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date: 11 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article describes public opinion polling as well as politics and governance in New York. The interaction between the polls, press, politicians, and public creates a constant, continual, and reciprocal interplay along six distinct paths (4P process). The 4P process is a core element of the manner in which modern representative democracy works. This process is developed over time as polling grew to maturity while politicians and the press experimented with its utility and implications and addressed the costs of using polling. Polling has become integral to governing. Furthermore, it examined four cases from the two survey models, comparing and contrasting the different parts of each survey in order to determine the effects of forced-choice questions versus intensity scales. Identifying ambivalence significantly lessened support and opposition for each major issue that New Yorkers faced.

Keywords: public opinion polling, politics, governance, New York, 4P process, politicians, press, polls, public

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