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date: 22 August 2019

Index

Index

(p. 927) adolescent development
brain development, 76–79, 108–111, 114–116, 531, 539, 831, 909
cognitive, 108–111, 375–376
and delinquency374–376
and decision-making, 107–108, 111, 375
and future orientation, 113
and impulsivity, 113–116, 830–831, 909, 921
and identity formation, 375
and peer influence, 111–113
psychosocial, 111–116, 375
and risk preference, 114–116
and sensation seeking, 114–116
and trial competency, 110–111, 530–531, 534, 539
and understanding of legal rights, 669–670
adolescent-limited offending
contributing factors, 36, 74, 81, 382–384
defined, 36 See also criminal careers, desistance
aftercare, 792–793. See also reentry
age of criminal responsibility
at common law, 421
across states, 427, 608, 715n
age-crime curve, 32, 39, 204, 386, 891
Aggression Replacement Training, 730, 739, 741–742, 791
Apprendi v. New Jersey, 684–685
arrest
and race, 19–20, 26, 446–448, 457, 587
attachment theory, 181–184
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
as comorbid condition with delinquency, 130–134, 529–530
blameworthiness. See culpability
blended sentencing. See sentencing, blended
Blueprints for Violence Prevention, 558, 727–738, 790–791, 740–744
brain development. See adolescent development
Breed v. Jones,435n, 665, 816, 90
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 211–212, 430
capital punishment of juveniles, 427, 542, 772, 802, 830, 834–835, 844, 906, 917–918
child abuse and delinquency, 50, 54, 60, 159, 189–190, 293, 401–402, 497, 499–500
child maltreatment and delinquency, 76, 130, 183, 190. See also child abuse, child neglect
child neglect and delinquency, 50, 60, 158–159, 182, 189, 293, 401–402, 497, 499–500
child maltreatment and juvenile justice, 49–50
coercion theory, 177–179
cognitive behavioral intervention, 92, 322, 400, 406–407, 619, 731, 733, 739, 743, 771, 786, 789
Commonwealth v. Fisher,423
communities and delinquency. See neighborhoods
Communities That Care, 164, 409–410, 911–912
community-based programs for juveniles
effectiveness of, 708–710,724–740, 787–788
and history of juvenile courts, 425–426, 427, 902
implementing best practices, 740–744
prevention, 407–408
probation trends, 25, 588, 589
principles of effective intervention, 739
programs and strategies of proven effectiveness, 730–733, 738–739
programs and strategies that are “promising,”734–735
programs and strategies of proven ineffectiveness, 735–736
comorbid conditions and delinquency
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 130–131, 529–530
conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, 125–126
depression, 128–129
gender variations in, 134
multiple comorbid conditions, 131–132
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 129–130
prevention and treatment, 136–141
research needs, 135–138
substance abuse/dependence, 126–127
understanding patterns of comorbidity, 132–134
competence, adjudicative. See also Dusky competence standard
and adolescent development/immaturity, 530–531, 538–539, 669–670
(p. 928) attorney role in evaluation, 533–534
competency hearing, 533
constitutional standards for, 528–529, 532–533, 669–670
and mental disorder, 529–530
remediation, 535–536
competence to exercise 5th Amendment and Miranda rights, 666–672, 675
competence to exercise 6th Amendment right to counsel, 673, 675–676
comparative (cross-national) juvenile justice
age of criminal responsibility, 877–878, 891–892
comparative advantages and disadvantages, 888–894
England and Wales Model, 881
German Model, 881–882
imprisonment, use of, 884–887, 894
institutional arrangements, 876–877
jurisdictional variations, 872–873
methodological issues, 873–875
minimum age of adult court jurisdiction, 878–879, 892–893
New Zealand Model, 883
purpose/mission891
Scandinavian Model, 882–883
self-reported delinquency, 887–888
transfer, 879–880, 893–894
Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders, 409, 754
confidentiality of juvenile court records, 424, 527, 609, 611, 683, 905
correctional institutions, adult
and development of human and social capital, 851–853
and identity formation, 849–850
impact on adolescent offenders, 843–861
and lost opportunities, 850–851
and victimization of young offenders, 845–848
correctional institutions, juvenile. See also community-based programs for juveniles
boot camps, 764–765, 783–785, 794, 913
characteristics of, 757–758
conditions of confinement, 646–647, 750–756, 772–775
confinement of girls and minorities, 504–507, 759–761
current trends in, 748, 765, 766, 918–919
effectiveness of, 761–765, 779–792
comparative effectiveness of deterrent versus rehabilitative approaches, 784–786
history of, 749–757
Massachusetts juvenile correctional reforms753–754
Missouri model, 766
programs for serious juvenile offenders, 787–789
victimization of juveniles in, 725, 750, 751, 752, 755, 760, 764, 775
wilderness programs, 781–782
counsel, defense
ABA reports on access to and quality of counsel, 674, 916
adolescents' competence to exercise right to, 673
and blended sentencing, 823
and Gault. See In Re Gault
impact of representation, at sentencing, 677–678
presence at intake, 592–593
and justice by geography, 673, 676
notification of right to, 430, 673
rates of representation by, 673–674
and reform efforts, 915–916
waiver of right to, 675–676, 916
criminal careers
and the age-crime curve, 32
age-graded theories, 37
effect of life circumstances, 39–40
framework, 33–35
and theory testing, 38–40
typological theories, 35–37
and violence, 150–151 See also Desistance
culpability, juvenile
at common law, 421, 877
diminished capacity/reduced culpability, 541–542. See also, Roper v. Simmons, Graham v. Florida
and immaturity, 538–539
and insanity defense, 536–541
and mental disorder, 537–538
and transfer/waiver, 802, 820–821, 825, 829–831, 834–835, 844, 916–921
cultural deviance theory, 52–53
defense attorney. See counsel, defense
depression and delinquency, 128–129
desistance
in adolescence382–384
and challenges in research, 376–380
and employment, 382
and family, 383–384
future research on, 386–389
and gender, 385–386
measurement issues, 378–379
and peers, 383
and race, 385
and romantic partners, 382
and sanctions, 384, 389–390
theoretical accounts, 380–381
detention
and conditions of confinement, 646–647
criteria, 636–637, 639–640
(p. 929)
and gender, 649–650
history of, 637–640
impact on youth, 644–646
and mental health, 650–651
and minorities, 648–649
preventive, 639–640, 656. See also, Schall v. Martin
of status offenders, 638
trends in use, 640–644
Detention Diversion Advocacy Project (DDAP), 655
determinate sentencing. See sentencing
deterrence
effectiveness, shortcomings of, 263, 359–363, 736, 740, 784–787, 827–829
as penal policy, 353, 354, 357–358
public views on, 356–357
direct file. See transfer
disproportionate minority contact, 446–453, 562–564, 648–649, 759. See also Minorities
diversion, generally, 426, 433–434, 581, 582, 585–597, 712–713, 913–914
effectiveness of, 595–596, 787
and minorities, 463–465, 473, 475
and restorative justice, 712–713 See also, Teen courts, Drug courts, Restorative justice
Drug Abuse Resistance Education, 407, 556–557, 562, 912
drug courts, 615–622
due process, juvenile
and competence to stand trial, 529, 669–670. See also Competence
due process revolution, 429–431, 664–666, 902–904
and the insanity defense, 537, 539–540
and police interrogation, 667–668. See also Interrogation
pre-1960s, 422–423
and preventive detention, 639–640. See also Detention
and right to counsel, 664, 666–667, 673. See also Counsel, defense
and right to jury trial, 678–681. See also Jury trial
and transfer to criminal court, 814–819. See also Transfer
and urban versus other courts, 673. See also Justice by geography
Dusky v. United States, 528, 669
Dusky competence standard. See also, competence, adjudicative
abilities considered under, 528–529, 669
in criminal court, 529
in juvenile court, 529, 669–670
Ex Parte Crouse, 422–423, 750
family factors and delinquency
age of mother, 160–161
antisocial parents, 157–159
family size, 160
family structure, 159, 187–189
parental attachment, 181–184
parental monitoring and discipline, 158, 159, 177–181, 184–187, 241, 278, 317. See also child abuse, child neglect, child maltreatment
and prevention of delinquency, 400–404
risk factors153–155, 161–162
and SES, 161
theories of, 177–187
witnessing family violence, 130, 159–160
Fare v. Michael C.,667–669, 672
females. See gender
Functional Family Therapy, 137, 728, 730, 738
Gang Resistance Education and Training, 164, 556–557, 912
gangs
and crime patterns, 260–261
defining, 247–249
dynamics of, 252–255, 261–262
explaining levels of gang crime, 259–260
and gender, 259
and homicide, 255–257
and minorities, 259
prevalence, 250–52
responses to, 262–265
gender and
adjudication, 498–499
arrests and arrest trends, 13, 17–19
comorbidity of mental disorders, 134
correctional treatment, 504–508, 759–761
desistance, 385–386
detention, 496–498, 649–650
disposition, 498–499
future research, 512–513
juvenile court case rates, 21, 23
net widening, 503–504
parental referrals to juvenile court, 425, 496–496
police responses, 493–496, 499–500, 503
race, impact on processing, 500–501
residential placement, 501–504
status offending, 424–425, 496–497, 502–504, 649, 759–760
general strain theory. See Strain theories
general theory of crime. See Self-control theory
genetic factors and delinquency, 75–76, 189–192
“Get Tough” era, 433–434, 904–907
(p. 930) hormones and delinquency, 85–87
hostile attribution bias and delinquency, 184–185, 206–207
Houses of Refuge, 49, 395, 421–422, 749–751
impulsivity and delinquency, 62, 114–116, 130–131, 152–157, 159, 164, 180, 206–207, 297
In re Gault, 419, 429, 496, 529, 537, 540, 597, 664–667, 672–674, 678–679, 685, 700, 752, 894, 902, 915
impact on delinquency proceedings, 429–431, 673–674, 678, 752, 902–903
rationale, 666–667
In Re Winship,431, 435n, 664–665, 678, 681, 903
indeterminate sentencing. See Sentencing
infancy defense, 527
insanity defense, 536–541
intake
formal v. informal processing, 585–593
and juvenile court mission, 578–579
increased role of prosecutor, 597
and Juvenile Assessment Centers, 598–599
research needs, 599–601
screening and assessment, 580–585
intelligence and delinquency, 79–80, 205–206
interrogation of juveniles. See also, Miranda v Arizona, Fare v. Michael C., Yarborough v. Alvarado
and competence to exercise Miranda rights, 668–670
and false confessions, 671–672
legal framework for waiver of Miranda, 667–668
mandated recording, 672
and parental influence, 116–118
and parental presence safeguards, 668
research on juveniles in the interrogation room, 670–672
judicial waiver. See transfer
jury trial, right in juvenile court. See also McKeiver v. Pennsylvania
and future of juvenile court, 679, 681, 903
impact on juvenile case processing and outcomes, 665, 676, 681–683, 822–823
impact on subsequent criminal case outcomes, 684–685
provisions by state, 679–681
justice by geography, 468–471, 582, 673, 676
juvenile court, the institution
ideological origins and legal foundation, 420–423
Progressive Era, 423–429
juvenile court processing trends. See also arrest
adjudicatory trends, 25
detention trends, 23–24
informal processing trends, 24–25
out-of-home placement trends, 25
racial disparity trends, 25–27, 446–453
referral trends, 20–23
transfer trends, 27–28 See also, Transfer
Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI), 652–654, 757, 920
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDP Act)
and deinstitutionalization of status offenders, 496–497, 638–639, 641, 913
and disproportionate minority contact/confinement, 648
and services for girls, 506–507
juvenile justice policy trends, current
appointment of counsel, 915–916
catalysts for current reforms, 908–912
corrections, 918–919
court processing, 912–913
diversion, 913–914
mission/purpose, 914–915
prevention and early intervention, 911–912
reform initiatives, 919–920
specialized Courts, 915
transfer and sentencing, 916–918
Juvenile Justice Standards Project, 431, 432
Kent v. United States, 430–431, 529, 540, 666, 806, 815–817, 819, 824–825, 834
labeling theory, 645, 704, 764, 775, 777, 893
Life Course theory, 57–59
life without possibility of parole (LWOP)
In the U.S., 542, 802, 829–830, 906, 909, 917–918
Outside the U.S., 906 See also, Graham v. Florida
life-course persistent offending
causes, 36, 74, 81
behavior patterns, 36
and social control theory, 37 See also Criminal careers
Martinson Report, 726, 776, 832, 903
MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA), 110
MacArthur Juvenile Adjudicative Competence Study, 113, 531
MacArthur Foundation Models for Change Initiative, 911, 919–920
Martinson Report, 776
(p. 931) McKeiver v. Pennsylvania, 431, 665, 676, 678–681, 683–685, 903
rationale explained, 678–679, 903
Mental health courts, 622–628
Miranda v. Arizona, 110, 117, 119, 139, 528, 665–673, 675, 685. See also, Interrogation
Minorities and
attitudes toward police, 562–563
explaining race differentials in offending, 385, 453–456
factors contributing to racial disparities in court processing, 462–471
official data on
adjudication, 449, 451
correctional placement, 451–453, 759
court referral, 447, 448
detention, 447, 448, 450
formal charging447, 448, 450, 451
judicial disposition, 449, 450, 451
and police handing, 458–461, 562–564
the politics of race and crime, 456–458, 470–471
and probation officer assessments, 468
self reports of offending, 453–454
social structure and racial disparities, 470
urban-rural variations in processing of minorities, 469
victim reports on offenders, 454
the War on Drugs, 457
Moral values, and penal policy, 363–369
Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, 137, 323–324, 728, 730, 739
Multisystemic Therapy, 137, 620–621, 728, 730, 738, 790–791
neighborhoods and delinquency
disadvantage, 273–274, 384–385, 553
and gangs, 252–253
policy implications of, 474–475, 555
racial composition, 274
religious ecology, 275
research on direct effects, 280
research on indirect effects, 280
impact of community conditions on schools215–218
research on interaction effects, 280–282
research needs, 282–284, 387
socioeconomic status, 273–274, 460, 563–564
theories of
collective efficacy, 276
opportunity, 291
systemic model275–276
social disorganization, 276–277
social learning, 314
weaknesses in the research literature, 277–279
neighborhood variations in enforcement of the law, 457, 459–461, 472
net widening, 22, 596, 697, 712, 823, 913
neuropsychological deficits and delinquency, 80–81. See also, Adolescent brain development
Nurse-Family Partnership, 401–402, 728
Parens patriae, 422–423, 431, 433, 486, 552, 578, 639, 680, 685, 778, 899–901
Parham v. J.R., 503
parenting and delinquency. See Family
parents, involvement in the juvenile justice process, 116–118
parole/aftercare. See also reentry
intensive, 263, 736
regular parole/aftercare, 736, 780, 787, 792–793, 857
and specialized courts, 625
revocation, 761
peers and delinquency. See also Gangs
age and vulnerability to peer influence, 112–113, 375
and causality/causal direction, 231–234, 320–321
characteristics of delinquent peer groups229–230
and collective efficacy, 278
and control theories, 60, 239–240
and deterrence theory, 240
and desistance, 383, 386
and differential association theory, 235–236
and friendships, 230–231
and general strain theory, 240
and girls, 511
group versus lone offending, 227–228
mechanisms of peer influence, 237–239
and neighborhood disadvantage, 280
and parental relationships, 179, 231, 240
and prevention/intervention, 240–241, 324, 382, 404–405, 777, 855, 857, 913–914
rejection by peers and delinquency, 156
and social disorganization, 276–277
and social learning theory, 177, 236–237, 313–314, 317–319, 349, 645, 777
police
and Comprehensive Gang Model, 561–562. See also, Gangs
and drug market intervention, 560–561
and evidence-based practices556–558
history of policing juveniles, 552
and hotspots patrol, 559–560
juvenile arrest patterns and trends, 9–22, 26, 150–151, 552–555
and minorities, 562–564. See also, Minorities
(p. 932) and “pulling levers,”560
referral trends, 554
and restorative justice, 558–559. See also, Restorative justice
and School Resource Officers, 557. See also, Schools and delinquency
specialized police units, 555–556
and youth violence, 559–560
police interrogation of juveniles. See Interrogation
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and delinquency, 129–130
pre-natal and peri-natal risk factors and delinquency
birth complications, 88–89
fetal anomalies, 89–90
malnutrition, 90–91
smoking during pregnancy, 87–88
prevention of delinquency
addressing early health risks for delinquency, 91–93
community-based approaches, 407–408
family approaches, 400–404
individual approaches, 397–400
public views on, 354–355
school-based approaches, 405–407
values-based approaches, 363–368
probation officers
and effects of defendants' race in predisposition reports, 468, 592
and intake screening, 575–576, 578–579, 581, 585–586
Progressive Era. See Juvenile court history
prosecutor, change in role and authority in juvenile justice system, 27, 574, 576, 578–579, 581, 585, 597, 815, 821–822, 824, 835n, 903, 905, 917
prosecutorial decision-making
charging, 466, 591, 679
gang prosecution, 263
intake screening, 576–577, 579–582
and restorative justice, 713
transfer to criminal court, 27–28, 804–806, 815, 817–825, 834, 917
psychophysiology and delinquency, 82–85
psychosocial maturity. See adolescent development
public attitudes
on crime prevention, 354–355
on punishment and rehabilitation of offenders354, 356–359, 363
on values-based approaches to social control, 363
punitiveness of American justice system, 353–363
race. See minorities
reentry
from adult corrections853–858
from juvenile corrections792–793
restorative justice models, 367–368
Australian Wagga wagga model, 706–707
compatibility with other models, 700–701
development in the U.S., 697–698, 699–700
empirical studies of, 707–711
in New Zealand, 705–706, 883
obstacles to expansion711–714
planning for success, 714–715
principles and practices, 701–702
and reintegrative shaming theory, 703–705
retribution
public perception of, 356
reverse waiver, 824–825
risk assessment, 465, 584, 601, 653, 742, 920
Roper v. Simmons,119, 434, 539, 542, 802, 825, 830, 906, 917, 918
and characterization of adolescence, 119, 434, 542, 803, 830, 834, 844, 910
and proportionality, 830
rationale, 542, 830, 917 See also capital punishment
“Scared Straight” programs, 712, 713, 740, 764, 913
Schall v. Martin, 436n, 639–640, 656
schools, changing demography, 207–215
schools and delinquency,
academic performance, 205, 206
attachment to school, 205
community conditions, school staffing, and delinquency, 215–218
and delinquency prevention, 218–219, 405–407
dropout, 205
grade retention as predictor of delinquency, 205
grammar school misconduct as predictor, 205
Gun Free Schools Act, 906
school resource officers, 557, 565, 906–907, 912–913
school-to-prison/jail pipeline, 697, 907
suspension and expulsion, 475, 906, 912
zero tolerance policies, 495, 697, 714, 891, 906–907, 912–913
Seattle Social Development Model, 324–325
Second Chance Act, 853
self-control theory, 51, 59–62 180–181, 183, 191, 206, 240
self-reported delinquency, 9–12, 34, 38, 51, 148–153, 156, 158, 160–162, 228, 233, 235, 251, 258, 321, 324, 325, 378, 384–385, 453–454, 457, 459–460, 492, 494, 554, 557, 563, 888
sentencing, blended, 806, 812–815, 822–824
(p. 933) sentencing, criminal court
enhancements for delinquency adjudications, 665, 683–685
in Germany, sentencing of young adults, 872, 882
in the Netherlands, 885
in New Zealand, sentencing of young adults, 883
in Scandinavia, sentencing of young adults, 882, 885, 893
sentencing, juvenile court
circle sentencing, 559, 707
determinate, 680, 905
in England, 881
in Germany, 882
in the Netherlands, 885
guidelines, 585, 680
and gender, 674
and guilty pleas, 675–676
indeterminate, 422, 426
mandatory, 680
and race, 466–468, 470, 674
and representation by counsel673, 677–678
in urban versus rural courts, 673, 676
serious and violent offending
and age, 150–151
and childhood risk factors, 152–162
and Code of the Streets, 337
prevalence of, 149–150
research on, 147–149
and violence reduction policy, 163–165
sex. See gender
social class. See socioeconomic status
social control theories
Hirschi's social control theory, 55–57, 275
Sampson and Laub's life course theory, 37, 40, 57–59, 380–381, 389
Social Development Model. See Seattle Social Development Model
social learning theory
critiques of, 319–321
development, 307–309
explained, 309–314
and group delinquency, 236–237
and Patterson's Coercion Model
programmatic applications, 322–325
and social structure, 315–316
socioeconomic status, individual-level, and
arrest and custody, 563
desistance, 383
effects of testosterone on delinquency, 87
formal v. informal processing, 473
youth violence, 153, 155, 161
status offenders
arrests, 12
and Becca's law, 641, 913
and circumvention of deinstitutionalization requirement, 502–504, 638, 760
detention of, 641, 643–644, 913
and juvenile law, 424–425, 432, 496, 638
outside the U.S., 876
and referral to court, 554–555, 913
strain theories
history of, 289–291
general strain theory, 291–303
and age, 299
and coping, 295–298
and gender, 298–299
and harsh parenting, 185
policy implications, 301–303
Teaching Family Model, 322–323, 788
teen courts, 610–615, 913–914
Thompson v. Oklahoma,133
Three Strikes laws, 354–355
transfer of juveniles to adult court
age of eligibility, 807–812
blended sentencing, 806, 822–824
current trends, 915–918
deterrent effect, 826–829
and developmental maturity, 830–831
general deterrent effects, 826–827
and the “get tough” era, 905–906
judicial waiver, 815–818. See also, Kent v. United States
implications of research for policy, 831–835
legislative offense exclusion, 806, 818–819
in other countries, 879–880, 882, 893–894
prosecutorial waiver.806, 819–822
punishment gap, 825–826
reverse waiver, 824–825
specific deterrent effects, 827–829
and sentencing, 829–831, 854
state transfer provisions, 802–815
trends in use, 27–28
treatment. See rehabilitation
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 906
values-based approaches to crime prevention and control, 363–368
and procedural justice, 364, 365, 368
victim reports of juvenile offending, 4–8, 11, 14, 18, 454, 492–494
(p. 934) victimization of juveniles in juvenile justice system, 130, 159, 256–258, 553–554, 752, 846–848
victim-offender overlap, 47–63
explained, 51–52
control theories, 55–62
cultural deviance theories, 52–53
and subculture of violence, 52–53
strain theories, 53–54
and policy implications, 53, 55
violent juvenile offending
arrest trends, 12–20
and biosocial risk factors, 81–82, 88–89
and childhood aggression150
and community violence, 336
and comorbidity, 124
continuation into adulthood, 150–151
and culture, 337–338
and desistance, 379, 382–383, 385, 388
and executive functioning of the brain, 80
family risk factors in, 50, 157–161, 355
and gangs, 247, 250, 255–266, 318–319
and impulsivity, 152–156
and intelligence, 79, 206
and internalizing problems, 133
lethal violence, social distribution and national trends, 4–7
and neighborhood disadvantage, 280
New York City Youth Violence Study, 340–341
non-lethal violence, social distribution and national trends, 7–9
and nutrition, 90, 92
and offense specialization, 151–152
and peers, 270, 338–350
prediction of, 161–162
prevention of, 163–165. See also Crime Prevention
research needs, 162–163
as a percent of all violent offending, 10–11
school factors in, 156–157, 206
and social learning, 314, 317, 318–319
and socioeconomic status, 161
and strain, 294–295, 297
violent events, situational characteristics and patterns of interaction, 341–350
waiver of juveniles to adult court. See transfer
Yarborough v. Alvarado, 667–668, 672
zero tolerance policies. See schools and delinquency