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date: 20 August 2019

(p. xvii) List of Figures

(p. xvii) List of Figures

  1. 1.1 Select Archaeological Sites and Cultural Landmarks Mentioned in Text 4

  2. 1.2 Chart of the Historical Periods of Indigenous North America to 1600 AD 5

  3. 1.3 Examples of Embodied Historical Relationships 10

  4. 1.4 Map of Traditional Culture Areas of North America 11

  5. 5.1 Tethered Warriors in Mexico and the Great Plains 55

  6. 5.2 Representations of Fire Drilling Kits 57

  7. 5.3 Victims with Splayed Postures on Pole Frames 58

  8. 5.4 Bisected Circle or Atlatl Grip Motif and Its Transformations in Mexico and North America 59

  9. 7.1 Papago Woman Gathering Cactus Fruit 75

  10. 7.2 Coast Pomo Woman Using a Seed Beater to Gather Seeds into a Burden Basket 77

  11. 7.3 Timucan Farmers Planting Corn Field 79

  12. 7.4 Apache Woman Hoeing Corn with an Infant in Cradleboard 80

  13. 8.1 Locations of Likely Entry Routes of North American Colonizers, Pleistocene Ice Sheets, and Key Clovis and Related Sites 88

  14. 8.2 Early Paleoindian Technology 90

  15. 8.3 Location and Spatial Extent of Key Folsom Sites 93

  16. 9.1 Occurrence of Fluted Projectile Points in Eastern North America 97

  17. 9.2 Diagnostic Paleoindian Projectile Point Forms in Eastern North America 98

  18. 9.3 Paleoindian Site Locations in Eastern North America 100

  19. 10.1 Map Showing Locations Mentioned in the Text 114

  20. 10.2 Diagram Summarizing the Culture History of the North American Arctic 116

  21. 10.3 Thule Tradition Semisubterranean Winter House in the Canadian High Arctic, Gridded for Excavation 118

  22. 10.4 Arctic Material Culture from the Canadian Arctic 120

  23. 11.1 Map of the Eastern Subarctic 125

  24. 11.2 Cache of Meadowood-Type Blades Dating to About 2700 BP 128

  25. 11.3 Sample of Recent Period Projectile Points from the Mistassini Region of West-Central Québec 130

  26. 12.1 Map of the North Pacific Showing Key Sites 136

  27. 12.2 Examples of Harpoons and Figurines from the Western Alaska Peninsula 139

  28. (p. xviii) 13.1 Stemmed Points 155

  29. 13.2 Small Channel Island Barbed Points and Two Crescents 156

  30. 13.3 Long-Stemmed, “Tanged” Incipient Jomon Points from Japan 157

  31. 14.1 Map of the Northwest Coast Showing Key Sites 161

  32. 14.2 Northwest Coast Chronology Chart 163

  33. 15.1 Regional Map Showing Approximate Locations of Major Plateau Villages 174

  34. 15.2 Map of the Core Village Area of the Keatley Creek Site 178

  35. 15.3 Maps Illustrating Growth of the Bridge River Village over Time 181

  36. 16.1 The Hydrographic Great Basin, Major Mountain Ranges, and Modern Distribution of Numic-Speaking Peoples 186

  37. 16.2 Photograph of Winnemucca Valley, Nevada, Western Great Basin from Inside Rockshelter 187

  38. 16.3 Location of Studies Mentioned in the Text 189

  39. 16.4 Graphic Representation of the Behavioral Ecology of Logistical versus Residential Foraging 192

  40. 17.1 Regional Map with Obsidian Sources and Key Sites 200

  41. 17.2 Frequency of Radiocarbon-Dated Structures and Other Archaeological Materials over Time 204

  42. 17.3 House Size Plotted by Radiocarbon Date, Showing General Decrease in House Size After 650 BP 207

  43. 18.1 Map of Central California Showing the San Francisco Bay Area and Central Valley Regions 214

  44. 18.2 Large Mounded Site, Recorded as Mound No. 262 by Nels Nelson During His Pioneering Survey of the San Francisco Bay Area from 1906 to 1908 215

  45. 18.3 Excavations at the Ellis Landing Shell Mound 215

  46. 18.4 Illustration of a Mounded Site Along a Slough in the Delta Area Near the Modern Town of Stockton 216

  47. 18.5 Example of a Sand Dune Mound from Bradford Island in the Delta Area 218

  48. 19.1 Historic Chumash Villages in the Santa Barbara Channel Region 226

  49. 19.2 Olivella Callus Cup Bead-Making Kit 227

  50. 19.3 Tomol Constructed in 1912 by Fernando Librado 228

  51. 19.4 Chumash Rock Art in the San Emigdio Area 229

  52. 20.1 Map of Northern California in the Early 19th Century 237

  53. 20.2 Photograph of Petaluma Adobe, Centerpiece of the Rancho Petaluma, in the Late 20th Century 238

  54. 20.3 Photograph of Fort Ross with Native Alaskan and Californian Living Areas in the Foreground 239

  55. 21.1 Multidisciplinary Framework for the St. Lawrence Valley 250

  56. 21.2 Map of Study Area with Sites Mentioned in the Text 251

  57. 21.3 Laurentian Archaic Artifacts 254

  58. 21.4 Early Woodland Meadowood Cache Blades Made of Onondaga Chert and Bifaces of the Middlesex Complex 256

  59. (p. xix) 21.5 Early and Late Middle Woodland Pottery 257

  60. 21.6 St. Lawrence Iroquoian Pottery 258

  61. 22.1 Map of New England 263

  62. 22.2 Map of the Late Pleistocene Glacial Lakes in New England 265

  63. 22.3 Arrow Points from the Late Woodland Period, AD 1000–1600 268

  64. 22.4 Ceramics from the Late Woodland Period, AD 1000–1600 270

  65. 23.1 The Great Lakes Region, Showing Locations of Aboriginal Nations Mentioned in Text 274

  66. 23.2 An 18th-Century Depiction of the Feast of the Dead at the Huron Ossuary of Ossossané, Witnessed by the Jesuit Priest Father Jean de Brébeuf in the Year 1636 279

  67. 23.3 Mantle Site Plan 280

  68. 23.4 Ceramic Vessel Effigy Thought to Be a Mythical Cornhusk Person Associated with Horticultural Crops 281

  69. 24.1 The Northern Great Lakes Region 288

  70. 24.2 Series of Late Precontact (ca. AD 1200–1600) Circular Earthwork Enclosures 293

  71. 24.3 Side-by-Side Comparison of the Ethnohistoric Diagram of Bear’s Travels with the Midé Pack and the Schematic of the Missaukee Earthworks Ritual Precinct Layout 294

  72. 25.1 Maximum Extent of the Fort Ancient and Monongahela Traditions, Showing Locations of SunWatch and Peck 2–2 298

  73. 25.2 Monongahela House with Attached Storage Pit 301

  74. 25.3 Schematic Map of Peck 2–2 303

  75. 25.4 Schematic Map of SunWatch 304

  76. 25.5 Floor Plan of SunWatch’s Wall Trench Structure 306

  77. 26.1 John Smith’s Map of Virginia 313

  78. 26.2 Powhatan’s Mantle 314

  79. 26.3 Excavations at Werowocomoco 317

  80. 27.1 Wilber’s Four Quadrants Perspective 326

  81. 27.2 The Upper Mississippi River-Northeastern Plains Region 328

  82. 27.3 Kramer and Turkey Tail Points, with Minnesota Points to the Right 331

  83. 27.4 Pre-Emergence and Post-Emergence Pottery Vessels 334

  84. 28.1 Map of Northern Plains Showing Places in Blackfoot Homeland 337

  85. 28.2 Photographs of Swan’s Bill, Crow’s Nest, Chief, and Bear’s Tooth 340

  86. 28.3 Map of Southern Alberta Showing Old North Trail and Trails to Sun Dance Grounds 342

  87. 29.1 Map of the Northwestern Plains and Middle Rocky Mountains 349

  88. 29.2 Stone Circle at Two Eagle Site, Bighorn Canyon 353

  89. 29.3 Sheep Traps of the Absaroka Mountains 355

  90. 30.1 Map Showing Distribution of Western and Eastern Initial Middle Missouri Villages on the Plains-Prairie Border 361

  91. 30.2 Plan View of an Initial Middle Missouri House from the Langdeau Site 362

  92. (p. xx) 30.3 Map Showing Distribution of Initial Coalescent and Extended Middle Missouri Villages 366

  93. 30.4 Plan View of an Extended Coalescent House from the La Roche Site 368

  94. 31.1 Map of Central and Southern Plains, with Archeological Complexes 375

  95. 31.2 Plains Villager Pottery 378

  96. 31.3 Bone Digging Tools from Plains Sites 379

  97. 32.1 Location of Protohistoric Complexes on the Southern Plains Discussed in the Chapter 389

  98. 33.1 Distribution of Regional Mississippian Societies 399

  99. 33.2 Langford Phase Vessel 404

  100. 33.3 Fisher Phase Vessel 405

  101. 33.4 Reconstruction of Fisher Phase Pit House 406

  102. 33.5 Plan Map of Partial Huber Phase Longhouse 407

  103. 34.1 The Upper Mississippi River Valley and Unglaciated Driftless Area 411

  104. 34.2 Photograph of Bird-Shaped Effigy Mound Along the Lower Wisconsin River in the Driftless Area 412

  105. 34.3 Overlap of Distribution of Effigy Mounds in Southern Wisconsin, Including the Entire Driftless Area 413

  106. 34.4 Locations of Various Clustered Oneota Village Localities in the Upper Midwest 415

  107. 35.1 Michigan State University Excavations at the Marquette Mission Site, 1986 425

  108. 35.2 Rock Island Site II Excavation Unit Profile Showing Occupation Zone Strata 426

  109. 35.3 Carved Catlinite Articles of Adornment from the Lasanen Site 429

  110. 35.4 Burial 50, Fletcher Site 431

  111. 36.1 The Largest Mound at Poverty Point, Louisiana 438

  112. 36.2 Part of the Embankment Surrounding a Hilltop at Fort Ancient, Ohio 439

  113. 36.3 The Largest Mound in the United States is Monks Mound, at Cahokia, Illinois 442

  114. 37.1 Dalton Period Diagnostics 454

  115. 38.1 Map of the Poverty Point Site Locality in Northeast Louisiana 461

  116. 38.2 Topographic Map of Poverty Point 462

  117. 38.3 Topographic Map of Poverty Point Mound A 463

  118. 39.1 Core Area of the Hopewell Phenomenon, ca. 1800 BP 472

  119. 39.2 Hypothetical Expressions of Hopewell Material Practice at 100-Year Intervals 473

  120. 39.3 Distribution of Hopewell Sites in Ohio and Indiana as They Relate to Different Ecoregions 478

  121. 40.1 Map of the Southern Lower Mississippi Valley, Showing Major Geographic Regions and Sites Mentioned in the Text 484

  122. 40.2 Plan View of the Troyville Site and Cross-Section Reconstruction of the Great Mound 488

  123. (p. xxi) 40.3 Plan Views of Selected Mound Sites in the Southern LMV, ca. AD 700—1700 491

  124. 40.4 Plan View of the Marksville and Greenhouse Sites 493

  125. 41.1 Plan View of the Cahokia Site 498

  126. 41.2 Chronology of Cahokia Compared to the Lower Ohio and Western Wisconsin Regions 499

  127. 41.3 Cahokian Hoe Blade 501

  128. 41.4 Cahokia-Style Notched Projectile Points from Pfeffer Site, Richland Complex, St. Clair County, Illinois 502

  129. 41.5 Cahokia-Style Chunkey Stone 502

  130. 41.6 Ramey Incised Rim Sherd-Showing Variant of the Ramey Scroll Motif, Olszewski Site, St. Clair County, Illinois 503

  131. 42.1 Location of Case Study Areas 510

  132. 42.2 Mound Towns on the Middle Savannah River 511

  133. 42.3 Plan Maps of Lawton, Red Lake, and Spring Lake 513

  134. 42.4 Mound Towns in the Etowah River Valley from AD 1000 to 1350 517

  135. 42.5 The Etowah Site from AD 1000 to 1350 518

  136. 43.1 Locations of Regions Discussed in Text 524

  137. 43.2 Locations of Selected Sites in the Central Illinois River Valley 525

  138. 44.1 Schematic Map of the Moundville Site 535

  139. 44.2 Location of Moundville (Triangle) and Single-Mound Sites in the Black Warrior River Valley, Alabama 535

  140. 45.1 Select Sites of the Greater Southwest 548

  141. 46.1 Map of Southwestern United States with Areas Where Large and Numerous Sites Were Found Dating to the ninth century AD 564

  142. 46.2 Comparison of village Layout from the Sonoran Desert and on the Colorado Plateau 565

  143. 46.3 Comparison of the Public Architecture from the Sonoran Desert and the Colorado Plateau 566

  144. 47.1 Hohokam Mainline Canals 572

  145. 47.2 Map of Major Hohokam Sites and Canal Systems on the Salt River in the 1920s 573

  146. 47.3 Large Ceramic Male and Female Figurines are Part of a Set Dating to AD 750–900 574

  147. 47.4 Map of Hohokam Ball Court and Platform Mound Distributions in Arizona 575

  148. 47.5 Settlement and Agriculture Zones of the Classic Period Marana Community in the Northern Tucson Basin 578

  149. 48.1 Distribution of Cerros de Trincheras in Northwest Mexico and U.S. Southwest 586

  150. 48.2 The Site of Cerro de Trincheras in Sonora, Mexico 589

  151. 48.3 The View from a Terrace at Cerro Juanaqueña in Chihuahua, Mexico 590

  152. 48.4 Visibility of and from Cerros de Trincheras in the Magdalena Valley, Sonora, During the Early Ceramic Period 592

  153. (p. xxii) 48.5 Visibility of and from Cerros de Trincheras in the Magdalena Valley, Sonora, During the El Cerro Period 593

  154. 48.6 Location of Cerro Buchunamichi in the Rio Sonora Valley, Sonora 593

  155. 49.1 Map of the Southwest’s Regional Systems 600

  156. 49.2 Pueblo del Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico 602

  157. 49.3 Aztec Ruins, Aztec, New Mexico 605

  158. 50.1 Map of the Mesa Region Showing the Western, Central, and Eastern Subdivisions, the Village Ecodynamics Project Study Area, and Key Sites Mentioned in the Text 609

  159. 50.2 Graph Showing Population Estimates from the Village Ecodynamics Project 612

  160. 50.3 Photograph of Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde National Park 616

  161. 50.4 Photograph of Mesa Verde Pottery 617

  162. 51.1 Views of Burnt Corn Pueblo in 2005 626

  163. 52.1 Map of the American Southwest Showing Pueblo IV Village Sites Having More Than 50 Rooms 635

  164. 52.2 Examples of Pueblo IV Villages from Across the Southwest 637

  165. 53.1 Map of the Casas Grandes Region 646

  166. 53.2 Schematic Plan Map of Paquimé 650

  167. 53.3 Casas Grandes Horned/Plumed Serpent 652

  168. 53.4 Casas Grandes Supernatural Realm 653