federal influence over state budgets, 432
land grants to states, 430
Medicaid, fiscal and programmatic impact, 439–440
New York combined state and local revenues, 435, 436
New York role in shaping national fiscal policy, 444–447
nondefense expenditures (federal, state, and local), 430, 431
revenue sharing, 432–433, 446
scope and cost of New York government, 435–437
trends in U.S. fiscal federalism, 429–433
U.S. combined state and local revenues, 430, 431
fiscal policy and results in New York State. See public fisc in New York State
Fisheries Commission, 795, 804
Fitzpatrick, James A., 873
Fitzpatrick nuclear power plant, 879
Flower, Roswell P., 148
Food Stamp Program, 780–782
forced choice questions
ambivalence of respondents, 127, 128, 132–136
cautious directive respondents, 135–136
definition, 121
devoted directive respondents, 135–136
directive opinion, 122
Emotional Intensity Scale, 124–126, 129–135
follow-up question procedure, 121–122, 132
frequent permissive or ambivalent respondents, 135–136
misrepresentation of poll results, 121–122, 128, 129–132
permissive opinion, 122
prior research, 121
Rational Intensity Scale, 124, 125
research design, 122–127
research issues, 122–123
targeting the uninformed, 116, 123–127, 128, 131, 132
targeting the uninvolved, 116, 123, 128, 132
Ford, Gerald, 60
foreign policy, best practices from other states, 524–527
foreign policy, definition, 502
foreign policy of New York State
executive branch enforcement networks, 510–511
executive branch harmonization networks, 512
executive branch information networks, 507–509
future directions, 528
horizontal foreign policy networks in New York State, 506
judicial branch and New York State law, 514–518
legislative branch enforcement networks, 513
legislative branch information networks, 513
local governments and foreign policy, 518–523
local judges and international law, 523–524
New York City and foreign policy, 518–522
overview, 502, 528
transnational law, 503–504
vertical foreign policy networks in New York State, 507 See also governance networks
Forest, Fish, and Game Commission, 795
Forest Commission, 388, 795, 806, 807
Forest Preserve Board, 795, 804
Forsyth, John, 515
Fountain House, 725
Fox, Henry S., 515
Fraser, Steve, 408
Freedom of Information Law (FOIL), 199, 201, 202
Free Soil Party, 405, 406
Fresh Kills landfill, 818–819
Freshwater Wetlands Act, 803
Friedman, Edwin, 283
Fukushima nuclear disaster, 893
full faith and credit debt of New York, 34, 39, 552
Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP), 676
gambling prohibition, 23, 38, 39–40, 228
(p. 996) Gannett newspaper chain, 203, 204, 207, 208
Gargano, Charles A., 395, 753
Geithner, Timothy F., 417, 446
General Educational Development (GED) programs, 575
General Electric (GE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 814
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), 279–280, 536–538, 539
general revenue, definition, 435
geomagnetic storm and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) risks, 894–895
George Washington Bridge, 843, 844
Gibbs, Lois, 813
Gillibrand, Kirsten, 207, 273, 449
Gilliland, Kim, 784
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 418, 419
Giuliani, Rudolph
budget reductions, 155
on campaign finance, 89
election as mayor in 1993, 23, 154–155
endorsement of Mario Cuomo, 70, 497
Fresh Kills landfill closure, 818–819
leadership after September 11, 270, 277
removal of Yasser Arafat from a concert, 520
welfare reform, 767
Goethals Bridge, 843
Goldstein, Andrew, 720
Goldstein, Matthew, 662, 671, 681, 683, 687, 696
Goldwater, Barry, 60, 62
Gore, Al, 395, 821
Gosnell, Harold F., 7, 149–150
governance networks
disaggregated state, 504–505
enforcement networks, definition, 505
executive branch enforcement networks in New York, 510–511
executive branch harmonization networks in New York, 512
executive branch information networks in New York, 507–509
harmonization networks, definition, 505
horizontal foreign policy networks in New York State, 506
horizontal networks, definition, 505
information networks, definition, 505
judicial networks at the local level, 523–524
legislative branch networks in New York, 513–514
local government horizontal networks, 519, 522–523
local government vertical networks, 519, 522
networks in political parties, 56
and nongovernmental actors, 505
and private sector, 505
research overview, 503–505
transgovernmental networks, 504–505, 523–524
vertical foreign policy networks in New York State, 507
vertical networks, definition, 505 See also foreign policy of New York State
Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB), 316, 535–536
government spending
consolidation of local government units for cost savings, 467–468
cost of state government, 169, 231, 435–437
federal aid for job training programs, 443
federal aid to state and local governments by program area, 434
general purpose state aid to local governments, 471
intergovernmental expenditures, 487–488, 548, 549
Medicaid and aid to education as largest budget items, 173–174, 436, 548, 550
New York State expenditure by function, 549
scope and cost of New York government, 435–437
state aid to education, 487, 544, 548, 580–583
state-mandated Medicaid costs to counties and New York City, 488, 544, 615
state spending for social services, 548, 550
state spending policies, 548–551
state support for higher education, 548, 550–551 See also budget; public fisc in New York State
governor of New York
budget transmission “without revision,” 23
effects of biography and psychology on ability, 276
executive budget preparation by governor, 9, 231, 232–233
governors and party control of legislature, with dates, 265, 266
historical background, 262–265
institutional powers of the governor, 275–276, 384, 404
lobbying office in Washington, DC, 447
national prominence, 262
news media interaction with public relation staff, 200–201
organizing for economic development policy, 749–756
persuasive power as key to success, 276–277
postelection honeymoon period, 270, 277–278, 284
problems of recent governors, 262–264
public safety appointments and decisions, 639–640
relationships with New York City mayors, 497
situational power and strategy, 276
term extension to four years, 391
“three men in a room” decision making, 40, 206, 263, 281, 495, 754
use of media as communications tool, 198
veto and line item veto in budgetary process, 23–24, 232, 752 (p. 997) See also executive branch; individual governors
Governor's Island incinerator, 818
Governor's Office of Regulatory Reform (GORR), 395, 746, 753
Governor's Task Force for Information Resource Management, 397
Gowanus Expressway, 835, 844, 847
Grand Central Terminal, 838, 840, 854
Grannis, Pete, 607, 608
Great Lakes Commission (GLC), 512, 528
Greeley, Horace, 358, 405
Greenstein, Fred, 278
Gunn, David, 852
Habeas Corpus Act, 515–516
Hacker, Andrew, 685
Hamilton, Alexander, 403, 404, 417, 429, 444–445
Harlan, John Marshall, 418
Harlem Line, 840
Harriman, W. Averell, 262, 327
Harris, Michael D., 508
Harris, Townsend, 670
Hayden, Carl, 669
hazardous or radioactive waste
background, 812
Brownfields Cleanup Program of 2003, 796, 815
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), or the Superfund Law, 814
Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 814, 816
Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation, 813
Inactive Hazardous Waste Disposal Site Remedial Program, 814
Industrial Hazardous Waste Management Act, 814
Love Canal, 812–813, 814
National Priority List (NPL), 814
New York State Superfund Law, 814
Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS), 813
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River, 814
radioactive waste disposal and storage, 813, 879
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 814, 816
sewage and wastewater treatment, 747, 797, 802–803, 811
state and federal action, 814–815
Toxic Substances Control Act, 814
HCBS (home and community-based service) waivers. See Medicaid program waivers
Healthcare Association of New York (HANY), 447, 615
Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), 620–621
health care policy
AIDS and HIV, 602, 607, 620
community rating, 604, 607, 609, 611
context, 600
cost of public employee benefit packages, 604
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), 605
exodus of insurers from individual market after 1993 reforms, 609
guaranteed issue, 604–605, 607–608, 611
Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) in New York City, 447, 604
health care infrastructure, 599–600, 604
health insurance exchange, 612
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 608, 611, 729
immigrants and health care, 602–603
jobs in health care sector, 601, 603–604, 629–630
Managed Care Consumer Bill of Rights, 608
mandated insurance services, 611
market-based subsidies, 609–611, 613
overview, 599–601, 629–630
Partnership for Coverage, 612
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), 449–450, 599, 605, 611, 624
point of service law, 608
prior approval of insurance rates, 613
private health insurance affordability issues, 605, 608–609
private insurance regulation by New York State, 604–613
public hospital system in New York, 600, 604, 616, 717
public/private market segment enrollment, 606
sociodemographics and health statistics, 601–602
state efforts to reform private health insurance, 605–613 See also Medicaid; mental health policy; private health insurance; public health insurance
Health Insurance Plan of New York (HIP), 604
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 608, 611, 729
health maintenance organizations (HMOs), 604, 606–608, 619
Health PASS, 613
Healthy New York (Healthy NY), 605, 610, 611–612
Help America Vote Act (HAVA), 144, 153–154, 155–157, 158
Hemlock Lake, 799, 800
Henry, Patrick, 233
Henry Hudson Bridge, 843
Hevesi, Alan
attorney general Cuomo's investigation, 294, 300
election, 293
(p. 998) full faith and credit debt, 39
and New York State Canal Corporation agreement, 200
resignation and conviction, 192, 271, 293–294
higher education
community colleges, 665, 672, 679, 681–682
Dormitory Authority–State of New York (DASNY), 693–694
economic impact, 666
effect of 2008 recession, 564, 588–589, 666, 672–673, 689–690
fiscal crisis and state aid cuts since 1990, 683–686, 683–688
Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP), 676
Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP), 668, 689, 690, 691
history, 663–664
international students, 666
land grant universities, 7, 663, 669, 677, 682, 688
low degree completion rate, 662, 666
mission and goals, 664, 690
New York State Foundation for Science, Technology, and Innovation (NYSTAR), 508, 694–695, 754, 759
NYSUNY2020, 691, 698, 699
overview, 662–667, 699–701
proprietary or for-profit institutions, 663, 665, 666, 690
Public Higher Education Empowerment and Innovation Act (PHEEIA), 673, 682, 695, 696–698, 699
public–private partnerships (P3s), 695
quasi-private/quasi-public (QPQP) institutions, 700
Regents Scholarship, 663, 682, 688
research and development (R&D) funding, 694–695
Smart Scholars Early College High Schools program, 668
state support for higher education, 548, 550–551, 663
student enrollment, 665–666
Tuition Assistance Program (TAP), 663, 675, 687, 689–691, 694, 699
tuition increases used to close state budget gap, 680, 687
Higher Education Capital Matching Grants Program (HECAP), 694
Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP), 668, 689, 690, 691
Higher Education Price Index (HEPI), 685
Higher Education Services Corporation, 668, 680
Hill, David B., 806
Hill Burton Act, 714
HMOs (health maintenance organizations), 604, 606–608, 619
Hoffman, Charles Fenno, 805
Holland Tunnel, 843
home and community-based service (HCBS) waivers. See Medicaid program waivers
Home Relief, 773
home rule by local governments
impact on land use decisions, 489, 745, 794, 810–811
New York City, 484, 485, 489, 498
provisions in constitution, 31, 230, 461, 465–466, 484, 811
and state preemption of local laws and policies, 466, 489, 491
in strategies for change and reform, 465–467, 469, 475
Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation, 813
Hoover, Herbert, 117, 413
Hoover, J. Edgar, 641
Hopkins, Harry, 407
Horner, Blair, 330
hot spot policing, 647
Hudson Line, 840
Hudson River Estuary Program, 799
Hughes, Charles Evans
efforts to reorganize government, 388–389, 391
energy policy, 869–870
fusion candidate law veto, 405
on history and traditions, 391, 399
life insurance investigation, 406
presidential nomination, 262
Public Service Commission creation, 873
regulation of monopolies, 869
Stevens Gas Investigating Committee, 869
Supreme Court chief justice, 402, 418–419
Hunger Action Network, 784
Hunkers, 405
hydroelectric power
and greenhouse gases, 822
Niagara Falls, early twentieth century, 812–813, 867, 870
Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, 872, 877
Niagara Redevelopment Act, 872
public vs. private ownership debate, 866, 867, 870–872
Storm King Mountain pumped hydroelectric proposal, 745, 794 See also energy policy and politics
hydrofracking, 822
Hylan, John F., 838
Inactive Hazardous Waste Disposal Site Remedial Program, 814
incarceration. See correctional facilities
(p. 999) income per capita in New York, 769
Independence Party, 53, 54, 58, 174
independent colleges and universities
assistance with capital costs, 693–694
Bundy Aid, 674–675, 688, 692–693, 694, 699
Commission on Independent Colleges and Universities (CICU), 663, 666, 674, 676, 688, 690, 693
discrimination practiced in mid-twentieth century, 670, 677–678
economic impact, 666, 676
effect of 2008 recession, 689–690
enrollment, 673
fiscal crisis and state aid cuts since 1990, 690–692
overview, 665, 673–676, 699
research and development (R&D) funding, 694–695
state support, 663, 674–675, 688
Tuition Assistance Program (TAP), 663, 675, 690–691, 694 See also higher education
Independent Oil and Gas Association of New York (IOGA of NY), 875
Independent Power Producers of New York Inc. (IPPNY), 876
Indian Point nuclear power plant, 878, 879
Indigent Legal Defense Fund, 318
Individual Income Tax Act of 1944, 445
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 440–441
Industrial Development Agencies (IDAs), 307, 309, 756, 758
Industrial Hazardous Waste Management Act, 814
innovation awards (Kennedy School), 407–408
innovation scores for states, 407
Institute for Judicial Administration (IJA), 328
Insull, Samuel, 869
integrated border enforcement teams (IBETs), 510
integrated domestic violence (IDV) courts, 361–362
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, 510
Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT), 837
interest groups
education interests, 173–174, 436, 568
expansion of lobbying efforts, 171
health care industry, 172, 173–174, 436
increased number of groups hiring lobbyists, 169
issues and types of groups, 172, 173–175
labor unions, 171, 172, 173, 179–180
lobbying days, 178–179
minority political parties, 174
National Civil Service Reform League, 405–406
overview, 168–170
skills and functions desired in lobbyists, 175
spending on lobbying, 172, 173–174, 175–176 See also lobbying
Intergovernmental Policy Advisory Committee on Trade and Policy Matters (IGPAC), 512
International City/County Management Association (ICMA), 476
international law
anticipatory self-defense principle, 516
enforcement of foreign money judgments, 517
foreign custody disputes, 518
habeas corpus, 515–516
human rights law, 516
local judges and international law, 523–524
McLeod case, 514–516
New York State law and the judiciary, 514–518
scholarly research, 503–504
international relations. See foreign policy of New York State
International Waterways Commission, 800
Interstate Highway System
construction in New York, 836, 844, 845–846, 850, 853
funding, 841, 845
standards, 844, 845, 853
Iroquois nation, 511
Jackson, Robert, 418, 419
Jaeckle, Edwin F., 56
Javits, Jacob, 323, 342, 813
Jay, John, 26, 403, 418
Jefferson, Thomas, 406, 408, 429
Jessup, Phillip, 503–504, 528
Job Development Corporation (JDC), 755 See also Empire State Development Corporation (ESD)
Jobs Now program, 753
Johnson, Craig, 271
Johnson, David W., 212–213
Johnson, Lyndon Baines, 235, 432, 439, 446
Joint Commission on Public Ethics, 247, 248, 249–252, 253
Joint Terrorism Task Force, 638, 654
Jones, Samuel, 291
journalism. See news media
judicial branch
Advisory Committee on Judicial Ethics, 365
appellate divisions, 24, 359–360, 362, 640
campaign to increase judicial salaries, 337, 372
caseload management, 365–367
civil court structure, 363
Code of Judicial Conduct, 364
Commission on Judicial Conduct, 34, 360, 365, 394
Commission on the Future of Indigent Defense Services, 366
Commission to Promote Public Confidence in Judicial Elections, 370
constitutional amendments, 1960–2010, 33–34, 359–360
Continuing Legal Education Board, 365
continuing legal education (CLE) programs, 365
(p. 1000) court administration, 364
court of appeals, 24, 29, 362–364, 371–372, 640
criminal court structure, 363, 640
disputes over judicial budgets, 371–372
history, 357–360
Judicial Campaign Ethics Center (JCEC), 370
judicial selection and campaign ethics, 50, 369–370
judiciary article of 1869, 359
jury reform, 370–371
justice courts, 368–369, 640
McLeod case, 514–516
New York Constitution of 1777, 25–26, 358
New York Constitution of 1821, 28, 358
New York Constitution of 1846, 29, 358–359
New York Constitution of 1894, 37–38, 357, 359
Office of Court Administration, 364, 368, 640
partisan election of judges, 50
problem-solving courts, 361–362
restructuring efforts, 367–368
rules for conduct of judges and attorneys, 364–365
Special Commission on the Future of the New York State Courts, 367, 368
structure, 24, 360–364
supreme courts and trial courts, 24, 26, 28, 360–361, 640
town and village court reform, 368–369 See also international law
Justice Court Fund, 317–318
Kagan, Elena, 418
Kaplan, Stanley H., 670
Kaye, Judith
campaign to increase judicial salaries, 337, 372
Commission on the Future of Indigent Defense Services, 366
Commission to Promote Public Confidence in Judicial Elections, 370
integrated domestic violence (IDV) courts, 361–362
judicial election reform, 370
jury reform, 370
Maybee v. New York, 38
movement for problem-solving justice, 361
restructuring efforts, 367–368
Special Commission on the Future of the New York State Courts, 367, 368
Spitzer v. Grasso, 327
town and village court reform, 369
Kearney, A.T., 735, 754, 756, 757, 761
Kelly, Raymond, 647, 654
Kemp, Jack, 446
Kendra's Law, 720–721, 729
Kenisco Dam, 842
Kennedy, John F., 618, 625
Kennedy, Robert F., 439, 641
Kiley, Robert, 852
King, John B., 589
Koch, Ed, 63–64, 86, 88, 487, 519, 752
Konviser-Levine, Jill, 200
Koppell, Oliver, 323, 329, 330, 333
Kosinski, Peter, 156
Kremer, Jerry, 852
Krueger, Liz, 245, 782
Kyoto Protocol, 821
labor unions
arbitration rules for public employees, 545, 585
comptroller office labor issues, 295–296, 316–317
effect on economy and business, 742
employee unions at public universities, 673, 679–680, 683, 687–688, 698
lobbying by unions, 171, 172, 173, 179–180, 436
New York State United Teachers (NYSUT), 173, 442, 568, 584–585
public employee unions in New York, 744–745
Service Employees International Union (SEIU), 609–610, 611
state regulation of collective bargaining for local employees, 545
Taylor Law, 545
teacher unions, 173, 442, 568, 578, 584–585
union pressure on state comptroller, 295–296, 316–317
United Federation of Teachers (UFT), 578, 584–585
LaGuardia, Fiorello, 405, 816
land grant universities, 7, 663, 669, 677, 682, 688
Landry, Bernard, 507
land use policy
Adirondacks private land use and development plan (PLUDP), 808
Central Pine Barrens Comprehensive Land Use Plan, 810
environmental quality review, 811–812
home rule impact on land use decisions, 489, 745, 794, 810–811
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 811–812
State Environmental Quality Review Act (SEQRA), 794, 812
village creation for land use control, 462
Lazio, Rick, 53, 57, 212
League of Adirondack Citizens Rights, 808–809
Lefkowitz, Louis J., 323, 327–328, 329, 331, 333, 339
legislative branch, general
change from part-time to year-round sessions, 171
changing major party balance, 59–63, 119, 177, 498
criticism of process and procedures, 40–41
disillusionment with dysfunctional legislature, 29, 35, 196–197, 225–226
enforcement networks, 513
information networks, 513
(p. 1001) legislator numbers, qualifications, and characteristics, 235–236
legislator use of media as communications tool, 198
member item funding, 226, 232, 242, 270, 272, 280, 282
news media interaction with public relations staff, 201–202
party control of legislature, dates, 266
party discipline, 178
public safety policy decisions, 636, 639
racial diversity, 236
reapportionment and redistricting, 62–63, 243–245, 652
legislative branch organization and structure
Assembly Ways and Means Committee, 239, 241–242
chamber leadership, 226, 238–240
joint committees, 242–243
overview, 24, 235–237
party conferences, 57, 178, 237–238
rules committees, 242
Senate Finance Committee, 239, 241–242
standing committees, 240–243
task forces, 243
legislative branch powers
budget enactment by legislature, 231–232
express constitutional limitations, 227–233
federal constitutional limitations, 233–235
home rule powers for localities, 31, 230, 461, 465–466
overview, 227
plenary powers, 19, 227, 231
power of the purse, 227, 231–233, 241–242
power to borrow, 227, 231
power to spend, 227, 231
power to tax, 227, 231
state bill of rights, 21, 22, 228, 234
“three men in a room” decision making, 40, 206, 263, 272, 281, 495
legislative campaign committees, 57–58
Legislative Correspondents Association (LCA), 201, 202, 203, 205
legislative ethics
criticisms and reform opportunities, 252–253
enforcement of ethics laws, 249–252
Joint Commission on Public Ethics, 247, 248, 249–252, 253
Legislative Ethics Commission, 245, 248, 249–252, 253, 330
Lobbying Act, 247–248, 251
overview, 245–246
Public Employees Ethics Reform Act, 181, 249, 252, 398
Public Integrity Reform Act of 2011, 245, 247, 249, 250, 252–253
Public Officers Law, 246–247, 248–250
standards of conduct, 246–249
Lehman, Herbert H., 4, 392, 407, 872
Lenchyshyn v. Pelko Elec., Inc., 517
Levesque, Joseph L., 676
Levitt, Arthur, Sr., 293, 319, 393
Levittown Union Free School District v. Nyquist, 333, 582–583
L.H. v. Youth Welfare Office of Wiesbaden, Germany, 518
Lhota, Joseph, 487
Liberal Party, 53, 54
Liberal Republican Party, 405
Libertarian Party, 54, 59
Liberty Party, 405
Liebschutz, Sarah, 8, 403
Lincoln, Charles Z., 4, 5, 358
Lincoln Tunnel, 843
Lindsay, John, 265, 267, 405, 497, 850
Lippman, Jonathan, 365, 366–367, 369, 372
Livingston, Ken, 856
lobbying
approaches to lobbying, 178–180
campaign-style lobbying, 179
changing profile of lobbying firms and lobbyists, 174–175
contract lobbyists, 172, 174, 184
as core element of representative democracy, 170
“D.C. shuffle,” 177
definition, 182, 247
donation laundering process, 182
effectiveness, 180
effect of news cycle speed, 168–169
as fundamentally corrupting process, 170, 180–181
future of lobbying, 185–186
growth and development in New York, 170–173, 175–176, 185–186
and implementation of regulations, 168, 175
in-house lobbyists, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 177
by labor unions, 171, 172, 173, 179–180, 436
law firm–based lobbying, 171, 174–175
Lobbying Act, 247–248, 251
Lobbying Commission in New York, 181
lobbying days by interest groups, 178–179
lobbyist, definition, 182, 247
lobbyist profiles and characteristics, 176–177
lobbyist skills and functions, 175
major clients and issues, 172, 173–175, 177
mass media as lobbying tool, 179
by New York government departments, 447
by New York governor's office, 447
New York State Commission on Public Integrity, 175, 181–183
niche lobbying firms, 173, 177
overview, 168–170, 185–186
political campaign contributions and fundraising, 182–184, 185
procurement lobbying, 169, 173, 181, 182, 183, 247
regulation, 170, 180–185
(p. 1002) and right to free speech, 183
scandals, 181
spending on lobbying, 172, 173–174, 175–176
Temporary State Commission on Lobbying, 175, 181, 399
top lobbying firms, 172–173 See also interest groups
local government
authorities, 458, 463, 474
central management, 475–477
cities, 457, 458, 460
citizen assessment of cost-effectiveness, 456, 457
city charters, 460, 463, 484
consolidation of local government units for cost savings, 467–468
counties, 457–460
county board of legislators, 459
county board of supervisors (BOS), 458–459, 471
county charters, 459, 484
county commissioners, 459
county executives, 459
Department of State Local Government Efficiency grants, 468
as entities of the state, 539
federal aid to local governments, 434, 443–444
fiscal equivalence principle, 470
fiscal reporting to New York State Comptroller, 308–309
foreign policy, 518–523
general purpose state aid, 471
home rule in change and reform strategies, 465–467, 469, 475
home rule in New York City, 484, 485, 489, 498
home rule provisions in constitution, 31, 230, 461, 465–466, 484
intergovernmental collaboration, 468
local dissolution and consolidation of governments, 469
local government horizontal networks, 519, 522–523
local government vertical networks, 519, 522
local judges and international law, 523–524
local property taxes, 443, 448, 464, 470–471
local sales taxes, 443, 464–465, 471–472
Local Tax Enabling Act of 1965 (Pennsylvania Act 511), 472
municipal managers, 455–456, 461, 462, 476–477
New York City and foreign policy, 518–522
New York combined state and local revenues, 435, 436
New York county populations, areas, and spending, 459
New York State Commission on Local Government Efficiency and Competitiveness, 467, 468, 653
nondefense expenditures (federal, state, and local), 430, 431
no plan of correction required after comptroller audits, 314
overview, 478
proportion of overall revenues from federal and state aid, 443, 444
proposed broad grants of revenue-raising options, 472
providing access to innovation and change information, 472–473
provision and production of services, 469–470
public choice approach to governance and services, 469–470
regional characteristics of local government units, 456–458
regionalism for improved effectiveness, 473–474
regional public economies, 470
relationship to state executive branch, 386, 392
responsibility for welfare services, 386
revenue needs, 470–472
revenue systems, 443, 464–465, 470–472
service delivery system, 465
service provision authorities in Pennsylvania, 474
shared management capacity, 475–477
size distribution of municipalities in New York, 461, 462–463
special purpose districts, 457, 458, 459–460, 461–462, 463
spending on schools, 544, 564
state-mandated Medicaid costs to counties and New York City, 488, 544, 615
state preemption of local laws and policies, 466, 489, 491
strategies for change and improvement, 468–469
town boards, 461
town outside of incorporated villages (TOV), 461
towns (townships), 457–458, 460–462
U.S. combined state and local revenues, 430, 431
Local Government Assistance Corporation (LGAC), 306, 552
Lochner v. New York, 418
Locke, John, 227
logging industry and the environment, 793, 795, 804–805, 807
Loglisci, David, 294
Long Island Expressway, 845, 853
Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), 269, 876–878, 879–880, 885, 891, 893
Long Island Pine Barrens Protection Act, 810
Long Island Pine Barrens Society (LIPBS), 810
Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), 876–877, 880, 883, 886, 890
Long Island Rail Railroad (LIRR), 840, 848–849, 852, 854, 855–856, 857
Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), 492–493
Lundine, Stan, 284, 468, 813
Lunding v. New York Tax Appeals Tribunal, 233
Machold, Henry Edmond, 871
Madison, James, 264, 403, 408
Major Deegan Expressway, 845
Mandela, Nelson, 781
Manufacturers Association of Central New York (MACNY), 875
Marbury v. Madison, 339
Marcy, William, 358
Marist Poll (Marist Institute of Public Opinion), 9–10, 113, 118
Marshak, Robert, 671
Marshall, Louis, 807
Marshall, Thurgood, 419
Martin Act, 294, 325, 342–343
Massachusetts v. EPA, 821
mass transit
amount of service in New York, 436, 550
buses, 839, 848–850
commuter railroads, development, 836, 839–840, 856
commuter railroads, takeover by state, 847–848, 856
Dedicated Mass Transportation Trust Fund, 854, 855
elevated rail lines (Els), 837, 838
express bus service, 839, 849
federal funding, 443
Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) system, 836, 839, 856
revenues in New York, 436
state spending on mass transit, 550
Maybee v. New York, 38
Mayhew, David R., 410–412
Maziarz, George, 890
McAneny, George, 837
McCain, John, 409
McCall, H. Carl
appointment and election, 293, 296
campaign for governor, 293
campaign fundraising, 293, 300
fiduciary responsibility, 288–289, 302, 304
New York City audits, 310
New York State Canal Corporation agreement, 200
pension benefit increase, 304
pension fund protection, 288, 304
state budget commentary, 307
tobacco issues, 288–289
McDonnell, Bob, 698
McIntyre, Archibald, 291
McLeod case, 514–516
Medicaid
attorney general and Medicaid fraud, 329, 331, 345–346
budget battles, 174, 232
cap on local share of Medicaid funding, 559, 615
care for aged persons with mental illness, 716
Child Health Plus, 605, 610, 624
comparison of California and New York programs, 440, 614, 616
complex administrative structure, 616–618
decentralized administration in New York, 614, 616–617, 629
Democratic and Republican priorities, 66, 280–281
eligibility, 614
expenditure need, 434
expenditures in Mental Hygiene Services Fund, 439
factors in high Medicaid costs, 439, 440
Family Health Plus, 559, 610, 617, 622, 623
fiscal and programmatic impact on state, 439–440
for individuals with disabilities, 439–440
institutional bias in reimbursement system, 615–616, 630
for legal immigrants, 603
low reimbursement to physicians, 440, 615–616
Medicaid and aid to education as largest budget items, 173–174, 436, 548, 550
“Medicaiding” a program, 716, 719, 732
modest primary care physician role in state, 614, 616
New York Medicaid funding, 434
New York Times fraud exposé, 199
number enrolled in New York, 436
number enrolled nationally, 613
Office of the Medicaid Inspector General, 617
overview, 613–614
as percent of federal aid to states, 434
policy of seeking greatest possible Medicaid funding, 439, 440, 448, 716, 719
program creation in Johnson era, 432
proportion of total state spending, 439
rapid increases in spending, 439, 548, 550
services supported, 439, 618
state-mandated costs to counties and New York City, 488, 544, 615
and tobacco settlement, 289, 329 See also health care policy; public health insurance
Medicaid demonstration waivers
assessment of waiver results, 623
authorization from section 1115, Social Security Act, 618
and executive federalism, 600, 617–618, 620
Family Health Plus, 622
Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) approval, 620–621
health care infrastructure reconfiguration, 622–623
home and community-based care services, 622, 626
and low-income uninsured adults, 622
managed care Partnership Plan waiver, 619
New York Federal–State Health Reform Partnership, 623
participation of special needs and SSI patients, 620, 621–622
Pataki administration, 600, 619–623, 629
politics and section 1115 waivers, 620–621, 627–628
Medicaid Fraud Control Unit (MFCU), 329, 331, 345
Medicaid Fraud Prosecution Unit, 345
Medicaid program waivers (HCBS waivers)
authorization from section 1915, Social Security Act, 618
background, 600, 618, 624–625
cost neutrality, 624
deinstitutionalization, 624, 625, 627
and executive federalism, 600, 617–618
home and community based service (HCBS), 600, 624–627
politics and section 1915 waivers, 628
rebalancing long-term care, 624–625
role in expanding home and community-based service (HCBC), 625–627
Medicaid Redesign Team (MRT), 622
Medicare
care for aged persons with mental illness, 716
comparison to Medicaid, 613
New York Federal–State Health Reform Partnership waiver, 622–623
number covered, 605, 606, 613
prescription drug coverage, 448
some older New Yorkers ineligible for Part A, 603, 605 See also Social Security
Megan's Law, 720, 722, 729
member item funding, 226, 232, 242, 270, 272, 280, 282
Menken, H. L., 455
mental health consumer movement
alternative label for “patients,” “clients,” or “survivors,” 713
Anti-Insane Asylum Society, 724
antipsychiatry movement, 726, 727
client self-determination, 721, 724–731, 726
consumer-run services, 726–727
“Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century,” 727
Fountain House, 725
history, 724–731
National Committee on Mental Hygiene, 725
OMH Advisory Council on Mental Health, 717
partnership model between providers and consumers, 726, 727, 730–731
role of consumers, 712
social justice movement, 726
support groups, 726
“Ten Rules for Quality Mental Health Services in New York State,” 728–731
WANA (We Are Not Alone), 725
“White Paper by People who are New York State Consumers, Survivors and Ex-patients,” 727 See also deinstitutionalization
mental health policy
assisted outpatient treatment (AOT), 721, 732
community-based care, history, 714–718
Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act, 715
Community Mental Health Services Act, 394, 715
Community Reinvestment Act, 717
community residences funding, 717, 718
Community Support System, 717
co-occurring disorders, 717, 723–724
cost containment and cost reduction, 718–720
facility closure policy, 717, 718–719
federal government role in state mental health system, 715–716
Hill Burton Act, 714
institutional model of care, 714, 725
intensive case management, 717, 721
Kendra's Law, 720–721, 729
Megan's Law, 720, 722, 729
Mental Health Services Act of 1979, 715
Mental Hygiene Law, 714
minimizing risks to the community, 712, 717, 719, 720–721, 722
National Institute for Mental Health, 714
National Mental Health Act, 714
Office of Mental Health (OMH), 386, 394, 617, 713, 716–717, 718–720
overview, 712–713, 731–733
parity between health and mental health insurance, 720, 722
Personalized Recovery Oriented Services (PROS), 719
policy of seeking greatest possible Medicaid funding, 716, 719
residential alternatives to hospitalization, 717, 718
and school districts, 724
services for incarcerated persons, 720, 723–724, 732
Timothy's Law, 720, 722, 731
(p. 1005) Mental Health Services Act of 1979, 715
Mental Hygiene Law, 714
Merriam, Charles, 149–150
Metropolitan Commuter Transportation Authority (MCTA), 848
Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), 835, 847
Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA)
buses, 836, 839
capital plans and needs, 829–830, 851–853, 854–855, 856–858
congestion pricing, 856–857
Dedicated Mass Transportation Trust Fund, 854, 855
express bus service, 839, 849
federal funding, 443
infrastructure renewal, 1980 to present, 851–853, 854
LIRR East Side Access, 855–856
Metro-North Railroad, 840, 852, 857
Metropolitan Commuter Transportation Authority (MCTA), 848
modern funding shortfalls, 829–830
MTA Bus Company, 839, 849, 855
MTA Capital Construction Company, 555
MTA Capital Program Review Board, 852, 854
MTA Long Island Rail Railroad (LIRR), 840, 848–849, 852, 854, 855–856, 857
payroll tax funding, 558
responsibilities, 846–847, 855
ridership and total passenger trips, 550, 831–832
sales tax funding, 486
Second Avenue subway, 838, 854, 855–856
service contract bonds, 851–852, 855 See also transportation policy and politics
Midtown Community Court, 361
Miller, Melvin H., 87, 269
Miller, Nathan L., 870
Mills, Ogden L., 871
Mills, Richard, 574
Mindell, Stephen “Sandy,” 329
Minersville School District v. Gobitis, 419
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, 419
mobility, definition, 831
Mobro Barge, 816
Model Rules of Professional Conduct (American Bar Association), 334
Moffat, Abbott Low, 4, 843
Monserrate, Hiram, 63, 185, 192, 206, 251, 498
Moore, David, 121–123, 124, 126, 132, 135
Moore, Michael, 329, 339
Moore, Roy, 338
Morehead v. New York ex rel Tipaldo, 419
Moreland Act, 6, 389
Morey, William C., 6
Morgan, J. Pierpont, 445
Morgenthau, Henry, 407, 417
Morgenthau, Robert, 640, 648
Morrill, Justin, 669
Morrill (Land Grant) Act, 663, 669, 677
Morris, Hank, 294, 300
Moses, Robert
on Alfred E. Smith, 3
constitutional amendments, 390
Fresh Kills landfill, 818
Reconstruction Commission, 807
recreationalism, 793
Regional Plan of New York and Its Environs, 842
State Council of Parks, 808
state park system, 807–808
transportation policy and road system construction, 836, 841, 842–845, 846–848, 850
Moss, Mitchell, 748
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick
on balance of payments with federal government, 409, 447–448, 449, 450
West Valley remediation, 813
writing on politics, 7, 9
Mt. Hope Reservoir, 799
MTA Bus Company, 839, 849, 855
Mugwumps, 405
Muir, John, 793
Mullen, Dennis, 748, 755
Multiple Intervenors (MI), 875
Municipal Assistance Corporation, 267, 270, 281, 554, 751
Municipal Electric Utility Association, 877
municipal solid waste (MSW), 815–819
Nadjari, Maurice, 330
Nathan, Richard, 8, 450
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 566, 571–572, 573, 579
National Association of State Budget Officers, 447, 684
National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), 447, 883
National Civil Service Reform League, 405–406
National Committee on Mental Hygiene, 725
National Conference of State Legislatures, 447, 683
National Defense Highway Act, 841
National Energy Act, 880
National Energy Policy Act, 875
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 745, 794, 795, 811–812, 879
National Fire Protection Association Technical Committee on Disaster Management, 522
national government and New York State. See New York State and the national government
National Grid, 877
National Institute for Mental Health, 714
National Mental Health Act, 714
National Rifle Association (NRA), 342
National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, 877
(p. 1006) National State Auditors Association, 311
National Voter Registration Act (NVRA), 153–155
Nation at Risk, A, 574
Native American nations, 511
natural gas
cost-based natural gas rates, 881
costs in 2007, 743
deregulation, 881, 884
and greenhouse gases, 822
hydrofracking, 822
Natural Gas Act, 884
Natural Gas Policy Act, 878, 884
regulation and price controls, 866, 881 See also energy policy and politics
Natural History Survey Report (Emmons), 804
Natural Resources Defense Council, 793
Nature Conservancy, 794
Nebbia v. New York, 419
Neustadt, Richard, 169, 276
New Haven Line, 840, 848
New Jersey Transit (NJT), 840
New Jersey v. New York, 818
news media
agenda setting by media, 197
Albany news corps, 202–206
Albany Times Union, 193, 202–203, 204, 207, 208
Associated Press (AP) Albany bureau, 193, 202–203, 205, 213–214
Buffalo News, 182, 202–203, 204–205, 207
changing newsroom, the, 208–210
consequences of reduced statehouse coverage, 191–193
coverage of scandals, 181, 192, 193
diminishing state government coverage, 190–191, 202–206
freedom of speech, 21, 190, 194
future of news media, 210–211
Gannett newspaper chain, 203, 204, 207, 208
government officials’ use of media as tool, 197–199
institutional power of media, 194
interaction with government officials, 200–202
Internet and blogs, 208–210
Legislative Correspondents Association (LCA), 201, 202, 203, 205
main news sources for political information, 193
masthead intent to influence policy, 199
news media as fourth branch of government, 194
newspaper circulation losses, 207, 210
New York Daily News state government coverage, 198–199, 203–204, 207, 208–209, 210
New York Post state government coverage, 198–199, 203–204, 207, 209, 210
New York Times Albany coverage, 203–204, 207, 209, 211–213
New York Times and Governor Paterson, 204, 211–213, 273
New York Times circulation, 210
New York Times exposé of Medicaid fraud, 199
overview, 193
pack journalism, 191, 206
press reporting of poll results, 111, 115–116, 118, 194
priming by media, 196–197
roles of the media, 194–195, 208
Syracuse Post-Standard exposé of New York State Canal Corporation, 199–200
United Press International (UPI), 202
upstate/downstate differences, 207
what is newsworthy, 206–207
New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad, 840
New York Bureau of Municipal Research, 4, 6, 388–389
New York Central Railroad, 840
New York City and foreign policy, 518–522, 523
New York City Coalition Against Hunger, 781
New York City–New York State relations
Campaign for Fiscal Equity v. State of New York, 38, 229–230, 487, 568, 583
causes of conflict, 482
city influence over state, 482, 494–497
commuter tax repeal, 67–68, 271, 487, 496
Coney Island development, 491
economic development by the state, 492–493
Empire Zone Program, 493
homeless housing mandate, 491–492
home rule, 484, 485, 489, 498
hotel tax, 487
intergovernmental transfers, 487–488
legal framework of relationship, 484
Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), 492–493
mandates, 488, 491–492
mayoral control of schools, 483, 490, 567–568, 577, 578
Medicaid cost mandates, 488
overview, 482–483, 498–499
Panel for Educational Policy, 568
parkland regulation, 490–491
parks in the city, administered by the state, 492
personal income tax, 486–487, 489
political relationship between city and state, 485
problems with late approval of state budgets, 488
property tax, 486
relationships between governors and mayors, 497
rent control and rent stabilization, 483, 490
sales tax, 486, 487, 489, 498
school and teacher accountability, 577–579
Schools Under Registration Review (SURR), 491, 576, 577
state aid to education, 487
state control of city debt limit, 485–486
state influence on public policy and service delivery, 488–491
(p. 1007) state influence over city revenue, 485–488
state preemption of local laws and policies, 489, 491
state services and assistance, 492–494
Times Square redevelopment, 492
Transitional Finance Authority (TFA), 486, 552
upstate/downstate division in political parties, 63–65, 66, 67–70, 72, 151
water supply and water treatment, 493–494
New York City Police Department (NYPD)
civilian complaint review board for police misconduct, 637
counterterrorism and intelligence, 653–654
crime and police stories in fiction, movies, and television, 640–641
decline in New York City crime, 636, 641, 642, 643, 647, 656
hot spot policing, 647
locally focused law enforcement, 636–637
New York City crime statistics, 636
organized crime and New York City, 641
partnership with private security forces (SHIELD), 638, 654
police management reform, 641, 642–647
Real Time Crime Center, 655
“safest big city in America,” 641, 642, 646
work with multiple district attorneys, 640 See also CompStat
New York City Transit Authority (TA), 838–839, 848, 849, 852
New York Constitution, general
amendment process, 21–22, 28, 33
amendments, numbers of, 22, 33, 34
articles and organization, 22
on citizen character, 22–23
constitutionalizing public policy, 36–38
constitutional reform and effective government, 35–36, 40–41
developments in 1968–2010, 34
on education, 20, 38, 229–230
executive branch structure, 23
governor's veto and line item veto in budgetary process, 23–24
judicial branch structure, 24
judiciary article, 37–38, 357, 359
legislative branch structure, 24, 235–243
limitations on legislative powers, 227–233
local finance article, 22, 33, 37
overview, 19–20
and political culture, 38–40
reform agenda in twenty-first century, 35–36, 41–42
rights protected, 21, 228
separation of personnel, 23
separation or powers, 23
state bill of rights, 21, 22, 228, 234
structure of government, 23–24 See also constitutional conventions
New York Constitution of 1777, 19, 20, 24–26, 27, 290–291, 323–324, 358
New York Constitution of 1821, 27–28, 291, 324, 358, 387
New York Constitution of 1846, 28–29, 287, 291, 324, 358–359, 387
New York Constitution of 1894
convention of 1894, 19, 30–31
election administration provisions, 31, 51, 148–152
express limitations on legislative powers, 227–233
judiciary article, 37–38, 357, 359
reapportionment provisions, 32–33, 62
state bill of rights, 21, 22, 228, 234 See also New York Constitution, general
New York Daily News state government coverage, 198, 199, 203–204, 207, 208–209, 210
New York Environmental Protection and Spill Compensation Fund, 317
New York Forest Preserve and Adirondack Park, 805–807
New York Independent System Operator (NYISO), 875, 883, 891–892
New York Metropolitan Transportation Council (NYMTC), 835
New York Post state government coverage, 198–199, 203–204, 207, 209, 210
New York Power Authority, 311, 538
New York Power Pool, 891
New York Public Service Law section 66-c, 875
New York State Abandoned Property Law, 317
New York State and the national government
balance of payments between New York and federal government, 409, 410, 447–449, 450
federal role in New York government today, 437–443
federal spending per capita in New York, 409
New York and the executive branch, 413–417, 418
New York and the national judiciary, 418–419
New York as activist innovator state, 24
New York in the U.S. Congress, 409–412
New York role in shaping national fiscal policy, 444–447
overview, 402–403, 420
pioneering of political institutions, 404–406
policy innovations, 406–408
sectional politics and federalism, 406, 408–409, 410 See also fiscal federalism
New York State Atomic and Space Development Authority, 874
New York State Bankers Association v. Wetzler, 231
New York State Board of Elections (BOE), 60, 61, 82, 145, 156–157, 394
(p. 1008) New York State Commission on Local Government Efficiency and Competitiveness, 467, 468, 653
New York State Commission on Public Integrity, 175, 181–183, 213, 251, 398–399
New York State Common Retirement Fund
Actuarial Advisory Committee, 297, 303
administrative complexity, 305
Advisory Council for the Retirement System, 297
annual bills to employers, 303–304
annual returns of the pension fund, 301
benefit demands from retirees, 304–305
comprehensive annual financial report (CAFR), 297, 315
comptroller as chief actuary, 303–305
comptroller as retirement adviser, 303–305
comptroller as sole trustee, 288, 295, 297–302
Employees Retirement System (ERS), 297, 303
future of the defined benefit plan, 305
Investment Advisory Committee, 297
Police and Fire Retirement System (PFRS), 297, 303
raids on the pension fund, 304
state control of cost to local governments, 544–545
state legislature, governor and the basket bill, 301
susceptibility to fraud, 305
New York State Comptroller's Office. See comptroller
New York State Department of Banking, 510–511
New York State Department of Efficiency and Economy, 389
New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT)
bus systems subsidies, 849–850
capital plans and needs, 829–830, 853, 854–855, 856
civil service employees, 386
Dedicated Highway and Bridge Trust Fund, 854, 855
freight rail service, 850–851
infrastructure needs study in 2008, 747
modern funding shortfalls, 829–830
responsibilities and powers, 850–851, 855
road system development, 840–842, 850
service contract bonds, 853 See also transportation policy and politics
New York State Division of the Budget (DOB), 280, 296, 431, 536, 538, 557
New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), 874–875, 883, 886, 890–891
New York State Ethics Commission, 399
New York State Financial Control Board, 267, 307, 310, 485, 751
New York State Forest Preserve, 795, 806
New York State Foundation for Science, Technology, and Innovation (NYSTAR), 508, 694–695, 754, 759
New York State Health Foundation, 613
New York State Human Rights Commission, 327, 407
New York State Land Commission, 803
New York State Law Enforcement Council, 328–329
New York State Petroleum Council, 875
New York State PTA, 568
New York State Reliability Council, 875
New York State Returnable Beverage Container Act, 816–817
New York State Rural Electric Cooperative Association, 872–873, 877
New York State School Boards Association, 568, 585
New York State Solid Waste Management Act (SWMA), 817
New York State Superfund Law, 814
New York State Thruway, 843–844
New York State Thruway Authority, 199–200, 538, 841, 844–845, 853, 855
New York State United Teachers (NYSUT), 173, 442, 568, 584–585
New York Times
Albany coverage, 203–204, 207, 209, 211–213
circulation, 210
exposé of Medicaid fraud, 199
and Governor Paterson, 204, 211–213, 273
New York Tunnel Authority, 843
Niagara 10, 522–523
Niagara BiNational Economic Roundtable, 507, 508
Niagara Falls State Reservation, 805
Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA), 849
Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, 872, 877
Niagara–Ontario Legislators Meeting, 513
Niagara Redevelopment Act, 872
Niagara River Binational Border Mayors’ Coalition, 522
NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard), 745, 746
Nine Mile Point nuclear power plant, 879, 885, 893
Nixon, Richard, 62, 413, 795
NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp., 419
No Child Left Behind Act, 441, 451, 564–565, 572, 576–577, 578
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 512
Northeast-Midwest Institute, 409, 448
Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS), 813
nuclear power plant policies, 879–880
nuclear power plants
Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe, 893
Fitzpatrick nuclear power plant, 879
Fukushima nuclear disaster, 893
government policies, 879–880
Indian Point nuclear power plant, 878, 879
Nine Mile Point nuclear power plant, 879, 885, 893
Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS), 813
(p. 1009) nuclear waste disposal and storage, 813, 879
Shoreham nuclear plant (LILCO), 269, 876–878, 879–880, 885, 891, 893
Three Mile Island nuclear accident, 879, 893
nuclear waste disposal and storage, 813, 879
Nursing Home Special Prosecutor, 328, 329
Obama, Barack
education policy, 441–442, 587, 685
election in 2008, 409, 612
Graduation Initiative proposal, 665, 681
greenhouse gas regulation, 821
health care reform legislation, 235, 447, 449–450, 612–613
micro-targeting campaign techniques, 179
New York votes in 2008, 436
Pittsburgh Summit, 739
proposed tax on Wall Street firms, 449
Race to the Top (RTTT) program, 451, 587
O'Claire, Timothy, 722
O'Dwyer, William, 844
Office for Technology, 397, 398
Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS), 394, 717, 769
Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS), 396, 768
Office of Court Administration (OCA), 364, 368, 640
Office of Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure Coordination, 398
Office of General Services, 393, 398
Office of Health Insurance Programs, 617
Office of Homeland Security, 398, 510, 653–654, 894
Office of Indigent Legal Services, 366
Office of Mental Health (OMH), 386, 394, 617, 713, 716–717, 718–720
Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (OMRDD), 386, 394–395, 625, 717
Office of Parks