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date: 21 May 2019

(p. 699) Index

(p. 699) Index

Page numbers followed by “f  ”and “t” denote figures and tables respectively

A
AARP Public Policy Institute, occupations for older workers, 53t
AARP survey, self-employment, 595
abbreviations, 627
absenteeism, physical disease, 222
absolute continuity
aging, 152
personality traits, 260–262, 263–264
accelerated longitudinal design, data analysis, 160
accessibility, measurement, 159
Ackerman v. Diamond Shamrock 1982, 622
Active Aging, OECD, 676
active genotype-environment correlation, term, 165
activity, unemployment, 320
Act on Older Persons, Thailand, 90
actual fit measure
definition, 207
Person-Group (P-G) fit, 198
use of P-E fit concepts, 191t
Adams v. Moore 2000, 623
adaptability, older workers, 315–316
additive genetic variance, 164
adjustment process, retirement as, 572–573
adverse impact theory
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 611t, 615–618
early ADEA, rulings, 616–617
Smith and Meacham rulings, 617–618
Title VII, adverse impact rules, 616
affirmative action, organizations, 383–384
AFL-CIO, union advantage, 673
after action review (AAR), learning, 426, 431
age. See also chronological age; functional age; subjective age
alternative measures of, 172–181
complexity of relationship with job performance, 291–292
contextual age, 180–181
continuous variable, 138
control variable in career development, 146
demographics of U.S., 41t
employment trends, 589–590
functional, 173–174
future research questions, 181–182
general developmental model, 153–154
interrelationships with personality, job satisfaction and commitment, 272f
job insecurity, 316–318
job-loss experience, 318–322
job satisfaction and, 266–267
literature on, and job performance, 285–291
norms, 177–180, 181
organizational commitment and, 267–268
organizational justice and, 268–269
retirement trends, 598–600
taxonomy, 172f
training and, 437–440
understanding, 275–276
worker, 302
age at retirement, United States, 47–49
age-based regulations. See also Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA)
adverse impact theory in ADEA, 611t, 615–618
case law citations, 625–626
disparate treatment scenarios, 611–615
facial discrimination in benefits, 620–621
facial discrimination in hiring and termination, 611t, 618–620
future directions, 625
McDonnell-Burdine scenario for disparate treatment, 611t
Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA), 609, 622t
prior case law on early retirement, 621–622
prior case law on voluntary waivers, 622
recommendations for fairness and compliance, 623–625
Title II of OWPBA, 622–623
age bias, workplace, 25, 300, 694–695
age discrimination
concept, 299–300
employment gap, 329–331
older workers, 22–23, 694–695
societal culture, 407
technology reducing, 347
Age Discrimination Act (ADA), Australia, 92, 606
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), 7, 25, 138, 170, 407, 437, 606. See also age-based regulations
administrative procedures, 608t, 610
adverse impact theory, 611t, 615–618
covered entities, 608t, 609
covered practices, 608t, 609–610
disparate treatment scenarios, 611–615
early retirement and voluntary waivers, 621–623
enforcement, 695
exemptions, 609t, 609–610
facial discrimination, 611, 618–621
judicial scenarios, 608t, 610–611
mandatory retirement and, 664–666
overview, 608–611
protected class, 608–609
recommendations for fairness and compliance, 623–625
remedies, 608t, 610
age fit research. See also Person-Environment (P-E) fit
concepts and operation, 206
future directions, 205–207
level combination and interaction, 207
levels needed, 205–206
multidimensional research, 203–205
processes and outcomes, 207
role of time, 206–207
age-graded, term, 549
age-graded influences, aging, 171
ageism, 300
fairness and, 623–624
mandatory retirement, 665
age-management practices
dimensions, 410
employee retention in European Union, 410f
impact on retention, 413–414
agency restriction model, unemployment, 320
age norms, 177–180, 181
age-productivity question, Canadian workers, 107–109
age range, personality traits, 264
age-related physical changes
aerobic capacity, 219
central nervous system, 219
daily work demands, 227
(p. 700)
future directions, 228
immune function and response, 220
impact on mental well-being, 223–225
impact on physical well-being, 220–223
impact on social well-being, 225–227
infectious disease, 221–222
mental health, 224–225
muscle function, 218–219
neurological changes, 219–220
occupational stress, 224
physical disease, 222–223
physical exercise and occupational health, 227–228
pulmonary capacity, 219
safety, 220–221
social relationships, 225–226
substance abuse, 217–218, 225
suicide, 218, 225
work-life balance, 226–227
work motivation, 223–224
age stereotypes
career development, 143–144
concept, 299
downstream moderators, 303
employee evaluation, 306
explication of paths in meta–framework, 303–305
future research, 305–307
impact of interactions of different, 306–307
influencing workplace decisions, 300–301
job performance, 280–281
mediators, 301–302, 304–305
meta-framework, 301–305
moderators, 301, 303, 304
national culture on, 307
outcomes of, 303, 304–305
Person-Job (P-J) fit, 192
recommended practices for organizations, 307–309
risk management approach, 308–309
training, 442–443
training and development, 308
upstream moderators, 303
worker age, 302
work-family concern, 530–531
workplace, 302–303
age stratification system, 557–558
age x complexity hypothesis, 284
aging. See also age-related physical changes; cognitive aging; global aging
causes of demographic, 14–15
demographic and societal perspectives, 687–688
employment changes, 20
global process of, 11
job attitudes and, 275
migration competition, 20
multidimensionality, 171–172
personality and, 274–275
population, and economic growth, 19–20
research questions, 695–696
study of, 117–118
successful, 247–249
trends, 341–342
workforce theories, 4, 693–694
work-life balance, 26–27
aging demographics, United States, 630–632
aging population, Europe, 60–64
aging theories. See also Meaning of Working for Older Workers (MOWFOW)
age and society perspective, 122
biological, 120–121
cognitive theories, 119–120
development-genetic theories, 120–121
evolutionary theories, 121
life course theory, 121–122
life span development theory, 118–119
personality theories, 120
psychological, 118–120
reliability theory, 121
selection, optimization and compensation (SOC) model, 119
social exchange theory (SET), 122
socioemotional selectivity theory, 119
sociological theories, 121–122
stochastic theories, 120
aging trends, demographics, 341–342
aging workforce. See also Person-Environment (P-E) fit; studying the aging worker; technological challenges; training and development; workforce planning
Asia Pacific, 80–84
Australia, 92–93
bridge jobs, 22
Canada, 98–101
China, 84–86
Europe, 60–64
future directions, 376–377, 695–696
health changes and older workers, 23
issues, 21–24
Japan, 87–88
mental and psychological health issues, 23–24
myth of skilled older workers, 22
retirement or work, 22–23
Singapore, 90–92
strategic human resources management matrix, 373–377
strategic planning for, 5–6
technology, 343–347
unemployed older persons, 22–23
United States, 33–34, 53–56
agreeableness, Big Five trait, 262
Albemarle v. Moody 1975, 615–616
alignment and control, strategy process, 372–373, 374t
Alphin v. Sears 1991, 612, 615
Alzheimer’s disease, 24, 39
Amazon.com, 347, 355
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 669
American Time Use Survey (ATUS), 555–556
apocalyptic demography
black-or-white fallacy, 109–110
Canada, 98–99
evidence-based model, 104f, 109
false dichotomy, 109
intuitive model, 101, 102f
arthritis, chronic disease, 222
Asia, 14t
Asia Pacific
addressing aging workforces across, 93–94
aging population, 4, 84
Australia, 92–93
China, 84–86
culture and aging workforce, 94
diversity in workforce situations, 80–81
future directions, 94–95
Japan, 87–88
Singapore, 90–92
Thailand, 88–90
trends in aging workforces, 81–84
assessing capabilities
preferred future to, 375–376
strategy process, 371–372, 374t
assessment, training and development needs, 440–444, 448t
attention
cognitive aging, 241–242
working memory, 283
attentional control, cognitive aging, 243
Attention Networks Test (ANT), 243
auditory information processing, ergonomics, 463–464
Australia
aging population, 92–93
aging workforce, 392
demographic trends for 50-plus population, 82t
older workers, 22–23
populations 65-plus and 80-plus, 12t
potential working population trends, 83t
Australian Bureau of Statistics, age and work, 16
Austria, average exit age from labor force, 71t
automakers, older worker buyout plans, 674
B
“Baby Boom”
Canadians, 100
post-World War II, 12
Baby Boom generation
aging, work and retirement, 687–688
aging demographics, 630
aging population, 587–588
Americans born 1946–1964, 34
approaching retirement, 3, 237, 436
characteristics, 487t, 488t
(p. 701)
friendly occupations and industries, 52–53
job attitudes, 275
research design, 492–493
resistance to traditional retirement, 541
retirement, 542, 550
retirement age, 49, 54
retirement reshaping workplace, 663
workforce, 18, 368
bankruptcy, Social Security and Medicare, 629
behavior genetics, developmental, 164–166
Belgium
actual and ideal retirement age, 66f
age “too old to work”, 68f
average exit age from labor force, 71t
effective retirement age, 65f
benefits, facial discrimination, 620–621
Berndt v. Kaiser Aluminum! 1986, 613–614
best practices
alignment of employer with, 412–413
retention strategies, 409–412
Big Five personality traits, 262
aging and, 274–275
job satisfaction, 272
Big Pharma
capturing knowledge, 422
challenges and opportunities, 420
biographical pacing, advantages and disadvantages, 558–560
biological age, 172, 173–174
biological changes, aging population, 215–216
biological theories of aging
development-genetic theories, 120–121
evolutionary theories, 121
reliability theory, 121
stochastic theories, 120
birth cohort, defined, 484
black-or-white fallacy, apocalyptic demography, 109–110
Board of Investment of Thailand (BOI), older workers, 90
Board of Regents of Alabama v. Garrett 2001, 609
Bolivia, 12t
Boomer generation. See Baby Boom generation
brain function, age-related changes, 219
Brazil, 12t
bridge employment
choosing, over retirement, 396–397
older workers, 22
post-retirement activities, 576–577
women after retirement, 575
work-family flexibility, 527
Buddhism, Thailand, 89
Bulgaria, 68f, 72
Burch v. Flour 1994, 622
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), retirement age, 49
buyout plans, older worker and labor unions, 673–674
C
Cambodia
demographic trends for 50-plus population, 82t
Khmer Rouge, 89
potential working population trends, 83t
Vietnam War, 89
Canada
aging demographics in, 99–101
aging demographics in Canadian values context, 110–111
apocalyptic demography, 98–99, 109–110
black-or-white fallacy, 109–110
dependency ratios, 105–106
emigration rates, 100–101
evidence-based model of aging population, 104f, 109
fallacy of sole cause, 110
false dichotomy, 109
fertility rates, 100
future needs and directions, 111–112
health of population, 107
Human Rights Act of 1985, 606–607
immigration rates, 100
intuitive model of apocalyptic demographics, 101, 102f
labor participation rate, 104–105
median retirement age, 102–109
middle-ground fallacy, 110
mortality rates, 100
retention by social exchange model, 398
skills shortages, 106
study of earnings test, 666
viability of “old age” social category, 109–110
worker productivity, 107–109
worker skills, 106–107
Workforce Aging for the New Economy (WANE), 676
work participation and productivity, 109–110
values, 110–111
cancer, death in middle age, 23
capabilities, job-related, of older worker, 292–293
capacities, job experience, 285–286
cardiovascular system
aging population, 216
physical demands of work, 222–223
career development
activities, 138–139
age-balanced organizational, 512–514
age stereotype perspective, 143–144
aging and older workers, 138
future directions for organizations, 515
future research, 146–147, 515
human capital, 138–139, 139
mid- and late-career workers, 503–505
misconceptions about older workers, 512–513
mobility of mid- and late-career workers, 511–512
motivational perspective on aging and, 141–142
organizational, 505–509
progression of organizational, 506–507
research on aging and, 137–138, 146–147
retirement as, stage, 573–574
role of organization, 144–146
social cognitive theory on aging and, 139–141
social support, 142–143
strategic employability approach, 508–509
succession, for mid- and late-career workers, 509–512
suggestions for older workers, 513–514
value of today’s, 507–508
career embeddedness
concept, 397–398
organization, 405–406
career growth, opportunities for older worker, 404
career stages, generational research, 492
career timetable theory, aging and career development, 142
caregiving duties
aging parents, 523–524
dependent care supports, 527–528
grandchildren, 524–525
older workers, 404
parents and children, 524
Caring Collaborative, innovative support, 545
carrying tasks, work, 460
case law citations
adverse impact rules, 615–618
age-based derogatory remarks, 615
age-based regulations, 625–626
age difference, 612–613
disparate treatment, 611–615
early retirement, 621–622
facial discrimination in benefits, 620–621
facial discrimination in hiring and termination, 618–620
reductions-in-force (RIFs), 613–614
reorganization schemes, 614–615
same actor defense, 613
Smith and Meacham rulings, 617–618
Title II of OWPBA, 622–623
voluntary waivers, 622
Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), 431
Center on Aging & Work, 401
central nervous system, age-related changes, 219–220
children, caring for, 524
China
aging workforce, 84–86
demographic trends for 50-plus population, 82t
government policies for older workers, 85–86
(p. 702)
“In-Betweeners,” 86
Lost Generation, 86
median age over time, 61f
net fertility, 62
oldest old, 13
one-child policy, 15, 84–85, 95
populations 65-plus and 80-plus, 12t
potential working population trends, 83t
China Association of Senior Scientists and Technicians (CASST), 85
chronic health conditions, United States, 40
chronological age, 138. See also functional age; subjective age
appeal of, 170–171
definition, 169–170
multidimensionality of aging, 171–172
chronological process model, anticipation, job loss and unemployment, 314f
Civic Ventures, 544
Civil Rights Act, Title VII, 665
Civil Service Employees Association (CSEA), 675
Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, 634
Cleary v. US Lines 1983, 609
clutter-avoidance principle, workspace, 459
cognitive abilities
job design or retention for older adults, 456–458
learning and age, 437–438
cognitive age, 174
cognitive aging
attention, 241–242
basic mechanisms, 240–244
construct definitions and operational measures, 246–247
episodic memory, 243–244
executive function, 242–243
future directions, 249–250
individual differences, 238–240
paradigmatic approaches to research, 244–245
plasticity and vitality, 248–249
relevance to workplace issues, 236–238
research design, 245–246
sampling techniques, 245–246
task performance, 239–240
working memory (WM), 242–243
cognitive theories
aging and career development, 139–141
psychological theory of aging, 119–120
coherence, consistency of genotype, 152
cohort
cohort flow, 122
general developmental model, 154
job performance of older workers, 291
collaborative decision-making, knowledge, 434
collective purpose, job loss, 319
Combating Age Barriers, European Foundation, 409
Coming of Age, initiative, 545
Commission for the Development of the Elderly Human Resources (CDEHR), China, 85
communication
generational differences, 495
measurement, 159
teamwork and older workers, 476–477
comorbidity, definition, 228
compensation
job performance of older workers, 291–292
retirement ages in Europe, 67
competition, migration, 20
competitive advantage, older workers, 309
complementary fit
definition, 208
Person-Environment (P-E) fit, 189–191
Person-Organization (P-O) fit, 201–203
use of P-E fit concepts, 191t
complex relationships, age stereotypes, 305
comprehension, measurement, 159
computer-based training (CBT), training approach, 445–446
Congressional Budget Office (CBO), Medicaid spending, 640
“connectors,” working, 128–129
conscientiousness
Big Five trait, 262
interrelationships, 272–273
consistency principle, workspace, 459
constructionist model, meaning of working for older workers, 123–124
consumer behavior, subjective age, 176
content validity, measurement, 159
contextual age, 180–181
contextual behaviors, job performance, 471
Continuing Education and Training (CET), Singapore, 91
continuity
absolute, and personality traits, 260–262, 263–264
differential, and personality traits, 259–260, 263
retirement, 395, 396, 573
voluntary nature of retirement, 576
“contributors,” working, 129
conventional designs, studying aging worker, 156–157
convergence analysis
aging worker, 162–163
analytical approach, 158
coping, definition, 322
coping behavior
job loss, 323
social participation, 324
coping goals, 322
coping strategies, 322
Coupe v. Federal Express 1997, 619
cross-sectional design, 156–157
cross-sectional sequences, 157
cross-sequential strategy, 160
crystallized intelligence
dual-component theory of intelligence, 119
life span, 24
Cultural Revolution, China, 85–86
culture
age fit research, 204
age-positive organizational, 406
age stereotypes, 307
aging workforce in Asia, 94
changing organizational, 405–407
changing societal policies or, 407
cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), work, 460–461
customization, computing technology, 347
Cyprus, average exit age from labor force, 71t
Czech Republic, average exit age from labor force, 71t
D
daily time use, midcourse decisions, 555–556
data analysis, studying aging worker, 159–163
death causes, United States, 38–39
decision aiding, ergonomics, 464–465
decision-making
collaborative, 434
work and retirement, 6
defined benefit (DB), pension plan, 393, 667–669
defined contribution (DC), pension plan, 393, 667–669
defining preferred future, strategy process, 372, 374t
demand for senior workers, retirement in Europe, 68–69
dementias, 24, 39
demographics. See also employment trends; United States
age norms, 178
aging, 11
aging, in Canada, 99–101
aging, work and retirement, 687–688
aging trends, 341–342
Person-Environment (P-E) fit approach, 189–191
population and workforce, 3–4
role of immigration, 631–632
Denmark
actual and ideal retirement age, 66f
age “too old to work,” 68f
average exit age from labor force, 71t
education scenario, 73, 74f
European role model, 73
Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), 634
dependency ratio
Canada, 101, 105–106
demographic statistic, 630
dependent care
outcomes for initiatives, 531
work-family issue, 527–528
design issues. See also job design (p. 703)
age-appropriate labeling, 349–350
age-related cues, 349
matching input device to task, 349
miniaturization, 348
technology, 348–350
design phase, instructional process, 444–445, 448t
desired age, concept, 177
developed countries, populations, 12t
developed nations, global patterns, 11
developing countries, populations, 12t
development. See also general development model; studying the aging worker
general developmental model, 152–155
life span psychology, 151–152
development-genetic theories, aging, 120–121
Diamond model, overlapping generations model, 634–636, 637
diary methods, studying aging worker, 163
differential continuity
aging, 152
personality traits, 259–260, 263
digital divide, Internet for recruitment, 385
disability, United States, 39–40
discrimination. See also age stereotypes
age, in Australia, 92–93
aging and career development, 143–144
concept of age, 299–300
employment gap, 329–331
older workers, 22–23, 694–695
older workers across Asia, 93–94
older workers in Asia, 84
Person-Environment (P-E) fit approach, 189–191
role of aging, 187–188
senior workers, 22, 68–69
workplace, 25
disparate treatment
age-based derogatory remarks, 615
age difference, 612–613
age-specific scenarios, 611–615
McDonnell–Burdine scenario, 611t
reductions-in-force (RIFs), 613–614
reorganization schemes, 614–615
same actor defense, 613
distal external influences, Meaning of Working for Older Workers (MOWFOW) model, 126, 133f
diversity
generational differences, 493–494
Person-Environment (P-E) fit approach, 189–191
role of aging, 187–188
staffing policy for organizations, 383–384
divided attention, cognitive aging, 241–242
dopaminergic, definition, 228
Dothard v. Rawlinson 1977, 618
driving performance, technology, 345
dual-career couples, research, 530
dynamic learning. See also learning
change, 433
collaborative decision-making, 434
driving innovation, 430–432
experimentation, 433–434
future directions, 432–434
individuals and organizations, 427–430
integration, 432–433
knowledge cycle, 442f
knowledge discovery, 426–427
knowledge domains, 424–427, 429
knowledge focus, 425–426
knowledge transfer, 425
knowledge validation, 427
leveraging knowledge, 427
rapid cycle deployment, 433
solution, 420–424
system, 428f
weak signals, 433
E
earnings, older worker employment, 593–594
earnings test, Social Security, 666–667
East Asia, aging trends, 81
Eastern Europe, 14t
Echo Boomers, 35
economic downturn, pro-work policies for older workers, 677–678
economic growth, population aging and, 19–20
economic incentives, driving retirement in Europe, 66–68
economic status, older persons in U.S., 44, 46
education
comparing, by age over time, 73t
comparing employed persons by age, sex, and, 74f
Europe, 69–70
retirement age in Europe, 70f
United States, 41t, 43, 44t
educational homogamy
definition, 76
Europe, 68, 69
EEOC v. American Airlines 1995, 619
EEOC v. Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin 2002, 609
EEOC v. Exxon Mobil 2008, 619
EEOC v. Texas Instruments (TI) 1996, 624
EEOC v. Town of Huntington 2008, 298, 299, 300
EEOC v. Waffle House 2002, 609
EEOC v. Wayne Community College 1983, 609
EEOC v. Westinghouse 1983, 621
effective retirement age, definition, 76
eGeneration, born 1983 to 2000, 35
eldering, changing social roles, 172
Elderly Talent forums, China, 85
electronic monitoring, training, 354
eligibility, retirement and pension plans, 393–394
embeddedness
career, in organization, 405–406
social, 692–693
emergent project, retirement, 552
emigration rates, Canada, 100–101
employability. See also job loss
human capital, 315
identity, 316
older workers, 314–316
personal adaptability, 315–316
recommendations, 331–333
relevance of strategic approach, 508–509
self-employment, 325–326
social capital, 315
Employability Skills System (ESS), Singapore, 91
employed workers, recommendations, 332
Employee Benefits Research Institute (EBRI), retention, 394
employee evaluations, age stereotyping, 306
Employee Research Benefit Institute (ERBI)
location of seniors, 43–44
Retirement Confidence Survey, 46, 49
employee retention. See also retention strategies
retirement theories, 395–397
social exchange model, 398–399
survey research, 394–395
unfolding model of turnover, 397–398
Work Ability model, 395, 399
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), 401, 609
employees, pro-work policies, 678–679
employers
older workers continuing to work, 393–399
outcomes of age stereotypes, 303
pro-work policies, 670–671, 678
employment
demographics of U.S., 41t, 42t
full- and part-time, trends, 594–595
opportunities for older persons, 21
part-time, for older workers, 594–595, 671
post-retirement, 401–402
employment agencies, recruitment, 385–386
Employment Equality Regulations of 2006, United Kingdom, 606, 607
employment gap
changes, 20
discrimination, 329–331
re-employment, 328–329
employment relationships
age fit research, 203–204, 203–205
Person-Environment (P-E) fit approach, 190–191
Person-Person (P-P) fit, 195
employment status, labor force and, in U.S., 48t
(p. 704) employment trends
averages by age, 589t
averages by gender, 590t
averages by immigrant status, 592t
averages by race, 591t
earnings, 593–594
foreign-born workers, 591–592
full- and part-time, 594–595
future directions, 602–603
gender, 590–591
government policies helping older workers, 600–602
industries of employment, 594
median earnings by age, 593f
minorities, 591–592
moving towards retirement, 596–600
older men and women, 590–591
older workers by demographics, 588–592
retirement options, 600
retirement trends by subgroup, 598–600
self-employment, 595–596
volunteering, 596
endogenous variables, structural equation modeling (SEM), 160
English as Second Language, instruction, 137
enhancement, term, 522
entitlement programs. See also Medicare; Social Security
cautions about changing, 660
challenges for future, 653–656
defining, 652–653
future directions, 660–661
government retirement-based programs, 650–652
healthcare costs, 655–656
health insurance, 651–652
income support, 650–651
likely income trends, 653–655
Medicare, 651–652
privatization vs. incremental strategy for Medicare, 658–660
proposals for reforming, 656–657
Social Security, 650–651
ways to improve Medicare, 657–660
environmental analysis, strategy process, 370–371, 374t
environmental influences, aging workers, 165–166
environmental variance, 164
episodic memory
cognitive aging, 243–244
older workers, 283–284
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 187, 607, 665
age discrimination guidelines, 618–619
claim statistics, 607t
settlements for reductions-in-force (RIF) violations, 614t
equity, Canadian values, 110–111
e-recruitment, Internet, 384–385
ergonomics
auditory information processing, 463–464
cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), 460–461
decision aiding, 464–465
lifting and carrying tasks, 460
management practices, 410f
motor issues, 461
physical work tasks, 458–459
sedentary work, 459–460
visual information processing, 461–463
workplace design principles, 458–465
Estonia, 68f, 71t
Europe
actual retirement, 64–65, 66f
age considered too old to work, 68f
aging population and workforce in, 60–64
average exit age from labor force, 71t
challenges of workforce aging, 74–75
cohort change for retirement projects, 72–74
counteracting developments, 70–71
demand for senior workers, 68–69
drivers of retirement, 66–70
education and health, 69–70
education by age over time, 73t
effective retirement age for men, 65f
employed persons by age, sex, and education, 74f
forces pushing/pulling retirement age, 70f
future directions, 75
median age over time, 61f
mortality decline and aging, 62–63
old-age dependency ratio, 75t
overall retirement trends, 64–66
predicting tomorrow’s older workers, 72
projections of retirement patterns, 71–72
retirement ideals, 65–66
supply of senior labor, 66–68
European Foundation, best practices, 409–412
European Union (EU), age-management practices, 410f
evidence-based model, aging demographics in Canada, 104f, 109
evolutionary theories, aging, 121
executive function, cognitive aging, 242–243
exogenous variables, structural equation modeling (SEM), 160
expectation of life at birth (ELB), aging, 14, 16
expectations
aging and career development, 139–141
importance for older workers, 128–129, 132
Meaning of Working for Older Workers (MOWFOW) model, 133f
Experience Corps, 544
experienced fit
definition, 208
Person-Person (P-P) fit, 195
use of P-E fit concepts, 191t
experience sampling, aging worker, 163–164
expertise, long-term memory and, of older adults, 283–284
exploratory search strategy, job search, 327
external influences
Meaning of Working for Older Workers (MOWFOW) model, 133f
work and working, 126–128
extraversion
Big Five trait, 262
interrelationships, 272–273
F
Facebook, 342
facial discrimination
benefits, 620–621
hiring and termination, 611t, 618–620
fairness
ageism and, 623–624
reductions-in-force, 624–625
family. See also work-family issues
caretaking for aging, members in Asia, 83, 93
support in Thailand, 88–89
work-family issues, 529–530
family characteristics, United States, 46–47
family interference with work (FIW), 521, 523
Family Medical Leave Act of 1993, 528
family structures, changing, 3
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), hiring and termination, 619
Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), 632
Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, 632–633
fertility
demographic aging and rates, 15
Europe, 61–62
fiscal impact on aging population, 642–643
rates in Canada, 100
United States population, 36
financial incentives, retention strategy, 404–405
financial literacy, retirement planning, 400
financial resources, older worker assessing, 539–540
financial security, retirement, 542–543
financial strain, job loss, 318–319
Finland
actual and ideal retirement age, 66f
age “too old to work”, 68f
average exit age from labor force, 71t
National Programme on Ageing Workers, 409, 414
pro-work culture, 677
First National Plan on Older Persons, Thailand, 89
(p. 705) fiscal balance, United States, 629
fiscal challenges
age-related fiscal effects, 641–642
aging demographics in U.S., 630–632
economics of fiscal deficits, 634–637
fertility, 642–643
fiscal stabilization, 643–644
forecasts of liabilities, 638–642
future of U.S. budget deficits, 637–642
future research, 645
immigration policy, 643
measuring debts and deficits, 637
Medicare and Medicaid, 633–634
official forecasts, 638–641
overlapping generations model, 634–636
potential alternative policies, 642–644
“Ricardian” equivalence, 636–637
social security, 632–634
trust funds and united budget deficit, 637–638
U.S. policies and aging population, 632–634
fiscal policy, future of work, 27
fiscal well-being
consequence of retirement, 577
definition, 571
future retirement research, 578–580
retirement, 575–577
time-associated change patterns in retirement, 577–578
flexibility
alternative work arrangements, 473–476
management practices, 410f
older workers, 315–316
work arrangements for work-family, 526–527
work-life programs, 494–495
work location, 402–403
work scheduling, 400–401, 670, 671
fluid intelligence, 24, 119
dual-component theory of intelligence, 119
life span, 24
focused search strategy, job search, 327
focus learning, knowledge, 421
Ford v. Potter 2008, 300
forecasts
Medicaid, 640
Medicare, 638–640
Social Security, 638–640
frailty index, Canada, 110
frame of reference, contextual age, 180–181
France
actual and ideal retirement age, 66f
age “too old to work”, 68f
average exit age from labor force, 71t
effective retirement age, 65f
median age over time, 61f
populations 65-plus and 80-plus, 12t
free radical theory, aging, 121
frequency of use principle, workspace, 459
full-time employment, older workers, 594–595
functional age, biological, 173–174
functional grouping principle, workspace, 459
functional strategy, human resources, 369–370, 374t, 375
G
gender
employment trends, 590–591
personality traits over life span, 264–265
retirement trends, 598–600
social security retired worker benefits, 598f
work-family conflict, 26–27
gender birth rates, China, 85
gender stratification system, 557–558
General Accounting Office (GAO), entitlement definition, 652
General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), 287
general developmental model. See also studying the aging worker
age and age-related changes, 152–155
cohort, 154
status, 154–155
time, 155
General Dynamics v. Cline 2004, 609, 623
General Educational Development (GED), 137
general mental ability (GMA)
cognitive tasks, 281
GMA x complexity, 284–285
older adult job performance, 281–285
generation
aspect of diversity, 493–494
birth cohort, 484
characteristics, 487t, 488t
communication and technology, 495
comparisons, 486
concepts of, 484–486
defining, 491
descriptions, 485t, 486
disentangling, and stereotypes, 490
future directions, 496–497
generational differences, 489–490
leader values and behaviors, 489
life and career stages, 492
managing multigenerational differences, 494
organizational applications, 493–496
period effects, 491–492
research design, 492–493
research on generational differences, 491–493
work and retirement, 691–692
work-life programs, 494–495
work values, preferences and motivation, 486, 489–490
generational characteristics, 484–485, 487t, 488t
Generation X (GenX)
born 1965 through 1982, 34–35
characteristics, 487t, 488t
descriptions, 485t
period effects, 491
research design, 492–493
Generation Y (GenY), 35, 275. See also Millennials
communication and technology, 495
descriptions, 485t
period effects, 491
genetic influences, aging workers, 165–166
genetics, developmental behavior, 164–166
Germany
actual and ideal retirement age, 66f
age “too old to work,” 68f
average exit age from labor force, 71t
effective retirement age, 65f
median age over time, 61f
oldest old, 13
retirement age and education, 69
retirement behavior, 73
geronting, self-regulatory process, 172
Gerontological Society of China, aging workforce issues, 85
Ghana, 12t
global aging. See also aging
future directions, 27
future trends, 7
global and regional patterns, 12–14
growth of older–old populations, 12–14
international organizations, 20–21
process, 11
global positioning systems (GPS), older drivers, 345
global workforce, aging, 392
Goodman v. Heublein 1981, 609
government programs
employment opportunities for older workers, 600–602
federal legislation for older adults, 669
fiscal effects, 641–642
pro-work policies, 678
government regulations, post-retirement employment, 402
Graduate Management Admissions Test, 398
grandchildren, caring for, 524–525
Great Depression, 34, 650
Greece, 65f, 67, 71t
Greene v. Safeway 2000 612, 615
Gregory v. Ashcroft 1991, 610
Griffin v. Kraft 1995, 622
Griggs v. Duke Power 1971, 615–616
Grosjean v. First Energy 2004, 612
gross domestic product (GDP)
Japan, 87
U.S. public debt-to-GDP ratio, 640–641
(p. 706) Gross v. FBL Financial! 2009, 299, 304, 305
Group of Seven (G7), 394, 407, 411f
H
haphazard search strategy, job search, 327
happiness, retirement, 543
Harvard University Advanced Leadership Initiative, 545
Hazen v. Biggens 1993, 616–617,618, 621
health
Canadian population, 107
consequence in retirement, 577
definition, 571
Europe, 69–70
job loss, 321–322
retirement, 575–577
retirement age in Europe, 70f
successful aging, 247–249
time-associated change patterns in retirement, 577–578
United States, 40
Health and Retirement Study (HRS)
bridge employment vs. full retirement, 396–397
United States, 47–48
health and wellness programs
management practices, 410f
older workers, 469–470
retention strategies, 399–400
healthcare
Big Pharma challenges, 420
costs of, 655–656
physician’s patient care process, 420, 421f
Singapore, 92
healthcare benefits, older workers, 403–404
health changes, aging workforce, 23
health insurance
job loss, 319
Medicare, 651–652
pro-work policies, 676
health maintenance organization (HMO), 651
health-promotion programs, designing, for older workers, 469–470
health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs), 404
health risk appraisals (HRAs), job screening, 470
health risks
job design for older workers, 455–456, 466–470
work schedules and, 468
health savings accounts (HSAs), 404
hearing ability, information processing, 463–464
heart disease, death in middle age, 23
hedging, social transformation, 554
heritability, 164
Hill v. Lockheed Martin 2004, 615
hiring. See also recruitment
facial discrimination, 611t, 618–620
history-graded influences, aging, 171
Hodgson v. Greyhound 1974, 619
homeostasis, health and wellness,469–470
Hong Kong, 26, 82t, 83t
hospital insurance, Medicare, 651
Houk v. Peoploungers 2007, 613
household types, demographics of U.S., 41t
housing, United States, 42t
human capital
career development, 138–139
employability models, 315
re-employment, 329
human resource development (HRD). See also career planning
career development, 503, 505–506
value of today’s career development, 507–508
human resources. See also recruitment; retention strategies; strategy process
background, 366–367
functional strategy, 369–370, 375
future directions, 376–377
integral part of strategy, 368
organizational success, 380
relatively autonomous, 369
strategic, management, 367–370
strategic plan sets, 374t
strategy process, 370–373
succession plan, 366
training and development, 375
Human Rights Act of 1985, Canada, 606, 607
human rights law, Canadian values, 111
Hungary, average exit age from labor force, 71t
I
identification with working
Meaning of Working for Older Workers (MOWFOW) model, 133f
older workers, 130–131, 132
identity, employability, 316
images, older workers, 24–26
immigration
demographic projections, 631–632
demographics of aging, 631–632
fiscal policy, 643
United States, 36–37, 42–43
immigration rates, Canada, 100
immune function, physical disease, 222
immune system, 216, 220
immunological theory, aging, 121
immunosenescence, definition, 228
implementation, instructional systems design, 445–448
“In-Betweeners,” China, 86
income characteristics, United States, 42t
India, 12t, 13
individualized pay schemes, labor unions, 673
Indonesia, 82t, 83t
industries, older worker employment, 594
infant mortality, United States, 39
infectious disease, physical well-being at work, 221–222
informal training, learning on the job, 446–447
information and communication technologies (ICTs)
attitudinal barriers, 350–351
opportunity to work at home, 455
visual information processing, 461–463
information processing
auditory, 463–464
visual, 461–463
information technology (IT), career development programs, 145
innovation, dynamic learning, 430–432
instructional analysis, training and development, 444, 448t
instructional systems design (ISD)
implementation, 445–448
needs assessment, 440–444, 448t
training and development, 440
training design and development, 444–445, 448t
instrumentation, changes, 157
intelligence
dual-component theory of, 119
life span, 24
Process, Personality, Interests and Knowledge (PPIK) theory, 471
intergenerational responsibilities, United States, 47
Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Code, 401
International Foundation for Retirement Education (InFRE) Readiness Retirement Project, 542
International Labor Organization (ILO), vulnerable employment, 16
international organizations, global aging, 20–21
Internet
job search, 327
recruitment, 384–385
retirement, 542
technology, 342–343
Web 2.0 technology, 342, 355
worker interface tips, 352
intuitive model, demographic aging in Canada, 101, 102f
Int. Union v. Johnson Controls 1989, 618
invariance, concept, 159
investments, organization and career development, 144
ipsative continuity, aging, 152
Ireland, 65f, 71t, 72
Italy
average exit age from labor force, 71t
effective retirement age, 65f
median age over time, 61f
populations 65-plus and 80-plus, 12t
wealth and retirement, 67
(p. 707) J
Jankovitz v. Des Moines Ind. Community School District 2005, 623
Japan
aging population, 4
aging trends, 87–88
aging workforce, 392
demographic trends for 50-plus population, 82t
education by age over time, 73t
effective retirement age, 65f
median age over time, 61f
oldest old, 13
populations 65-plus and 80-plus, 12t
potential working population trends, 83t
“Japanese miracle,” economic growth, 88
job attitudes. See also personality-attitude relationships
aging and, 265–270, 275
cognitive and physical demands of jobs, 289
organizational commitment, 267–268
organizational justice, 268–269
psychological contracts, 269
satisfaction, 266–267
job design
alternative work arrangements for older workers, 473–476
auditory information processing, 463–464
cognitive abilities as factor in, 456–458
cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), 460–461
decision aiding, 464–465
future directions, 478
health promotion programs for older workers, 469–470
health risks of older workers, 466–470
human factors and ergonomics, 458–465
job motivation and, for older workers, 470–473
job strain and older workers, 467–468
lifting and carrying tasks, 460
light physical work tasks, 458–459
management practices, 410f
motor issues, 461
older workers, 454–456, 465–466, 690
organization change and job stress on older workers, 468–469
risks in sedentary work, 459–460
simplification, 466
visual information processing, 461–463
work performance and older workers, 457–458
work schedules and health risks for older workers, 468
job insecurity
objective, 317–318
subjective, 316–317
job loss
activity, 320
actual loss, 318–322
age and, experience, 318–322
before actual, 316–318
chronological process model, 314f
collective purpose, 319
coping and unemployment after, 322–328
employability and stereotypes of older workers, 314–316
financial strain, 318–319
future outlook, 320–321
objective job insecurity, 317–318
physical health, 321–322
retirement, 324–325
searching for re-employment, 326–328
self-employment, 325–326
social contacts, 319–320
social participation, 324
social status, 319
stress-related coping reactions, 323
subjective job insecurity, 316–317
time structure, 320
unemployment, 313
well-being, 321
job matching process, Person-Job (P-J) fit, 192–193
job performance
age sterotypes and, 280–281
changes affecting older worker, 281–285
cognitive aging, 246–247
compensatory behaviors, 247–248
contextual age, 180–181
dynamic learning, 420–421
experience and tenure, 240
individual differences and cognitive aging, 238–240
learning process, 421–422
literature on age and, 285–291
measurement of work behaviors, 237–238
older Asian workers, 94
older workers, 293–294, 457–458, 694
teamwork and older workers, 476–477
two-dimensional model of behaviors, 471
understanding age- relationship, 291–292
job satisfaction
age and, 266–267
age and job attitudes, 265–270
age fit research, 204–205
interrelationships with age, personality and commitment, 272–273
personality and, 270–271
personality traits and, 256–257
job search. See also recruitment
discrimination and employment gap, 329–331
employed workers, 332
exploratory search strategy, 327
focused search strategy, 327
haphazard search strategy, 327
intensity, 326–327
networking, 327–328
recommendations, 331–332
re-employment, 326–328
strategies, 327–328
unemployed workers, 332–333
job sharing, work arrangements, 473–474
job strain
older workers, 467–468
organization change and, 468–469
judged fit
definition, 208
Person-Person (P-P) fit, 195
use of P-E fit concepts, 191t
judicial scenarios, ADEA, 608t, 610–611
K
Kennedy, John F., 34
Kentucky Retirement Systems v. EEOC 2008, 299, 305, 620, 621
Khmer Rouge, Cambodia, 89
Kimel v. Board of Regents 2000, 609
King, Martin L. Jr., 34
knowledge. See also dynamic learning
after action review (AAR), 426
aging workforce, 375
cycle, 422f
dynamic learning, 420–424
focus learning, 421
military, 431
retention, 690–691
knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs), jobs for older workers, 470, 472
knowledge capture tools, learning, 426–427
knowledge discovery, learning, 426–427, 431
knowledge focus, learning, 425–426, 431
knowledge transfer
between job-holders, 512
learning, 425, 431
knowledge validation, learning, 427, 431–432
knowledge work, term, 344
Kruchowski v. Weyerhaeuser 2006, 623
L
labeling, age-appropriate, on websites and software, 349–350
labor force
average exit age in European countries, 71t
employment status in U.S., 48t
labor force participation
average by age, 589t
average by gender, 590t
average by immigrant status, 592t
average by race, 591t
competition for jobs, 20
definition, 76
older workers, 17–19
retirement age, 16–19
(p. 708) labor force participation rate (LFPR)
averages by immigrant status, 592t
Canada, 101, 102f, 104–105
definition, 76
older workers, 17–19
labor market
age fit research, 204
older workers, 333–334
labor unions
interests of retired, older and younger workers, 674–675
older worker buyout plans, 673–674
pension benefits, 673
pro-work policies, 671, 672–675, 679–680
seniority and individualized pay schemes, 673
unionized workplaces, 672–673, 675
United States, 674–675
laissez-faire approach, career planning, 509
language, demographics of U.S., 41t
latchkey kids, GenXs, 34
latent psychological losses, job loss, 318
Latin America and Caribbean, 14t
Latvia, 71t, 72
leadership, retirement planning, 545
leadership values, generations, 489
lean production, organization change, 468
learning. See also dynamic learning
career activities, 139
cognitive abilities, and age, 437–438
job performance, 421–422
motivation, and age, 438–440
motivation during training, 439
older workers, 315–316
post-training motivation, 439–440
pre-training motivation, 438–439
learning on the job, training approach, 446–447
Leftwich v. Harris-Stowe 1983, 616
Lehman v. Nakashian 1981, 610
less-developed countries, regional aging, 14t
leveraging knowledge, learning, 427, 428–429
life course
definition, 549
midcourse phase, 550
retirement, 395, 396, 572–573
social changes, 549–550
work-family conflict, 522–523
life course project
customizing midcourse through strategic selection, 553–554
decisions about daily time use, 555–556
future research, 561
institutional change, constraints and opportunities, 551–552
linked lives in time and space, 554
retirement, 550, 552–556
strategic customizations, 554–555
value of, framing, 560–561
life course theory, aging, 121–122
life-cycle perspective, aging and economic growth, 19
life expectancy
Canada, 103
United States, 37
Life Planning Network (LPN), coaching, 543–544
life span
meaning of working, 124–125, 131–132
spillover across, 531
life span development theory, psychological theory of aging, 118–119
life-span life-stage model, aging and career development, 141–142
life span psychology, development, 151–152
life stages
generational research, 492
work-family conflict, 522–523
lifting tasks, work, 460
literature
age and job performance, 285–291
Warr’s model (capacity and job experience), 286–287
Lithuania, average exit age from labor force, 71t
live classroom training, 447–448
location
flexible work, 402–403
post-retirement years in United States, 43–44
locomotor, definition, 228
longitudinal design
accelerated, 160
studying aging worker, 156–157
Lorrilard v. Pons 1978, 610
Lost Generation, China, 86
Lucky Few (1929–1945), United States, 34
Luxemburg, average exit age from labor force, 71t
M
McDonnell-Burdine scenario, disparate treatment, 611t
McDonnell Douglas v. Green 1973, 611
macrosocioeconomic (MSE) conditions, work and working, 126, 133f
Madel v. FCI Marketing 1997, 613, 615
Madrid International Plan of Action on Aging (MIPAA), global aging, 21
Mahoney v. RFE/FL 1995, 609
Malaysia, 82t, 83t
Malta, average exit age from labor force, 71t
management training, organizational culture, 406–407
managerial practices, age stereotypes, 305–306
manifest economic losses, job loss, 318
marital status
demographics of U.S., 41t
United States, 46–47
Meacham rulings, adverse impact, 617–618
Meacham v. KAPL 2008, 610, 617
Meacham v. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory 2008, 299
meaning of working (MOW)
constructionist model, 123–124
life span changes, 131–132
past models of, 123–124
reasons to study, 122–124
Meaning of Working for Older Workers (MOWFOW)
change across life span, 131–132
conditions, 128–131
content model, 133f
distal external influences, 126
external influences, 126–128
future research, 133f, 134
identification with working, 130–131, 132
model, 124f, 125–126
MOW as stable construct, 124–125
proximal external influences, 126–128
rewards and expectations, 128–129, 132
Meaning of Work International Research Team (MOWIRT), 122–124, 126–128
measurement, subjective age, 174–175
measurement issues, studying aging worker, 158–159
measurement model, structural equation modeling (SEM), 160
median retirement age, Canada, 101, 102–104
mediators, age stereotypes, 301–302
Medicaid, 649
forecast, 640
proposals, 644
retirement, 7
U.S. policy, 633–634
Medicare
bankruptcy, 629
challenges for future, 653–656
financial strain, 588
forecasts, 638–640
future of, 649–650, 660–661
healthcare costs, 655–656
health insurance, 651–652
privatization vs. incremental strategy, 658–660
proposals, 644, 656–657
retirement, 7
U.S. policy, 633–634
ways to improve operation of, 657–660
Medicare Advantage, Medigap, 651, 660
Medigap, Medicare Advantage, 651
memory. See also working memory (WM)
attention and working, 283
episodic, 243–244
long-term, and expertise, 283–284
(p. 709)
technology overcoming limitations, 345–346
working, 242–243
men, average effective retirement age vs. official age, 17f
mental health
aging workforce, 23–24
retirement, 575–577
well-being at work, 224–225
mental well-being
job loss, 321
mental health, 224–225
occupational health, 217–218
occupational stress, 224
substance abuse, 217–218, 225
suicide, 218, 225
work motivation, 223–224
mentoring, WomanSage, 545
Mercer Human Resources Consulting, survey, 401
Meritor v. Vinson 1986, 615
methodological practices, personality traits, 264
microblogging, 343
mid- and late-career workers. See also career development
age-balanced organizational career development, 512–514
aging workforce, 503–505
characteristics, 504
impact of new careers, 504–505
mobility of, 511–512
organizational use of succession-Planning, 510–511
succession-Planning programs, 509–512
suggestions for productive career development, 513–514
midcourse
life course project, 551, 561
pathways around retirement, 553–554
midcourse customization
definition, 550
strategic selection, 553–554
“middle age,” changing definition, 16
middle-ground fallacy, apocalyptic demography, 110
migration, aging, 20
military, Prairie Warrior, 431
Millennials, 35, 275
characteristics, 487t, 488t
descriptions, 485t
Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart, 165
misconceptions, older workers, 512–513
Mistretta v. Sandia 1980, 614
mobility
mid- and late-career workers, 511–512
technology addressing, 344–345
moderators, age stereotypes, 301, 303, 304
moral panic, economics and politicians, 19
more-developed countries, regional aging, 14t
mortality
driver of aging in Europe, 62–63
United States, 38–39
mortality rates, Canada, 100
motivation
aging and career development, 141–142
during training, 439
generations, 486, 489–490
job, for older worker, 470–473
learning and age, 438–440
measurement, 159
post-training, 439–440
pre-training, 438–439
retirees’ transitions, 579
VIE (valence, instrumentality, and expectancy) theories, 438
motor issues, older workers, 461
multigenerational differences, 494
multigenerational households, United States, 47
multilevel modeling (MLM), data analysis, 160, 161–162
muscle function
age-related changes, 218–219
aging population, 216
joint inflammation, 222
muscle mass and strength, 223
physical disease, 222–223
Myanmar, aging population, 89
N
National Advisory Council on the Aged (NACA), Singapore, 91
National Conference on Aging, 669
national culture, age stereotypes, 307
National Household Education Survey (1995), 137
National Institute on Aging, 352
National Library of Medicine, 352
National Older Worker Career Center, 601
National Population and Family Planning Commission, China, 84–85
National Programme on Ageing Workers, Finland, 409, 414
National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE), 164
nativity
demographics of U.S., 41t
United States, 42–43
Near East, 14t
needs assessment, training and development, 440–444, 448t
negative affectivity, personality and job satisfaction, 271
net fertility
definition, 76
Europe, 61–62
Netherlands
average exit age from labor force, 71t
effective retirement age, 65f
retirement age and education, 69
networking
job search, 327–328
technology and, opportunities, 346–347
neuroendocrine theories, aging, 121
neurology, age-related changes, 219–220
neuroticism
Big Five trait, 262
interrelationships, 272–273
New Boomers, 35
New Zealand
demographic trends for 50-plus population, 82t
potential working population trends, 83t
noise spectrum, auditory information processing, 463–464
non-normative influences, aging, 171
non-normative life events, life span psychology, 152
nonprofit organizations, retirement, 544
normative age-graded influences, life span psychology, 152
normative history-graded influences, life span psychology, 152
norm congruence approach, Person-Person (P-P) fit, 194
North America, 14t, 392
Northern Africa, 14t
Norway, 65f, 66f, 68f
Notre Dame Study of Health and Well-being (NDHWB), 163
O
obesity, health and work potential, 70
objective job insecurity, before job loss, 317–318
occupational health. See also age-related physical changes
older workers, 217–218, 227–228
physical exercise, 227
occupational stress, mental well-being, 224
occupations
by age 2000–2010, 50, 51t
Boomer-friendly, 52–53
employers with good reputations hiring older workers, 53
fastest-growing, in U.S., 50, 51t, 52t
largest groups, 50–51
offering most opportunity, 51, 52t
Oceania, 14t, 81
O’Connor v. Consolidated 1996, 608, 612
Office and Professional Employees International Union (OPEIU), 675
old age, patterns of work and retirement, 15–16
Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI), 632
old age dependency, concept, 19
old-age dependency ratio
definition, 76
Europe, 75t
Older Americans Act (OAA), 669
older-old populations, growth of, 12–14
(p. 710) older workers. See also age-related physical changes; career development; job design; meaning of working (MOW); Person-Environment (P-E) fit; recruitment; retention strategies; studying the aging worker
age x complexity, 284
alternative work arrangements, 473–476
attention and working memory, 283
attitudinal barriers to technology, 350–351
buyout plans, 673–674
career development activities, 139
cognitive aging, 246–247
cognitive plasticity and vitality, 248–249
complexity of age/job performance, 291–292
decision to continue working, 393–399
demand, 22, 68–69
developmental changes, 281–285
employability and stereotypes, 314–316
employers with good reputations hiring, 53
employment gap, 329–331
employment trends, 590–591
financial security in Asia, 93
flexible compensation and benefits, 691
general mental ability (GMA), 281, 282
GMA x complexity, 284–285
human capital, 315
identification with working, 130–131, 132, 133f
image and stereotypes, 24–26
job and organizational characteristics, 381–383
job design, 454–456, 690
job performance, 293–294, 457–458, 694
job-related capabilities, 292–293
knowledge retention, 690–691
labor force participation, 17–19
labor market, 333
long-term memory and expertise, 283–284
mental well-being, 217–218
misconceptions about, 512–513
movement out of jobs, 292
occupational health, 217–218, 227–228
organizational strategies for, 688–691
performance requirements in Asia, 94
physical capabilities, 215–217
physical change, 282
physical well-being, 217
recruitment and retention, 689
rewards and expectations, 128–129, 132, 133f
safety-proneness, 25–26
self-employment, 325–326
sensory and perceptual change, 282–283
social protections for, 676–677
social support, 145
social well-being, 218
sustained competitive advantage, 309
teamwork and, 476–477
technological changes, 26, 347–351
unemployed, 22–23
unemployment among, in U.S., 49–50
work-family challenges, 523–526
work performance, 4–5, 457–458
Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA), 609, 622t
one-child policy, China, 15, 84–85, 95
One-Stop Career Centers, 601, 602
online 3D virtual world, technology, 343
online resources, job search, 327
openness, Big Five trait, 262
optimal age norms, 178
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 632
Active Aging, 676
labor force participation and retirement, 16–19
labor force participation rates (LFPRs), 18f
organizational analysis, training and development, 441–443, 448t
organizational commitment, personality and, 271–272
organizational image
attracting older jobseekers, 388t
older workers, 386–387
organizational intranets, 342, 352
organizational justice, age and, 268–269
organizational strategies
diversity staffing policy, 383–384
older workforce, 5–6
recruiting older workers, 381–383
strategic employability approach, 508–509
organization commitment
age and, 267–268
personality and, 271–272
relationship with age, personality, job satisfaction and, 272f
organization culture
age-positive, 406
embeddedness, 405–406
management training, 406–407
opportunities to volunteer, 405
worker contributions, 405
Organization of Management Confidential Employees (OMCE), 675
organizations
accuracy and validity of decisions about workers, 308
age norms, 178–179
aging and career development, 144–146
best practices for older workers, 307–309
flexible work arrangements, 526–527
identifying reasonable factors, 307–308
interventions in work-family, 526–529
movement for women, 544–545
older workers as competitive advantage, 309
Person-Organization (P-O) fit, 201–203
risk-management and age stereotyping, 308–309
strategic employability approach, 508–509
succession-Planning programs, 510–511
training and development, 308
Otium Honestum, honorable withdrawal to leisure, 64
Oubre v. Entergy 1998, 623
outcomes
age fit processes, 207
age stereotypes, 303, 304–305
dependent-care initiatives, 531
expectations, 139–141
meaning of working, 129
personality traits, 256–257
Person-Environment (P-E) fit, 190–191
Person-Group (P-G) fit, 199–200
Person-Person (P-P) fit, 195–196
overlapping generations model, fiscal deficits, 634–636, 637
P
Paolillo v. Dresser 1987, 621, 622
Papau New Guinea, 82t, 83t
paradigmatic approach, cognitive aging, 244–245
parents
caring for, and children, 524
caring for aging, 523–524
part-time employment, older workers, 594–595, 671
Passer v. American Chemical Society 1990, 609
paternalism, Thailand, 89
pathogen, definition, 228
patient care process, physician’s, 420, 421f
peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), respiratory system, 216, 219
Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC), 634
pensions
ages driving retirement in Europe, 66–68, 70
benefits and labor unions, 673
defined-benefit, 667–669
defined-contribution, 667–669
plans, 393, 597, 601
People’s Republic of China, one-child policy, 15, 84–85, 95
perceived fit measure, 191t, 208
perceptual change, age-related, 282–283
performance. See also dynamic learning
human capital, 315
job, and work behaviors, 237–238
learning for, 422–424
(p. 711)
older workforce, 5–6
training and development, 441, 448t
period effects, generational differences, 491–492
personal computers, technology, 342
personality
aging and, 274–275
interrelationships with age, and job satisfaction, 272–273
job satisfaction and, 270–271
personality-attitude relationships. See also job attitudes
aging and job attitudes, 275
aging and personality, 274–275
future directions, 274–276
interrelationships, 272–273
job satisfaction and personality, 270–271
organizational commitment and personality, 271–272
understanding age, 275–276
personality theories, aging, 120
personality traits
absolute continuity, 260–262, 263–264
Big Five, 262
classical trait perspective, 258
complete test of continuity, 263–264
differential continuity, 259–260, 263
generations, 486
identity, 258–259
outcomes, 256–257
research considerations, 264–265
stability and change, 257–259
structural continuity, 262–263
work-related outcomes, 256–257
personal wealth, retirement ages in Europe, 67
person analysis, training and development, 443–444
Person-Environment (P-E) fit
age fit and outcome, 207
age fit research levels, 205–206
combination and interaction by level, 207
concept of, 188
concepts and operation in age fit, 206
definition, 208
discrimination and diversity, 187–188
framework, 189–191
future directions, 205–207
future research, 193–194, 196–197, 200–201, 203
glossary, 207–208
multidimensional fit, 203–205
older workers, 4, 21
Person-Group (P-G) fit, 197–201
Person-Job (P-J) fit, 191–194
Person-Organization (P-O) fit, 201–203
Person-Person (P-P) fit, 194–197
role of time in age fit, 206–207
targeted recruitment, 381
use of, concepts in age fit research, 191t
Person-Group (P-G) fit, 189
coworker compatibility, 198
definition, 208
future research, 200–201
individuals and work groups, 197–198
outcomes, 199–200
relational demography, 198–199, 200
Person-Job (P-J) fit, 189
age-discrimination researchers, 192
age stereotypes, 192
definition, 208
future research, 193–194
job matching research, 192–193
knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs), 191–192, 470, 472
motivation and job performance, 472
Person-Organization (P-O) fit, 189
definition, 208
future research, 203
individual and employing organization, 201–203
Person-Person (P-P) fit, 189
definition, 208
future research, 196–197
impact of age fit on outcomes, 195–196
norm congruence approach, 194
relational demography approach, 194
social comparison approach, 194–195
work relationships, 194–195
phased retirement, 670–671
phenotypic variance, 164
Philippines, 82t, 83t
physical capabilities. See also age-related physical changes
age-related physical change, 282
older workers, 215–217
physical work tasks, 458–459
retirement age in Europe, 70f
technology offsetting physical demand, 344
physical disease, physical well-being at work, 222–223
physical exercise, occupational health, 227
physical well-being
infectious disease, 221–222
occupational health, 217
physical disease, 222–223
safety at work, 220–221
physician, patient care process, 420, 421f
physiological age, 173–174
Poland
actual and ideal retirement age, 66f
age “too old to work,” 68f
average exit age from labor force, 71t
education and retirement, 72
effective retirement age, 65f
population projections
Asia Pacific, 81–84
United States, 35–40
populations
aging and economic growth, 19–20
demographics, 3–4
growth of older–old, 12–14
percentage, aged 65-plus and 80-plus in selected countries, 12t
percentages aged 65-plus, 13f
Portugal, 66f, 68f, 71t
positive affectivity (PA), personality and job satisfaction, 271
poverty, older workers, 22
Prairie Warrior, military exercise, 431
preferred provider organizations (PPOs), 651
prescription drug insurance, Medicare, 651, 660
prescriptive age norms, 178
private wealth, retirement ages in Europe, 67
Process, Personality, Interests and Knowledge (PPIK) theory, 471
productivity, successful aging, 247–249
Project Renewment®, career women, 545
proprioceptive, definition, 228
pro-retirement, policies, 7
proscriptive age norms, 178
Proud v. Stone 1991, 613, 624
“providers,” working, 128
pro-work policies
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 664
changes to Social Security, 669–670
defined–benefit and defined–contribution pensions, 667–669
economic downturn, 677–678
employee standpoint, 678–679
employer, 670–671
employer standpoint, 678
federal legislation concerning older adults, 669
flexible work schedules, 670
future for, 669–671, 678–680
government standpoint, 678
health insurance, 676
interests of retired, older, and younger workers, 674–675
job training and retraining, 676
labor standpoint, 679–680
labor unions context, 672–675
mandatory retirement and ADEA, 664–666
older worker buyout plans, 673–674
part-time work, 671
pension benefits, 673
phased retirement, 670–671
seniority and individualized pay schemes, 673
social protections for older workers, 676–677
Social Security and earnings test, 666–667
unionized workplaces, 672–673, 675
proximal external influences, Meaning of Working for Older Workers (MOWFOW) model, 126–128, 133f
psychological age, 172f, 173
psychological contracts, age and, 269
psychological health, aging workforce, 23–24
psychological research
age norms, 179–180
future age questions, 181–182
psychological theories of aging
cognitive theories, 119–120
life span development theory, 118–119
personality theories, 120
selection, optimization and compensation (SOC) model, 119
socioemotional selectivity theory, 119
psychological well-being
consequence of retirement, 577
definition, 571
future directions, 578–580
retirement, 575–577
time-associated change patterns in retirement, 577–578
working in retirement, 574
Public Employees Retirement System of Ohio v. Betts 1989, 620, 621
pulmonary capacity, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), 2167, 2167
Purpose Prize Fellows, 544
Q
quality, re-employment, 329
R
race/ethnicity, United States, 40, 41t, 42
rapid cycle deployment, speed of change, 433
reach envelope, capability, 458
reciprocity, Canadian values, 110–111
recombining, social transformation, 554
recruiter
attracting older jobseekers, 388t
organizations using, 386
recruitment
definition, 381
diversity staffing policy, 383–384
employment agencies, 385–386
future research, 387–389
image of organization, 386–387
intermediaries, 385–386
Internet, 384–385
job and organizational characteristics, 381–383
management practices, 410f
message, 381–384
older workers, 689
recruiter, 386
source, 384–386
strategies for attracting jobseekers, 388t
targeted, 381
word-of-mouth communication, 384
reductions-in-force (RIF)
disparate treatment, 613–614
fairness and compliance, 624–625
principles in conducting, 624t
re-employment
gaining, 328–329
likelihood and speed, 328–329
quality, 329
recommendations, 331–333
unemployed older workers, 325
Reeves v. Sanderson Plumbing 2000, 610, 611–612
relational demography theory
Person-Group (P-G) fit, 198–199, 200
Person-Person (P-P) fit, 194
relational models theory, age stereotypes, 307
relationships
demographics of U.S., 41t
social well-being, 225–226
relative age, 138
reliability theory, aging, 121
Renewment™, term, 542
replacement (fertility) level, definition, 76
research agenda, age and training, 448–450
research design, cognitive aging, 245–246
ReServe program, New York, 544
residences
demographics of U.S., 41t
post-retirement years in U.S., 43–44
respiratory system, aging population, 216
retention strategies. See also work conditions
best practices, 409–412
changing organizational culture, 405–407
changing working conditions, 400–405
choosing, 407–409
employers needing older workers, 393–399
evaluating, 409–414
financial incentives, 404–405
flexible work location, 402–403
flexible work scheduling, 400–401, 670, 671
focus on older worker, 399–400
future directions, 414–415
health and wellness programs, 399–400
healthcare benefits, 403–404
job or workstation design, 403
knowledge, 690–691
older workers, 689
phased retirement, 401
post-retirement employment, 401–402
skill development, 400
societal culture, 407
survey research on employee retention, 394–395
tailoring to individual needs, 408–409
workplace health promotion (WHP), 409
retired person, definition by Statistics Canada, 102
retirement. See also life course project
actual, in Europe, 64–65
adjustment process, 572–573
average effective, age vs. official age, 17f
biographical pacing, 558–560
(p. 712)
Boomer generation, 3, 49, 54, 237
bridge employment before, 396–397
career development stage, 573–574
conceptualizations of, 571–574
defining old age, 15–16
demographic and societal perspectives, 687–688
empirical findings, 574–578
existing projections for, patterns in Europe, 71–72
future directions, 578–580
generational effects, 691–692
ideals in Europe, 65–66
job loss, 324–325
life course project, 550, 552–556
mandatory, and ADEA, 664–666
moving platform of change, 550–551
older worker buyout plans, 673–674
options and prevalence, 600
overall trends in Europe, 64–66
pathways, transitions and well-being, 692–693
phased, 401, 670–671
post- employment, 401–402
prior case law on early, 621–622
researching workers’ decisions, 374–375
resistance to traditional, 541
societal perspectives on work and, 6–7
structural and culture context, 556–560
trends in China, 86
trends in moving toward, 596–600
views about “normal” age, 407
voluntary, 665
work and, 6
retirement age
Canada, 102–104
future prospects for Europe, 70–71
Japan, 87–88
Thailand, 90
United States, 47–49
Retirement Confidence Survey, 46, 49
retirement eligibility, term, 393
retirement planning
beyond money, 542–543
careers and jobs with purpose, 544
challenges, 545–546
changing context, 539–540
coaching Third Age, 543–544
employee retention, 395–397
financial literacy education, 400
history of, 538–539
jobs, learning and giving back, 545
leadership, 545
new expectations, 540–541
new terminology, 541–542
nonprofit organizations and movements, 544
organizational involvement, 528–529
organization and movement for women, 544–545
resistance to traditional, 541
responses to holistic need for, 543–545
work-family influencing decisions, 525–526
working at older ages, 601
retraining, pro-work policies, 676
retrieval, measurement, 159
Revenue Act in 1978, Section 401(k), 668
reward phase, labor market, 69
rewards
importance for older workers, 128–129, 132
Meaning of Working for Older Workers (MOWFOW) model, 133f
rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 222
Ricardian equivalence, fiscal deficits, 636–637
Ricardo, David, Essay on the Funding System, 636
risk-management approach, age stereotyping, 308–309
robotics, technology, 343
role conflict, work-family conflict, 521
role enhancement, work-family conflict, 521–522
role modeling, career development of younger workers, 144
role theory
retirees’ work role identity, 576
retirement, 395–396
retirement adjustment, 573
Runyon v. NCR 1986, 622
Russia, oldest old, 13
S
safety
climate, 228
physical well-being at work, 220–221
proneness of older workers, 25–26
technology improving workplace, 345
same actor defense, disparate treatment, 613
sampling techniques, cognitive aging, 245–246
sampling with replacement, sequences, 157
sarcopenia, definition, 228
Second Life, 343, 346
Second National Plan on Older Persons, Thailand, 89
Section 401(k), Revenue Act, 668
sedentary work, risks, 459–460
selection, optimization and compensation (SOC) model
older workers, 132
psychological theory of aging, 119
selective attention, cognitive aging, 241
selective drop-out, 157
selective sampling, 157
selective survival, 157
self-efficacy, aging and career development, 139–141
self-employment
job loss, 325–326
midcourse practice, 556
trends for older workers, 595–596
senescing, biological aging, 172
Senior Citizens Freedom to Work Act, 666
Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), 601, 602
seniority, labor unions, 673
senior labor supply, driving retirement in Europe, 66–68
sensory function
age-related, 282–283
aging population, 215–216
sequence of use principle, workspace, 459
sequential designs
data analysis, 159–160
studying aging worker, 157–158
sex differences, personality traits over life span, 264–265
sex-disparity ratio, China, 85
short-term memory, cognitive aging, 242
Silicon Valley Encore Initiative, 544
silver market, growth of older market, 27
Singapore
aging workforce, 90–92
demographic trends for 50-plus population, 82t
government strategies, 91–92
healthcare, 92
National Advisory Council on the Aged (NACA), 91
potential working population trends, 83t
Singapore Health Services, 92
SingHealth, 92
Six Sigma method, organization change, 468–469
skill acquisition, 316
skills training, 5–6
Skype, networking opportunities, 346
Slovakia, 66f, 68f, 71t
Slovak Republic, 65f
Slovenia, 68f, 71t
Smartmoney.com, 542
Smith rulings, adverse impact, 617–618
Smith v. City of Jackson 2005, 616, 617
social age, 138, 172
social capital, older workers, 315
social cognitive theory, aging and career development, 139–141
social comparison, Person-Person (P-P) fit, 194–195
social contacts, job loss, 319–320
social dominance theory, age stereotypes, 307
social embeddedness, 692–693
social exchange model, employee retention, 398–399
social exchange theory (SET), 122, 142
social identity, job loss, 319
socially constructed, life course, 551–552
socially defined, 549
socially patterned, definition of life course, 549
social networking, technology, 346–347
social participation, symptom-focused coping, 324
social policy, future of work, 27
(p. 713) social relationships, social well-being, 225–226
Social Security Administration (SSA), 632
“bankruptcy,” 629
challenges for future, 653–656
changes, 669–670
earnings test, 666–667
financial strain, 588
forecasts, 638–640
future of, 649–650, 660–661
income support, 650–651
likely income trends, 653–655
older persons in U.S., 44, 46
pension and retirement policies, 601
possible changes, 643–644
private accounts, 644
proposals, 644, 656–657
pro-work policy changes, 678
retirement, 7, 596–600
supporting working seniors, 56
U.S. policy, 632–633
Social Security Disability Insurance (DI), 632
Social Security Trust Fund, 632–633
social shaping, midcourse, 556
social status, job loss, 319
social support
aging and career development, 142–143
older workers, 145
social well-being
occupational health, 218
social relationships, 225–226
work-life balance, 226–227
societal culture, retention policies, 407
societal influence, work and retirement, 6–7
Society of Certified Senior Advisors (CSA®), 543
sociodemographic factors, United States, 40–46
socioeconomic status (SES), subjective age, 176
socioemotional selectivity
aging and career development, 143, 693
psychological theory of aging, 119
sociological theories of aging
age and society perspective, 122
life course theory, 121–122
social exchange theory (SET), 122
software applications, age-appropriate labeling, 349–350
Solon v. Gary Community School Corp 1999., 623
Southeast Asia, aging trends, 81
South Korea, 82t, 83t
Spain
actual and ideal retirement age, 66f
age “too old to work”, 68f
average exit age from labor force, 71t
education and retirement, 72
effective retirement age, 65f
speed of change. See also dynamic learning
knowledge challenges, 419–420
rapid cycle deployment, 433
staffing policy, organizations, 383–384
Starceski v. Westinghouse 1995, 615, 624
Statistics Canada
definition of retired person, 102
dependency ratio, 105–106
work participation and productivity, 109
status, general developmental model, 154–155
statutory arrangements, driving retirement in Europe, 66–68
statutory retirement age, 76
stereotypes. See also age stereotypes; job loss
age, and job performance, 280–281
aging and career development, 143–144
concept of age, 299
disentangling generations and, 490
older workers, 24–26, 314–316
stochastic theories, aging, 120
strategic human resources management
aging workforce and, matrix, 373–377
planning, 366, 367–370
strategic selection
customizing midcourse, 553–554
midcourse customization, 550
strategy process
alignment and control, 372–373, 374t
assessing capabilities, 371–372, 374t
defining preferred future, 372, 374t
environmental analysis, 370–371, 374t
human resources, 370–373
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT), 371
stress
coping with job loss, 323
health and aging, 23–24
job, and coping, 217
job strain and older workers, 467–468
occupational, 224
organizational change and job, on older workers, 468–469
stress exposure, multilevel modeling (MLM), 161–162
structural continuity, aging, 152
structural equation modeling (SEM), data analysis, 160–161
studying the aging worker
conventional designs, 156–157
convergence analysis, 162–163
data analysis, 159–163
developmental behavior genetics, 164–166
experience sampling, 163–164
future directions, 163–166
general development model, 152–155
measurement issues, 158–159
multilevel modeling (MLM), 160, 161–162
planning and conducting, 155–163
sequential designs, 157–158
structural equation modeling (SEM), 160–161
subjective age, 138
antecedents of, 175–176
desired age, 177
effects of, 176
effects of culture and sex on, 176–177
general findings, 175
measurement, 174–175
taxonomy, 172f
subjective job insecurity, before job loss, 316–317
Sub-Saharan Africa, 14t
substance abuse, mental well-being, 217–218, 225
subterfuge, term, 620
successful aging
concept, 247
promoting health and productivity, 247–249
succession planning. See also career development
career development, 510
human resources, 366
knowledge transfer between job–holders, 512
mid- and late-career workers, 509–512
organizational use of, 510–511
suicide, 23, 218, 225
Supplemental Security Income (SSI), income support, 7, 649, 650–651
supplementary fit
definition, 208
Person-Environment (P-E) fit, 189–191
Person-Organization (P-O) fit, 201–203
use of P-E fit concepts, 191t
survey research, employee retention, 394–395
sustained attention, cognitive aging, 241, 242
sustained competitive advantage, older workers, 309
“sustainers,” working, 128
Sweden
actual and ideal retirement age, 66f
age “too old to work”, 68f
average exit age from labor force, 71t
education and retirement, 72
education by age over time, 73t
effective retirement age, 65f
wealth and retirement, 67
Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), 164–165
Switzerland, 66f, 67, 68f
SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats), 371
Syverson v. IBM 2006, 623
T
targeted recruitment, workers, 381, 388t
targets, retention strategies, 408
task analysis, training and development, 443
taxonomy, age, 172f, 288t
teaching role, opportunities for older worker, 404
Teamsters Union, 675
teamwork, older workers, 476–477
(p. 714) technical behaviors, job performance, 471
technological challenges
age-appropriate labeling on websites and software, 349–350
attitudinal barriers, 350–351
design issues, 348–350
downside of hiding age-related cues, 349
keeping up with changes, 26
matching input device to task consideration, 349
miniaturization trends, 348
older workers, 347–351
overcoming, 351–355
retirement age in Europe, 70f
training, 352–355
trends, 342–343
usability, 351–352
worker training in Asia, 94
technology
age-related challenges, 343–347
age-related discrimination, 347
aging workforce, 375, 376
ever-shrinking, 343
future directions, 355–356
generational differences, 495
mobility concerns, 344–345
networking opportunities, 346–347
offsetting physical demands, 344
opportunity to work at home, 455
overcoming memory limitations, 345–346
safety in workplace, 345
training, 352–355
telecommuting, flexible work arrangements, 527
telework
benefits and concerns, 474–475
managerial views of older workers in, 475–476
work arrangements, 474
“Ten Thousand Experts” lectures, China, 85
termination, 695
facial discrimination, 611t, 618–620
terminology, retirement, 541–542
testing effects, participants, 157
Texas v. Burdine 1981, 611
Thailand
aging population, 88–89
Buddhism and paternalistic beliefs, 88
demographic trends for 50-plus population, 82t
family responsibility, 88
potential working population trends, 83t
strategies for older workers, 89–90
Third Age, coaching, 543–544
Thomford v. IBM 2005, 623
time
role in age fit research, 206–207
unemployment, 320
time intervals, personality traits, 264
time-lag design, studying aging worker, 156–157
time of measurement, general developmental model, 155
time-sequential strategy, data analysis, 160
Tomassi v. Insignia 2007, 614
total fertility rate (TFR)
aging, 15
definition, 76
Europe, 61–62
Singapore, 90
total quality management (TQM), organization change, 468
Towers Perrin survey
employee retention, 394–395
retention in G7 countries, 410–411
Traditionalists
characteristics, 487t, 488t
descriptions, 485t
training
age and, 437–440
age stereotyping, 306
career development, 138
computer-based training, 445–446
decision aiding, 464–465
electronic monitoring, 354
factors for older employees, 353
framing of, 445
implementation, 445–448, 448t
job, and retraining, 676
job design for older workers through, 465–466
management, in organizational culture, 406–407
motivation, learning and age, 438–440
older worker employment programs, 601–602
older workers, 5–6, 315–316, 689–690
older workers in Asia, 94–95
program recommendations, 354–355
skill development, 400
tailoring presentation to older workers, 353–354
technological challenges, 352–355
training and development
age and practice of, 440–448
age stereotypes, 308
cognitive abilities, learning and age, 437–438
computer-based training (CBT), 445–446
design, 444–445, 448t
human resources, 375
implementation, 445–448, 448t
informal, 446–447
instructional systems design approach, 448t
learning on the job, 446–447
live classroom training, 447–448
management practices, 410f
motivation, learning and age, 438–440
needs assessment, 440–444, 448t
norms and attitudes about older workers, 442–443
research agenda for age and, 448–450, 449t
The Transition Network (TTN), women, 542, 545
turnover, unfolding model of, 397–398
TWA v. Thurston 1985, 610, 619
Twitter phenomenon, 343
U
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), 16, 21
unemployed workers, recommendations, 332–333
unemployment. See also job loss; job search
activity, 320
chronological process model, 314f
coping after job loss, 322–328
financial strain, 318–319
job loss, 313
older U.S. workers, 49–50
older workers, 22–23
predictor of reaction to, 333–334
self-employment, 325–326
social contacts, 319–320
unfolding model of turnover, employee retention, 397–398
unionized workplaces, pro-work policies, 672–673, 675
United Air Lines v. McMann 1997, 620, 621
United Auto Workers (UAW), older worker buyout plans, 674
United Kingdom
actual and ideal retirement age, 66f
age “too old to work”, 68f
aging workforce, 392
average exit age from labor force, 71t
effective retirement age, 65f
Employment Equality Regulations of 2006, 606, 607
median age over time, 61f
recruiting older workers, 381
United Nations, age and work, 16
United States. See also age-based regulations; employment trends; entitlement programs
age at retirement, 47–49
age discrimination, 407
aging and work, 33–34, 53–56
aging demographics, 630–632
aging population, 587–588
“Boomer-friendly” occupations, 52–53, 54t, 55t
Boomers (1946–1964), 34
budget deficits, 637–642
chronic health conditions, 40
cohorts, 34–35
demographic characteristics, 41t, 42t
disability, 39–40
economic status, 44, 46
education, 43, 44t
education by age over time, 73t
(p. 715)
effective retirement age, 65f
eGeneration (1983–2000), 35
employers with good reputations hiring older workers, 53
entitlement programs, 649–650
evolution of older workers in workplace, 55–56
family characteristics, 46–47
fastest-growing occupations, 50, 51t, 52t
fertility, 36
fiscal balance, 629
future directions for study, 56
generations at age 30, 35f
Generation X (1965–1982), 34–35
government retirement-based programs, 650–652
health risk factors, 40
immigration, 36–37
income and housing characteristics, 42t
industrial/occupational patterns and projections, 50–53
infant mortality, 39
intergenerational responsibilities, 47
labor force and employment status, 48t
labor unions, 672–675, 679–680
largest occupational groups, 50–51
life expectancy, 37
location, 43–44
“Lucky Few” (1929–1945), 34
marital status, 46–47
median age over time, 61f
mortality and causes of death, 38–39
multigenerational households, 47
nativity/immigration, 42–43
occupations by age, 50, 51t
occupations offering most opportunity, 51, 52t
oldest old, 13
population changes by state, 45f
population projections, 35–40
populations 65-plus and 80-plus, 12t
possible alternative policies, 642–644
race/ethnicity, 40, 41t, 42
sociodemographic factors, 40–46
technological changes, 26
unemployment among older workers, 49–50
wealth and retirement, 67
workforce demographics, 3–4
UN Population Fund (UNFPA), global aging, 20–21
UN Programme on Ageing, Society for All Ages, 21
usability, technology, 351–352
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Baby Boom generation, 18, 588
Usery v. Tamiami Trail Tours 1976, 619
U.S. Health and Retirement Survey, 333
U.S. News, recommended careers for older workers, 54t, 55t
V
variance
job performance of older workers, 291
observable individual difference, 164
task performance of older workers, 239–240
vestibular, definition, 228
Veterans Affairs (VA), Department of, 634
video games, technology, 343
VIE theories (valence, instrumentality and expectancy), 438
Vietnam, 82t, 83t
Vietnam War, Cambodia’s population, 89
vigilance, cognitive aging, 241, 242
virgin territory, population aging and economy, 27
visual information processing, ergonomics, 461–463
visuospatial, 229
vitality, older workers, 248–249
volunteer work
daily time use, 556
employer-provided opportunities, 405
midcourse years, 555
social participation, 324
trends for older workers, 596
W
Waldron v. SL Industries 1995, 614
Wards Cove v. Atonio 1989, 616
Warr’s model, capacity and job experience, 286–287, 288t
Watson v. Fort Worth Bank 1988, 616
Watson Wyatt Worldwide, employee retention, 394–395
Web 2.0, Internet, 342, 355
websites, age-appropriate labeling, 349–350
welfare
Asian governments, 82
Canadian values, 110–111
well-being
future retirement research, 578–580
job loss, 321
management practices, 410f
retirement, 570–571
retirement pathways, transitions and, 692–693
Western Europe, 14t, 392
Wexler v. White’s Fine Furniture 2003, 613, 615
Whittlesey v. Union Carbide 1983, 609–610
Wildman v. Lerner Stores 1985, 612, 615
Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), 324
WomanSage, mentoring, 545
women. See also gender
average effective retirement age vs. official age, 17f
bridge employment, 575
career disadvantages for, 525
employment trends, 590–591
organizations and movement for, 544–545
word-of-mouth communication, recruitment, 384
work. See also pro-work policies
defining old age, 15–16
demographic and societal perspectives, 687–688
generational effects, 691–692
retirement and, 6
social and fiscal policies, 27
societal perspectives on, and retirement, 6–7
work ability, 222
Work Ability model, employee retention, 395, 399, 403
work attitudes. See also personality-attitude relationships
age, personality traits and, 257
age and job attitudes, 265–270
age and job satisfaction, 266–267
age and organizational commitment, 267–268
age and organizational justice, 268–269
age and psychological contracts, 269
job satisfaction, 257
work-based development, career, 138
work behaviors, measurement, 237–238
work conditions. See also retention strategies
financial incentives, 404–405
flexible work location, 402–403
flexible work scheduling, 400–401, 670, 671
healthcare benefits, 403–404
job or workstation design, 403
opportunities for career growth, 404
opportunities to teach others, 404
phased retirement, 401
post-retirement employment, 401–402
support for care-giving duties, 404
Work Environment Scale, 165
worker contributions, organization acknowledging, 405
worker productivity, Canada, 101, 107–109
workers. See also age stereotypes; aging workforce; older workers
accuracy and validity of decisions, 308
age, 302
age stereotypes, 302–303
outcomes of age stereotypes, 303
worker skills, Canada, 101, 106–107
work experience, job and tenure, 240
work-family issues
agenda for future research, 529–531
age stereotypes, 530–531
career disadvantages for women, 525
caring for aging parents, 523–524
caring for grandchildren, 524–525
caring for parents and children, 524
challenges for older worker, 523–526
concepts and theories, 521–523
dependent care supports, 527–528
(p. 716)
dual-career couples, 530
family context, 529–530
family interference with work (FIW), 521, 523
Family Medical Leave Act of 1993, 528
flexible work arrangements, 526–527
investigation, 520–521
life course and life stage theories, 522–523
life course perspective, 529
organizational interventions, 526–529
outcomes and dependent-care initiatives, 531
retirement decisions, 525–526
retirement planning, 528–529
role conflict perspective, 521
role enhancement perspective, 521–522
roles and challenges, 691
spillover across life span, 531
work-family conflict (WFC), 521, 522–523
work interference with family (WIF), 521, 523
workforce
aging population and, in Europe, 60–64
demographics, 3–4
demographics of aging, 631
future directions, 27
organizational strategies for older, 5–6
work-life balance, 26–27
workforce aging
challenges in Europe, 74–75
theoretical and methodological perspectives, 4, 693–694
Workforce Aging for the New Economy (WANE), Active Aging, 676
Workforce Assessment Tool, 408
Workforce Development Agency (WDA), Singapore, 91
workforce gaps, retention, 408
workforce planning
aging workforce and strategic human resources management matrix, 373–377
human resources, 366–370
strategy process, 370–373
Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ), Singapore, 91–92
working-age population, demographics of aging, 631
working memory (WM)
attention and, 283
cognitive aging, 242–243
task performance, 239
work interference with family (WIF), 521, 523
work-life balance. See also work-family issues (p. 717)
aging workforce, 26–27
social well-being, 226–227
work-life programs, organizational differences, 494–495
work motivation, mental well-being, 223–224
work performance, older worker, 4–5
workplace
age bias and discrimination, 25, 300
age stereotypes influencing decisions, 300–301
aging and technology, 342–343
cognitive aging, 236–238
generational theory, 496–497
generations working together, 483–484
job performance and work behavior, 237–238
technology and, safety, 345
unionized, 672–673, 675
workplace health promotion (WHP), retention strategy, 409
work requirements, retention, 408
work scheduling, flexible, 400–401, 670, 671
work values, generations, 486, 489–490
World Health Organization (WHO)
age and work, 16
global aging, 20–21
health definition, 571
occupational health, 217–218
Y
youthfulness, subjective age, 176–177
YouTube, 342
Z
Zaccagnini v. Levy Circulating Co. 2003, 613–614