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date: 20 September 2020

(p. 448) Index

(p. 448) Index

Note: Page numbers in italics indicate photographs.

(p. 449) Abbott, George, 52, 104, 283–84, 285, 358
The Abominable Showman (Kissel), 256
abstraction: and cast recording, 185;
and dance/choreography, 59
;
and theatrical design, 287, 296, 299, 301–2, 306
Academy Awards, 79, 105, 286, 384, 390n7
The Act of Reading (Iser), 26
Acting in Musical Theatre (Dear and Dal Vera), 310
actors and acting, 25, 169, 276–77, 288, 309–19
Actors Equity, 247, 263
Actors Studio, 52, 284
Adams, Edie, 154
adaptations, 105, 140–43
The Adding Machine, 300
“Adelaide's Lament,” 214, 402
Adler, Steven, 117
Adshead, Janet, 341
advertising, 119–20
African Americans: audiences, 371;
and blackface minstrelsy, 74
;
and dance/choreography, 47
;
and narrative/musical styles, 200
;
and New York City Draft Riot, 83
;
and revisals, 207–8
;
and tap dance, 43. See also race issues and racism
“After the Ball,” 30, 40–41, 87–89
Ahrens, Lynn, 305, 309
Albertina Rasch Dancers, 46
Alessandri, Gerard, 264
Alexander, Jason, 156, 161
All That Jazz, 343–45
“All through the Night,” 91–92
Allegro, 105
“Along Came Bialy,” 306
Altman, Rick, 136, 165n1
alto voices, 322
“Always,” 91
“Always Look on the Bright Side of Life,” 144–45
“Always True to You in My Fashion,” 329, 330
amateur theater, 392–407;
audiences of, 403–4
;
canon of, 399–403
;
documenting practice of, 392–93
;
growing popularity of, 393–94
;
history of, 394–96
;
negotiating expectations, 396–99
;
risk management in, 403
;
selecting material for, 397–99
“America,” 198, 205–6, 215
American, 47–48
American Alliance for Theatre and Education (AATE), 396, 403–4
American Association of Community Theatres (AACT), 393, 395, 399
American Ballet Theatre, 302
American Community Theatre Association (ACTA), 395
American Delsarte, 46
American Expressionism, 300
American Federation of Musicians (AFM), 181
An American in Paris, 212, 384
The American Musical and the Formation of National Identity (Knapp), 227
The American Musical Theater (Engel), 34
American Musical Theatre (Bordman), 82
American Playhouse, 140–41
American Repertory Theatre, 291
American Theatre Wing, 189
Amos and Andy, 176
amplification, 114–15, 272–73, 326, 385. See also microphones
Anarchism, 13
Anderson, Eddie “Rochester,” 79
Anderson, John Murray, 47
Anderson, Robert, 363n10
Andrews, Anthony, 318
Andrews, Julie: and cast recordings, 186;
and Cinderella, 154, 158–59, 160, 161–62, 163–64, 186
;
filmed musicals of, 384
;
and gender/sexuality issues, 222
;
in The Sound of Music, 389
;
star quality of, 380
angels, 356. See also investors
Anger, Kenneth, 149
animation, 167–78;
and Dumbo, 167–68
;
Eisenstein on, 170–75, 177–78
;
etymology of, 178n2
;
and ideological issues, 176–77
;
as performance, 168–70
Annie, 291, 373
Annie Get Your Gun, 42, 43, 107, 123, 313–14
“Another National Anthem,” 130
“Another Op’nin’, Another Show,” 330
anthropomorphism, 174–75
anti-Semitism, 289
Ants in Your Plants of 1939, 82
Anything Goes, 37, 90, 101, 108, 212, 300, 313
Apollo, 48–49, 49
Appalachia, 226
Appia, Adolph, 295, 296, 299
“Aquarius,” 38
Arden, Victor, 271
Arlen, Harold, 50, 54
(p. 450) Arlington Friends of the Drama (AFD), 399
Armstrong, Louis, 36, 239
Arnold, Samuel, 67
Aronson, Boris, 97, 302–3, 304, 306
arrangement of music. See orchestration and arrangement of music
The Art of Stage Dancing (Wayburn), 46
artists as producers, 358
As Thousands Cheer, 97
Ashton, Frederick, 52
Asian Americans, 199, 207, 209n8
Assassins, 129–30, 274
assimilation, 202, 205, 207
Astaire, Adele, 43, 312
Astaire, Fred: and dance styles, 43;
and Fosse's choreography style, 56
;
and integration of musicals, 101
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 273
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 138–39
;
and rhythm songs, 150n5
;
and romantic pairings, 140
;
and sexual themes, 93–94
;
and singing, 312
;
star quality of, 384
“At the Ballet,” 219
Atkinson, Brooks, 244, 258
Atlanta, Georgia, 225–26, 230, 234–35, 236
Atlanta Constitution, 234
Atlantic City, New Jersey, 116
Atlantic Theatre Company, 362
The Audience for New York Theatre (report), 119
Audience Research and Analysis, 119
audiences, 239–48, 365–76;
of amateur theater, 403–4
;
audience interaction, 127–34, 142, 234
;
composition of, 369
;
and cultural hierarchies, 240–43
;
definition of, 365
;
education of, 239–40
;
and expectations for actors, 312
;
gender and sexuality of, 369–70
;
interaction of, 368
;
and marketing of musicals, 119–20
;
and middlebrow culture, 243–48
;
and new musicals, 362
;
and production decisions, 357
;
reviews of, 372–73
;
risk aversion of, 353–54
;
and rock musicals, 319
;
scholarship on, 388
;
and stars, 380, 382, 384, 387–89
;
statistical analysis of, 370
;
targeting of, 374
;
young women, 374–76, 387
audio recordings. See cast recordings
aural spectacle, 114–15
authenticity, 30, 247, 276, 409–13
authorship (attribution) issues, 20–31;
and authorial intent, 164
;
and collaborative nature of musicals, 11, 16
;
and copyright issues, 277–78, 285–86
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 237n12
;
and Show Boat, 27–31
;
“sociology of authorship,” 25
;
and subjective authorship, 24–27
;
and “text” concept, 21–24
Avenue Q, 123, 216–17, 236, 305, 355–56, 359, 363
Avian, Bob, 58
Away We Go!, 11. See also Oklahoma!
Ayers, Edward, 226
Ayers, Lemuel, 11, 301
Babes in Arms, 50, 91, 105, 254
Babes in Toyland, 282
“Baby Mine,” 167–69, 173
Bacharach, Burt, 39
backstage musicals, 139–40, 142, 206, 248
Baensch, Otto, 180
Bagdad Cafe, 145
The Baker's Wife, 43
Balanchine, George, 48–50, 101, 335, 336
ballads, 34, 42
Ballard, Kaye, 154, 155, 161
ballet, 47, 51, 215
Ballets: U.S.A., 54, 55
Ballroom, 287
“Baltimore Buzz,” 36
Bambi, 167–69
Bamboozled, 79
“Bandana Days,” 36
Banfield, Stephen, 102, 274
“Bare Necessities,” 177
baritone voices, 322
Barnes, Clive, 233, 373, 374
Barras, Charles M., 253
Barrowman, John, 313
Barthes, Roland, 21, 26
bass voices, 322
Bat Boy: The Musical, 123, 133
Baum, Frank, 229
Bayes, Nora, 84
Beardsley, Aubrey, 146
Beat Street, 39
The Beatles, 186, 187, 189
Beaton, Cecil, 302
Beatty, John Lee, 301
Beauty and the Beast, 154, 247, 305
“Beauty School Dropout,” 207
Beavers, Louise, 79
Becker, Howard S., 254
Beckerman, Bernard, 23
“Becky's Back in the Ballet,” 282
Becque, Emile de, 245
Beg, Borrow or Steal, 187
Behn, Aphra, 67
Beidler, Philip, 245
Bel Geddes, Norman, 299, 300
Belasco, David, 85, 296–97, 299
Bells Are Ringing, 57, 284
Bennett, Michael: and “book musicals,” 58;
choreography style of, 286–87
;
and concept musicals, 105–6
;
and director/choreographers, 284, 290, 336
;
influences on, 52
;
and integration of musicals, 97
Bennett, Robert Russell, 29, 206, 266–67, 269–70
Bentley, Eric, 107, 108
Berkeley, Busby, 82, 101, 144, 306, 307n16
Berlin, Irving: and cast recordings, 182–83;
and integration of musicals, 97
;
and musical styles, 38–39
;
and orchestration, 267
;
and ragtime music, 33, 35
;
and revisionism, 123
;
and social (p. 451) class of audiences, 240, 241
;
and song publishing, 258–59
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 88
Berliner, Emile, 182
Berlioz, Hector, 267, 272
Bernhardt, Sarah, 382
Bernstein, Leonard: and attribution of musicals, 20;
and cast recordings, 184
;
and concept musicals, 104
;
and dance styles, 41
;
and direction, 284
;
and integration of musicals, 106
;
and musical styles, 35, 36, 38
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 198
;
and West Side Story, 53, 285, 360
Best, Willie, 79
The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas, 230–33, 233–35
“The Best of All Possible Worlds,” 416
Bharata Natyam, 54
“Bianca,” 329–30
Bianco, Anthony, 262
“Big Broadcast” films, 82
Big Deal, 286
“Big Spender,” 56–57
Bildung concept, 412
“Bill,” 30
Billion Dollar Baby, 51–52, 284
The Birth of a Nation (film), 79
Bishop, André, 360
Björnson, Maria, 304
The Black Crook, 253–54, 258, 295, 297, 301, 383
blackface minstrelsy, 65–80, 73;
before/after 1843, 67–70, 71–74
;
blackface lore cycle, 66
;
and “coon-shouting” acts, 198–99
;
and filmed musicals, 138
;
and Jolson, 79, 139, 201–2
;
and miscegenation, 66–67
;
music of, 75–78
;
origin of, 65–66
;
and T. D. Rice, 70–71
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 85–86
Blake, Eubie, 36, 47, 200
Blakemore, Michael, 288
Blankenbuehler, Andy, 59
Bledsoe, Jules, 208n5
Blitzstein, Marc, 35, 182, 300
Block, Geoffrey, 166n7, 191n11
Blood Brothers, 228
Bloomer Girl, 54, 183
“Blow, Gabriel, Blow,” 326
blues music, 33–34, 36, 76
Bock, Jerry, 38
Bogart, Anne, 131
“Bojangles of Harlem,” 138, 150n5
Bolger, Ray, 48
Bolton, Guy, 102
book musicals: commercial success of, 354;
and dance/choreography, 45–60
;
and integration of musicals, 103
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 89
Bordman, Gerald, 82, 87
“The Bottle Dance,” 53
Bottoms, Stephen J., 264
Boublil, Alain, 36, 106, 118
Bowery Amphitheater, 66
box office, 351–64;
central importance of, 352–53
;
critics’ influence on, 352–53, 372
;
definitions of, 351, 352–53
;
gross from, 351, 356, 362
;
and investors, 355–57
;
language of, 351
;
and not-for-profit theaters, 360–63
;
and production costs, 354, 355, 359
;
and recoupment time, 356
;
and risk taking, 353–55, 357–60
“The Boy Next Door,” 140
The Boys from Syracuse, 48, 48–49, 50, 316
Brando, Marlon, 140, 384
Brantley, Ben, 220
Bread and Tulips, 145
Breakfast at Tiffany's, 256
Brecht, Bertolt, 239
breeches roles, 222n1
Brett, Jeremy, 138
Brice, Fanny, 256, 282
Brigadoon, 43, 183
“the Bright Young People,” 96n20
Bring in ’da Noise, Bring in ’da Funk, 39, 43, 290
Brisbane, Arthur, 257
British Invasion, 118, 304–5, 363
Broadway: audiences of, 369, 370;
and cast recordings, 180
;
as center for musical production, 352
;
health of, 363
;
and out-of-town tryouts, 360
;
and publicity for musicals, 261
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 228
;
and social class of audiences, 247
;
and theater properties, 262–63
;
and ticket prices, 113
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 81–82, 87–90
Broadway: The American Musical (Kantor), 281
“Broadway Melody” films, 82, 142
The Broadway Musical (Swain), 21
Brockett, Oscar, 243
Brooks, Mel, 255
“The Brotherhood of Man,” 37, 208, 326
Brower, Frank, 66
Brown, Jason Robert, 122, 225
Brown, John Mason, 281
Brown, Tom, 78
Brown, Wilhelmina P., 398
Brown v. Board of Education, 97, 106
Bruce, Betty, 48, 48
Bryan, Ralph, 357–58
Brynner, Yul, 317
Buck, Gene, 256
Buckley, Betty, 314
Buckley's Serenaders, 72–74
Buddy—The Buddy Holly Story, 248
“Buffalo Gals,” 69
Bull, Ole, 72
Burleigh, Louise, 394
burlesque, 72, 75, 312, 314
Burton, Richard, 317, 374
“Bushel and a Peck,” 140
Butler, Michael, 117
Butterfield, Herbert, 17
Bye Bye Birdie, 38, 262, 286, 326, 400–401, 411–13
“Bye-Bye Life,” 343–45
(p. 452) Cabaret: box office performance, 351;
as “concept musical,” 105
;
and costuming, 298
;
and dance/choreography, 286
;
and direction, 290
;
and film adaptations, 142
;
and gay characters, 212
;
and gendered character types, 212, 218
;
origins of, 360
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 206
;
and stardom, 384
;
and theatrical design, 302, 303–4
;
Tony Award, 289
Cabin in the Sky, 203
Café Society, 203
Caird, John, 288
Call Me Madam, 42
Callaway, Cab, 139
Camelot, 41, 120, 317, 374
camera technology, 161–64, 163
camp, 146–50, 151n12, 410, 414
Campbell, Gavin James, 230
Can Can, 315
Candide: critical success of, 372;
and European dance styles, 41
;
idealism of, 415
;
mismatched components of, 416, 420n11
;
and musical styles, 35
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 266
;
and reflexive idealism, 408, 416–18, 419
;
and theatrical design, 306
Candide (Voltaire), 415
canons, 17
“Can’t Help Lovin’ Dat Man,” 89
Cantor, Eddie, 198, 256, 312
capitalism, 172
Carell, Candace, 295
Carmen Jones, 79
Carmines, Al, 263–64
Carnival, 256
Caroline, or Change, 290
Carousel, 28, 43, 101, 158, 272, 284, 316
Carroll, Pat, 154, 155
cast recordings, 179–90;
and audience, 367, 389
;
and concept albums, 186–89
;
contrasted with live performance, 179–80
;
and development of the LP record, 183–86
;
and early recording technology, 180–83
;
future of, 189–90
;
and LP records, 183–86, 186–89
;
popularity of, 179–80, 385
casting, 118, 158–61, 199, 235, 256, 309
Cat and the Fiddle, 102
A Catered Affair, 362
Cats, 39, 45, 118–19, 354, 363
censorship, 93, 96n21
Century of Innovation (Brockett and Findlay), 243
Chaikin, Joseph, 117
Champion, Gower, 52, 54, 58, 256, 284, 286
Champion, Marge, 58
Chanfrau, Frank, 69
Channing, Carol, 315, 371–72
Chapin, Ted, 189–90
Chaplin, Charlie, 78, 171
charm songs, 34
Chee-Chee, 100
Chenoweth, Kristin, 375
Chess, 116
Chicago: and audience relationship, 367;
as “concept musical,” 105
;
dance/choreography style, 56
;
and direction, 286
;
film adaptation, 142
;
and “open text” view of musicals, 24
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 207–8
;
and stardom, 384
;
and theatrical design, 294
Chicago Federation of Musicians (CFM), 181
Chicago Sun Times, 235
Children of Eden, 40
“Chin Chin Chinaman,” 84–85
“Chop Suey,” 205–6
choreography. See dance and choreography
“Choreography” (song), 335–37
A Chorus Line: and cast recordings, 188–89;
and communal focus of musicals, 129–30, 131
;
and dance/choreography, 58
;
and direction, 284, 286–87
;
and gay characters, 212–13
;
and gendered performance, 218–19
;
and heteronormativity, 215
;
and nonprofit theaters, 290
;
not-for-profit development of, 360
;
and off-Broadway shows, 118
;
Pulitzer Prize, 244
;
and Rent, 216
;
and risk management, 359
;
and theatrical design, 303–4, 306
choruses, 34
Christy, Edwin P., 65, 75
Christy Minstrels, 65–66, 72, 76
chronicles, 10, 12
Church, George, 48, 48
Cilento, Wayne, 287
Cinderella: and cast recordings, 186;
and gendered performance, 218
;
and television musicals, 153–54, 155–56, 156–58, 158–61, 161–64, 164–65
;
and waltzes, 41
Citron, Stephen, 282, 284
“The Civil War Ballet,” 54
Clara, 187
classical orchestration, 270–71
“Climb Ev’ry Mountain,” 219, 413
A Clockwork Orange (film), 165
Clum, John, 133, 369, 386, 388
“Coal Black Rose,” 71
Cockrell, Dale, 71
Coco, 287
Cohan, George M., 41, 268–69, 281, 383
Cohen, Leah Hager, 398–99, 403, 404
Cold War, 242
Cole, Jack, 54–56
Cole, Robert “Bob,” 76–78, 88
collective subjects, 30–31
Colman, George, 67
“Colonel Hathi's March,” 177
The Color Purple, 213, 371
Columbia Pictures, 142
Columbia Records, 183–86
Comden, Betty, 284
comedy and comics: Comic mode, 12, 13, 17;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 268
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 198
;
Rodgers on, 250n24
;
(p. 453) and secondary couples, 214
;
and sidekicks, 211
;
and social class of audiences, 240–41
commercialism, 3, 5, 366
community theater, 394, 395. See also amateur theater
compact discs (CDs), 189
Company, 27, 40, 105–6, 115, 212, 216, 287, 303
A Connecticut Yankee, 101
conservatism, 13, 175
consortiums, 358
constructivism, 303, 305
The Consul, 35
consumerism, 247
Contact, 45
Contextualist argumentation, 12
Cook, Will Marion, 241
“Cool,” 36
“coon songs,” 76, 82–83, 88
Cooper, Ralph, 79
Copeland, Joan, 310
copyright issues, 277–78
corporations, 358
costuming, 256, 288, 295, 304–6
counterpoint songs, 41
country music and dance, 37, 54–56
“The Cow Jumped Over the Moon,” 216
Cox, Veanne, 155
The Cradle Will Rock, 182, 191n11, 300
Craig, Edward Gordon, 295, 296, 299
Criss Cross, 257
critics, 365–76;
box office influence of, 352–53
;
definition of, 365
;
importance of, 373
;
negative reviews by, 371–72, 375
;
and out-of-town tryouts, 371
;
role of, 373
;
and Wicked, 371–74, 375
Croly, David Goodman, 66
Crosby, Bing, 182
cross-dressing, 75
cross-gender burlesque, 75
Cugat, Xavier, 203
Cullen, David, 274
Culshaw, John, 184
Cypher, Jon, 154, 157–58, 161, 163–64
Daily News, 233
Dal Vera, Rocco, 310, 311
Daldry, Stephen, 288
Daly, Ann, 340
Daly, Tyne, 220, 314, 387
Damn Yankees, 37, 286, 315, 345
Damon, Stuart, 154, 155, 159–61, 163–64, 164–65
dance and choreography, 45–60, 335–48;
and animated musicals, 174
;
ascent of the choreographer, 335–36
;
and attribution issues, 29
;
and audience response, 334n7
;
and book musicals, 45–60
;
and copyright issues, 285–86
;
dance analysis, 231, 340–43, 347n8
;
definitions of, 337–38, 346n4
;
Fosse's influence on, 343–46
;
and gendered performance, 218, 221
;
and integration of musicals, 99, 101
;
and performance texts, 22
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 231
;
scholarship on, 338–40
;
and Show Boat, 258
;
and television musicals, 162–63
dance band sound, 271
Dance Players and Ballet Theatre, 56
Dancin’, 284, 286, 345
“Dancing Queen,” 248
Dandridge, Dorothy, 79
Daniel, Pete, 230
Daniele, Graciela, 286, 288, 290
Darrell, R. D., 181
De Bris, Roger, 289
De Koven, Reginald, 40
de Mille, Agnes: and attribution issues, 11;
and The Black Crook, 254
;
choreography style of, 50–51, 56, 58
;
and concept musicals, 104
;
and direction, 284
;
and Fosse's style, 56–57
;
and highbrow dance forms, 336
;
influence on later choreographers, 54
;
and integration of musicals, 97, 101, 102–3
;
and Oklahoma!, 29, 45
;
and “open text” view of musicals, 25–26
;
and social class of audiences, 240
Dear, Joe, 310, 311
Dear World, 386
“The Death of the Author” (Barthes), 26
Decca Records, 182–83, 184, 189
Decker, Todd, 28, 138, 150n5
“Defying Gravity,” 389
Deitz, Howard, 50
Depp, Johnny, 384
Der Ring des Nibelungen (Wagner), 184
desegregation, 245
The Desert Song, 35
Designing Women (television), 230
Desselle, Natalie, 155
Destry Rides Again, 56
Deutsch, Kurt, 189
dialect songs, 72
dialogue, 99, 129
Die Fledermaus, 41
digital downloads, 189
directors, 281–92. See also specific individuals
Disney: and advertising/marketing of musicals, 119;
and animated musicals, 170–78
;
and class issues, 247–48
;
and television musicals, 154
;
and theater properties, 263
;
and theatrical design, 305, 358
divas, 381. See also stars
Dixon, George Washington, 71
“Do I Love You,” 164
A Doll's Life, 289
Don Juan in Hell, 184
Don Quixote (Cervantes), 415
Donen, Stanley, 139
Don’t Bother Me, I Can’t Cope, 39
“Do-Re-Mi,” 132
(p. 454) Doty, Alexander, 222, 370–71, 388
Doyle, John, 115, 276, 277, 288
Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog, 132
Drabinsky, Garth, 113
drag roles, 222n1
Drama League of America, 394
Dramatics, 393, 396, 398, 400
Dramatist Guild, 53
Dreamgirls, 58, 208, 287, 384
Dreamworks, 247, 248
The Drowsy Chaperone, 43
Drutman, Brian, 189
Du Bois, W. E. B., 97
dubbing, 150n4
Duff Gordon, Lucile, 297–98
Durante, Jimmie, 312
Dyer, Richard, 3, 172, 379, 380, 387
Eagleton, Terry, 24, 26
Early, James Thunder, 207
Early Music movement, 24
Eastwood, Clint, 384
“Easy to Be Hard,” 38
Ebb, Fred, 289, 351, 360
Ebert, Roger, 235–36
Eckart, Jean, 301–2, 304
Eckart, William, 301–2, 304
economics of musical productions, 112–14, 240–43, 247, 269, 276, 300. See also investors
Eddy, Nelson, 161
“Edelweiss,” 37
Edge of the City, 79
editing, 137
Educational Theatre Association (EdTA), 396, 399
Edwards, Cliff, 165
Eisenberg, Evan, 179
Eisenstein, Sergei, 170–75, 177
Elam, Kier, 20, 22, 23
“eleven o’clock numbers,” 34, 208, 334n7
Ellington, Duke, 36
Elssler, Fanny, 75
EMI, 187
Emmett, Dan, 66, 71
Emmy Awards, 286
Encyclopedia of Contemporary Literary Theory (Radloff), 21–22
Engel, Lehman, 34, 42, 185, 211
ensembles, 127, 267–68
“Epiphany,” 310–11, 332
Erie Canal, 68
Erlanger, Abe, 257
Ethiopian Serenaders, 72, 73
ethnicity, 82–87, 95n5, 212–13, 326. See also race issues and racism
European influences, 118, 241, 271, 304–5, 363
Evans, Joey, 315–16
“Everything's Coming Up Roses,” 314
Evita, 118, 161, 188, 272, 363
expressive modes, 23–24
extraction, 267
Eyre, Richard, 288
Fach vocal system, 323, 333n3
Fairchild, Joe Eddie, 306
“Falling In Love with Love,” 161
Falsettos, 212
Fame, 142
Fancy Free, 51, 61n21, 284
Fanny, 256
fans and fan practice, 379, 387–89. See also audiences
The Fantasticks, 399, 400
“The Farmer and the Cowman,” 99
“Fascinating Rhythm,” 36, 92
Feder, Abe, 302
Federal Theater Project, 300, 302
Feingold, Michael, 123, 375
Felix, Seymour, 47
“Female American Serenaders,” 75
femininity and feminism, 215–16, 218, 221–22, 369. See also gender and sexuality
Ferber, Edna, 200, 257
Festpielhaus (Festival Playhouse) theater, 296
Feuer, Jane, 172
Fiddler on the Roof: and amateur theater, 399, 400–401;
and attribution issues, 25
;
and choreography, 53, 57–58, 285–86
;
and concept musicals, 104–5
;
and direction, 283, 284
;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 45
;
and heteronormativity, 215
;
and integration of musicals, 108
;
and musical styles, 38
;
and nostalgia, 122
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 38, 213
;
and theatrical design, 302
Fields, Dorothy, 140
Fields, W. C., 78, 256
Fierstein, Harvey, 25, 212
Filichia, Peter, 399–400
The Film Musical (Altman), 136
films and filmed musicals, 136–50;
and adaptations, 140–43
;
and audiences, 366–67
;
The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas, 233–35
;
and blackface minstrelsy, 78–79
;
and camp, 146–50
;
and the economics of musical productions, 112
;
elements of, 137–38
;
and integration of musicals, 101
;
live performance compared to, 129
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 138–40
;
and realism, 143–45
;
and Show Boat revivals, 28
;
and social class of audiences, 241–42
;
and stars, 383–85
;
and sung intimacy, 145–46
;
and television musicals, 153
Findlay, Robert, 243
Finn, William, 212, 267
Fiorello!, 244, 283
Fisk Jubilee Singers, 76
Five Points neighborhood, 69, 70
(p. 455) Flaherty, Stephen, 113, 122, 305, 309
Florodora, 182
Flower Drum Song, 204, 209n8, 228
Floyd Collins, 132
Flying Colors, 50
Flying Down to Rio, 384
Foley effects, 144, 145–46
folk music, 37
Follies. See Ziegfeld Follies
Follow the Girls, 106–7
Forbidden Broadway (parody series), 264
Forbush, Nellie, 220–21
Formist argumentation, 12, 13
Fornes, Marie Irene, 263–64
The Fortune Teller, 282
42nd Street: and box office performance, 359;
and Champion's death, 256
;
and cinematic realism, 144
;
and dance/choreography, 58
;
and direction, 286
;
and star/stardom, 378, 379
;
and tap dance, 43
;
and theatrical design, 304
Fosse, Robert Louis “Bob”: and All That Jazz, 343–46;
and Chicago revivals, 24
;
choreography style of, 56–57, 57, 345
;
and concept musicals, 105
;
and direction, 284, 286, 288
;
and film musicals, 142
;
influences on, 54, 336
;
and “open text” view of musicals, 26
;
and Robbins, 52
;
and Sweet Charity, 215
Foster, Louis M., 397
Foster, Stephen Collins, 40, 76
Foster, Susan Leigh, 343
Foster, William, 79
Foucault, Michel, 26–27
Fox Theatre, 225, 234
franchising, 118
Frank, Leo, 225, 289
free theater movement, 393
Freed, Arthur, 148–49
Freedman, Robert L., 155
Friedman, Joel, 277
Friml, Rudolf, 41, 257
Frisco, Joe, 56
“From This Moment On,” 345
Fry, Judd, 105
Frye, Northrop, 16
Funny Girl, 211, 212, 223–24n20, 384
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, 283, 399, 400
Furia, Philip, 92
Furman, Roy, 357
Furth, George, 105–6
Gabler, Neal, 261
Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 24
The Gang's All Here, 203
Garber, Victor, 155, 160
Gardner, Elysa, 375
Garland, Judy: and camp, 148, 149;
career highs and lows, 390n7
;
diva status of, 381
;
and film musicals, 140, 146
;
image of, 384
;
musicals with Rooney, 254
;
and stardom, 379
;
vocal production of, 324
Garland, Robert, 29
Garrett, Betty, 187
Garrick, David, 381–82
Gaston, Paul M., 231
Gautier, Théophile, 93
Gay Divorce, 93–94, 101
The Gay Divorcee (film), 93–94, 101
Gaynor, Mitzi, 221
gays and gay characters: and audiences, 369–70, 371;
and camp, 148
;
and character relationships, 216–17
;
and character roles, 212–13
;
and film musicals, 149
;
gay activism, 223n16
;
gay-coded characters, 212
;
and Gypsy, 386
;
musicals as feminine/gay, 221–22, 224n30
;
and 1950 musicals, 387
The Geisha, 84–85
Gelblum, Seth, 354, 355
gender and sexuality, 210–22;
and acting criteria, 316–17
;
in amateur theater, 401–2, 403
;
and animated musicals, 177
;
of audience members, 369
;
and blackface minstrelsy, 74–75
;
and character relations, 213–16
;
and character types, 211–13
;
contemporary gay and lesbian characters, 216–17
;
and contradictory sexuality, 217–19
;
cultural anxiety on, 223–24n20
;
and directors, 291
;
and gendered performance, 218–19, 219–21, 222n1
;
heterosexuality/heteronormativity, 213–16, 218–19
;
musicals and feminine/gay, 221–22
;
and “queering,” 370–71
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 203
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 230, 232
;
and sexual themes, 92–95, 96n19
Gennaro, Liza, 335
Gennaro, Peter, 54, 57–58
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, 143, 371–72
Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, 295
Georgia Minstrels, 74
German Idealism, 410
Gershwin, George: and integration of musicals, 102;
and jazz, 36
;
and musical styles, 35–38
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 271
;
Pulitzer Prize, 244
;
and social class of audiences, 240
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 87–89, 91–92
Gershwin, Ira: and attribution issues, 30;
and cast recordings, 191n9
;
and integration of musicals, 102
;
and musical styles, 38
;
Pulitzer Prize, 244
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 91–92
Gesamtkunstwerk, 295–96
Geva, Tamara, 48
Ghostley, Alice, 154, 155, 160–61
Gilbert, W. S., 15
Gilbert & Sullivan productions: and amateur theater, 399, 407n21;
and counterpoint songs, 41
;
and integration of musicals, 99
;
and musical styles, 40
;
societies devoted to, 15, 399, 405n4. See also Gilbert, W. S.; Sullivan, Arthur
(p. 456) Ginzler, Robert, 272
Girl Crazy, 36–38, 42, 92, 254, 271, 378–79
The Girl of the Golden West, 296
Glaspell, Susan, 393
“Glitter and Be Gay,” 35, 416, 417
The Glorious Ones (Ahrens), 309
Glover, Savion, 43
Godspell, 37–39, 42, 216, 273, 399–400
Goehr, Lydia, 15
Goffman, Erving, 148
“Gold Digger” films, 82
Goldberg, Eleanor, 84
Goldberg, Isaac, 259
Goldberg, Whoopi, 155, 160
Golden Age of the Broadway Musicals, 111–23;
and advertising/marketing, 119–20
;
and amateur theater, 398, 399
;
and audiences, 366
;
and critics, 371
;
defining, 17
;
described, 111–12
;
and economics of production, 112–14
;
and film musicals, 136
;
and investors, 356
;
and New York City, 117–19
;
and out-of-town tryouts, 360, 361, 366
;
and the postmodern era, 120–23
;
producers of, 356, 358
;
and Ragtime, 123
;
and spectacle, 114–16
;
stars of, 385
Goldman, William, 255
The Goldwyn Follies, 82
Gone With the Wind, 79, 101
“Goodbye, My Lady Love,” 35
Goodman, Benny, 271
“Goodnight My Someone,” 44, 130
gospel music, 37–39, 207–8
Gottlieb, Jack, 38
Grady, Henry, 232
Graham, Martha, 47, 50, 164, 302, 337
Grant, Mark N., 107, 189
Grant, Micki, 39
Grease!, 14, 120–22, 133, 207, 273, 400–401
Green, Adolph, 284
Green, Stanley, 244
“Green Finch and Linnet Bird,” 331–32
Green Grow the Lilacs (Riggs), 50, 98, 130, 316
Greenwich Village, 263–64
Greenwich Village Follies, 47
Greenwood, Jane, 295
Greif, Michael, 290, 318
Grey Gardens, 356
Griffith, D. W., 79
Griffith, Robert, 285, 360
Group Theater, 51, 317
Guettel, Adam, 122
Guys and Dolls: in amateur theater, 393, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404;
and communal focus of musicals, 133
;
and dance/choreography, 56, 57
;
and film adaptations, 140
;
film version, 384
;
and gendered character types, 212
;
and musical styles, 34, 37
;
and publicity, 260–61
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 229, 237n12
;
and rhythm songs, 42
;
and secondary couples, 214
Gypsy: and acting criteria, 314, 318;
and cast recordings, 188
;
and character roles, 211
;
dance/choreography style, 53
;
and direction, 284
;
film version, 384, 386
;
and gendered performance, 220
;
and Merman, 385–86
;
and Merrick, 256
;
and musical montage, 150n3
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 272
;
producer for, 359
;
and production decisions, 357
;
revivals of, 386–87
;
as star vehicle, 385–87
;
and state of Broadway, 363
Hair: and amplification, 273;
and “aural spectacle,” 114
;
and franchising, 118
;
and gay characters, 217
;
and musical styles, 38, 326
;
and nonprofit theaters, 290
;
and Rent, 216
;
and spectacle, 117–18
;
and theatrical design, 295
Hairspray: amplified sound in, 385;
imitations of, 354
;
and musical styles, 34
;
and nostalgia, 133
;
and “open text” view of musicals, 25
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 236
;
and state of Broadway, 363
Hall, Juanita, 205
Hall, Radclyffe, 96n19
Hallelujah!, 79
Hammerstein, Oscar, 262–63, 265n13, 272
Hammerstein, Oscar, II: and acting criteria, 319;
and attribution issues, 28–29, 30
;
and box office performance, 358
;
and cast recordings, 182, 183
;
and dance styles, 47–48
;
and direction, 282–83
;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 111
;
and Gypsy, 386
;
and integration of musicals, 97, 98, 102, 106
;
and nostalgia, 122
;
and orchestration, 267
;
and production, 257
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 197–99, 200–201, 204–7
;
and Show Boat, 256–58
;
and television musicals, 153, 155, 156
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 88
;
Ziegfeld's confidence in, 353. See also Rodgers and Hammerstein productions
Haney, Carol, 57
happy endings, 414
Happy Hunting, 313
The Happy Time, 286
Harbach, Otto, 102, 257
Harburg, E. Y., 50, 54
“Hard Christmas Candy,” 233
Harkrider, John, 297, 298, 299, 306
Harper, Herbie, 50
Harper's, 242, 394
Harrick, Sheldon, 283
Harrigan, Ned, 75
Harrington, George, 65, 75
Harris, Charles K., 30, 40, 87–88, 88–89
Harrison, Rex, 317
Hart, Lorenz, 48, 88, 97, 267, 271. See also Rodgers and Hart productions
Hart, Moss, 30, 97, 104
(p. 457) Hart, Tony, 75
Hartmann, Louis, 296–97
“Havana,” 56
Hayden, Melissa, 49
Hayward, Leland, 385
“He Wanted to Say,” 122
Hearne, George, 380
Hearst, William Randolph, 257
Hedwig and the Angry Inch, 222n1
Hegel, Goerg Wilhelm Friedrich, 17
Heilpern, John, 287
Held, Anna, 256, 298
Hello, Dolly!: and acting criteria, 315;
and audience interaction, 368
;
and dance/choreography, 58
;
and direction, 286
;
and Merrick, 256
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 266
;
producer of, 359
;
and two-step dances, 41
“Hello, Dolly” (song), 239
“Hello, Twelve,” 218
“Hello Little Girl,” 42
Hellzapoppin, 354
Hepburn, Audrey, 138, 159, 159, 384
Herbert, Victor, 35, 41, 99, 266, 267, 272
Herman, Jerry, 38, 212, 267
Hewitt, James, 71
“Hey, Big Spender,” 218
Hickey, Dave, 18
Hicks, Charles B., 74
High Button Shoes, 284
The High School Thespian, 396
“highbrow” culture, 240–41, 244
Hills, Matt, 388
hip-hop music, 247
historical research on musical theater, 9–18
Hitchcock, Alfred, 162
H.M.S. Pinafore, 399
Hogan, Ernest, 78
Holder, Donald, 306
Holliday, Judy, 57
Hollywood, 87, 203, 307n16, 312. See also films and filmed musicals
Holm, Celeste, 154, 317
Holtzman, Winnnie, 215
homosocial relationships, 214–15, 217
“Honestly Sincere,” 411
“Honeysuckle Rose,” 204
Honzl, Jindřich, 22
Hooray for What, 50
Hope, Bob, 312
Horne, Lena, 139, 202–4
Horst, Louis, 50, 51
Horton, Edward Everett, 203
Hot Chocolates, 36
“Hot Patootie—Bless My Soul,” 149
House Un-American Activities Committee, 284
Houseman, John, 302
Houston, Whitney, 154, 156, 161
“How Can They Tell That Oi’m Irish?”, 84
How the Other Half Lives (Riis), 83
How to Succeed in Business without Really Trying, 37, 207–8, 244
Hudson, Jennifer, 384
Hudson, Richard, 306
Hughes, Langston, 20
Hulce, Tom, 362
Hume, Samuel J., 397
humor in musicals, 414. See also comedy and comics
Huntley, Paul, 295
Hurston, Zora Neale, 106
Hwang, David Henry, 204–5, 206
Hytner, Nicholas, 288
“I Am Ashamed that Women Are So Simple,” 328
“I Cain’t Say No,” 99
“I Get a Kick Out of You,” 91, 313
“I Got Rhythm,” 92, 378–79
“I Hate Men,” 328
I Married an Angel, 50
“I Sing of Love,” 330
“I Wanna Be Like You,” 176–77
“I want” songs, 34, 43
“I Will Always Love You,” 235
ideological implication, 12
“If I Were King of the Forest,” 144
“I’ll Know (When My Love Comes Along)”, 214
“I’m a Lonesome Polecat,” 56
“I’m Gonna Wash that Man Right Outa My Hair,” 42, 131, 221, 224n30
“I’m Just Wild about Harry,” 36
“I’m Simply Full of Jazz,” 36
imitation, 132, 333n6, 353–54
immigrants, 83
“Impossible,” 157, 158, 163
“The Impossible Dream,” 418
improvisation: and animation, 170, 172;
and authorship issues, 21, 25
;
and dance/choreography, 53, 58, 59, 338
;
and jazz, 36, 184
;
and Method Acting, 284
;
and minstrelsy, 69
;
and Off-Off Broadway shows, 118
;
and plot, 98
;
and rock musicals, 319
;
and “the work-concept,” 14–15
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 90
“In My Own Little Corner,” 156–57
In the Heights, 38, 39, 59, 213–14, 218
informational polyphony, 21
ingénue roles, 211, 214, 316
Ingraham, Rex, 79
in-jokes, 147
Inkle and Yarico (1787), 67
institutional structure of musical theater, 253–64;
and The Black Crook, 253–54
;
and producers, 255–58
;
and publicity, 260–62
;
and publishers, 258–60
;
and theater properties, 262–64
(p. 458) institutional theaters, 360–62
integration of musicals, 97–109;
and acting styles, 318–19
;
and concept musicals, 104–6
;
elements of integration, 97–104
;
legacy of, 106–9
;
and Oklahoma!, 317
;
social background of, 97
;
and social class of audiences, 245
;
and song publishing, 259
International Thespian Society, 396
Internet, 372–73, 388
Interplay, 61n21
interpretation, 414
Into the Woods, 42, 103, 290
investors, 255, 354, 355–57, 362. See also producers
iPods, 189
Iser, Wolfgang, 26
Isherwood, Charles, 372, 375, 387
“Italian Street Song,” 35
Ito, Michio, 47
“It's Possible,” 162
“I’ve Come to Wive It Wealthily in Padua,” 328
Ixion, 297
Izenouer, George, 295
Jack and the Beanstalk, 152
Jackson, Andrew, 68–69
Jackson, Michael, 24
Jacques-Delcroze, Émile, 296
jazz dance, 47, 54, 61n21, 201, 286
jazz music: and concept albums, 187;
influence on Broadway, 33, 36
;
and orchestration/arrangement, 268, 269, 272–73
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 176
;
and recording formats, 184
;
and social class of audiences, 243
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 81, 87, 90
The Jazz Singer, 79, 138–40, 201–2, 204, 383
Jeffries, Herb, 79
Jelly's Last Jam, 36, 43, 290
Jenkins, Henry, 388
Jennings, Alex, 318
Jepson, Helen, 182
Jerome Robbins’ Broadway, 53, 284, 285
Jersey Boys, 39, 133, 248, 259–60, 363
Jesus Christ Superstar: and amplification, 273;
amplified sound in, 385
;
and “aural spectacle,” 115
;
and cast recordings, 187–88
;
and franchising, 118
;
and musical styles, 38–39
;
and off-Broadway shows, 118
“Jets” (dance), 55
Jews and Jewish Americans, 38, 148, 198, 201–2, 271
“Jim Crow” (act), 70–71
“Jim Crow” (animated character), 176
John, Elton, 27, 39, 40
“John 19:41,” 187
Johnson, Billy, 76
Johnson, Harriet, 52
Johnson, J. Rosamund, 88
Johnson, Lew, 74
Johnson, Van, 152
Johnston, Ollie, 169–70
joke songs, 43
The Jolly Bachelors, 84
Jolson, Al, 79, 139, 201–2, 259, 383
Jones, Bill T., 58–59
Jones, Catherine Zeta, 384
Jones, John Bush, 120, 227
Jones, Robert Edmond, 299–300
Jonson, Ben, 67
Joplin, Scott, 35
Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, 42, 43, 187
Jowitt, Deborah, 341
Jubilee, 38
Judgment of Paris, 57
Judson Memorial Church, 263–64
jukebox musicals, 39, 121–22, 247–48
Jullien, Louis, 72
Jumbo, 300
“Jumpin’ Jive,” 139
The Jungle Book, 176–77
Kail, Thomas, 288
Kander, John, 289, 360
“Kansas City,” 99
Kantor, Michael, 281
Kantor, Tadeusz, 127
Kapp, Jack, 182
Katz, Mark, 181
Kaufman, George S., 102, 104
Keeler, Ruby, 43
Keller, Kate Van Winkle, 54
Kelly, Emmett, 78
Kelly, Gene: and camp, 148, 151n12;
and dance styles, 43
;
and film productions, 165
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 139
;
star status of, 316, 384
;
and television musicals, 152, 163
Kenrick, John, 228
Kerman, Joseph, 16, 21
Kern, Jerome: and attribution issues, 28, 30;
and cast recordings, 182
;
and copyright issues, 278
;
and dance styles, 47–48
;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 111
;
and integration of musicals, 97, 100, 102, 106
;
and musical styles, 37
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 267, 269, 270
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 200–201
;
and rhythm songs, 150n5
;
and Show Boat, 256–58
;
and social class of audiences, 241
;
and star teams, 140
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 88
;
Ziegfeld's confidence in, 353
Kerr, Walter, 373
Kidd, Michael, 54, 56
Kidman, Nicole, 384
King, Carole, 39
King, Larry L., 235
The King and I: and acting criteria, 316–17;
and Asian themes, 204
;
and Bildung concept, 413
;
(p. 459) and dance styles, 41
;
and dance/choreography, 52
;
and direction, 285
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 198, 204, 213
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 237n12
Kismet, 54
Kiss Me, Kate, 91, 108, 242, 327–30, 345, 413
Kissel, Howard, 256
Klaw, Marc, 257
klezmer music, 38
Kliegl, Anton, 296–97
Kliegl, John H., 296–97
Knapp, Raymond, 20–21, 101, 130, 134n1, 214, 227
Knipp, Chuck, 80
Knowles, Beyoncé, 384
Knowles, Warren, 234
Kolodin, Irving, 54
Komack, James, 187
Kook, Edward, 295
Krafft-Ebing, Richard von, 96n19
Kreuger, Miles, 28, 29
La Bohème, 133, 216–17, 246, 357
La Cage Aux Folles, 212
La Jolla Playhouse, 357–58, 360, 361
“La Vie Boheme,” 218
Lady, Be Good, 36, 92
Lady in the Dark, 30, 102, 182, 191n9, 316
Lahr, John, 188, 283, 375
Lamas, Fernando, 313
Landau, Tina, 288
Lang, Philip J., 267, 272
Lansbury, Angela, 220, 314, 332, 386
Lapine, James, 103, 288, 290
Larson, Jonathan, 39, 122, 246, 305
Latessa, Dick, 25
Latifah, Queen, 207–8
Latin ethnicity and culture, 37–38, 57, 199, 207
Laughton, Charles, 184
Laurents, Arthur: and concept musicals, 104;
and direction, 284–86, 288, 291–92
;
and gendered performances, 220
;
and star vehicles, 385–86
;
and West Side Story, 53, 285–86, 360
“Laurey Makes Up Her Mind” (dance), 99, 101
Lawrence, Gertrude, 30, 182, 191n9, 316, 317
Le Prevost, Nicholas, 131
League of American Theaters and Producers, 247
League of Broadway Producers, 274–75
Lee, Eugene, 305, 306
Lee, Gypsy Rose, 53, 385–86
Lee, Sammy, 47–48, 258
Lee, Spike, 79
Lehár, Franz, 41, 99
Leon, Francis, 75
Leonard, Eddie, 77
Leonard, John, 261–62
Leonardi, Susan, 382
Les Misérables: and advertising/marketing, 119;
and franchising, 118
;
and gendered character types, 212
;
and heteronormativity, 215
;
imitations of, 354
;
and integration of musicals, 107–8, 108–9
;
and musical styles, 36
;
and pop influences, 112
;
and state of Broadway, 363
;
and theatrical design, 301, 304
;
and triangulated relationships, 214
;
and “visual spectacle,” 115–16
Les Patineurs, 52
lesbian characters, 216–17, 223n11
“Let Me Entertain You,” 150n3
Let My People Come, 212
Let's Put on a Musical (Filichia), 399–400
Leveaux, David, 285–86, 288
Levey, Alan, 358, 362, 363
Levine, Lawrence, 240
Lhamon, W. T., Jr., 66
liberalism, 13
Liberty Theatre, 269
Libin, Paul, 352–53, 359
Libman, Steven A., 361, 362
Lieberson, Goddard, 180, 183–86, 188, 190, 192n21
Life, 242
The Life of Brian, 144–45
“Light of the World,” 39
Lil’ Abner, 228
Liliom, 316
Lincoln Center Theater, 248, 360–61, 363n3
Lind, Jenny, 72, 75, 382
Lindsay, Howard, 154
The Lion King, 40, 115–16, 247, 305–6, 358, 363
“Little April Shower,” 167–69
The Little Mermaid, 119, 306, 353
A Little Night Music, 41, 211, 275, 304
“A Little Priest,” 311
Little Theater Movement, 117, 300, 301, 393–94
Lives of the Most Excellent Italian Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (Vasari), 15
Lloyd Webber, Andrew: and “aural spectacle,” 115;
and the British Invasion, 118
;
and cast recordings, 187, 188
;
and dance styles, 42
;
and franchising, 118
;
and integration of musicals, 103, 106, 108
;
and musical styles, 36, 39
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 274
;
and Prince, 289
;
and “rock musicals,” 38
;
and “visual spectacle,” 115–16
Lockwood, Don, 145
Loesser, Frank, 37, 261
Loewe, Frederick, 37
Logan, Joshua, 104, 142, 221, 283
“The Loneliness of Evening,” 156
“Lonely Room,” 105, 266
Long, William Ivey, 295
A Long Day's Journey into Night, 304
Longbottom, Robert, 205
longevity of musicals, 132
long-playing records (LPs), 180, 183–86
Look Ma I’m Dancin’, 52
(p. 460) Lopez, Robert, 359
Loring, Eugene, 56
Lost Revolutions (Daniel), 230
Love Life, 105
love songs, 92–95
“Love Will Find a Way,” 36, 200
“Lovely Night,” 157, 158, 161, 164
“lowbrow” culture, 240–41, 244
Luhrmann, Baz, 356–57
Lundskaer-Nielsen, Miranda, 283–84, 288–89, 290
LuPone, Patti, 220, 277, 313–14, 318, 357, 380, 387
Luske, Hamilton, 169
“The Lusty Month of May,” 41
Lydia Thompson and her English Blondes, 297
Lyles, Aubrey, 47
M. Butterfly, 399, 403
M, Lebo, 40
“Macavity: The Mystery Cat,” 39
MacDermot, Galt, 38, 117
MacDonald, Audra, 380
MacDonald, Jeanette, 161
Macgowan, Kenneth, 394, 397
Mackintosh, Cameron, 24–25, 118, 119, 355
Madame Butterfly, 85
Mademoiselle de Maupin (Gautier), 93
The Magic Flute (1791), 68
“Make Believe,” 257
“Make Our Garden Grow,” 417
Making Americans (Most), 227, 315
Making Things Perfectly Queer (Doty), 222
The Mamas & the Papas, 39
Mame, 304, 359, 386
Mamma Mia!, 39, 133, 248, 259–60
“Mammy,” 79, 139
mammy figures, 202
Mamoulian, Rouben, 11, 50, 104, 281, 284
Man of La Mancha, 38, 211, 214, 408, 415, 418–19
Mancina, Mark, 40
Manhattan Opera Company, 35
Manhattan Theatre Club, 363n3
Mann, Michael, 162, 277
Manos, Christopher, 236
Mantello, Joe, 288, 291
Mantle, Burns, 241–42
“Many a New Day,” 99
March of the Falsettos, 290
“March of the Siamese Children,” 198
marches, 41, 43
Mardi Gras, 68
“Maria,” 416
Mark Hellinger Theater, 115
marketing musicals, 113, 119–20, 134
Marks, Edward B., 259
marriage trope, 134n1, 214, 417–18
“Marry the Man Today,” 140
Marshall, Kathleen, 288, 291
Marshall, Rob, 162–63
Martin, John, 54, 101
Martin, Mary, 220, 221, 317, 384
Marvin, Lee, 384
Marx, Jeff, 359
Mary Poppins, 355, 384
Masella, Arthur, 283
Masque of Blackness (Jonson), 67
Mast, Gerald, 243
Masteroff, Joe, 360
Mata Hari, 256
“Matchmaker, Matchmaker,” 215
Mathews, Charles, 71
Maxine Elliot Theatre, 300
Mayer, Michael, 58, 318–19
mazurka, 54
McAnuff, Des, 290
McCartney, Paul, 186
McClaren, Norman, 178n2
McCollum, Kevin, 355
McDaniel, Hattie, 79
McGillin, Howard, 313
McGlinn, John, 29, 276
McGuire, William Anthony, 256
McKinney, Nina Mae, 79
McKneely, Joey, 286
McMillin, Scott, 3, 22, 28, 103, 107–8, 128–29, 311
McPherson, Tara, 230
Mechanist argumentation, 12, 13
media and the press, 5, 14–15, 120, 233–35, 261–62, 380–81
Meet Me in St. Louis, 140, 144, 146
megamusicals: and amplification, 273;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 111
;
and off-Broadway shows, 118
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 272
;
origin of, 107
;
and “visual spectacle,” 116
“Memory,” 39
Mendes, Sam, 218, 288, 290
Menotti, Gian Carlo, 35
Menzel, Idina, 389
Merman, Ethel: and acting criteria, 312–15, 317;
and camp, 147
;
and cast recordings, 182, 188
;
and film musicals, 138
;
film/television career of, 384
;
and gendered performance, 220
;
and Gypsy, 385–86
;
lack of formal training, 389n1
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 272
;
star quality of, 378–79, 380
;
vocal production of, 324
Merrick, David, 255–56, 359, 385
Merrily We Roll Along, 289, 306
The Merry Widow, 41
metaphor, 13
Method Acting, 52, 284
metonymy, 13
Mexican Hayride, 106–7
mezzo-soprano voices, 322–23
Micheaux, Oscar, 79
Michener, James, 245, 316
microphones, 272–73, 318
(p. 461) middle-class audiences, 240, 242–43, 243–48
Midler, Bette, 220
Mielziner, Jo, 97, 301–2, 304
The Mikado, 85, 399
Milk and Honey, 38
Millennium Theatres (Harbin, et al), 393, 399
Miller, Amy, 234
Miller, Ann, 43
Miller, Buzz, 57
Miller, D. A., 133, 222, 368, 369, 387
Miller, Flournoy, 47
Miller, Glen, 271
Miller, Marilyn, 43
Miller, Susan, 176–77
Ming Cho Lee, 301
Minnelli, Liza, 149, 384
minstrelsy. See blackface minstrelsy
Miranda, Carmen, 202–4, 306
Miranda, Lin-Manuel, 39
miscegenation, 66–67, 139
Miscegenation (Croly), 66
mise-en-scène, 137, 144, 148, 149
misogyny, 74–75
Miss Saigon, 107, 363
Mitchell, Joni, 39
Mitchell, Julien, 282
Modern Music, 100
Molnar, Ferenc, 316
“Money, Money, Money,” 248
“The Money Song,” 298
montage, 150n3
Montalban, Paolo, 154, 160, 161, 163
Monty Python's Spamalot, 123, 363
Moody, Howard, 263–64
Moore, Jason, 359
Moore, Victor, 312
Mordden, Ethan, 186, 256
Moreland, Mantan, 79
Morgan, Helen, 312
Morton, Jelly Roll, 36
Most, Andrea, 198, 227, 309, 311, 315–16
Mostel, Zero, 25
motion pictures. See films and filmed musicals
Moulin Rouge, 145, 384
Movin’ Out, 45
Moyer, Bob, 234
MP3s, 189
“Mu Cha Cha,” 57
Mueller, John, 101
multiculturalism, 166n7
Muse, Clarence, 79
“Musetta's Waltz,” 246
Music and the Making of a New South (Campbell), 230
“Music and the Mirror,” 219
The Music Man: and acting criteria, 317;
in amateur theater, 399, 400
;
and communal focus of musicals, 130
;
and counterpoint songs, 42
;
and film adaptations, 140
;
and gendered character types, 211, 212
;
and musical styles, 40, 44
;
and ragtime music, 35
;
reflexive idealism of, 415, 416
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 229, 237n12
;
and two-step dances, 41
The Musical as Drama (McMillin), 3, 103, 128, 311
Musical of Musicals: The Musical, 123
Musical Stages (Rodgers), 129
Musical Theater and American Culture (Walsh and Platt), 227
Musical Theatre: A History (Kenrick), 228
Musically Enhanced Reality Mode (MERM), 143–45
Musicians’ Union, 274–75
musicology, 21, 410
Musser, Tharon, 287, 304
My Fair Lady: and acting criteria, 317–18;
and audience interaction, 132
;
and cast recordings, 180, 184, 186
;
and casting choices, 159
;
and communal focus of musicals, 131
;
film, 138, 384
;
and gay-coded characters, 212
;
and gendered performance, 218
;
imitations of, 354
;
and musical styles, 34, 37, 43
;
original cast recording, 158
;
and theatrical design, 302
;
and triangulated relationships, 214
“My Favorite Things,” 219
“My Funny Valentine,” 91
“My Little Zulu Babe,” 86
“My Own Little Corner,” 161
“My Time of Day/I’ve Never Been in Love Before,” 214
Mystery Science Theater 3000, 132
Napier, John, 301, 304
Nathan, George Jean, 107, 242, 258–59, 264
national identity, 225–36
National Thespian Society, 395, 396
Naughty Marietta, 35, 99
Nederlander Theater, 134
Negro spirituals, 76, 200–201
Neher, Caspar, 305
Nesbit, Evelyn, 116, 121–22
New Amsterdam Theater, 113, 257, 263
New Century Theatre, 300
New Girl in Town, 56, 57, 315
The New Moon, 41
New South, 232–33, 235–36
New Stagecraft, 300, 301, 302, 303
New York American, 260–61
New York City: and critics, 371;
draft riots, 83
;
and emancipation, 68
;
and immigration, 83
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 69
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 228–29, 233–34, 237n12
;
theater district, 262–64
;
and the theater industry, 112–13, 362–63
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 86–87
(p. 462) New York Evening Post, 253–54, 281
New York Metropolitan Opera, 230
New York Post, 52, 233
New York Telegram, 29
New York Theater Workshop, 133, 246
New York Times, 54, 101, 102, 220, 244, 247, 258, 372, 375
New York Tribune, 241
New Yorker, 242, 375
“Next to Lovin’ (I Like Fightin’)”, 37
Next to Normal, 244
Nicholas Brothers, 43, 139, 140
Nichols, Lewis, 102
“Night and Day,” 93–94, 101
The Nightmare before Christmas, 172
“Nijinsky,” 282
“96,000,” 39
Nixon, Marnie, 138
No Strings, 156, 157
Noble, Adrian, 288
Noguchi, Isamu, 164
nonprofit theater, 290, 357–62, 363n3, 372
Norwood, Brandy, 154, 159, 160, 161, 163
nostalgia, 120–23, 133, 248
“Notes on Camp” (Sontag), 148, 151n1
“Nothing,” 219
“Nothing Like the City,” 122
novelty, 46–47, 75
Noyes, Betty, 167
Nunn, Trevor, 25–26, 288
N.Y. Export: Opus Jazz, 55
Nyro, Laura, 39
O Brother, Where Art Thou, 82
O’Brien, Jack, 288
obscenity, 93
O’Casey, Sean, 106
O’Connor, Donald, 139
O’Donnell, Rosie, 262
Oenslager, Donald, 300
Of Thee I Sing, 102, 244, 282
Off and Off-Off Broadway shows, 117, 263, 362, 372
Oh, Boy!, 270
“Oh, Happy We,” 416
Oh, I Say!, 269
“Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin’”, 182
“Oh! Didn’t It Rain,” 77
Oh Lady! Lady!, 30
“Oh Susanna,” 76
O’Hara, Kelli, 220–21
Ohman, Phil, 271
O’Horgan, Tom, 115, 117, 121, 188
Oklahoma!: and acting criteria, 316–17;
in amateur theater, 393, 399, 401, 402–3, 404
;
and attribution issues, 11
;
and audience interaction, 129
;
and ballads, 42
;
and Bildung concept, 413
;
cast recording of, 367, 385
;
and cast recordings, 182–83, 184, 185
;
and charm songs, 34
;
and communal focus of musicals, 129, 130
;
and concept musicals, 104–6
;
costs of, 356
;
and dance/choreography, 50
;
and direction, 283, 284
;
emphasis on community, 127–28
;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 45, 111
;
and integration of musicals, 98–99, 100, 101–3, 106, 108
;
long run of, 354
;
and the “marriage trope,” 214
;
and nostalgia, 133
;
operetta and comedy in, 28
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 266
;
and performance texts, 25
;
popularity of, 245
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 228–29, 236, 237n12
;
and show-based albums, 140
;
and theatrical design, 301
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 89, 91
;
and triangulated relationships, 214
;
and waltzes, 41
“Oklahoma!” (song), 91
“Ol’ Man River,” 37, 89, 91, 239, 257
“Old Dan Tucker,” 75
Old Globe Theatre, 360, 362
Old South, 232–33, 235–36
“The Oldest Established,” 214
On the Town, 51, 183, 284
On Your Toes: and acting criteria, 316;
and dance/choreography, 48, 335
;
and integration of musicals, 107, 108
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 276
;
and Shall We Dance, 94
;
and theatrical design, 300
Once on This Island, 58, 305
Once Upon a Mattress, 400
“One,” 130, 131
“One Last Kiss,” 411
One Touch of Venus, 183
O’Neill, Eugene, 106, 243–44, 315, 393
Onuf, Peter S., 226
open texts, 23–24, 28, 30, 229
Open Theater, 117
opera, 21, 34, 104, 107, 108
Opera as Drama (Kerman), 16, 21
operetta: and acting criteria, 312, 316;
and charm songs, 34
;
cultural context of, 327–28
;
and dance styles, 41
;
and integration of musicals, 107
;
and musical styles, 35
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 266, 267–68, 271
;
and singing, 326
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 87, 89
Operti, Guiseppe, 253
optimism of musicals, 412, 414, 415, 416–17
orchestration and arrangement of music, 266–78;
and the “Broadway Sound,” 268–70
;
classic orchestration, 270–71
;
and copyright issues, 277–78
;
described, 267
;
and ethnic identity, 206
;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 272
;
and integration of musicals, 99
;
and labor issues, 274–75
;
and megamusicals, 273
;
and microphones, 272–73
;
new aesthetics of, 276–77
;
and operetta sound, 266, 267–68, 271
;
and sung intimacy, 145
;
and synthesizers, 274
;
and television musicals, 158
;
types of, 266
;
and virtual orchestra machines, 275
orientalism, 245
original cast recordings. See cast recordings
Oroonoko (Behn), 67
Othello (Shakespeare), 67, 192n21
Our Musicals, Ourselves (Jones), 227
Our Town, 161
“Out of My Dreams,” 41, 99
out-of-town tryouts, 360, 361, 366, 371
“Over the Bannister,” 146
Pacific Overtures, 40, 204, 303, 304
The Padlock (1768), 68
Page, Elaine, 313
Paint Your Wagon, 317, 384
The Pajama Game, 56, 285, 286, 345
Pal Joey, 102, 185, 276, 316
Palm Beach Nights, 298
Panama Hattie, 182
Pansy, 36
Papp, Joseph, 117, 360
Parade, 225, 229, 289
Parsifal (Wagner), 15
Parton, Dolly, 235
Partridge, Pauline, 181
Passing Strange, 354, 359, 370
Passion, 140–41, 142, 290
Paterson, Vincent, 221
Patterson, James T., 106
Paulus, Diane, 288, 291
Pelham, Dick, 66
“People Will Say We’re in Love,” 42, 99, 103, 182
Perform: A History of Broadway and Theatre in New York City exhibit, 369
Peters, Bernadette, 156, 161, 314, 357, 380, 387
Peters, Michael, 58
Petrillo, James Caesar, 181–83
Pfister, Manfred, 23, 25
The Phantom of the Opera: and acting criteria, 313;
audience of, 370, 371
;
and franchising, 118
;
and ingénue characters, 211
;
and integration of musicals, 107–8
;
and musical styles, 36, 39
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 274
;
and pop influences, 112
;
popularity of, 3–4, 239
;
and state of Broadway, 363
;
and theatrical design, 304
phonograph, 181. See also cast recordings
Piaf, Edith, 43
Pidgeon, Walter, 154, 155, 160
Pied Piper of Hamelin, 152
Pierce, Billy, 50
“Pink Elephants on Parade,” 173–75
Pins and Needles, 354
Pinza, Ezio, 245, 317, 318
Pippin, 14, 56, 120, 132, 286
Pippin, Donald, 188
The Pirate, 148–50
The Pirates of Penzance, 15, 399
Pittelman, Ira, 362
Place for Us (Miller), 133, 222, 387
plasmaticness, 171, 173, 175, 177
Platt, Len, 227
“playback,” 144
Playbill, 355
Playwright Horizons, 263
Plessy v. Ferguson, 97
plot, 12–13, 98, 99, 101
Poitier, Sidney, 79
polkas, 41, 54
Pope, Rebecca, 382
“Popular,” 215
popular culture, 239, 240, 246, 248
popular music, 314, 323, 325, 375, 381, 384, 409–10
Porgy and Bess: and cast recordings, 182, 185;
and direction, 281, 282
;
and integration of musicals, 102
;
and musical styles, 35–36
;
and theatrical design, 300
Porter, Billy, 207
Porter, Cole: and camp, 149;
and integration of musicals, 101, 108
;
and Kiss Me, Kate, 327–30
;
and Latin music styles, 38
;
“list” songs, 90
;
and musical styles, 38
;
and revival numbers, 37
;
and sexual themes, 93–94
;
and social class of audiences, 242
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 88, 89, 91
Postcard Girls, 51, 57
postmodernism, 19n12, 120–23
post-production manipulation, 144, 150n4, 162
Powers, James T., 85
Prague School, 22
Present Arms, 101
Presley, Elvis, 38, 189
Preston, Robert, 317
Prima, Louis, 177
Prince, Hal: and Abbott, 283;
and concept musicals, 105–6, 188
;
and direction, 291
;
and integration of musicals, 97, 106
;
and Parade, 225
;
and theatrical design, 303
Prince, Harold, 29, 285, 287, 288–89, 358, 359–60
“The Prince Is Giving a Ball,” 162
Princess Ida, 399
Princess Theater, 269
print media, 14–15, 261–62
A Problem Like Maria (Wolf), 222, 227
producers, 255–58
The Producers: actual production contrasted with, 255;
and box office performance, 353, 358
;
and costuming, 298
;
and direction, 288, 289
;
and revisionism, 123
;
and theatrical design, 306;
producing musicals: and artistic conception of stories, 359–60;
artists as producers, 358
;
costs of, 354, 355, 359
;
and creativity, 363
;
and duration of run, 354
;
and economic changes, 352
;
and institutional theaters, 360–61
;
and investors, 354, 355–57
;
new musicals, 361–62
;
and not-for-profit theaters, 357–62
;
and out-of-town tryouts, 360
;
solo producers, 354
;
styles of, 359
;
and theaters, 354
(p. 464) The Production Code, 203
Prohibition, 93
Promenade, 263, 264
Promises, Promises, 256, 287
Provincetown Players, 300
Pryce, Jonathan, 318
psychoanalysis, 93
psychological mode of performance, 315–16
Psychopathia Sexualis (Krafft-Ebing), 96n19
Public Theater, 117, 360
publicity, 260–62
publishers, 258–60
Puccini, Giacomo, 85, 216–17, 246
Pulitzer Prizes, 243–44, 244–45, 247, 286, 290
“Puttin’ on the Ritz,” 92
A Queer Sort of Materialism (Savran and Kirle), 227–28
queering, 370–71
“The Rabbit of Seville,” 333
race issues and racism, 197–208;
and changes in scripts, 29
;
diversity in casts, 246–47
;
and Dumbo, 176
;
exotic “other” women, 202–4
;
and filmed musicals, 138
;
and Flower Drum Song, 204–7
;
and gay characters, 213
;
and gendered performance, 220
;
interracial casts, 200
;
and mammy figures, 202
;
and multicultural casting, 166n7
;
and narrative/musical styles, 199–202
;
and the Production Code, 203
;
race vs. ethnicity, 95n5
;
and revisals, 207–8
;
and segregation, 97, 106, 139, 199
;
and social class of audiences, 245–46
;
and stereotypes, 96n12, 197–99
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 82–87
;
and Wolfe, 290–91. See also blackface minstrelsy
radio, 87, 385
Radloff, Bernhard, 21
Rado, James, 117
Radway, Janice, 242, 388
Rae, Ruby, 234
Ragni, Gerome, 117
Ragtime, 113, 116, 121–22, 123, 306
ragtime music, 33–35, 76, 88
“Railroad Overture,” 75
“The Rain in Spain,” 37
The Rainers, 66
Rainey, Ma, 36
Ramin, Sid, 272
Rando, John, 288
Ranke, Leopold von, 13–14
rap music, 39–40
Rasch, Albertina, 46
realism, 142, 143–45, 147–49, 175, 311
Reconstructing Dixie (McPherson), 230
The Recording Angel (Eisenberg), 179
recording industry. See cast recordings
“Red Light Ballet,” 56, 57
Redhead, 286
reflexive idealism, 408, 414–19
Regina, 35
regional theaters, 117
regionalism, 225–36, 237n12
religion, 231–32, 233
Rent: and advertising/marketing, 119, 371;
artistic origins of, 359
;
audience of, 371
;
and communal focus of musicals, 133–34
;
gay and lesbian characters, 216–17
;
and gendered performance, 218
;
imitations of, 354
;
investors, 355
;
and musical styles, 39
;
and off-Broadway shows, 118
;
Pulitzer Prize, 244
;
recoupment period of, 356
;
and social class of audiences, 246
;
and stage design, 318
;
and state of Broadway, 363
;
success of, 355–56
;
and theatrical design, 305
;
and triangulated relationships, 214
repertory theater, 229–30
revisals, 142, 204–7, 207–8. See also revivals
revisionism, 120–23, 131
revival songs, 37
revivals: and attribution issues, 28;
and The Black Crook, 254
;
costs of, 356
;
and direction, 290
;
and economics of musical production, 113–14
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 274, 276
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 199–202
;
stars in, 384–85
;
and television musicals, 165
;
and tradition of musicals, 9. See also revisals
revues, 46–47, 82, 105, 312
Reynolds, Burt, 235
Rhode, Greg, 176–77
rhythm and blues, 38, 39
rhythm songs, 34, 42, 92
Rice, Elmer, 20, 300
Rice, Thomas Dartmouth (“Daddy”), 70–71
Rice, Tim, 38, 40, 115, 118, 187, 289
Rich, Frank, 284, 353–54, 358–59, 360, 374
Richard II, 67
Riggs, Lynn, 50, 98, 130, 316
Riis, Jacob, 83
Rio Rita, 257
risky material, 353–54
Rivera, Chita, 285
RKO, 384
Robbins, Jerome: and Abbott, 283–84;
and attribution of musicals, 20
;
choreography style of, 51–54, 58
;
and concept musicals, 104
;
and direction, 283–86
;
as director-choreographer, 287
;
and Gennaro, 57
;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 45
;
influences on, 336
;
and integration of musicals, 97
;
and jazz dance, 61n21
;
and “open text” view of musicals, 25
;
and star vehicles, 385–86
;
and theatrical design, 302
;
and West Side Story, 55, 360
;
and Wolfe, 290
Robertson, Rebecca, 263
Robeson, Paul, 28, 79, 200–201, 208n5
Robin Hood, 40
Robinson, Bill “Bojangles,” 43, 79, 138, 139
(p. 465) “Rock Island,” 140
rock-and-roll: acting criteria in rock musicals, 318–19;
and African-American influence, 38–39
;
and “aural spectacle,” 114–15
;
and class issues, 239
;
and LP records, 184, 186
;
and performance authenticity, 409–12
;
and Rent, 133–34
;
and social class of audiences, 243
The Rocky Horror Picture Show: and amplification, 273;
and audience interaction, 132, 142–43, 368
;
and camp, 149–50
;
film adaptation of, 368
;
and gay characters, 212
;
and musical styles, 326
Rodgers, Richard: and box office performance, 358;
and collaborative nature of musicals, 22–23
;
and dance styles, 41, 48
;
and direction, 282–83
;
and integration of musicals, 97–98, 106
;
and nostalgia, 122
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 267, 270–72, 276
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 198, 204–7, 206
;
on secondary romances, 250n24
;
and social class of audiences, 240
;
and television musicals, 153, 156–57, 157–58
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 88
Rodgers and Hammerstein Organization, 23, 189–90
Rodgers and Hammerstein productions: and acting criteria, 316–17;
and attribution issues, 26–27
;
and audience interaction, 129
;
and authorial intent, 164
;
and cast recordings, 186
;
and communal focus, 131
;
and concept musicals, 104, 105
;
and dance/choreography, 52
;
and de Mille, 50
;
emphasis on community, 127
;
and gendered performance, 220–21
;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 45, 111
;
and integration of musicals, 101, 106, 107–8
;
and musical styles, 38
;
and nostalgia, 120–21
;
and performance texts, 22–23, 25
;
popularity of, 239
;
Pulitzer Prizes, 244
;
and sexual identities, 215–16. See also Hammerstein, Oscar, II; Rodgers, Richard
Rodgers and Hart productions, 38, 94, 100–102, 105, 107. See also Hart, Lorenz; Rodgers, Richard
Rogers, Ginger: and Cinderella, 154, 155, 160;
and dance styles, 43
;
and film musicals, 139
;
and integration of musicals, 101
;
and romantic pairings, 140
;
and Shall We Dance, 94
;
star quality of, 384
Rojek, Chris, 187
Romantic mode, 12, 13, 17
Romberg, Sigmund, 35, 41, 257
Rooney, Mickey, 140, 254
Rose-Marie (operetta), 100
Rosenfeld, Monroe H., 88
Rosenthal, Jean, 302
“Rose's Turn,” 220, 386
Roundabout Theatre Company, 361, 363n3
Rourke, Constance, 67
Royal, Ted, 270
Roza, 289
Rubin-Vega, Daphne, 246–47
Ruick, Barbara, 154, 155
“The Rum Tum Tugger,” 39
Runyon, Damon, 260–61
“Runyonland,” 56
Russell, Rosalind, 220, 384, 386
Ryskind, Morrie, 102
Saddler, Frank, 266, 267, 269–70
The Saint of Bleecker Street, 35
“Sam and Delilah,” 36
Sandor, Gluck, 51
Sandow, Eugen, 297
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 26
Sater, Steven, 58
satire, 12–13, 17, 74, 133, 198
Saturday Night Fever, 116
Savran, David: on collaborative nature of musicals, 21, 30;
on gender/sexuality, 222, 224n30, 369
;
on national identity, 227–28
The Scarlet Pimpernel, 120
Schoenberg, Claude-Michel, 36, 118
Schrank, Joseph, 155–56
Schwartz, Arthur, 50
Schwartz, Stephen, 37–38, 40, 42–43, 215
The Season (Goldman), 255
Sebesky, Don, 206
Second Stage, 363n3
The Secret Garden, 37
Seesaw, 287
segregation, 97, 106, 139, 199
Seguin, Anne, 72
Selden, Kathy, 145
Seller, Jeffrey, 352, 355, 356–57, 358, 359
sentimental songs, 40–41
“Serenade,” 35
sets and set design, 115–16, 161–64, 288, 298, 300–301, 304–6. See also theatrical design
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, 56
Seventh Ward, 69
“Seventy-Six Trombones,” 41, 44, 130
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (Beatles), 186, 187
Shakespeare, William, 67, 192n21
Shall We Dance, 94
“Shall We Dance?” (song), 41
Shapiro, Henry D., 226
“Sharks” (dance), 57
Sharman, Jim, 188
sheet music, 87, 180
Shenandoah, 37
Shepherd, John, 259
Shiek, Duncan, 58
Shields, Brooke, 384
Shimer, Genevieve, 54
“Shipoopi,” 35
(p. 466) Shirley, Bill, 138
Show Boat: and acting criteria, 312, 316;
and attribution issues, 27–31
;
and ballads, 42
;
and Bildung concept, 413
;
and box office performance, 353
;
and cast recordings, 182, 183
;
and dance/choreography, 47–48
;
and direction, 282
;
and film versions, 165
;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 111
;
ingénue roles, 316
;
and integration of musicals, 97, 100, 102
;
and musical styles, 35, 37, 43
;
and “open text” view of musicals, 25
;
production of, 256–58
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 200–201
;
and ragtime music, 35
;
and sentimental songs, 40
;
and song publishing, 259
;
and theatrical design, 299
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 89–90
Show Business: The Road to Broadway (documentary), 375
“Show Girls” concept, 298
Shrek, 247, 248
Shuffle Along, 36, 47, 200
“Silly Symphonies,” 172
Silva, Howard da, 317
Silverman, Sime, 260
Simon, Robert, 100
Simond, Ike, 74
Simonson, Lee, 299, 300
Sinatra, Frank, 140, 182, 187, 189
Sing Along with Mitch, 132
The Sing-Along Sound of Music, 132
Singin’ in the Rain, 139, 145, 212, 384
“Singin’ in the Rain” (song), 165
singing, 320–33;
and acting criteria, 310, 317–18
;
amplification of, 326, 385
;
“bad” singing, 325
;
case studies, 326–33
;
register, 323–24
;
“singing actors,” 311
;
styles of, 325–26
;
vocal anatomy, 321
;
vocal production, 324–25
;
vocal type, 322–23. See also songs and songwriting
Sissle, Noble, 36, 47, 200
“Sit Down, You’re Rockin’ the Boat,” 326
Sitting Pretty, 278
“Sixteen Going on Seventeen,” 219
Skeleton Dance, 172
“Slaughter on Tenth Avenue,” 48, 101
slavery, 66
“Small House of Uncle Thomas,” 52
Smalls, Charlie, 39
Smith, Alexis, 234
Smith, Bessie, 36, 207
Smith, Jack, 149
Smith, Oliver, 284, 302
Smith, Susan, 389
“So in Love,” 91, 329
social dance, 54–56
soft shoe, 42
soliloquies, 34
Something for the Boys (Clum), 133, 222
“Somewhere,” 416
“Somewhere Over the Rainbow,” 145–46
sonata form, 416
Sondheim, Stephen: and acting criteria, 310, 319;
and attribution issues, 20, 26
;
and “aural spectacle,” 115
;
on Candide, 420n11
;
and cast recordings, 184
;
and concept musicals, 105–6
;
and dance styles, 41
;
and film adaptations, 140–41
;
and the Golden Age of musicals, 111
;
and Gypsy, 53, 386
;
and integration of musicals, 97, 103–4, 106, 108
;
and musical styles, 40
;
and nostalgia, 122
;
and opera style, 35–36
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 267, 276
;
and Pacific Overtures, 204
;
and Prince, 289
;
and social class of audiences, 240
;
and song publishing, 259–60
;
and Sweeney Todd, 327, 330–31
;
and theatrical design, 303
;
and West Side Story, 53, 285, 360
Song of Norway, 183
songs and songwriting: charm songs, 34;
and communal focus of musicals, 131–32
;
counterpoint songs, 41
;
dialect songs, 72
;
“I want” songs, 34, 43
;
joke songs, 43
;
love songs, 92–95
;
and publishers, 258–60
;
rhythm songs, 34, 42, 92
;
sentimental songs, 40–41
;
song forms, 90–92
;
Sprechstimme (speech-song), 324
;
Sons of Ham, 86
Sontag, Susan, 148, 149, 151n11
Sophisticated Ladies, 36
soprano voices, 323
soul music, 38, 39
sound design, 115, 137–38
The Sound of Music: and advertising/marketing, 120;
in amateur theater, 399, 400
;
and Bildung concept, 413
;
and communal focus of musicals, 131–32
;
and direction, 283
;
film adaptations, 142, 224n21, 389
;
and gay characters, 212, 217
;
and gendered performance, 211, 212, 218–20
;
and musical styles, 37
;
popularity of, 4
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 237n12
;
and sing-alongs, 132
;
and theatrical design, 302
soundtracks, 367–68
Sousa, John Philip, 30, 41, 89
South Pacific: and acting criteria, 316, 317, 318;
in amateur theater, 399
;
and box office performance, 363
;
and cast recordings, 184
;
and class issues, 244–45
;
and communal focus of musicals, 131
;
and direction, 283
;
and film adaptations, 142
;
and gendered performance, 220–21
;
and integration of musicals, 100, 101
;
and musical styles, 34, 246
;
and nostalgia, 120–21
;
Pulitzer Prize, 244
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 204, 205, 247
;
and rhythm songs, 42
Soviet filmmakers, 150n3
Spamalot, 123, 363
special effects, 162
spectacle: and audience interaction, 128–29;
aural, 114–15
;
and design trends, 295
;
and New (p. 467) Stagecraft, 302
;
and sung intimacy, 145
;
and theatrical design, 305
;
visual, 115–16
“The Spectre of the Gun” (Star Trek episode), 164
Spewack, Bella, 108
Spewack, Sam, 108
Spialek, Hans, 266, 267, 270, 276
Sprechstimme (speech-song), 324
Spring Awakening: and acting criteria, 318–19;
and book/music incongruity, 319
;
and box office performance, 354
;
and dance/choreography, 58
;
and gay characters, 216–17
;
and gendered performance, 218
;
investors, 355
;
and off-Broadway shows, 118
;
and “open text” view of musicals, 26
;
and out-of-town tryouts, 360
;
and risk management, 359
;
riskiness of, 355, 362
;
and theatrical design, 305
;
and triangulated relationships, 215
“Springtime for Hitler,” 298, 306
St. Louis Woman, 183
Stacey, Jackie, 388, 390n24
stage and set design. See theatrical design
stagehands strike, 362
staging, 165
Staiger, Janet, 383
Stanislavsky, Constantin, 51
A Star Is Born (film), 381, 390n7
Star Trek, 164
Starlight Express, 115–16, 363
Starobin, Michael, 267, 274
stars, 378–89;
and divas, 381
;
and fans, 379
;
and history of stardom, 381–83
;
mythologies of, 378–79
;
star qualities, 380–81
;
and technology, 383–85
Stars (Dyer), 379
State Fair, 165
“Steam Heat,” 56, 57
Steamboat Willie (animation), 169
Stearns, Jean, 47
Stearns, Marshall, 47
Stein, Joseph, 25
step-dancers, 69
Stepin Fetchit (character), 197–98
“Stepsisters’ Lament,” 162
stereotypes: and animated characters, 176;
and Asian characters, 96n12, 204–7
;
and gay characters, 217
;
and gendered character types, 211
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 88. See also race issues and racism
Stewart, David, 234
Steyn, Mark, 335–36, 337
Stickney, Dorothy, 154, 155, 160
Stone, Lawrence, 11
Stonewall Rebellion, 149, 223n16
stop-motion animation, 172
Stormy Weather, 139, 140, 203
Stothart, Herbert, 146
Strasberg, Lee, 52, 284
Strassler, Abbie, 355, 362
Strauss, Johann, 41
Strauss, Johann, Jr., 99
Street Scene, 20, 21, 183
Streisand, Barbra, 384
strikes, 181–83
Stritch, Elaine, 29
Stroheim, Erich von, 79
Stroman, Susan, 29, 288, 291
Strouse, Charles, 38
The Student Prince, 35
The Stuff of Dreams, 398–99
Sturges, Preston, 82
Styne, Jule, 53, 220, 386
subcultural references, 147
subjective authorship, 24–27
Subotnik, Rose Rosengard, 82
subtext, 310
Sullivan, Arthur, 15
Sullivan, Ed, 120, 261–62
Sullivan, John L., 82
Sullivan's Travels, 82
Sunday in the Park with George, 43, 103, 244, 290, 294
Sunset Boulevard, 107
Sunset (journal), 181
super-integrated musicals, 109
“Superstar,” 187
“Supper Time,” 97
“The Surrey with the Fringe on Top,” 34, 98, 157
Swain, Joseph P., 21, 108–9
Swanson, Gloria, 184
Sweeney Todd: and acting criteria, 310–11;
and “aural spectacle,” 115
;
and copyright issues, 277
;
and direction, 288
;
film adaptation, 384
;
and integration of musicals, 100, 103
;
music of, 35, 327, 330–33
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 274, 276
;
and theatrical design, 306
Sweet Charity: dance/choreography style, 56–57, 286;
and gendered performance, 212, 218, 223–24n20
;
and heteronormativity, 215
“The Sweetest Sound,” 156, 157
swing music, 54, 271
Swing Time, 138, 140
symphonies, 184
synecdoche, 13
synergistic marketing, 119
synthesizers, 274
Szot, Paolo, 318
Taitte, W. L., 234
“Take Me or Leave Me,” 216
Tales of the South Pacific (Michener), 245, 316
Tallchief, Maria, 49
tango, 37
“The Tango Maureen,” 214, 216
tap dance, 42–43, 139
The Tap Dance Kid, 43
Taruskin, Richard, 24
Taylor, James, 39
Taymor, Julie, 40, 247, 288, 291, 305–6
(p. 468) Technicolor, 142, 148
technological advances: and amplification, 114–15, 272–73, 326, 385;
and animation, 169–70
;
development of the LP record, 180–83
;
technological frames, 161–64
;
and television musicals, 153, 165n1
;
and theatrical design, 302
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 90
;
virtual orchestration machines, 275
television musicals, 152–65;
audience response to, 164–65
;
and audiences, 366–67, 367–68
;
book for, 155–56
;
casting and performance, 158–61
;;
music for, 156–58
;
and orchestration, 270
;
and technology issues, 161–64
;
and Winchell, 261–62
“Ten Minutes Ago,” 41, 158, 160, 163, 163–64
tenements, 83, 95n4
tenor voices, 322
Terris, Norma, 28, 48
Terry, Megan, 117
Tesori, Jeanine, 122
Texas Monthly, 234
text, 21–24, 27–31, 229. See also book musicals
Text and Act (Taruskin), 24
theaters, 262–64, 354, 360–61
Theatre Guild, 300
Theatre Row, 263
Theatre USA, 393, 399
theatrical design, 294–306;
and British influences, 304–5
;
costuming, 256, 288, 297–99, 301, 304–6
;
and hybrid designs, 305–6
;;
sets and set design, 115–16, 161–64, 288, 298, 300–301, 304–6
;
and simpler designs, 299–302, 303–4
;
and spectacle, 297–99, 302–3
“There's No Business Like Show Business,” 254
They All Sang, 259
“They Can’t Take That Away from Me,” 94
This Is the Army, 182–83
Thomas, Frank, 169–70
Thompson, Lydia, 297
Thousands Cheer, 204
3 for Bedroom C (Bernstein), 184
Thurber, James, 107
Tibbett, Lawrence, 182
“Til There Was You,” 130
Times Square, 113, 117, 247, 262–63, 363
Tin Pan Alley, 81–95;
and advertising/marketing of musicals, 119
;
and blackface minstrelsy, 76
;
and dance styles, 41
;
influence on Broadway, 38
;
and national identity, 228
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 270
;
relationship to Broadway music, 81–82
;
and sexual themes, 92–95
;
and social structure, 82–87
;
and song forms, 90–92
;
and song publishing, 259
;
before World War II, 87–90
Tiomkin, Dimitri, 46
[title of show], 123
Toast of the Town, 120
“Today 4 U,” 247
“Tom, Dick or Harry,” 329
Tommy (The Who), 186
tonality, 415, 416
Tony Awards, 120. See also specific shows
“Too Darn Hot,” 330
totemism, 171, 172–75, 177
touring companies, 254, 275
tradition, 9, 231
Tragic mode, 12, 13, 17
Travis, Sarah, 276, 277
Treatise on Orchestration (Berlioz), 267
Treitler, Leo, 11–12
Trentini, Emma, 35
triangulated relationships, 214–15, 215–16, 223n11
trickster figures, 71
A Trip to Chinatown, 40, 78, 88, 282
A Trip to Coontown, 76–78
Triplett, Sally Anne, 313
Truitt, John, 146
Tucker, Sophie, 198–99, 202
Tudor, Antony, 57
Tune, Thomas James “Tommy,” 231, 288
Tunick, Jonathan, 267, 275, 276
“Turkey in the Straw,” 71
“Two Real Coons,” 86
two-steps, 41
Uhry, Alfred, 225
Ulysses (Joyce), 93
“Uncle Tom” figures, 78–79
“Under the Bamboo Tree,” 88
Unfinished Show Business (Kirle), 23, 228
unions, 274–75
United States Supreme Court, 67, 97
university theater programs, 394, 405n4
The Untouchables (television), 261
Urban, Joseph, 256, 297–99, 301
Urinetown, 133, 211, 305
USA Today, 375
utopianism, 172, 175
Van Peeples, Melvin, 79
Van Vleet, Jo, 154
Vanderbilt University Opera Theater, 20
Variety, 260, 351, 354, 375
Vasari, Giorgio, 15
vaudeville: and acting criteria, 312;
and blackface minstrelsy, 79
;
and dance styles, 46–47
;
and Gypsy, 314
;
and musical styles, 43
;
and orchestration/arrangement of music, 266, 268–69
;
and popular culture, 239
;
and social class of audiences, 243
;
and stardom, 382–83
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 81
Vaughan, T., 65
venues for musicals. See theaters; specific venue names
(p. 469) Verdon, Gwen, 56, 57, 315
Victor Light Opera Company, 182
Victor/Victoria, 212
videotape, 162
Vidor, King, 79
Viet Rock, 117
Village Voice, 123, 375
vinyl records, 183–86
Virginia Minstrels, 65–66, 71–72
virtual orchestration machines, 275
“visual spectacle,” 115–16
Vogue, 242
voice and vocal style, 206, 321–25
The Voice (Sinatra), 187
Von Sellheim, Mara, 52
“Voodoo,” 149–50
Vossler, Heidi, 48, 48
Wagner, Robin, 287, 306
Waiting for Godot, 184–85
Walker, Don, 266, 267, 270, 272, 276
Walker, George, 47, 86
Wall-E (film), 368
Waller, Fats, 36
Walsh, David, 227
waltzes, 33, 35, 39, 41, 54, 158, 218
Warchus, Matthew, 288
Ward, Michael, 295
Warhol, Andy, 149
Warner, Deborah, 288
Warren, Lesley Ann, 154, 159, 159, 160, 161, 163–65
Washington, Booker T., 97
Washington, Fredi, 79
“Washington Post March,” 30, 89
Watch Your Step, 35
Waters, Daryl, 39
Waters, Ethel, 97
Watt, Douglas, 233–34, 374
Waverly Theater, 142
Way, Peter, 68
“The Way You Look Tonight,” 139
Wayburn, Ned, 46, 282
“We Open in Venice,” 330
Weber, William, 19n12
Wedding March, 79
Wedekind, Frank, 26, 58–59, 318
Weill, Kurt, 20–21, 30, 105, 191n9
The Well of Loneliness (Hall), 93, 96n19
Welles, Orson, 300, 302
Wells, Paul, 178n2
Wemyss, Frank, 71
“Were Thine that Special Face,” 328, 329
West Side Story: artistic origins of, 360;
and attribution of musicals, 20
;
and communal focus of musicals, 129
;
and concept musicals, 104
;
and dance/choreography, 52, 53–54, 55, 58, 285–86
;
and direction, 283, 284, 285
;
and gay-coded characters, 212
;
and gendered performance, 211–12, 218
;
and heteronormativity, 215
;
and “I want” songs, 43
;
and integration of musicals, 100
;
and musical styles, 36, 37, 38
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 198, 205–6, 213
;
reflexive idealism of, 415–16
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 237n12
;
and rhythm songs, 42
;
stars of, 384
;
and theatrical design, 302
“What I Did for Love,” 219
“What Is an Author?” (Foucault), 26
What Is Literature? (Sartre), 26
Wheatley, William, 253–54
Whedon, Joss, 132, 367–68
“When I See an Elephant Fly,” 175
“When You’re Good to Mama,” 207
“Where Is the Life that Late I Led,” 328, 330
The Whig Interpretation of History (Butterfield), 17
“Whip Dance,” 56
“Whistle a Happy Tune,” 156–57
Whistler, James Abbott MacNeill, 146
White, Hayden, 12–13, 14
White, Lillias, 207–8
White, Miles, 301
White Christmas, 336–38
white face makeup, 78
Whiteman, Paul, 271
Whitlock, Billy, 66
Whitty, Jeff, 359
The Who, 186
“Why Can’t You Behave?”, 329
“Why Do I Love You?”, 29, 42, 257
Wicked: audience of, 374–76, 387, 388–89;
cast recording of, 389
;
and character relationships, 214–15, 215
;
and counterpoint songs, 42
;
and finale songs, 34
;
and gendered performance, 218
;
and musical styles, 39, 43
;
reception of, 372, 374–76
;
and regional approach to musical theater, 229
;
and soft shoe, 42
;
and state of Broadway, 363
;
and theatrical design, 306
Wilde, Oscar, 146
Wilde, Patricia, 49
Wilder, Thornton, 161
Williams, Bert, 47, 86, 256
Willson, Meredith, 40–42, 44, 285
Winchell, Walter, 261
Winninger, Charles, 25, 28
The Wiz, 39, 273
The Wizard of Oz: in amateur theater, 399, 400;
and cinematic realism, 144
;
and direction, 282
;
and film musicals, 140
;
and integration of musicals, 101
;
and soft shoe, 42
;
and special effects, 162
;
and sung intimacy, 146
The Wizard of Oz (Baum), 229
Wodehouse, P. G., 30, 102
Wolf, Stacy, 227, 368, 370, 371, 379
Wolfe, George C., 288, 290–91, 360
Woll, Allen, 111
(p. 470) Wollman, Elizabeth, 134, 319
Wonderful Town, 38
Wood, Natalie, 384
Woollcott, Alexander, 257
“Word of My Body,” 217
working class audiences, 240–41
“Working in the Theatre,” 189
World War II, 183
“The Worst Pies in London,” 332
“Wunderbar,” 328
Wynn, Ed, 312
Yap, John, 190
Yee, C. Y., 204
Yeston, Maury, 274, 275
“You Are Beautiful,” 206
“You Are Love,” 35
“You Were Meant for Me,” 145
Youmans, Vincent, 257
Your Arms Too Short to Box with God, 39
“Your Song,” 145
You’re a Good Man, Charlie Brown, 400
“You’re the Top,” 90
“You’ve Got to Be Carefully Taught,” 245
Zeitgeist, 12, 17
Ziegfeld, Florenz: and box office performance, 353;
and costuming, 297
;
and music publishing, 259
;
and production, 256–58
;
and race/ethnicity issues, 201
;
and Show Boat revivals, 28–29
;
and theatrical design, 306
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 89
Ziegfeld Follies: and blackface minstrelsy, 78;
and class issues, 241
;
and direction, 282, 287
;
and production, 256–57
;
and theatrical design, 297–98, 301, 303, 304, 306
;
and Tin Pan Alley, 82, 89
Ziegfeld Theater, 298–99
Zimmer, Hans, 40
Zip Coon figure, 69
“Zip Coon” (song), 71
Zipes, Jack, 175