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date: 10 April 2021

(p. xix) Contributors

(p. xix) Contributors

Colin Baker is pro vice chancellor at the University of Wales, Bangor. He is the author of 15 books and over 50 articles on bilingualism and bilingual education, with specific interests in language planning and bilingual education. His book Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (Multilingual Matters, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2006) has sold over 50,000 copies and has been translated into Japanese, Spanish, Latvian, Greek, Vietnamese, and Mandarin. His Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education (with S. P. Jones, Multilingual Matters) won the British Association for Applied Linguistics Book Prize Award in 1999. He edits three Multilingual Matters Book Series and is editor of the International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. In addition to his academic activities, Colin Baker has held three U.K. government appointments. He can be reached at

Richard B. Baldauf, Jr., is professor of TESOL education in the School of Education at the University of Queensland. From 1999 to 2008 he was a member of the Executive of the International Association of Applied Linguistics (AILA). He has published several books and numerous articles in refereed journals. He is coeditor of Language Planning and Education in Australasia and the South Pacific (Multilingual Matters, 1990), coauthor with Robert B. Kaplan of Language Planning from Practice to Theory (Multilingual Matters, 1997) and Language and Language-in-Education Planning in the Pacific Basin (Kluwer, 2003), as well as coeditor of nine volumes in the Language Policy and Planning Series (Multilingual Matters, 20042008). He is coauthor with Zhao Shouhui of Planning Chinese Characters: Evolution, Revolution or Reaction (Springer, 2007). He can be reached at

Kathleen Bardovi-Harlig is professor of second language studies and adjunct professor of linguistics, cognitive science, and Germanic studies at Indiana University, where she teaches and conducts research in second language acquisition. Her work on interlanguage pragmatics and on the acquisition of pragmatics has appeared in Language Learning, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Discourse Processes, ROLSI, and Pragmatics and Language Learning. She is the coeditor of three volumes on the L2acquisition of pragmatics and the means used to investigate it: Pragmatics and Language Learning (Vol.11, 2006 University of Hawai'i: National Foreign Language Resource Center), Interlanguage Pragmatics: Exploring Institutional Talk (2005, Lawrence Erlbaum), and Teaching Pragmatics (2003, United States Department of State, She can be reached at

(p. xx) Douglas Biber is Regents' Professor of English (applied linguistics) at Northern Arizona University. His research efforts have focused on corpus linguistics, English grammar, and register variation (in English and in synchronic and diachronic cross-linguistically). His publications include four books published with Cambridge University Press (1988, 1995, 1998, in press) and the coauthored Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (1999). He can be reached at

Jill Burstein received a PhD in linguistics from the City University of New York, Graduate Center, in 1992. Dr. Burstein is currently a researcher at Educational Testing Service. Her research applies natural language processing methods to the development of text assessment applications. Dr. Burstein is a coinventor of e-rater, an automated essay scoring system, currently used to score essays on the Graduate Management Admissions Test, and of Criterion, a web-based writing instruction system. She may be reached at

Martin Bygate lectures in TESOL at the School of Education, University of Leeds. His main areas of interest are instructed second language acquisition, oral second language proficiency, and the role of tasks in language learning. He has directed research projects, coedited two volumes, and published a book and various research articles on the teaching and learning of oral skills. Prior to his appointment at Leeds, he taught in France, Morocco, and Brazil as well as at the Universities of Reading and London. He is currently coeditor of Applied Linguistics journal. He can be reached at

Micheline Chalhoub-Deville has a PhD from Ohio State University. She is university professor of educational research methodology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. She is recognized internationally for her work in the field of second language assessment. She has published in various journals, including Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Foreign Language Annals, Language Learning, Language Testing, and World Englishes. She has edited a book on computer adaptive testing, titled Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency and coedited Inference and Generalizability in Applied Linguistics: Multiple Research Perspectives. Dr. Chalhoub-Deville has received the International Language Testing Association Award for Best Article on Language Testing. She has chaired the TOEFL Committee of Examiners and served on the TOEFL Policy Council. She can be reached at

Carol A. Chapelle, professor of TESL/applied linguistics, is coeditor of the Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series. Her research explores issues at the intersection of computer technology and applied linguistics. Recent books are Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition: Foundations for Teaching, Testing and Research and English Language Learning and Technology: (p. xxi) Lectures on Applied Linguistics in the Age of Information and Communication Technology. Other books that focus on language assessment and research methods include the following: Assessing Language through Technology (Chapelle and Douglas) Inference and Generalizability in Applied Linguistics (Chalhoub-Deville, Chapelle, and Duff, eds.), and ESOL Tests and Testing: A Resource for Teachers and Administrators (Stoynoff and Chapelle). Her most recent books are Building a Validity Argument for the Test of English as a Foreign Language and Tips for Teaching with CALL. She can be reached at

Martin Chodorow received a PhD in cognitive psychology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1976. After completing a postdoctoral research assignment at IBM's Thomas Watson Research Center, he joined the faculty of the psychology department at Hunter College of the City University of New York. Dr. Chodorow has worked on a number of natural language processing projects at IBM, at Princeton University's Cognitive Science Laboratory, and, most recently, at Educational Testing Service. He can be reached at

Kees de Bot graduated from the University of Nijmegen in general linguistics and applied linguistics. His research concerns a number of topics including foreign language attrition, language and dementia in multilingual settings, maintenance and shift of minority languages and the psycholinguistics of bilingual language processing, early and late forms of bilingual education, and immersion and the application of dynamic systems theory in SLA and multilingualism. He is chair of applied linguistics and director of the Research School for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences (BCN) at the University of Groningen. He is a trustee of the TESOL International Research Foundation and a member of the Program Committee of the Department of Modern Languages of Carnegie Mellon University. He is also coeditor of the series Studies in Bilingualism. He has published books and articles on various topics in the field of applied linguistics. He can be reached at

Patricia Duff is professor of language and literacy education and Distinguished University Scholar at the University of British Columbia. She is also director of the newly established Centre for Research in Chinese Language and Literacy Education there. Her main areas of interest are language acquisition and language socialization, qualitative research methods, classroom discourse in a variety of educational contexts, including second/foreign language courses, mainstream and L2-immersion content-based courses, and the teaching, learning, and use of English and Chinese as international languages. Her recent work includes three books and many book chapters and articles primarily dealing with language socialization across bilingual and multilingual settings; quantitative research methods (especially employing case study and ethnography) and generalizability in applied (p. xxii) linguistics; issues in teaching and learning English, Mandarin and other international languages; the integration of second-language learners in high schools, universities and society; multilingualism at work; and sociocultural sociolinguistics and sociopolitical aspects of language(s) in education. She can be reached at

William G. Eggington is professor of English language and linguistics and associate chair of the English department, Brigham Young University. Originally from Australia, he received his MA and PhD in linguistics from the University of Southern California. He specializes in studying macrorelationships between language and society, specifically language policy and planning. He has published nationally and internationally in language planning; his most recent publication is a coedited book, The Sociopolitics of English Language Teaching. He is actively involved in professional organizations including TESOL International, having served as chair of the Sociopolitical Concerns Committee and chair of the Applied Linguistics Interest Section. He can be reached at

Eric Friginal is assistant professor in the Department of Applied Linguistics and English as a Second Language at Georgia State University. His main research interest lies in using corpus linguistics to explore linguistic variation in professional, cross-cultural discourse in the context of outsourced call centers in the Philippines serving American customers. He is the author of The Language of Outsourced Call Centers: A Corpus-Based Study of Cross-Cultural Interaction. He can be reached at

Ofelia Garcia is presently the dean of the School of Education at the Brooklyn campus of Long Island University. She has published extensively in the areas of bilingualism, bilingual education, sociology of language, and U.S. Spanish. She is the editor of the new journal Educators for Urban Minorities. She can be reached at

Robert C. Gardner is a professor emeritus in psychology at the University of Western Ontario. He has written two books, coauthored a third one, and coedited another. In addition, he has published approximately 150 journal articles and book chapters. The majority of his publications are concerned with the role of attitudes and motivation in second language learning, but in addition he has made contributions to the literature on ethnic relations, ethnic stereotypes, ethnic attitudes, psycholinguistics, and statistics. In 1999, he was honored by the Canadian Psychological Association with the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training. He can be reached at

Susan Gass is University Distinguished Professor in the Department of Linguistics, Germanic, Slavic, Asian, and African Languages at Michigan State University. She is the director of the English Language Center, codirector of (p. xxiii) the Center for Language Education and Research, and director of the Second Language Studies PhD program. She has published widely in the field of SLA, focusing on a number of different areas, including language transfer, language universals, and input and interaction. She is the author of Input, Interaction, and the Second Language Learner, coauthor with Larry Selinker of Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course, and coauthor with Alison Mackey of Second Language Research: Methodology and Design and Data Elicitation for Second and Foreign Language Research. She can be reached at

William Grabe is Regents' Professor of applied linguistics in the English Department at Northern Arizona University, where he teaches in the MA-TESL and PhD in applied linguistics programs. He is interested in reading, writing, literacy, written discourse analysis, and content-based L2 instruction. His most recent book is Reading in a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. He has also coauthored Theory and Practice of Writing and Teaching and Researching Reading and coedited Directions in Applied Linguistics. He served as editor of the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. He is a past president of the American Association for Applied Linguistics (2001–2002). He received the 2005 Distinguished Scholarship and Service Award from the American Association for Applied Linguistics. He can be reached at william.

Michael Harrington is a senior lecturer in second language acquisition at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. He has an MA in English as a second language (ESL) from the University of Hawaii, and a PhD in experimental psychology from the University of California, Santa Cruz. His research and teaching interests are in second language acquisition, research methods, second language vocabulary development, Japanese as a second language, and computer-mediated language processing and use. He has published articles and chapters in the areas of second language cognitive models, working memory, sentence processing, and computer-mediated second language acquisition. He may be reached at

Eli Hinkel has taught ESL and applied linguistics, as well as trained teachers, for almost 30 years. She has published numerous books and articles on learning second culture, and on second language grammar, writing, and pragmatics. Her recent books deal with research in second language learning, the effects of culture on second language learning, approaches to teaching L2 grammar, syntactic and lexical features of L2 written text, and practical techniques for teaching L2 academic writing. She is also the editor for the ESL and Applied Linguistics Professional Series of books and textbooks for teachers and graduate students. She can be reached at

Nancy H. Hornberger is professor of education and director of educational linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Her research (p. xxiv) interests include sociolinguistics in education, ethnography in education, language policy, bilingualism and biliteracy, indigenous language revitalization, and heritage language education. Recent publications include the 10-volume Encyclopedia of Language and Education and Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages? Policy and Practice on Four Continents. She can be reached at

Alan Juffs is currently associate professor and chair of the Department of Linguistics, University of Pittsburgh. He is the director of the English Language Institute at the University of Pittsburgh and coeditor of the Pitt Series in ESL textbooks published by the University of Michigan Press. He is currently vice-president of the University and College Intensive English Programs Consortium (UCIEP) and committee chair of the English as a Second Language Committee of the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center. His research interests include the semantics-syntax interface and second language sentence processing. He has published in a variety of scholarly journals, including Language Learning, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Second Language Research, Language Teaching Research, and Transactions of the Philological Society. In addition to more theoretical aspects of SLA, he maintains a keen interest in classroom research, vocabulary teaching, and materials development, as well as advocacy for intensive English programs. He may be reached at

Robert B. Kaplan is emeritus professor of applied linguistics in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Southern California. He was the founding editor of the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics and has served as an editor of the applied linguistics entries for both the first and second editions of the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. In addition, he is founding coeditor (with Richard B. Baldauf, Jr.) of Current Issues in Language Planning. He has authored or edited some 50 books, more than 165 articles in scholarly journals and as chapters in books, and more than 90 book reviews and other more ephemeral pieces in various newsletters, as well as 10 special reports to government and to various institutions in the United States and elsewhere. Over a relatively long career, he has presented more than 200 talks, papers, and invited plenary addresses at national and international conferences. He has served as president of NAFSA (1983–1984), TESOL (19891990), and AAAL (1993–1994). He can be reached at

Judith Kroll is Distinguished Professor of psychology, linguistics, and women's studies and codirector of the Center for Language Science at Pennsylvania State University. Together with Annette de Groot, she edited Tutorials in Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Perspectives and the Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches. She served as a coeditor of Bilingualism: Language and Cognition from its founding in1997until2001andas its coordinating editor from 2001 to 2002. She serves on the editorial boards (p. xxv) of Journal of Memory and Language; Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory and Cognition; International Journal of Bilingualism; and Psychological Science. The research that she and her students conduct concerns the acquisition, comprehension, and production of two languages during second language learning and in proficient bilingual performance. Their work, using behavioral and neurocognitive methods, is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. Together with Suparna Rajaram and Randi Martin, she was one of the founding organizers of Women in Cognitive Science, an organization supported by the National Science Foundation and developed to promote the advancement of women in the cognitive sciences. She may be reached at

James P. Lantolf is the Greer Professor in language acquisition and applied linguistics in the Department of Applied Linguistics at Pennsylvania State University. He is also director of the Center for Language Acquisition and codirector of CALPER (Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research). He was president of the American Association for Applied Linguistics (20042005). He served as coeditor of Applied Linguistics (1995–2000). He has published numerous articles and book chapters, coauthored the book Sociocultural Theory and the Genesis of Second Language Developmen, and is editor or coeditor of three books: Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research, Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning, and Sociocultural Theory and the Teaching of Second Languages. He can be reached at

Sara Laviosa is a lecturer in EFL and translation at the University of Bari (Aldo Moro) and a visiting lecturer at the University of Rome (Tor Vergata). From 1999 to 2002, she was lecturer in Italian at the University of Salford, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. She has taught Italian as a foreign language, EFL, and translation in British and Italian universities. Her research interests lie in corpus translation studies and translation pedagogy. She is editor of the first volume of Translation Studies Abstracts and ĽApproche Basée sur le Corpus / Corpus-Based Approach (Special Issue of Meta,43(4),1998). She is coeditor (with Anke Hübner and Toni Ibarz) of Assessment and Accreditation for Languages: The Emerging Consensus? She is also the author of Corpus-Based Translation Studies: Theory, Findings, Applications and Linking Wor(l)ds: Lexis and Grammar for Translation. She serves as consulting editor of Translation Studies Abstracts and The Bibliography of Translation Studies and as coeditor (with Dorothy Kelly) of the series Translation Practices Explained (St. Jerome Press). She can be reached at

Ilona Leki is professor of English and director of ESL at the University of Tennessee. Her books include Understanding ESL Writers: A Guide for Teachers, Academic English, and Reading in the Composition Classroom (with (p. xxvi) Joan Carson). She coedits (initially with Tony Silva, subsequently with Rosa Manchon) the Journal of Second Language Writing. Her research interests center around the development of academic literacy, and she is the winner of the 1996 TESOL/Newbury House Distinguished Research Award. She can be reached at

Tony Lynch is senior lecturer at the Institute for Applied Language Studies, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, where he is involved primarily in teaching English to international students and in second language teacher education. His books include Listening (cowritten with Anne Anderson), Communication in the Language Classroom, and a new edition of Study Listening. He recently completed Teaching Second Language Listening. He is now researching second language listeners' informal practice strategies and is happy to respond to messages at

Mary McGroarty is professor in the applied linguistics program of the English department at Northern Arizona University, where she teaches courses in sociolinguistics, language pedagogy, and assessment. She has also been on the faculty at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her research addresses language policy, pedagogy, and assessment and has appeared in Applied Linguistics, Language Learning, Language Policy, TESOL Quarterly, and several anthologies. She is a past president (1997–1998) of the American Association for Applied Linguistics and has served on the editorial boards of Applied Linguistics, Canadian Modern Language Review, Journal of Language, Identity and Education, and TESOL Quarterly. From 2000 through 2006, she was editor-in-chief of the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. She can be reached at

Péter Medgyes is ambassador of Hungary posted to Syria. Previously, he was a schoolteacher, teacher trainer, vice rector of his university, and deputy state secretary at the Hungarian Ministry of Education. Professor Medgyes has written numerous books and articles, including The Non-Native Teacher (winner of the Duke of Edinburgh Book Competition), Changing Perspectives in Teacher Education (coedited with Angi Malderez), The Language Teacher, and Laughing Matters. His main professional interests lie in curriculum studies, language policy, and teacher education. He can be reached at

Peter Mühlhäusler is the Foundation Professor of Linguistics at the University of Adelaide and Supernumerary Fellow of Linacre College, Oxford. He has taught at the Technical University of Berlin and in the University of Oxford. He is an active researcher in several areas of linguistics, including ecolinguistics, language planning, and language policy and language contact in the Australian-Pacific area. His current research focuses on the Pitkern-Norf'k language of Norfolk Island and Aboriginal languages of the West Coast of South Australia. His recent book publications are Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, Language of (p. xxvii) Environment-Environment of Language, Early Forms of Aboriginal English in South Australia (with Foster and Monaghan), and Herrmann Koeler's Adelaide-Observations on Language and Culture of South Australia (with Amery and Gara). He continues to publish on theoretical and applied ecolinguistics. He can be reached at


Peter Hans Nelde died on August 31, 2007, after a long illness. Despite his passing, the contribution he wrote for the Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics was considered to be of such importance that it was decided to retain it in its original form. Dr. Nelde established contact linguistics as an integral part of the discipline, supported by annual international symposia dealing with contact and conflict between linguistic minorities and majorities. In addition, he established the series Plurilingua that he maintained as editor-in-chief during his life. Dr. Nelde was professor and chair of German and general linguistics at the Katholieke Universiteit Brussel (Belgium) and visiting professor in Nijmegen (the Netherlands) and Leipzig (Germany). He directed Languages in a Network of European Excellence (LINEE), the international research project on linguistic diversity sponsored by the European Union. In 1977 he founded the Research Centre on Multilingualism and had been its director ever since. He was responsible for the publication of the Euromosaic reports on the linguistic minorities of Europe. He was also one of the editors of Sociolinguistica: International Yearbook of Sociolinguistics (Niemeyer, Tübingen) and the editor in chief of Contact Linguistics: An International Handbook of Contemporary Research. His main research areas were multilingualism, contact linguistics, language policy, and language planning. He shall be sorely missed.


Marianne Nikolov is professor of English applied linguistics at the University of Pécs, Hungary, where she teaches undergraduate and graduate courses. Her research areas include early learning and teaching of modern languages, assessment of processes and outcomes in language education, individual differences, and language policy. Her papers have been published in Language Learning, Language Teaching Research, and Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. She is the author of several edited volumes. She can be reached at

Bonny Norton is professor and Distinguished University Scholar in the Department of Language and Literacy Education, University of British Columbia, Canada. She is also visiting senior research fellow in the Department of Education, King's College, University of London, and honorary professor in the School of Education, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa. Her award-winning research addresses identity and language learning, education and international development, and critical literacy. Recent publications include Identity and Language Learning, Critical Pedagogies and Language Learning (with K. Toohey), and Gender and English (p. xxviii) Language Learners (with A. Pavlenko). She is currently coediting a Multilingual Matters book series, Critical Language and Literacy Studies (with several others). In 2003, she was awarded a UBC Killam Prize for Excellence in Teaching and in 2007 a UBC Killam Prize for Excellence in Research. Her website can be found at, and she can be contacted at

Terence Odlin is associate professor of English and adjunct associate professor of linguistics at Ohio State University. He has also taught in Washington DC, Texas, Algeria, Iran, France, Ireland, and Finland, where he was a Fulbright Scholar in 1997. Along with the psycholinguistic issues involved in language transfer and contrastive analysis, his research interests are focused on sociohistorical factors in language contact situations in the Celtic lands and elsewhere. He is the author of Language Transfer, the editor of Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar, and coeditor of Language Contact, Variation and Change. He can be reached at

Deborah Poole is an associate professor of applied linguistics at San Diego State University. Her research focuses on classroom interaction as related to pedagogy, literacy, and language socialization. Her publications include articles in Linguistics & Education, Reading Research Quarterly, Discourse Processes, and Language Learning. She has also coauthored several ESL textbooks. She can be reached at

Randi Reppen is professor of applied linguistics in the Department of English at Northern Arizona University. Her research interests include exploring how corpus linguistics can inform language teaching and materials development. She can be reached at

Betty Samraj is associate professor of linguistics at San Diego State University. Her research interests are in genre analysis and writing across the disciplines. Her publications include articles in journals such as English for Specific Purposes, Journal of English for Academic Purposes, and TEXT. She can be reached at

John H. Schumann is professor of applied linguistics and former chair of the Department of Applied Linguistics and TESL at UCLA. His research focuses on the neurobiology of the language, the neurobiology of learning, language acquisition, and language evolution. He is coauthor of the book The Interactional Instinct: The Evolution and Acquisition of Language. He can be reached at

Nancy L. Schweda Nicholson, PhD (Georgetown University), is professor of linguistics and cognitive science with a joint appointment in the Legal Studies Program at the University of Delaware. Dr. Nicholson is widely published in the areas of interpreting theory and practice, interpreter training, and language planning for court interpreter services. The late Honorable William (p. xxix) H. Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States, appointed her to the Federal Court Interpreters Advisory Board. She is a member of the Committee on Court Interpreters and Legal Translation of the Fédération Internationale des Traducteurs (International Federation of Translators, FIT). In September2008, Professor Nicholson was invited to address the Supreme Court of Korea on court interpreting in the United States. In addition to her interpreter policy research at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the International Criminal Court (ICC), Dr. Nicholson is currently studying proposed European Union legislation that would require comparable language services in criminal matters throughout the 27 member states. She can be reached at nsn@UDel.Edu.

Jeff Siegel, currently associate professor of linguistics at the University of New England in Australia, has an MA in English as a second language from the University of Hawai'i and a PhD in linguistics from the Australian National University. He has done extensive research on pidgins, creoles, and other language contact varieties and their use in education and is author of Language Contact in a Plantation Environment, Vernacular Education in the South Pacific, and The Emergence of Pidgin and Creole languages. Since1990, he has been editor of the Pidgin and Creoles in Education (PACE) Newsletter. He can be reached at

James W. Tollefson is Emeritus professor of English at the University of Washington and Professor of Media, Communication, and Culture at International Christian University in Tokyo. He is the author or editor of eight books, including Language Policy, Culture, and Identity in Asian Contexts (coedited with Amy B.M. Tsui); Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? (coedited with Amy B.M. Tsui); Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues; Power and Inequality in Language Education; The Strength Not to Fight: An Oral History of Conscientious Objectors of the Vietnam War; Planning Language, Planning Inequality; Alien Winds: The Reeducation of America's Indochinese Refugees; and The Language Situation and Language Policy in Slovenia. His articles appear in Journal of the Sociology of Language, TESOL Quarterly, Language Problems and Language Planning, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, and many other journals. He may be reached at

Kelleen Toohey is professor in the faculty of education at Simon Fraser University, Canada. Her current research examines literacy instruction and learning in child English language learners' classrooms. Recent publications include Learning English at School: Identity, Social Relations and Classroom Practice, Critical Pedagogies and Language Learning (with B. Norton). She is coauthor of Collaborative Research in Multilingual Classrooms (with C. Denos, K. Neilson, and B. Waterstone). She can be contacted at

(p. xxx) Marjorie Bingham Wesche was professor from 1978 to 2005 at the Universit of Ottawa (Second Language Institute and Graduate Studies in Education), and former director of the Institute, and serves as adjunct professor since he retirement. Her main research and teaching interests have involved second language acquisition, instruction, content-based second language instructio (immersion and postsecondary initiatives) language aptitude and assessmen and vocabulary acquisition. She has published widely on these topics, coauthored Content-Based Second Language Instruction and Lexical Inferencing in a First and Second Language: Cross-Linguistic Dimensions (2010), and co-edited Second Language Performance Testing and Language Testing Reconsidered. She also guest-edited two special issues of journals: Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Theory, Current Research and Instructional Implications, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21 (1999), and French Immersion and Content-Based Language Teaching in Canada, Canadian Modern Language Review, 58 (2001). She can be reached at mwesche@xplornet.