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date: 22 August 2019

(p. 659) Index

(p. 659) Index

abandonment, 176, 177, 180, 189, 400, 486, 509, 518, 519, 531, 540, 613, 623, 634, 635
Moundville, 542
Actor-Network-Theory, 23
adaptation: cultural, 113, 124
Desert Culture, 188
hunter-gatherer, 329
Adena, 439
agency, 271
gendered, 386
agency-based models, 230
agricultural tools: Plains, 377, See hoes
agriculture, 20, 74, 81, 203, 221, 224, 362, 379, 381, 382, 388, 400, 443, 444, 487, 516, 575, 577, 610
field, 73, 281
Hohokam, 581
maize, 79
monumentality before, 485
proto-, 203
Alaska, 135
Algonquian, 129, 285, 286, 293
Powhatan, 310
Algonquian cultural development, 314
dialects, 311
history: and Werowocomoco, 316
Tidewater, 314
Allouez, Claude, 64
altruism, 208
American Bottom, 398, 399, 417, 479, 486, 493, 500, 505, 526, 527, 531
Anangula Tradition, 138
ancestors, 490, 555, 566, 631
Ancestral Pueblo, 563
Anderson, Gary, 40
Antelope Creek phase, 391
anthropology: culture and personality school, 621
historical, 485
anthropophagy, 622
archaeology: American, 29
approaches, 471
feminist, 386, 396
historical, 42, 46, 310
indigenous, 12, 319
mission, 42
Paleoindian, 87
post-postmodern, 325
prehistoric vs. historical, 8
processual, 311
theory, 632
Archaic, 164, 264, 289
California, 217
history of concept, 452
Maritime, northeast, 252, See Poverty Point
architecture, 14, 42, 45, 67, 162, 220, 262, 298, 418, 438, 461, 465, 485, 486, 487, 489, 490, 494, 500, 517, 537, 549, 551, 555, 562, 563, 568, 569, 574, 577, 579, 580, 581, 582, 588, 604, 613, 615, 617, 618, 623, 624, 645, 646, 654
ceremonial, 556
circular, 381
field houses, 625
Hohokam earthen, 577
Midwestern, 406
monumental, 488
new forms of, 541
pithouses, 563
Plains, 360, 376
public, 561, 562
public Hohokam, 574
rebuilding, 540
ritual, 555
supra-household, 556
wall trench, 305, 502, 538
Arctic, 113
Arctic Small Tool tradition, 117, 121, 122
Arnold, Jeanne, 230, 232
arrow points, 5, 166, 242, 356, 377, 493, 524, 525, 529, See projectile points
Arrow Sacrifice ceremony, 277
astronomers, 228
astronomy, 56, 67, 306
and settlement organization, 305
atlatl, 56, 59, 61, 332
axis mundi, 518, 650
Aztalan (Wisconsin), 418, 526, 601
Aztatlán Mesoamerican trading system, 648
Aztec (Mexico), 54, 55
Aztec Ruins (New Mexico), 601
ball court centers, 579
ball courts, 53, 66, 550, 556, 562, 563, 566, 568, 574, 575, 577, 580, 581, 599, 645, 647, 648
Hohokam, 566
ball game, 46, 53
Bandelier, Adolph, 43, 620
Bannon, John, 40
Baugh, Timothy, 390
beads, 45, 165, 166, 227, 348, 351, 356, 416, 423, 440, 460, 650, See shell beads
beadwork, 312, 348
Bear’s Journey. See Missaukee Earthworks
Beringia, 89
Big Bang. See Cahokia
Bighorn Basin, 347
Binford, Lewis, 21, 312, 326
collector-forager model, 190
frames of reference, 327, 329
bison, 376
bone, 390
communal hunts, 416
hides and lithic tools, 381, 388, 391
tools, 377
bison hunting, 70, 362, 364, 365, 369, 373, 380, 381, 382, 383, 387, 388, 390
Black Warrior River, 534
Blackfoot, 337
homeland, 338
Blanton, Dennis, 315
Boas, Franz, 29
boats, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 137, 142, 152, 154, 157, 162, 227, 602, See canoes
Bodley, John, 326
Bolton, Herbert, 39
(p. 660) bone tools, 126, 166, 242, 275, See bison
borderlands, 39
bow and arrow, 56, 129, 202, 227, 267, 332, 399, 403, 412, 416, 419, 490, 516, 524, 610
Brew, John Otis, 43
bundles, 9, 341
burial mounds, 217, 219, 289, 292, 301, 401, 402, 404, 405, 440, 471, 478, 492, 516, 524
Late Woodland, 525, See mounds
burial practices, 427, 430
Fort Ancient and Monongahela, 301
Hopewell, 476
Paquimé, 654
burials, 217
human and nonhuman, 214
Burnt Corn Pueblo, 625
Bushnell, Amy, 41
cache blades, 255
caches, 90, 101, 219, 454, 577
Cactus Hill, 92, 96
Cahokia, 56, 61, 67, 68, 289, 305, 334, 363, 364, 398, 417, 438, 441, 486, 497, 510, 526
city of, 500
decline of, 369
Monks Mound, 442, 462, 497
organization, 442
political-administrative complex, 400, See human sacrifice
calendrics, 587
California, 40, 42, 47, 54, 60, 69, 74, 75, 76, 78, 137, 150, 187, 199, 224
colonial, 236
mounded landscapes, 213
Native, 235
pilgrimage, 41
California Bight, 225
Californio identities, 236, 239
Calumet ceremonialism, 56, 476, 480
Cambria, 333
canoes, 165, 166, 227, 231, 264, 454, 455, 494, See boats
captives, 13, 393, 396, 527, 614, See warfare
Casas Grandes, 66, 553, 600
phenomenon, 645
regional system, 647, See Paquimé
catastrophic, 135, 138, 140, 531, 627
celestial alignments. See astronomy
celts, 332, 377, 416, 528
cemeteries, 101, 126, 127, 165, 213, 215, 217, 231, 255, 267, 301, 333, 348, 377, 401–406, 427, 430, 440, 454, 455, 518, 524, 529, 530, 541, 542
Central Illinois River valley, 402, 523, 531
ceramics: and social boundaries, 289
and women, 393
ceremonial, 505
Effigy Mound ware, 413
Great Lakes, 291
Hohokam, 577, 580
Middle Woodland, 257
Mimbres, 555
Moundville phases, 537
Moundville style, 540
Oneota, 403
Plains, 363, 377
shell-tempered, 299, 363, 405, 416, 418, 493, 509
stamped, 512
symbolism, 648
Woodland, 255, 266
ceremonial enclosures, 292
ceremonial monument centers, 292
ceremonialism, 492, See Midéwiwin
burial, 267
mortuary, 494
cerros de trincheras: described, 585, 587
Chaco, 553, 614
as postclassic capital, 598
Canyon, 66, 597
collapse, 632
Great Houses, 599, 634
phenomenon, 567, 602, 631
Pueblo Bonito, 554.
Champlain, Samuel de, 274
Channel Island Barbed points, 154
Channel Islands, 154, 213, 225
chert, 125, 126, 127, 164, 227, 232, 253, 255, 377, 410, 414, 417, 463, 502
Poverty Point, 463
Indiana, 502
Knife River flint, 363, 365, 369
Onondaga, 256
Ramah, 126
sources, 252
Chesapeake, 311
chiefdoms, 12, 14, 21, 44, 46, 228, 235, 334, 400, 403, 404, 407, 430, 441, 442, 444, 451, 485, 490, 492, 499, 510, 514, 554
as neoevolutionary category, 553
criticisms of, 19
emergence, 312
mission period, 45
Mississippian, 403, 486, 514
paramount, 46
Powhatan, 310, 311
simple or complex, 514
talwas, 515
chiefs: California, 227
hereditary, 44
Panamanian, 70
Chimney Rock, 600, 601
Chumash, 224
chunkey, 14, 53, 363, 501, 505, See ball game
city: Chaco, 599
historical reference to Casas Grandes, 647
Mississippian, 601
Paquimé, 649, See Cahokia, Chaco
Cleland, Charles, 429
climate change, 101, 135, 190, 191, 193, 398, 480, 608, 611
Clovis, 86, 97, 99, 330, 449, 548, See pre-Clovis
and other fluted points, 98
regional diversity, 91
technology, 156
Clovis First model, 153, 157, 449
Coalescent tradition, 367
Cole, Sarah, 614
colonization: Paleoindian, 94
pre-Paleoindian, 149, 448
Colony Ross, 238, 240
communities: Mississippian, 513, 536
symbolic, 477
Woodland, 500
community, 486
Cahokian, 504
defined, 476
Hohokam, 577
irrigation, 579
monumental transformation of, 489
reinforced by construction, 563
Southwestern, 561, 562
community patterns: SunWatch, 305
complex societies, 12
complexity, 175, 229, 486, 492, 640
cultural, 168
gradualist perspectives, 230
origins of, 168
political, economic, 162
social, Southwestern, 616, See chiefdoms, Keatley Creek
Contrary behavior, 58
copper, 416, 444, 603, 650
Jamestown, 318
corn agriculture. See maize, maize agriculture
Corn Mother, 61
corn, beans, and squash. See maize, beans, and squash
Coronado expedition, 65, 387, 393
cosmology, 12, 53, 226, 318, 338, 469, 599, 654
commonalities, 61
(p. 661) cosmos, 12, 24, 306, 339, 465
Blackfoot, 338
gendered, 340
SunWatch, 305
crafting: Hopewell, 471
Craig, Douglas, 555
cuisine: communal, 566
culinary practices. See practices, culinary
culinary traditions, 14, 73, See traditions
cultural diversity, 224, 225, 485, 562, 569
culture: archaeological, 30
as intersubjective understandings, 327
as symbols and information, 70
Hohokam, 575
culture core, 20
Numic, 188
Dalton, 101, 454
dance, 339, 341, 342, 343, 344, 567, 617, 639
Danger Cave, 193
De Soto, Hernando, 534
Dean, Jeffery, 557
Deep South, 511, 520
Deetz, James, 42
deities, 53, 56, 61, 275, 639, 652, 653
demography, 11, 142, 167, 225, 229, 232, 348, 468
Des Plaines Complex, 403
Di Peso, Charles, 645
Diamond, Jared, 632
DNA analysis, 126, 276, 610
Dog Soldiers, 54, 56
Dorset, 117, 122, 131
Paleoeskimos, 130
Drennan, Robert, 602
Driftless Area, 410
Eastern Agricultural complex, 332
ecological approaches: criticism of, 20
ecology: cultural, 188
evolutionary, 191
new ecologies, 22
Effigy Mound Culture, 412
egalitarianism, 641
Englehardt, Zephrin, 40
Erlandson, Jon, 232, 450
Etowah site, 515, 519
evolutionary change, 208
evolutionary models, 262
challenged, 263
evolutionary theory: Darwinian, 21
evolutionism: social, 187
exchange, 20, 23, 25, 44, 45, 46, 68, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 132, 168, 173, 179, 206, 224, 226, 229, 231, 232, 236, 292, 293, 311, 312, 314, 315, 316, 318, 363, 364, 369, 373, 380, 382, 387, 388, 390, 391, 395, 404, 422, 431, 444, 461, 464, 468, 471, 476, 477, 480, 485, 487, 538, 550, 551, 615
and bison products, 382
bison hides, 395
bison products, 363, 387
California, 226
Plains, 363
Plains-Pueblo, 387
Poverty Point, 463
execution, 526, See human sacrifice
explanations: criticism of functionalism, 585
farmers: Cahokian, 402
desert, 574
Late Woodland, Plains, 365
mobile, 269, 277, 332
Oneota, 410
Paquimé, 650
Feast of the Dead, 54, 429
feasting, 67, 130, 160, 168, 182, 208, 209, 218, 220, 221, 232, 314, 315, 404, 418, 487, 492, 516, 555, 566, 579, 616, 618, 636
communal, 489
feminist perspectives, 386
Fiedel, Stuart, 276
Fish, Paul, 587
Fish, Suzanne, 587
Fission-Fusion model, 514
Five Nations Confederacy, 273
Fletcher site, 430
flint. See chert
fluted traditions, 193, See Clovis, Folsom
Folsom, 87, 92
foragers, 190
Ice Age, 137
pioneer, 329
sedentary, 175
strategies, 175, 185, See Great Basin
foraging strategies, 194
foraging theory, 191, 192
Ford, James, 44
Fort Ancient, 297, 439
fortifications, 167, 275, 292, 316, 516, 527, 529, 539
Mississippian, 402, See warfare
Four Corners, 563, 603, 608
Fowler, Don, 620
Francis, John, 41
Fraser Villages, 179
Fremont phenomenon, 194, 196
Fried, Morton, 326
game: gambling, 226, See ball courts, chunkey
gender, 100, 227, 237, 240, 359, 391, 464, 553, 554, See labor
Gibson, Jon, 487
Great Basin, 76, 185, 199, 200, See Shoshone
Great Houses. See Chaco
Great Lake effect, 290
Great Lakes, 249, 275, 285, 424
Great Oasis, 333, 360
Griffin, James, 453
Guest, Francis, 40
Guzman, Nuno de, 65
Hackel, Stephen, 40
Hall, Robert, 414, 476, 501
harpoon hunting, 119, 165, 332
Hart, John, 276
Haudenosaunee. See Iroquoian
Haury, Emil, 549, 601
Haynes, Vance, 449, 453
Hays-Gilpin, Kelley, 557
Hearne, Samuel, 69
Heizer, Robert, 188
heterarchical, 638
Hewett, Edgar Lee, 43
(p. 662) Hibben, Frank, 623
hinge points, 549
historic period: problems of definition, 350, 356
history: as adaptation, criticized, 124
as practice
borderlands, 40
Eastern Subarctic, 132
in place, 25
longue duree, 327
migration, 552
Mississippian, 510
monumental, 495
Powhatan, 318
Pueblo, 608
scientific, questioned, 31
singular, Cahokia, 497
Hodge, Frederick, 43
hoes, 377, 406, 416, 418, 444, 493
Hohokam, 553, 563, 571, 600
Holocene, 201, 287
Hopewell phenomenon, 471, 476
Hopewell site, 444
Hopewellian Complex: southern Michigan, 289
horned serpent, 645, 649, 651
horticultural. See agriculture
house forms: Petal, 301, See architecture
house society, 555
Huasteca, 68
Hudson’s Bay Company, 69
human sacrifice, 56, 61, 277, 504. See execution
Hume, Ivor Noel, 46
hunter-gatherer, 19, 212
Archaic in the Northeast, 253
complex, 142, 160, 179
packing, 414
movement and identity, 344
theoretically considered, 19, See adaptations; famers, mobile
hunter-gatherer-fisher societies, 224
Huron, 130, 273, 424
hybridity, 503
Ibarra, Francisco de, 647
identity: Chumash, 232
collective, 536
visibility, 351
ideology, 67, 185, 295, 353, 485, 514, 516, 542, 550, 557, 574, 577, 638
immigrants: historical effects of, 503
interaction sphere. See Hopewell phenomenon; Meadowood
Inuit, 135
Iroquoians, 130, 259, 273, 285
archaeological visibility, 276
cultural pattern, 275
disappearance, 259
Iroquois Confederacy, 274
irrigation. See labor
isotopes, 268, 277
Jackson, Helen Hunt, 41
Jamestown, 310
Jennings, Jesse, 188
Jesuit Relations, 431
Johnson, Gregory, 553
Juanillo Revolt of 1597, 46
Jury, Wilfred, 423
Kachina, 56, See katsina
katsina, 639, 640
Paquimé, 651
Keatley Creek, 177
complexity, 180
Kehoe, Alice, 33
kelp highway, 152
Kennewick Man, 31
Kessell, John, 40
Keyes, Charles, 414
Kidd, Kenneth, 423
Kidder, Alfred, 43, 388, 623
Kidder, T. R., 487
kill sites, 339
kivas, 567, 568, 598
Great, 604
Knife River flint. See chert
Kodiak Archipelago, 135
Kroeber, Alfred, 29, 187
La Florida, 44
labor, 23, 44, 99, 168, 175, 190, 191, 193, 195, 202, 205, 206, 227, 236, 237, 240, 241, 242, 243, 275, 292, 333, 348, 359, 364, 369, 387, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 442, 443, 464, 466, 467, 486, 504, 513, 514, 540, 541, 543, 550, 555, 565, 580, 610, 613, 618, 628, 636, 640
and women’s status, 395
forced, 238
gendered, 239, 241, 386, 392
Hohokam canals, 571
women’s, 391
Lake Michigan, 287
Lake Ontario, 249
Lake Superior, 287, 423
landscape: colonial, 241
embodied, 585, 594
functionalist views, 485
monumental, 485, 487, 495
mounded, 212
sacred, 487, 489, 518
theoretically considered, 588
tipi ring, 353
violence, 624
Werowocomoco, 316
Woodland, 489
Langford, George, 405
Lanoraie site, 258
Lasanen site, 428
leaders, 44, 46, 65, 68, 227, 311, 318, 390, 402, 441, 469, 504, 536, 538, 541, 542, 557, 567, 568, 569, 580, 581, 582, 583, 617, 618, 638, 639, 641
hereditary, 228
Hohokam, 580
leadership, 20, 208, 224, 305, 319, 364, 390, 405, 464, 510, 538, 553, 554, 569, 580, 582, 617, 633, 640, 654
Algonquian, 318
Chacoan, 632
Crow, 352
early forms of, 568
Hohokam, 582
indigenous, 311
Mississippian, 441, 487
Paquimé, 654
Puebloan, 638
questions concerning Chaco, 554
ritual, 553
small-scale, 208
Lekson, Stephen, 631
Lightfoot, Kent, 8, 42, 602
Lillooet phenomenon, 176
lineages, 46, 82, 140, 160, 280, 303, 305, 315, 364, 391, 441, 477, 487, 492, 495
(p. 663) lithic technology, 241, 242, 289
Lower Mississippi Valley, 483
Lowie, Robert, 29
macaws, 646
Macon Plateau, 601
Madisonville horizon, 300
Mainfort, Robert, 430
maize, 45, 52, 66, 73, 79, 83, 268, 277, 290, 333, 362, 416, 443, 509, 654
and bison, 364
and relationship to Iroquoian history, 278
appearance in Michigan, 289
Chacoan, 603
Coles Creek period, 487
cooking, 81
early Southwest, 549
introduction, 81
introduction into Southwest, 563
Mesa Verde, 608
Oneota farmers, 334
maize agriculture, 56, 269, 276, 290, 299, 369, 380, 381, 403, 404, 419, 510, 516, 534, 548
as new technology, 267
maize, beans, and squash, 66, 281, 373, See squash
Malville, Nancy, 602
Mann site, 477
Maritime Tradition, 255
marriage, 135, 160, 228, 232, 243, 303, 348, 386, 387, 393, 515, 517
interethnic, 392
Plains-Mississippian, 364
marriage alliances, 135, 232, 387, 393
Mason, Ronald, 426
matrilineal, 275, 276, 392, 395
McKern classification system, 29
McKern, Will, 412
Meadowcroft, 92, 96, 448, 451
Meadowood, 127, 255
Medieval Climatic Anomaly, 204, 231, 232
memory, 536, 554
Mesa Verde, 552, 601, 608
Mesoamerica, 52, 497
indigenous knowledge of, 65
Mesoamerican symbolism, 649
Michigan, 424
Middle Missouri tradition, 360, See traditions
Middlesex funerary complex, 255
Midéwiwin, 293
migration, 13, 20, 31, 89, 94, 126, 141, 149, 151, 152, 154, 157, 158, 194, 195, 251, 255, 275, 276, 315, 352, 353, 367, 374, 380, 381, 402, 453, 456, 487, 523, 549, 550, 551, 552, 553, 608, 611, 634, 635, 641
Athapaskan, 621
Cahokian, 501
coastal, 156, 456
Crow, 353
Mesa Verde, 552
Na-Dene, 150
out of Chaco, 604
Puebloan, 611
Puebloan-Hohokam, 582
Southwest, 549, 552, See immigrants
migration hypothesis, 276
Mill Creek, 333, 360
Milwaukee Public Museum, 412
Minnesota, 328
Minthorn, Armand, 31
Missaukee Earthworks, 293, 295
Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, 41, 44, 45
missions: Cahokian, 499
Franciscan, 237
Jesuit, 424
Mississippi River: travelled by natives, 64
Mississippian, 305, 333, 417, 497, 505, 509, 538
emergence of, 516
empire, 277
related to Fort Ancient and Monongahela, 299
Mississippianization, 364, 492, 494, 526, 538
Missouri River, 360
Modoc Rock Shelter, 452
Mogollon, 563
Mojave Desert, 205
Monacans, 311
Monongahela, 297
Monte Verde, 153, 448
monumentality, 68, 488, 492, 587, 589, 591
boulder, 338
Moore, C. B., 537
mortuary practices, 45, 289, 314, 315, 489, 490, See burial practices
mound building, 437, 438, 540
Archaic, 440
as cultural narrative, 467
Poverty Point, 466
mounds, 212
California compared to Woodlands, 219
Coles Creek and Troyville, 486
effigy, 411, 556
platform, 486, 509, 538, 556, 562, 580
platform ceremonialism, 492
platform, Hohokam, 555
shell, 220, 221
Troyville, 489
Mound 72 at Cahokia, 62, 494, 504, 505, 506, 507, 526, 527, 532
Moundville, 438, 534
art, 513
chronology, 536
movement: forced, 348
human and nonhuman, 12
religious, 527
theoretically considered, 339
narratives: archaeological, 242
movements, 338
National Historic Preservation Act, 32
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, 549, See repatriation
Nelson, Nels, 43
Neoevolutionary models, 21, See evolutionism
Neolithic demographic transition, 610
Neutral Confederacy, 273
New Archaeology, 452, 537, 601
New England, 263
New York, 249
Newark earthworks, 439
Northwest Coast, 137, 150, 160, 173
Norton Tradition, 140
Numic spread, 194
nut processing, 76
Obregón, Baltazar de, 647
obsidian, 164, 173, 201, 202, 205, 206, 226, 241, 242, 356, 388, 389, 395, 444, 472
Oetelaar, Gerald, 24
oikoumene: defined, 64
Old Copper complex, 332
Oneota, 333, 403, 414
(p. 664) Orendorf, 528
organization: ritual, 228
Orr, Ellison, 414
ossuaries, 278, 315, 316, 377, 428, 429, See burial practices
outliers: Chaco, 600
Owens Valley, 199
Ozette, 166
Pacific Period, 164
Paisley Caves, 150, 451
palaces: critically considered, 636, See Chaco, Great Houses
Paleo-Arctic tradition, 115
Paleoeskimos, 126, 128
Paleoethnobotany, 74
Paleoindian, 82, 137, 250, 347, 448
belief systems, 103
Paleolithic, 3, 91, 115, 157
Paquimé, 53, 66, 600, 645, See Casas Grandes
Path of Souls, 54, 513
Pawnees, 56, 57, 61, 382
pax (Cahokiana, Chaco, Hopewelliana, etc.), 13
Peck 2-2 site, 298, 303
Pecos, 69, 388, 623
Pendergast, James, 258
Phoenix Basin, 571
pilgrimage, 339, 344, See California
pipes, 348, 377, 416, 505, 537, 654
Pithouse period, 175
pithouses. See architecture
place making, 12, 24
and narratives, 339
monuments, 486
Plains Village tradition, 83, See villages
Plateau region, 173
plazas, 45, 52, 67, 298–307, 366, 401, 438, 485, 489, 490, 492, 494, 495, 503, 504, 514, 517–519, 530, 534, 536, 540, 541, 550, 555, 556, 565, 566, 568, 574, 577, 581, 615, 617, 625, 636, 639
burials and shrines in, 565
Hohokam courtyard groups, 555
plurality, 519
Pocahontas, 310
polygyny, 392
population, 225
Cahokia, 401
dense, 571
movement, 519, 613
Great Lakes, 277
nonliterate societies, 203
pressure, 193
relationships to intensification, 230
trends, 175, 379, 610
portals, 338
Postclassic world, 67
postcolonial theory, 41
posts (or poles): marker, 54, 504
potlatch, 168
Potomac Creek site, 316
Potter, Stephen, 314
pottery: as metaphor for cultural entity, 286, See ceramics
Poverty Point, 12, 25, 219, 437, 440, 460, 465, 479
Powell, John Wesley, 187
power, 21, 22, 43, 44, 46, 47, 54, 56, 68, 70, 166, 168, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 311, 318, 327, 354, 364, 386, 390, 391, 395, 396, 401, 402, 430, 468, 486, 499, 519, 528, 537, 539, 541, 553, 554, 555, 556, 568, 580, 581, 582, 591, 598, 599, 603, 604, 616, 618, 632, 636, 638, 640, 641
political, 604
social, 327, 392
Powhatan, 310
Powhatan’s Mantle, 312
practice theory, 23
practices: community, 486
culinary, 242, 266
domestic, 240
Iroquoian, 275
lithic production, 241
Mississippian, 534
new Mississippian, 538
ritual, 555
theoretically considered, 585
Pre-Clovis, 150, 153
presidios, 237
prestige goods, 12, 314, 315, 364, 603
priests, 318
Jesuit, 275
Pueblo, 636
procession, 567
production: cultural, 236
projectile points, 331
at Poverty Point, 465
Cahokia-style, 501
Desert Series, 202
Madison, 412
metal, 351
Midwestern, 412
northeast, 252
triangular, 493, See arrowheads
protohistoric, 350
Plains, 388
Pueblo IV, 633, 638
Pueblo reformation, 633
Pueblo society, 554
Quetzalcoatl, 653
Quimby, George, 423
rainfall: Southwest, 557
Ramey Incised jars, 363, 418, 501
Ramsden, Peter, 277
Rancho Petaluma, 236, 238, 239, 240
ranchos, 237
Randall, Asa, 9
Ranked societies, 168, See chiefdoms
ranking, 441, 464, 509, 539, 618
Moundville, 538
Rank-size analysis, 617
Red Paint People, 69
Red Wing, 415, 418, 419, 526
Reese River, 189
religion, 15, 19, 47, 239, 461, 497, 504, 505, 556, 557, 558, 640
Casas Grandes, 653
compared to politics, 640
Puebloan, 636, 639
Southwestern, 556, 557
repatriation, 33, 271
ritual: activities, 555, 590, 618
practice, 292, 556, 587, 639, 640
rituals, 52, 66, 67, 227, 304, 338, 339, 341, 343, 489, 492, 504, 513, 514, 534, 542, 551, 569, 598, 636, 640, 641
(p. 665) Roanoke colony, 318
rock art, 228, 337, 625, 639
Gottschall, 418
Puebloan, 555
Rountree, Helen, 314
Sagard, Gabriel, 275
Sahlins, Marshall, 326
Salado ideology, 557
Sampson, Don, 32
Sandos, James, 40
Sassaman, Kenneth, 9
Savannah River valley, 511
scalping, 277
scrapers, 89, 91, 93, 242, 252, 377, 381, 388, 390, 416
seed collecting, 77, 103
seeds: starchy, 265, 288, 362, 374, 376, 443
September 11th, 335
Service, Elman, 326
settlement: organization, 67, 574, 577
patterns, 201, 204, 205, 206, 312, 373, 377, 380, 381, 408, 419, 422, 425, 437, 511, 526, 577, 610, 621
Shabik’eschee, 604
shamans, 226, 228, 441, 505, 653, 654
and horned serpents, 654
shell beads, 173, 202, 206, 226, 231, 363, 395, 444
currency, 224, See beads, beadwork
shell middens, 229
shell mounds, 25, See mounds
Shoshone, 354, 356
Siouan languages, 416, See Monacans
Smith, John, 311
Snaketown, 577
Snow, Dean, 276
soapstone: cooking technology, 266
Society for American Archaeology, 32
Solutrean Traditions of Europe, 455
Sonoran Desert, 565
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, 493
Southwest: defined, 547
specialization, 167, 224, 225, 227, 230, 232, 262, 369, 379, 381, 382, 485, 494, 550, 551, 580, 638
Spelman, Henry, 311
Spielmann, Katherine, 390
Spiro, 69, 601
squash, 66, 73, 74, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 269, 270, 297, 362, 379, 416, 576, 610, See maize, beans, and squash
St. Lawrenc: river, 422
valley, 249, 274
Steward, Julian, 20, 186
Stoltman, James, 472
storage, 14, 20, 73, 74, 76, 78, 80, 81, 166, 168, 175, 176, 179, 190, 207, 226, 229, 230, 231, 266, 293, 300, 301, 304, 305, 314, 332, 341, 360, 361, 376, 381, 394, 399, 444, 530, 540, 549, 550, 580, 582, 613, 618
Strachey, William, 311
structuration. See practice theory
styles: artistic, 165
hybridized, 419
Sun Dance, 57, 343
SunWatch village, 298, 305
Susquehanna tradition, 126
sweat baths and lodges, 53, 278, 504
Taylor, Walter, 21
technologies: as part of culture cores, 188
Teotihuacan, 61
territorialism, 291
Thomas, David Hurst, 189
Thule, 117, 121, 131
and Inuit descendants, 123
tipi rings, 337, 342, 343, 344, 347, 353
tobacco, 79, 80, 82, 362, 377, 416, 649, 654
Toltec (Arkansas), 438
traditions: Aleutian, 140
archaeological, 115, 117
as performed, 240
burial, 166
Central Plains, 367
ceramic, 269
Chaco, 634
Coalescent, 367
egalitarian, critically considered, 638
Hohokam, 577
Late Woodland, 485
melding of, 519
Middle Woodland, 478
Middle Missouri, 360
Plateau, 175
pre-Clovis, 150
regional, 139
Woodland, 267
travel: boats, 231
long distance, 65, See boats, canoes
tribalization, 404
Trigger, Bruce, 599
trincheras. See cerro de trincheras
Troyville, 488, 489
Turner, E. Randolph, 312
turquoise, 388
Uniformitarianism, 19
Upper Mississippi Valley, 410
Uto-Aztecan, 186
Vallejo, Mariano, 238
valuables, 12, 44, 46, 168, 387, 390, 430, See prestige goods
Vehik, Susan, 390
villages: circular, 303
“closing”, 208
complex, multilineal, 279
early Southwestern, 615
Plains, 359, 374
violence, 14, 177, 229, 231, 359, 400, 403, 406, 445, 487, 494, 500, 505, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 529–531, 549, 550–552, 555, 557, 604, 614, 620, 622, 628, 634, 638, 640, See warfare
vision quest, 343
visuality, 589
Vivian, Gordon, 598
Walk-in Well. See Paquimé
Walthall, John, 455
warfare, 13, 14, 135, 140, 141, 162, 167, 168, 229, 230, 267, 269, 271, 275, 282, 360, 368, 380, 404, 407, 424, 444, 487, 490, 492, 494, 500, 516, 523, 528, 531, 555, 587, 604, 608, 613–615, 618, (p. 666) 620–623, 625, 627, 628, 638, 640
Orendorf
as opposed to violence, 628
assault tactics, 528
captive taking, 504
evidence, 444
evidence of, 525, 529, 556, 623
gendered patterns, 614
gendered roles, 528
Paquimé, 654
raiding, 387, 445, 500, 621
Southwestern, 613, 620
theoretically considered, 627
tribal, 621
Warren, William, 286
water symbolism: Paquimé, 649
Watson Brake, 438
weaponry: ritual, 527, See projectile points, arrow points
Weber, David, 40
weroances, 318, See leadership
Werowocomoco, 310, 316
Werowocomoco Research Group, 319
Wilber, Ken, 326
wild rice, 82, 332, 333, 411, 416
Wissler, Clark, 187
women: Plains, 387, See gender
Wonderley, Anthony, 281
Woodland Period, 255, 288, 471
Worth, John, 41
Wounded Knee, 350