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date: 22 November 2019

(p. 561) Index

(p. 561) Index

Abate, Michelle, on tomboyism, 498, 503, 508, 514n9
Aberson, Helen, 151
abolitionism, 505
Ackerley, J.R., 461
activism, 288, 521–22
Adam/Eve, 417–18, 555
fall of, 546–47, 549, 551
reinventing, 550
Adams, James Eli, 468
Adams, Maude, 485–87, 489
Adams, W. Davenport, 477
Addams, Jane, 149
adolescent crush, 456
adolescent literature, 16, 381, 383, 505, See also young adult literature
of 1970s, 522, 523
adoption
discourses of, 28, 336, 344
laws on, 320, 325n12, 342
promotion of, 330
public discourse on, 331–32, 343
suitability for, 344–45
adult(s)
children v., 39
comics as, 168–69
adult audiences
child audiences v., 9. See also cross-writing, reader, readership, reading.
comics for, 168–69
adulthood, as concept, 41
adult literature, children’s literature v., 24
Adventures of Bill and Tom with their Dog Jack (Hale, Charles), 448–49
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Twain), 293, 295
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (Twain), 27, 293–95, 296–307
affection, 423–24, 456
African American(s), 160, 163n23, 367, See also Harlem Renaissance
as primitive, 140
black art, 134
children’s literature, 130, 132, 372, 376, 385–86
music, 140
Taylor on, 372
Twain on, 298
age
coming of, 280–85
of consent, 423
of menarche, 46
agency, 30
denial of, 172
innocence and, 15–17
The Agony in the Kindergarten (Steig), 183
Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp (Mackinstry), 123
Alberghene, Janice M., 504
Alcott, Louisa May, 295, 297, 324n9
Alda, Alan, 520
Aldrich, C. Anderson, 156
Aldrich, Mary, 156
Aldrich, Robert, 463
Alger, Horatio, 314–16, 322
Alice and Other Fairy Plays for Children (Freiligrath-Kroeker), 481
Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (Carroll), 23, 35–36, 39–43, 45, 47, 48
books of analysis of, 38
as classic, 37–38
as reflection of tormented soul, 44
review of, 484
translations/representations of, 37–38
Alice to the Lighthouse (Dusinberre), 178
alternative comics, 178. See also comics
The Amateur Emigrant (Stevenson, R.), 275
The Amber Spyglass (Pullman), 542, 546
American Born Chinese (Yang), 14, 26, 231, 234, 235, 236 f–237f, 237–8, 239 f, 240 f, 241–42, 245–46, 245 f–246f. See also Monkey King story
audience for, 244
awards for, 247n4
genre blending in, 243
storylines of, 232
success of, 232, 245
American Character, 353
American Indians, 27, 428n9
burials of, 302
difficulties faced by, 306
literary image of, 300
as objects of study, 299
Puritan fears about, 301
Scheckel on, 297
skulls of, 299
stereotype of, 297
subtextual discourse on, 303–4
as trope, 301
Twain on, 297–306
American individualism. See individualism
American Library Association’s Notable Books of 1969, 524–25
(p. 562) anapestic tetrameter, 189
Anderson, Benedict, 331, 423
Anderson, Celia, 190, 206
anger, 213, 219, 221–22, 227n7
The Animal Family (Jarrell), 53
Animal Life in the Alpine World (von Tschudi), 224
Animals, 59, 546, 548
as characters, 55, 57, 61, 63, 64, 66, 71, 73, 75–88, 88n6, 151–55, 163n14, 194, 197–99, 202, 203, 233, 235–37, 244, 540, 551
Anne of Green Gables (Montgomery), 28, 332, 334–42, 344–45
adoption promotion by, 330
context of, 330–31
criticism of, 330
gender in, 330
history in, 333
iconic status of, 345
plot of, 343
success of, 329
Anstey, F., 284
anti-Chinese sentiment, 243
Apollonian, Dionysian and, 82–83
Apseloff, Marilyn, 190, 206
Ardizzone, Edward, 44–45, 124
Arendt, Hannah, on Jarrell, 58
Are You There, God? It’s Me, Margaret (Blume), 28, 351, 353, 355, 357–67
criticism of, 352
opening of, 352, 354
social change in, 356
Ariès, Philippe, 15
Arno, Peter, 123
Arnold, Thomas, 468, 470n8, 471n11
art comics, 181
asexuality, 468
Asian American children’s literature, 241–43
Asian American literature, 234, 241
Asian Americans, 367, 404n5
asylums, reputations of, 341–42
“Atalanta,” 528, 530
original myth of, 529
Atwood, Margaret, 276, 343
Auden, W.H., on children’s books, 106
audience, 64–65, 294–295, 476, 479 See also reader/readership/reading
adult v. child, 9, 45
of American Born Chinese, 244
Chicano, 394
of The Circuit: Stories from the Life of a Migrant Child, 390, 404n2
crossing, 93–108, 297
of The Dream Keeper, 131
of Free to Be…You and Me, 520
of Harry Potter series, 95–97, 105–106
interracial, 131
of Peter Pan, 483–84
of Tom Sawyer, 294–97
Austen, Jane, 95–96, 108n4
authority figures, 422–23, 509
autobiography,
and Blume’s Are You There God, 353
and Jiménez, 392–93, 404n1
and Taylor’s Logan trilogy, 372–73
Avi (pen name), 512
Ayres, Bill, 506
Babies are Human Beings (Aldrich, M. & Aldrich, C.), 156
Bader, Barbara, 212–13
on Kenny’s Window, 219
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 190
on carnivalesque setting, 192–94
Ball, John Clement, 222
“Ballad of a Thin Man” (Dylan), 199–200
Ballet Shoes (Streatfeild), 109n8
Balmoral Castle, 286
Bambi (Disney), 151
Barks, Carl, 168
Barmby, J., 480
Barnaby (Johnson, C.), 171
Barnardo, Thomas, 333–34
Barnardo children, 332–33, 335, 337–39, 341
Barnardo homes, 333, 337–38, 344
Barrie, J.M., 30, 48
on acting of a fairy play, 482
casting choices by, 486–87
extreme opinions of, 475–76
habit of attributing authorship to children, 482–83
praise for, 482
Bartholomew and the Oobleck (Seuss), 191
controversy of, 195–96
Baruch, Dorothy, 213–14
case study by, 219
on child-rearing, 157–58, 161–62
Batey, Mavis, 43
The Bat-Poet, 13, 23, 53–55, 57, 59, 62–66
Nodelman on, 60–61
Thomas, Joseph on, 56, 58, 61
Baxter, Charles, 282
Baym, Nina, 320
Beerbohm, Max, 487–88
bee reading, 420–21
Beginner Books, 74
behaviorism, 151, 156
Bell, Ian, on Kidnapped, 285
Belladonna: A Lewis Carroll Nightmare (Thomas, D.), 38
Bennett, John, 119
Berlant, Lauren, 403, 405n10
Bettelheim, Bruno, 225, 227n9
Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire (Sedgwick), 85
Bible
incarnations of, 417
progressive reading of, 420–21
(p. 563) bibliotherapeutic texts, 219–20
bildungsroman
Harry Potter series as, 24, 94–97, 100, 103
Kidnapped as, 280
principal elements of, 95, 108n3
Bird, Anne-Marie, 554–55
Birkin, Andrew, 481–82
The Birth of Tragedy (Nietzsche), 82
Bishop, Elizabeth, on Jarrell, 57
Blackbeard, Bill, 170
black children. See also African American(s) and African American children
cultural position of, 138
educational pressures on, 139
Black Misery (Hughes, L.), 129
Black Panthers, 201
Black Student Alliance, 374
Blake, William, illustrated work of, 75
Blanchard, E.L., 477
Bleak House (Dickens), 267–68
Bloody Jack: Being an Account of the Curious Adventures of Mary ”Jacky” Faber, Ship’s Boy (Meyer), 515n20
blues poetry, 133–37
blues songs, 136
Blume, Judy, 28, 45, 353–67
awards of, 351–52
censorship of, 351
taboo topics of, 351
Blyton, Enid, 97, 99–100, 109n8
Boas, George, 541, 556n5
Bobby Make-Believe (King), 169
Bontemps, Arna, 129–30
book
as beloved object, 412, 416, 422, 425
as child creation, 438–51
Book-of-the-Month Club, 498
Books, Children, and Men (Hazard), 7
Boone, Troy, 14
Boop, Betty, 149
Booth, Wayne, 95
Borges, Jorge Luis, 276
Bosmajian, Hamida, 378, 380–81
Boucicault, Nina, 487
Bourdieu, Pierre, 223, 317
boy book, 296, 306n1, 306n4 See also school story
boyhood, parameters of, 531
boyology, 3, 212
boys’ school story. See school story
Bradbury, Charles, 337
Bram, Christopher, 86
Bratton, Jacqueline, 478
Breaking Through (Jiménez), 389–90
breeding, 322–23
poverty v., 316
Brenda (pseud. of Georgina Castle Smith), 14, 255, 257–59, 260, 267–68
agenda of, 262
Brink, Carol Ryrie, 498
Britain, nineteenth century
children in, 256–57
city composition in, 271
poverty in, 257, 334
and race, 101
and social class, 101
British Invasion, 193
British North America Act, 330
British public schools, 469n1
homosocial environment of, 458
Reed on, 456–57
Sedgwick on, 458
Brode, Douglas, 84, 86
Brodhead, Richard, 316
bromance, 88n9
Brooks, Cleanth, 65, 67n5
Brown, Margaret Wise, 183, 214
Brown, Matthew P., 417, 420–21
Brown, Sterling, 135
Brown, William Wells, 302
Browne, Anthony, 74
Brownmiller, Susan, 506
de Brunhoff, Jean, 124
Burke, Martin J., 317
Burnett, Frances Hodgson, 284
Burt, Stephen, 58–59, 62, 68n14
Burton, Virginia Lee, 123
Busch, Wilhelm, 169–70
Buster Brown (Outcault), 169
Butler, Judith, on sexuality, 511
The Butter Battle Book (Seuss), 193
Byatt, A.S., 105, 107, 108n2
Caddie Woodlawn (Brink), 498, 503, 525
heroine of, 507
MacLeod on, 501–2
punishment in, 511
Caldecott, Randolph, 124
Caldecott Medal, 8, 212
Calder, Jenni, 286
Calico Bush (Field), 498, 502, 508
heroine of, 507, 514n10
Calvin and Hobbes (Watterson), 171
Calvinism, 285
Jacobitism and, 286
Calvino, Italo, 276
Campe, Joachim Heinrich, 435–36
Canada, 330–31, 333–34, 336, 339, 345
and national identity, 332–33, 345
canonicity, 6, 31, 54–55, 498, 512
capitalism, 191
industrial, 24
di Capua, Michael, 53, 57
Carlyle, Thomas, 469
on hero worship, 470n3
Carnegie Medal, 8
carnivalesque, 190, 192–194, 196, 197, 206
Bakhtin on, 192–94
(p. 564) function, 196
humor, 192
traditions, 194–95
Carroll, Lewis, 23, 35–37, 39–44, 48–49, 477
Cohen on, 45–46
as infamous/controversial, 36, 44, 47
Carson, Norma Bright, 314–15
The Case of Peter Pan, or The Impossibility of Children’s Fiction (Rose), 45, 476, 556n5
Castañeda, Claudia, 13
castaway
concept of, 434–35
playing, 442
stories, 439
The Cat in the Hat Comes Back (Seuss), 191, 193
The Cat in the Hat for President (Coover), 198–99
The Cat in the Hat (Seuss), 26, 74, 189, 193, 196, 199, 202 f, 203–4.
animated version of, 199
children in, 200, 205–6
as overtly political, 197–98
as response to Dick and Jane books, 198
Catriona (Stevenson, R.), 276
Cavett, Dick, 520
Cech, John, 212
Centuries of Childhood: a Social History of Family Life (Ariès), 15
Chao, Patricia, 234
character development, 94–97, 284
Charlieshope Library, 439, 441 f, 445, 450
Chase, Pauline, letters to, 485
Chavez, Leo, 391–92, 395
Chen, Debby, 235
Chesterton, G.K., 276
Chicano
literature, 394, 399, 404n4
movement, 394
studies, 404n2
Child, Lydia Maria, 302, 424–25
child-centered model, of childhood. See permissive model, of childhood
child characters, in comics, 169–70
child/children. See also street children, child development, childhood
adults v., 39
African American, 130–34, 138–42, 372, 373
authorship by, 482–83
as blank slates, 418, 428n10
in Britain, nineteenth century, 40, 256–57
cruelty among, 174
drawing, 214–15, 441, 446
as emotionally priceless, 16
in Harlem Renaissance, 130labor
in Canada, 334–36, 344
meaning of, 10, 14
orphaned, 337–38, 340
pantomimes and, 477
as performers, 486
protection of, 175–76
rights of, 325n12
Sánchez-Eppler on, 13–14
second-wave feminism and, 522–23
Seuss on, 191, 200, 205–6
as theater reviewers, 489
theatricals by, 480
as vehicles for social change, 25, 134, 142, 143, 285, 374, 375, 381
child development
in Kidnapped, 280–81
movies and, 148–50
child emigration schemes, 333–36
childhood. See also child/children
as category of analysis, 3
cult of, 541
as dependent state, 81
disappearance of, 16, 542
innocence, See innocence
meanings of, 10, 14, 16
“New Negro,” 131, 134–135, 141–42
permissive model of, 151, 157
popular ideas of, 173–74
reading, See also audience, reading, child reader
romantic, 48, 556n2
Schulz on, 183
and segregation, 135
of Sendak, 211, 223
studies, 6, 232
Twain on, 296–97
Childhood, Culture and Class in Britain: Margaret Macmillan (Steedman), 16
Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture (Kincaid), 556n5
child placement, 321
child reader, 39–41, 62, 80, 105, 106, 130, 262, 266–67, 415–16, 435. See also reader.
African-American, 136, 139–40, 143, 379, 382, 426
as hybrid, 415
self-creation of, 416
white, 450.
child-rearing, 9, 220–21, 524
Baruch on, 157–58, 161–62
Dixon on, 159, 161
in early America, 428n15
gender distinct, 504
Hulbert on, 213
management-oriented, 156–57
Mead on, 157, 162
permissiveness, 151, 157
children’s books. See children’s literature
Children’s Books in England: Five Centuries of Social Life (Darton), 7
children’s culture, 5, 10
dismissive attitudes towards, 182
political possibilities of, 521
(p. 565) popular, 523
tropes of, 521
visual imagery in, 12
children’s labor, 335–36, 341
demand for, 334
legal restrictions to, 334
productive, 541–42
children’s literature, 36, 41, 45, 49, 94, 103, 104, 106–8, 294–96. See also, African American, Asian American, Mexican-American
adult literature v., 24
African American, 130–143, 372, 376, 385–86
Asian American, 401–3
approaches to, 5, 7–8, 456
boundaries of, 103–4
censorship of, 45
Chicano, See Mexican American
critical study of, 7, 37
critics, 44–47
cross-written nature of, 9, 104, 130
definition of, 9, 47–49
development of, 8
financial success of, 104
formative effects of, 9
genres of, 94–108, 276. See also genre.
history of, 7–8
Hunt on, 108n1
as impossible, 3–4
legitimacy of, 104–5, 107
Mexican American, 394, 399, 404n.4
movies as, 148, 150, 162
queer theoretical approach to, 456
sexuality in, 83–88. See also sexuality
slavery in, 139
study of, 7–10, 57, 72, 294
teaching of, 38, 54–55, 60, 65, 72, 73, 78, 87, 242, 245
Children’s Literature: Criticism and the Fictional Child (Lesnick-Oberstein), 18n3
Children’s Literature Association, 7–8
children’s literature criticism, 4, 18n3
fundamentals of, 35–49
possibilities of, 5
protective impulse in, 72–73
children’s needs, assumptions about, 4
children’s play, pedagogical value of, 16
children’s rights activism, 522
children’s theater, 476–77. See also theater.
criteria for, 478–79
history of, 490
intertheatrical approach to, 478–80
subversion of, 487–88
Twain and, 481
children’s writing, scavenging and, 434–35
child-rescue discourse, 343
A Child’s Garden of Verses (Stevenson, R.), 275
The Child That Books Built (Spufford), 9
Chinese Exclusion Act, 242
The Chinese Siamese Cat (Tan & Schields), 240–41
Chrisman, Arthur Bowie, 119
Christian Socialism, 455
The Christmas Gift/El Regalo de Navidad (Jiménez), 390
Chubb, Percival, 160
Cichetti, Dante, 401
The Circuit: Stories from the Life of a Migrant Child (Jiménez), 14, 29, 389, 391, 395–403
audience of, 390, 404n2
as autobiographical, 392–93, 404n1
confessional writing style of, 390
social/political issues in, 402
Spanish in, 393–94
The City (Masereel), 123
Civil Rights Act, 375
civil rights movement, 191, 193, 196, 372, 386
Free to Be…You and Me and, 522
Taylor, M., and, 373–74
Clara Andrews and Her Friend who Lived in a Tree, 450
Clarence and Corinne (Johnson, A.), 385
Clark, Beverly Lyon, 13, 27, 104
Clark, Kenneth, 160
Clark, Mamie, 160
Clarke, Henry Savile, 477
class/classes, 13–14, 28, 97, 315, 316, 320
behavior and, 157
and caste, 101
family and, 323
sociological studies of, 317
tensions between, 262–63
classism, 335
The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies (Giddens), 317
Clemens, Samuel Langhorne. See Twain, Mark
Clever Bill (Nicholson), 124
Clotel (Brown, W.), 302
Cohen, Donald, 401
Cohen, Morton N., on Carroll, 45–46
Colás, Santiago, 549
Collins, Bernard, 489–90
colonization, 449
colonial encounters, 405n6
legitimization of, 257
power and, 257, 451
Colvin, Sidney, 288
Comedy (Stott), 83
comedy duos, 82
as same sex, 83–85
Comenius, 10–11
comic books. See comics
comics. See also graphic novel.
(p. 566) accomplishments for, 181–82
as adult, 168–69
alternative, 178
American, 170–71
art, 181
child characters in, 169–70
critical study of, 168
cross-writing and, 169
emergence of, 243
as extension of popular journalism, 170
psychiatric language in, 175
as reclamation project, 178
comic-strip child. See also strip kid
historical development of, 25
lasting angst of, 175
The Commonsense Book of Baby and Child Care (Spock), 157
community, 142–43
competition, friendship and, 79–80
Complete Peanuts (Seth), 178–79
Condition of the Working Class in England (Engels), 262–63
conformity, 367
individualism and, 155–56, 352, 354–55
Riesman on, 353–54
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (Twain), 293
Conroy, Pat, 303
Constructing the Canon of Children’s Literature (Lundin), 104
consumerism, 191
contact zones, 405n6
contextualization, as interpretive tool, 277
A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories (Eisner), 246n3, 248n18
The Conundrum of Class (Burke), 317
conversion narratives, 419, 427n4
Coover, Robert, 198–99
“Cop-Out” genre, 526, 533–34
tomboy tradition and, 525
Cott, Jonathan, 223–24
The Country Bunny and the Little Gold Shoes (Heyward), 215
Cox, James M., 305
Cox, Richard, 121
Cradle of Liberty: Race, the Child, and National Belonging from Thomas Jefferson to W. E. B. DuBois (Levander), 14
Craft, Ellen, 138
Craft, William, 138
critical literacy, 10. See also literacy
improvement in, 75
primer for, 71–88
critical reading practices, 24. See also reading
McGillis on, 72
resistance to, 72–73
critical theory, prestige of, 55
Crockett, Lucy Herndon, 123
Crofters’ Holdings Act, 288
Crofters’ War, 287–89
Crosby, Percy, 171, 176
cross-writing, 9–12, 61, 104
comics and, 169
definition of, 68n10, 169
The Dream Keeper as, 130
Harry Potter series and, 107
influence of, 178
Knoepflmacher on, 61, 169
Myers on, 61, 169
Peter Pan as, 489–90
in poetry, 62, 142
by Schulz, 178, 184–85
by Twain, 295
Cruse, Howard, 176
crush(es), 459, 460–3, 467, 470n5
adolescent, 456, 459–60
broader implications/uses of, 460–61
on officers/administrators, 463–64
spiritual salvation and, 467–69
Cuban Missile Crisis, 193
Cullen, Countee, 131, 135, 140
Culloden, Battle of, 278
The Cult of Childhood (Boas), 541, 556n5
cultural relativism, 300
cultural status, 392
cultural studies, 10. See also children’s culture
cultural transformation, 232
culture. See also children’s culture; mass culture; popular culture
boy, 296
complexity of, 339
consumer, 10, 522
dominant, 340
folk, 138
formation of, 451
gendered, 504
ideological constructions of, 87
nature and, 330
production of, 223
religious, 415, 421
sixties, 192–93
Cultures of Letters (Brodhead), 316
Cummins, June, 13, 28
Cunningham, Hugh, 541–42
Dahl, Roald, 277
Dalgliesh, Alice, 121–22
Danish, Barbara, 526
Danny the Champion of the World (Dahl), 277
Darrow, Whitney, Jr., 525
Darton, F.J. Harvey, 456
on Peter Pan, 476
Darton, Harvey, 7
Davidson, Donald, 67n5
(p. 567) Davies, Arthur Llewelyn, 475
sons of, 48
Davin, Anna, 271
Davis, Desmond, 38
Davis, Grania, 235
Davis, Whitney, 224
Days with Frog and Toad (Lobel), 72, 85 f
death
“good,” 268–69
jokes about, 43
Decent and Indecent (Spock), 532
Declaration of Independence, 402–3
declension narrative, 522
Deenie (Blume), 351
Defoe, Daniel, 433, 435–37, 440, 449, 451
democracy, founding principles of, 314
demon child, 170
demonic adult, 420
Dennis the Menace (Ketcham), 171
Dependent States: The Child’s Part in Nineteenth-Century American Culture (Sánchez-Eppler), 13–14
development, physical, 98, 355–56
Devereux, Cecily, 335
Dick and Jane books, 74, 75, 88n2
responses to, 198
Dickens, Charles, 267–70
diction
of Dick and Jane books, 75
of Frog and Toad Together, 75
Did I Ever Tell You How Lucky You Are? (Seuss), 193, 201
Dimock, Wai Chee, 314
Dionysian, Apollonian and, 82–83
Dirks, Rudolph, 169–70
The Disappearance of Childhood (Postman), 542
disciplinary intimacy, 316
discipline, excessive, 425
Disney, Walter Elias, 25, 147–62. See also Walt Disney Productions
as disingenuous, 150–51
hands-off approach of, 147
Disney stories, plots of, 150–52
Distinction (Bourdieu), 317
Disturbing the Universe, Power and Repression in Adolescent Literature (Trites), 381
Dixon, Madeleine, on child-rearing, 159, 161
doctrine of free grace, 418
doctrine of harmony, 317–18
Dodge, Mary Mapes, 324n9
Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge. See Carroll, Lewis
domestic novels, 507
domestic orientalism, 258
power of, 257
domestic role, of women, 525
domestic spaces, construction of, 447–48
Dong, Lan, 12, 26
Donnelly, Jennifer, 106
double spreads, 122–23
Douglas, Aaron, 141
Douglass, Frederick, 138
Dow, Bonnie, 506
Downright Dencey (Snedeker), 498, 502–3
friction in, 508
publication of, 504
punishment in, 510–11
Dr. Seuss’s ABC (Seuss), 193, 196
The Dragon and the Doctor (Danish), 526
Drain, Susan, 331
drama, 478, 555
of exclusion, 319
Drawing the Dream of the Wolves (Davis, W.), 224
The Dream Keeper (Hughes, L.), 12, 25, 129, 135–36, 139–43
audience of, 131
cross-writing and, 130
emotions explored in, 132
final section of, 137–38
first section of, 132–33
interracial audience of, 131
recent edition of, 131
second section of, 133
third section of, 133–34
Dreams of Authority (Thomas, R.), 217
Duane, Anna Mae, 415
Du Bois, W.E.B., 131, 134–35, 138, 140–41
Dumbo (Disney), 25, 149–50, 153–55, 162
animator’s strike during, 147
as children’s literature, 148
crows in, 155 f, 158–61
military motifs in, 152 f
obstacles faced in, 158
plot of, 151–52
production of, 157
release of, 156
as warning to children, 160
Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 133
Duncan’s Kingdom (Yang), 231
Durivage, Robert, 450
Dusinberre, Juliet, 178, 181
Dusk of Dawn (Du Bois), 140
Dylan, Bob, 199–200
Eagleton, Terry, on New Criticism, 75
Eco, Umberto, 176
economic identity, 317
Eddy, Jacalyn, 216
education,
children’s books as, 245, 412–14
for African American children, 138–39, 372, 374–75
British, 256, 270
and citizenship, 342
for the poor, 264
Progressive, 214, 226n2
sexism and, 524–27
Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical (Spencer), 13
(p. 568) Edwards, Cliff, 155, 163n17
egocentrism
deconstruction of, 394
transcendence of, 401
Eisenstein, Sergei, 153
Eisner, Will, 246n3, 248n18
Elliott, Michele, 46–47
Ellis, Havelock, 459–60
Elster, Charles, 98
Emile (Rousseau), 443
Emma (Austen), 95–96
emotional self-awareness, 156–57
employment discrimination, 375
Engels, Friedrich, 262–63
English Victorian child, conceptualization of, 40
Epstein, Lawrence J., 84
Eric, or Little by Little (Farrar), 457, 464–67
dangerous crush in, 461–62
The Eternal Smile: Three Stories (Yang & Kim), 231
ethnicity, 368n8
as problematic, 81
study of, 232, 241
ethnic purist, 364
ethnic stereotypes, 26
Ets, Marie, 213
evangelical writers, 267–71
Evans, Ernestine, 117
Exactly Like Me (Phillips), 526
existentialism, 202–4
Fables (Lobel), 71
fag, as term, 470n9
fairy tales, 79
fairy-tale formula, 118
traditional period close for, 440
Fame and Fortune (Alger), 315
family
biological, 323
class and, 323
in Froggy’s Little Brother, 263–64
ideal, 321–22
notions about, 28
surrogate, 320
Family Circus (Keane), 171
family instruction, 436
family lore, 384–85
family story, 316
fantasy, 94, 100, 102–3, 109n11, 540
animal, 81
hybrid, 101
instrumentalization of, 225
farm labor camp, 396
Farrar, Frederic, 457, 464–65
fatherhood, 282, 356, 380, 385
father-son relationship, 276–77, 282–83
Fauset, Arthur Huff, 141
Fauset, Jessie, 131
Feiffer, Jules, 176
Feininger, Lyonel, 169
female adventure story, 507
feminine/masculine
domains of, 227n5, 511
female/male v., 84
others as, 272n8
femininity, traditional, advantages/costs of, 527–28
feminism, 193. See also second-wave feminism; second-wave feminist activism
as challenge to gender norms, 31
increasing, 505
liberal, 533
power and, 85
public image of, 506
scholarship of/on, 534
feminist parenting goals, 523
The Feminist Press, 526
feminists, presence of, 524
Feminists on Children’s Media, 524
feminist studies, 456
feral tales, 212
Field, Rachel, 498
field of cultural production, 223
Field of Nonsense (Sewell, E.), 196–97
The Fifth Form at St. Dominic’s (Reed, J.), 457
figuration, of development, 13
Figurations: Child, Bodies, Worlds (Castañeda), 13
film appreciation movement, 499
films. See movies
Findlay, Ellen, 335
Finger, Charles, 118
first-person narrative, 238
First Term at Malory Towers (Blyton), 99–100
Fisher, Margery, 88
on Frog and Toad stories, 73
Fitzhugh, Louise, 74
The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins (Seuss), 191
Five Little Peppers and How They Grew (Sidney), 14, 28, 313–23, 324n4
contemporary reviews of, 314–15
paradox of, 316
Five Little Peppers Midway (Sidney), 318, 325n14
Fletcher, Robert P., 177
Fliegelman, Jay, 423
Fly By Night (Jarrell), 53
Flynn, Richard, 10, 13, 23
folklore, folktales, folk motifs/expressions, 73, 115–120, 135–39, 141, 243
follow-up review, 488–89
food scavenging, 397
For Better or for Worse (Johnston), 171
Forever (Blume), banning of, 45
For Freedom (Fauset, A.), 141
formalism, 74–75
Forman, Henry James, 149
(p. 569) foster care, 344
public discourse on, 331–32
foster parents, 338–39
Fox in Socks (Seuss), 193, 196
Frahm, Ole, 177
The Franklin Circulating Library, 438–42, 446, 447 f
Frederick (Lionni), 60, 68n9
Freedom, 29, 375
denial of, 48–49
images of, 510
social, 364
Freedom Summer, 375
Free to Be…You and Me (Thomas, M.), 17, 31, 519, 521, 525, 528–32, 534
book version of, 520
civil rights movement and, 522
Grammy nomination of, 520
influence of, 522
inspiration for, 523–24
as nostalgic touchstone, 533
politics of, 522
popularity of, 520, 522, 526–27
possible readings of, 522
target audience of, 520
on traditional children’s texts, 521
writings on, 522–23
free will, reinstatement of, 553–54
Freiligrath-Kroeker, Kate, 481
Freud, Sigmund, 213–14, 216–18, 221, 224–25
Sendak and, 219
friendship
competition and, 79–80
detrimental, 465–66
romantic, 459, 462, 464, 469n2
sexual, 464
The Friendship (Taylor, M.), 372
Frog and Toad All Year (Lobel), 72, 76
Frog and Toad Are Friends (Lobel), 72
Frog and Toad stories (Lobel)
common themes of, 87
complexity of, 73
darker side to, 73, 80
Fisher on, 73
humor in, 82–83
illustrations of, 75
obsessive compulsive disorder in, 73
paradox of, 76
skills learned through, 72
Walsh on, 73
Frog and Toad Together (Lobel), 24, 71–72, 74, 77 f, 81–82
action initiation in, 78
complexities of, 75–76
homosexual subtext in, 85–87
gender/sexuality in, 83–88, 88n8
genres of, 81–83
humor in, 78, 82–84
initial reaction to, 75
irony in, 78–80
Newbery Honor award of, 73
plots in, 78–79
Froggy’s Little Brother (Brenda), 14, 27, 261 f, 265 f
agenda of, 262
appeal of, 260, 265–67
childhood in, 264–65
cover of, 256 f
family depiction in, 263–64
honorable characters in, 261–62
postcolonial perspective on, 258
readership of, 257–58
religious symbolism in, 269
Fromm, Erich, 220
The Frumious Bandersnatch (McBain), 38
full animation, 153, 163n16
Fussell, Paul, 460–61, 463–64
Gág, Wanda, 24, 118
author/illustrator reputation of, 115, 124
black/white illustrations of, 123
commercial opportunities of, 116
exhibitions of, 117
hardships of, 119
idealism of, 125
influences of, 123
passions of, 126n9
pastoralism of, 119
as quintessential modernist, 116–17
roots of, 115, 119
vision of, 122
gag cartoons, 123
Gaines, Kevin K., 134
Gammel, Irene, 330, 332
Gardner, Howard, 214
Gardner, Martin, 46
Garner, Alan, 277
Geisel, Theodore Seuss. See Seuss, Dr.
gender
in Anne of Green Gables, 330
child-rearing and, 504
cultural constructions of, 84
distinctions of, 445
equality/equity, 505–6, 521
in Frog and Toad Together, 83–88
identity, 525, 532
politics of, 301–2
social constructedness of, 534
socialization, 521
tropes, 524
gendered power, visibility and, 524–25
gender norms, 511
feminism as challenge to, 31
loosening of, 450
in The Swiss Family Robinson, 445
in visual imagery, 525
gender roles, 84, 509–10
gender stereotypes, 520, 524
(p. 570) gender studies, 87–88
Genesis, story of, 546–47
genre, 6
blending, 93–108, 243
“Cop-Out,” 525–26, 533–34
criticism, 81, 87–88
emphasis on, 56
fiction, 107
of Frog and Toad Together, 81–83
multiple, 419
strip, 171
Gerhardt, Lillian, 505
Giddens, Anthony, 317
Gillis, John, 451
Gilman, Susan Jane, 533
The Gingerbread Rabbit (Jarrell), 53
A Girl Called Al (Green, C.), 525
girlhood, parameters of, 531
girls’ canon, adult-approved, 498–99
Giroux, Henry A., 272n5, 542
Glass, Buddy, 44
Glorious Revolution, 278, 284, 286–87
God
contact with, 412
divine law of, 414
God’s Man (Ward), 123
Godwin, Mary, 437
Godwin, William, 437
The Gold Cadillac (Taylor, M.), 372
The Golden Compass (Pullman), 539, 543–44, 546, 553
award for, 551
Goldschmidt, A.M.E., 46
Goldstein, Philip, 294
Gooderham, David, 548
Goodnight Moon (Brown, Margaret), 183
Goodwin, Polly, 506
Gordon Yamamoto and the King of the Geeks (Yang), 231
Gore, Arthur Jocelyn Charles, 266–67
Governor General’s Literary Award for Children’s Literature and Illustrators, 8
Grahame, Elspeth, 48, 86
grandmother, role of, 357–58
grand narrative
democratizing, 550–55
use of, 552
Grant, Joe, 147
graphic novel, 12, 26, 245. See also American Born Chinese
definition of, 246n3
educational value of, 248n17
popularity of, 243
reconfiguration of, 244
Gray, Harold, 171
Great Depression, 148, 156, 161, 378–79
Great Migration, 136
Green, Constance, 525
Green, Roger Lancelyn, 476
Greenacre, Phyllis, 46
Greenaway, Kate, 124
Green Eggs and Ham (Seuss), 189, 193–94, 196
Greenwich Village folk scene, 193
Grenby, M.O., 13, 17, 25
Griever, An American Monkey King in China (Vizenor), 234
Groensteen, Thierry, 184
Gross, Milt, 123
Growing Up Poor: Home, School and Street in London 1870–1914 (Davin), 271
Gubar, Marah, 16, 30
habitus, 223
Hacker, Marilyn, 56
Hader, Berta, 123
Hader, Elmer, 123
Hager, Kelly, 13–14, 28
Halberstam, Judith, on sexuality, 511
Hale, Charles, 446, 448–49
Hale, Edward Everett, 445–46
Hale, Ellen Day (Nelly), 439, 441–42, 441 f, 445
Hale, Nathan, 438
Hale, Sarah, 438
Hale families, 440, 443
papers of, 447 f
half-breed, See individuals
Halfway Covenant, 415
Hall, David D., 412
Hans Brinker (Dodge), 324n9
Harlem Renaissance, 131
aesthetic energies of, 134–35
child’s place within, 130
context of, 141
power during, 139
spirit of, 143
Harnick, Sheldon, 520
Harold and the Purple Crayon (Johnson, C.), 215
Harriet the Spy (Fitzhugh), 74
Harris, Benjamin, 411
Harry Potter series (Rowling), 24, 93, 98–99, 101–2, 107–8
audience, 103–106
as bildungsroman, 24, 94–97, 100, 103
educational setting of, 97
Hunt on, 106
popularity of, 94
Ratzinger on, 45
reviews/criticisms of, 104–5
Harry Ransom Center, 38
Hart, Bruce, 520
Hart, Carole, 520
Hartman, Charles, bibliography of, 415
Haskin, Sara Estelle, 141
Hatfield, Charles, 12, 25
Hays Office, establishment of, 149
Hazard, Paul, 7
Heaney, Seamus, 105
(p. 571) heart
as seat of knowledge, 414, 427n6
as site of change, 422
heart-piety, 420
He Done Her Wrong (Gross), 123
Heer, Jeet, 178
Heins, Marjorie, 15
Hendler, Glenn, 301–2, 315–16
Hensher, Philip, 105–6, 108n2
Hentoff, Nat, 136
Hergé, 168
hero worship, 456, 469
benefits of, 462–63
Carlyle on, 470n3
heteronormative narrative, 532
heterosexuality, 459
Heyward, Du Bose, 215
The Hidden Adult, Defining Children’s Literature (Nodelman), 47, 223
Hidier, Tanuja Desai, 243
high culture, mass culture and, 62
Highland Clearances, 287
Highland Rebel (Watson, S.), 497
Highland Scotland dialect, 277–78
Highland v. Lowland Scotland, 285–86
His Dark Materials (Pullman), 17, 31, 106–7, 539, 542, 546, 548, 552–55
characters in, 540–41
destiny in, 554
protagonists in, 545
tradition of, 551
historical fiction, 276–78, 372, 376, 385, 507
history,
African American, 372, 375–76, 385
biases of, 138
as context for interpretation, 276
The Hobbit (Tolkien), 277–78
Hobomok (Child), 302
Hoffman, Abbie, 198
Hogan’s Alley (Outcault), 169
A Hole Is to Dig (Krauss), 211
Hollinger, David, 365–66
Hollingshead, John, 262–63
Holm, Anne, 276
Homecoming (Voigt), 276
homelessness, depiction of, 395–96
homemade toy book, 117–18
home theatricals, popularity of, 480–81
homoeroticism, 84–85
in schools/school stories, 458–59
homophobia, 85
Sedgwick on, 87
homosexuality, 84–86, 471n11, 515n17
anxiety about, 531–32
and boys’ boarding schools, 456, 458, 459, 461
language of, 458–59
latent, 225
Lobel and, 85–86
Sendak and, 223, 226
Spock and, 532
homosocial, 85–87, 458
homosocial desire, 30, 458
homosocial networks, 30
Hooligans or Rebels? An Oral History of Working-Class Childhood and Youth 1889–1939 (Humphries), 271
Hop on Pop (Seuss), 193, 196
The Horn Book, 8
Horton Hears a Who! (Seuss), 189, 191, 193, 196
Howey, Ann, 416
How the Grinch Stole Christmas (Seuss), 189, 191, 193, 196–97
Hubler, Angela, 533–34
Huemer, Dick, 147, 160–61
Hughes, Langston, 12, 25, 129, 131–32, 134, 136, 138–43
assumptions about, 135
Communist leanings of, 143
literary elite on, 134
musical interests of, 137
popularity of, 130
world travels of, 133
Hughes, Thomas, 97
education of, 455
Hulbert, Ann, 213
human development, biological history of, 13
Humble Comics, 231
Humphries, Stephen, 271
Hunt, Peter, 8–10, 23, 104
on children’s literature, 108n1
on Harry Potter series, 106
The Hunting of the Snark (Carroll), 36, 41
Hurston, Zora Neale, 131, 135
hybrid fantasy, 101
I Am David (Holm), 276
I Can Read books, 74, 86, 88
iconography, attention to, 12
identity
American, 352, 360–61, 367, 402
black, 137
categories of, 101
consent-based, 360, 367
as culpable, 546
economic, 317
ethnic, 360
formation, 245
gender, 525, 532
group, 367
liberty and, 297
national/racial, 13–14, 360, 365–67, 368n2
post-ethnic, 28
pursuit of, 242
of reader, 40–41
Sollors on, 360–61
(p. 572) identity politics, 232
ideologies of difference, 101–2
I Had Trouble in Getting to Solla Sollew (Seuss), 196
illegal immigrants, 391
status of, 403
illustrated folktale collections, popularity of, 118–19
illustration(s), 10–13. See also specific illustrators/stories, children (drawing), picture books.
style of, 116
image, as structuring category, 12
imaginative work, construction efforts and, 446–47
Imagined Communities (Anderson, B.), 423
I’m Glad I’m a Boy! I’m Glad I’m a Girl! (Darrow), 525
immigrant realities, 400. See also Mexican immigrants
immigration discourse, 403
immigration history, 29
imperialist nostalgia, 301
Indians. See American Indians
individualism, 148, 161–62, 367
celebrating, 151, 155–56
conformity and, 155–56, 352, 354–55
patriarchalism and, 413
infant depravity, 15
infantilization, 281
informed consent, 423
Injun Joe (character), 27, 299–306
inner-directed society, 353, 362, 364
Riesman on, 356, 359
Inness, Sherrie A., 460
innocence, 557n13
adult investment in, 478
agency and, 15–17
as boundary, 17
challenges to, 555
in childhood, 15, 42
children’s books and, 41–42
discontents of, 541–45
experience and, 540, 555
fall from, 545
fetishization of, 544–45
as myth, 542
as negative, 543
privilege of, 31
revised myth of, 546
Romantic ideal of, 257, 264–65
Schulz on, 173–74
innocence profiling, 272n5
The Innocents Abroad (Twain), 295
institutions
adult, 174–75
children and, 342
reputations of, 341–42
integrity, value of, 378–79
intent by author, affect on reader v, 36–37
intermarriage, 360–61, 368n7
The Interpretation of Dreams (Freud), 216
irony, in Frog and Toad Together, 78–80
It’s a Good Life, If You Don’t Weaken (Seth), 179
Iwerks, Ub, 147
Jabberwocky (Carroll), 38
Jack, R.D.S., 475–76
Jackson, Helen Hunt, 306
Jack Tokera, 446, 448 f
Jacobite Rising/Rebellion, 278, 281, 286–88
Jacobitism, 287
Calvinism and, 286
Jade (Watson, S.), 16–17, 31, 497–98, 502–4, 507–9
dominant image pattern of, 510
lack of recognition for, 499, 515n20
negative review of, 505
as new tomboy model, 512
punishment in, 511
as romantic, 505–6
summary of, 500–501
Jager, Eric, 414
James, Henry, 276
Janeway, James, 15, 419
Jarrell, Randall, 55–66
Arendt on, 58
awards of, 54, 57
Bishop on, 57
on dialectical theory of poetry, 58, 67n7
education of, 53, 57, 67n5
Lowell on, 54, 64
marriages of, 53–54
McCarthyism and, 59
Nodelman on, 61
poetic structure theories of, 62
on poetry, 60
on poets, 54
postwar aesthetic of, 58–59
postwar subject matter of, 59
on reading, 62
Sendak on, 54
Jehlen, Myra, 314
Jenkins, Henry, 191, 199, 206
Jewish identity, 358, 359, 361–66
Jiménez, Francisco, 14, 29, 396–403
autobiographical work of, 392–93, 404n1
background of, 389–91
education of, 389
linguistic choices of, 394
publications of, 389–90
Jimmy Corrigan: The Smartest Kid on Earth (Ware), 179–81, 180 f
Jo, Flo, and Yolanda (De Poix), 526
Johnson, Amelia E., 385
Johnson, Crockett, 171, 183, 211, 215
Johnson, Dianne, 134
Johnson, Georgia Douglas, 131
Johnson, James Weldon, 138, 143
Johnston, Lynn, 171
(p. 573) Jones, Katherine, 416
Jones, Lois Mailou, 141
The Journey to the West (sixteenth century Chinese novel), 233–35, 247n10, 247n11. See also Monkey King story
Junior Literary Guild, 498
Juvenile Miscellany (Child), 424–25
Kannenberg, Gene, 181
Kate Greenaway Medal, 8
The Katzenjammer Kids (Dirks), 169
Keane, Bil, 171
Kellogg, Susan, 220
Kelly, Eric P., 119
Kelso, J.J., 337, 341, 344–45
appointment of, 335–36
Kempler, Anita, 71
Kenny’s Window (Sendak), 213–18
Bader on, 219
Ketcham, Hank, 171
Kidd, Kenneth, 11, 26, 86, 279
on Newbery Medal, 499, 513n3
Kiddie Lit (Clark, B.), 104
Kidnapped: Being Memoirs of the Adventures of David Balfour in the Year 1751 (Stevenson, R.), 27, 275
Bell on, 285
as bildungsroman, 280
character development in, 284
child development in, 280–81
coming of age and, 280–85
context of, 277, 285–90
as historical/national novel, 286
motifs/themes of, 277, 282–83
plot of, 282
problems of, 276–80
as propaganda, 288–89
setting of, 278
strengths of, 279–80
structure of, 279
tone of, 277
Kidscape, 46
The KIDS Fund, 351
Kim, Derek Kirk, 231
Kincaid, James, 556n5
The Kinder-Kids (Feininger), 169
King, Frank, 169
Kingsley, Charles, 468
The King’s Stilts (Seuss), 191, 196
Kingston, Maxine Hong, 234
Kingston, William Henry Giles, 438
Kipling, Rudyard, 457, 465
Kissell, Mary, 120, 126n8
KKK. See Ku Klux Klan
Klein, Melanie, 214, 219
Klein, Norman, 153
von Kleist, Heinrich, 548–49
Knoepflmacher, U.C., 9–10
on cross-writing, 61, 169
knowledge
book, 443
heart and, 414, 427n6
mutual respect for, 98
school, 243
Krasner, David, 134
Krauss, Ruth, 211, 214–15
Ku Klux Klan (KKK), 379, 384–85
Kushner, Tony, 212, 226, 227n11
Kyle, Richard, 246n3
labor, cheap, need for, 335–36. See also children’s labor
“Ladies First,” 527–28
Laing, R.D., 202
land, back to the (movement), 354
land ownership, 372–73, 376, 378
commitment to, 379–80
importance of, 374
protection of, 378–79, 381
sacrifice for, 377
sharecropping and, 386n3
transfer of, 379
The Land (Taylor, M.), 372, 376
Lang, Amy Schrager, 317
Lark Rise to Candleford (Thompson, F.), 270
Larsen, Nella, 302
learning
as collaborative endeavor, 99
lifelong, 98
race/class, 13–14
Legion of Decency, 149
Legitimist Jacobite League, 287
Lehmann-Haupt, Hellmut, 124
Lennon, Florence Becker, 46
Lesnick-Oberstein, Karín, 18n3
Let the Circle Be Unbroken (Taylor, M.), 372
Levander, Caroline F., 14
Lewis, C.S.
on children’s books, 41, 106
Pullman and, 551–52
Licensed to Hug, 45
Liddell, Alice, 35, 38, 42
Life and Correspondence of Thomas Arnold (Stanley), 468
Life in Search of Readers: Reading (in) Chicano/a Literature (Martín-Rodríguez), 394
Life on the Mississippi (Twain), 293
limited omniscient point of view, 95–96
Lindner, Robert, 159–60
Lionni, Leo, 60
literacy, 72, 74, 384, 428n9. See also critical literacy
literary fiction, future of, 93–108
literary salvaging, 439
literary theory, 332
literature, 352, 435 See also children’s literature, African American, Asian American, Chicano, Mexican American
(p. 574) adolescent, 16, 505, 523,
adult v. children’s, 24. See also cross-writing.
movies as competition to, 148
as vehicle for social change, 25
visual-verbal, 124. See also picture books.
Little Bear (Minarik), 74
A Little Book for Little Children (White), 419
Little Friend, Little Friend (Jarrell), 53
Little Golden Books, 8
Little Goody Two Shoes: or, Harlequin Little Boy Blue (Blanchard), 477, 480, 488
Little House series (Wilder), 498, 501, 503
friction in, 508
heroine of, 507
punishment in, 510
Little Jimmy (Swinnerton), 169
Little Lord Fauntleroy (Burnett), 284, 295
Little Nemo in Slumberland (McCay), 169, 217
Little Orphan Annie (Gray), 171
Little Red Hen Makes a Pizza (Sturges), 11–12
Little Strangers (Nelson), 325n12
The Little White Bird (Barrie), 475
Little Women (Alcott), 295, 324n9
Christmas playacting scene in, 480
as “Cop-Out” genre, 525
Lobel, Arnold, 24, 71–88
Locke, Alain, 135, 138–39
Lofting, Hugh, 118–19
Logan, Taylor, 29
Logan family novels, 29, 371–86
Lollipop Power, 526
The Lonely Crowd (Riesman), 352, 364
popularity of, 353
preface to, 359
The Lorax (Seuss), 191, 193, 205–6
Losses (Jarrell), 53
The Lost World (Jarrell), 54, 61–63, 66n2
Lothrop, Harriett Mulford Stone. See Sidney, Margaret
Lowell, Robert, 56, 67n5
on Jarrell, 54, 64
Loyola Chin and the San Peligran Order (Yang), 231
Lucas, Audrey, 484
Lucio and His Nuong (Crockett), 123
Lucy Brown and Mr. Grimes (Ardizzone), 44–45
Lundin, Anne, 104
Lurie, Alison, 529
MacDonald, George, 74
MacDonald, Ruth, 191, 198–99, 205–6
Macherey, Pierre, 332
Machor, James L., 294
Mackail, Denis, 483–84
Mackinstry, Elizabeth, 123
MacLeod, Anne Scott, 505
on children’s literature, 523
on tomboy tradition, 501–2
Macmillan Publishers, 8
Making American Boys: Boyology and the Feral Tale (Kidd), 212
manhood, 446
sensitive/expressive models of, 531
The Manliness of Christ (Hughes, T.), 455
maple-sugar child, 132–33
Marcus, Leonard S., 212–13, 215–16
La Mariposa (Jiménez), 390
Marqusee, Mike, 200–201
Marshall, James, 226
Martin, Alice, 134
Martin, Michelle, 13, 29
Martín-Rodríguez, Manuel, 394, 405n9
Marvin K. Mooney Will You Please Go Now! (Seuss), 194
Marxism and Literature (Williams, R.), 339–40
Masereel, Frans, 123
Maslow, Abraham, 220
mass culture, 59
high culture and, 62
movies as, 149
Massee, May, 122
Masterton, Graham, 38
masturbation, 351
Mather, Cotton, 418–19, 427n7
Matthews, Gareth B., 80
maturation, in children’s literature, 401
du Maurier, Angela, 484–85
Maury, Inez, 526
Max und Moritz (Busch), 169
Mayhew, Henry
articles by, 259, 262–64
diatribe by, 260
taxonomy of, 259
Mayne, William, 46
McAleavey, David, 56
McBain, Ed, 38
McCarthy, Cormac, 277
McCarthyism, Jarrell and, 59
McCay, Winsor, 169, 217
McCrum, Robert, 105
McFadden’s Row of Flats (Outcault), 169
McGillis, Roderick, 213, 221
on Blake, 75
on critical reading, 72
on Oedipal experience, 222–23
McManus, George, 169
McNutt, James C., on Twain, 300, 306n7
Mead, Margaret, on child-rearing, 157, 162
media. See also children’s literature, comics, literature, movies
influence of, 359
production of, 402
visual, 12
Meigs, Cornelia, 122–23
melting pot, 361
The Melting Pot (Zangwill), 361
menarche, age of, 46
(p. 575) Menefee, Joan, 215
Menikoff, Barry, 282
menstruation, 351
Messent, Peter, 305
meter, 56
Mexican American children’s literature, 394, 399, 404n.4
Mexican immigrants, 391, 403, 404n5, 405n10
perceived as opportunistic, 395
Meyer, L.A., 515n20
Michaelis, David, 174, 184
Michaelsen, Scott, 303
Mickenberg, Julia, 5, 226n2
Middle Earth, 277
migrant families
emotional toll on, 397–98
experiences of, 393, 395
living conditions of, 396–97
social invisibility of, 402
status of, 392
struggles/resiliency of, 391, 397, 399–400, 403, 405n11
Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel (Burton), 123
Miki: The Book of Maud and Miska Petersham (Petersham, M. & M.), 118, 123
Miles, Betty, 529
Miller, Flournoy, 155
Miller, J. Hillis, 434, 437
Miller, Kelly, 143
Million, Elmer M., 303
Millions of Cats (Gág), 24, 115–16, 122–23
archetypes in, 121
as canonical text, 125
as commentary on violence, 121
originality of, 118
origin of, 117–18
plot of, 119–21
reputation of, 124
setting of, 118
Minarik, Else, 74
mind, development of, 98
Minear, Richard, 191
Mintz, Steven, 213, 220, 514n11
on gender distinct child-rearing, 504
Mirror (Masterton), 38
mise-en-scène, 278
Mississippi Bridge (Taylor, M.), 372
Mitchell, Lucy Sprague, 214, 216
mixed-race individuals. 302–3 See also mulatto
Mo, Timothy, 234
modern/modernist cultural production, 24, 116, 125, 148
modern subjectivity, 412
Monkey King (Chao), 234
The Monkey King: Legend of a Wise and Brave Leader (Davis, G.), 235
Monkey King story, 236–37. See also The Journey to the West
children’s books of, 234–35, 248n12
illustration of, 234 f
position of, 234–35
rewriting of, 232–33, 243–44
The Monkey King (Mo), 234
Monkey King Wreaks Havoc in Heaven (Chen & Ma, W.), 235
Montgomery, L.M., 28, 331–45
depression of, 330
works of, 329–30
Moon, Michael, 315
Moore, Anne Carroll, 122, 216
More About Froggy (Brenda), 255
Morgan, Judith, 190, 197
Morgan, Neil, 190, 197
Morgan, Peter E., 244
Mother Goose, 440
Motion Picture Production Code, 149, 498–99
movies
child development and, 148–50
childlike characters in, 150
as children’s literature, 148, 150, 162
dichotomous view of, 149
as literature’s competition, 148
as mass entertainment, 149
movie industry, 148–49
regulation of, 149
Ms. Foundation for Women, 526
mulatto, 302, See also mixed-race individuals
Munsterberg, Hugo, 149
muscular Christianity, 455, 468
music, as freeing, 133–34
Must We Conform? (Lindner), 159–60
Myers, Mitzi, 9–10
on cross-writing, 61, 169
My Mother the Mail Carrier/Mi Mami la Cartera (Maury), 526
The Mysterious Stranger (Twain), 293
Na, An, 243
narrative
art, aesthetic test for, 105, 108n2
flexibility, 107
misdirection, 95
structure, 243
National Board of Review, 149
national identity, 13–14, 332–333, 345, 360, 365–67, 368n2
nationalism, 29, 403
National Organization for Women (NOW), 524
national reconciliation, 286–87
Native Americans. See American Indians
Nazi Party, power of, 156
Negro History Week, 140
The Negro Slave (Durivage), 450
“The Negro Speaks of Rivers” (Hughes, L.), 140–41
Nelson, Claudia, 16–17, 31, 321, 325n12, 330, 339, 464, 468
(p. 576) Neumeyer, Peter, 60
Newbery, John, 8
Newbery heroines, 507, 511–12
household friction with, 508
Newbery Honor award, to Frog and Toad Together, 73
Newbery Medal, 8, 118
importance of, 513n3
Kidd on, 499, 513n3
as shorthand cultural approval, 499
New Criticism, 56, 80–81, 87–88
Eagleton on, 75
hegemony of, 57
politics of, 23
prestige of, 74
return to, 65
New England Primer, 29, 411, 413–15, 417, 419–22, 424–426
on affection, 423–24
book-heart couplet in, 412, 416, 422, 425
evangelical revisions of, 418
extant copies of, 426n1
multiple verions of, 419, 422, 425
pedagogy of, 412
religious identity and, 414
New Left ideal, 26, 190, 205
Newman, Andrew, 426
“New Negro” childhood, 134, 141–42
Newsome, Effie Lee, 132
Newton, Huey, 201
Nibsy the Newsboy in Funny Fairyland (McManus), 169
Nicholson, William, 124
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 82
night men. See Ku Klux Klan
“The Noble Red Man” (Twain), 299–300, 305
Nodelman, Perry, 11, 45, 47
on The Bat-Poet, 60–61
on Bourdieu, 223
on Jarrell, 61
on Where the Wild Things Are, 220
The Noisy Book (Brown, Margaret Wise), 183
nonsense, 37, 202
anarchic, 26, 199
definition of, 191–92
literary, 190, 206
politics of, 13
Nonsense Literature for Children: Aesop to Seuss (Apseloff & Anderson, Celia), 190, 206
The Norton Anthology of Children’s Literature, 8
nostalgia, 107, 296, 301
Not in Front of the Children: ”Indecency,” Censorship, and the Innocence of Youth (Heins), 15
novel of formation. See bildungsroman
nuclear war, 191
The Obscurity of the Poet (Jarrell), 61
Oedipal experience, 222–23
Oh, the Places You’ll Go! (Seuss), 189, 193
Oliver Twist (Dickens), 268
“Onawandah” (Alcott), 297
On Beyond Zebra (Seuss), 193, 201
One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish (Seuss), 191, 193, 202, 203 f, 204 f
On Heroes, Hero-worship, and the Heroic in History (Carlyle), 469
op de Beeck, Nathalie, 11, 24
Opper, Fred, 170
oral history, 373, 375–76
oral tradition, 115, 117, 121, 122, 125, 138, 243
Orbis Sensualium Pictus (Comenius), 10–11
Orientalism, 241
domestic, 257–58
Orientalism (Said), 257
original sin, 15
Ormond, Leonée, 475–76
orphaned children, 256, 260, 264, 334, 337–38, 340
other-directed society, 353, 356, 357
Riesman on, 356, 359
other/others
childhood as, 184
as feminine, 272n8
self v., 31
taxonomy of, 259
Oulton, Carolyn, 458
Outcault, Richard, 169–70
outsider, perspective of, 136
Paine, Albert Bigelow, 303
Pankejeff, Sergey. See Wolf Man
pantomimes
all-child, 477, 480
as inappropriate for children, 477
paraphrase
forms of, 66
inadequacy of, 65
parental anxiety, 150
Paris, Leslie, 12, 17, 29
Parker, Roy, 334
Parkman, Francis, 302
Parr, Joy, 333–34
participatory democracy, 26, 190, 205
Passing (Larsen), 302
Passionate Journey (Masereel), 123
pastoralism, 81–82, 119
paternal authority, 509
patience, benefits of, 383
patriarchy (patriarchal subject), 412–13
patriotic nationalism, 403
Payne Fund Studies, 149
Peanuts (Schulz), 12, 25, 167, 168, 169–70, 172 f, 173 f, 174 f, 175–77, 179–83
appeal of, 177–78
as about children v. children’s strip, 171–72
complete history of, 167
(p. 577) as cross-writing, 178, 184–85
early to mid-period years, 175
early years of, 172–74
humor of, 182–84
as innovation/groundbreaking, 168, 183–84
licensing of, 167
pedagogy, See also education, progressive education.
in New England Primer, 413
shared, 98–99
pedophilia, 46
peers, influence of, 359
Penguin, 8
performance, as transient, 478
Perl, Harold, 151
permissiveness See child rearing
personhood, boundaries of, 14
Peter Pan (Barrie), 30, 475, 476–82, 486–88
audience of, 483–84
children’s opinions of, 489
as cross-writing, 489–90
Darton on, 476
early productions of, 485
formal hybridity of, 481
origins of, 481
reenacted in homes, 485
Petersham, Maud, 118, 123
Petersham, Miska, 118, 123
phallocentric world, 45
Phillips, Lynn, 526
The Photoplay: A Psychological Study (Munsterberg), 149
Phronsie Pepper’s New Shoes (Sidney), 313, 325n14
pictorial narratives, 125
picture-book psychology, 213–14, 225
picture books, 11, 116–117. See also comics, graphic novel.
classic, 220
close reading of, 75
dreamwork in, 214, 220
Frog and Toad as, 75
sequential, 123
pictures
as mode of communication, 11
poetics and, 10–13
Pictures from an Institution (Jarrell), 60
The Pigtail of Ah Lee Ben Loo (Bennett), 119
“Pink Elephants on Parade,” 152–54, 153 f, 154 f
Pinkney, Brian, 131
Pinocchio (Disney), 151
pirates, 508–9
The Pirate Twins (Nicholson), 124
Plays for Young People (Barmby), 480
play therapy, 219
play-acting, 481,
plot of transformation, 331
Plotz, Judith, 56, 67n3, 272n5, 542
poet, plight of, 54
poetic(s)
notions of, 12
pictures and, 10–13
The Poetics of Childhood (Natov), 12
The Poetics of Children’s Literature (Shavit), 12
poetry/poetries
African American, 132
blues, 133–37
cross-writing in, 62, 142
emotional resonance of, 57
hostility towards, 65
Hughes and, 129, 130
interpretations of, 65
Jarrell on, 58, 60, 67n7
nonsense and/as, 206
raw/cooked, 56
Poetry’s Playground (Thomas, Joseph), 56
Pogrebin, Letty Cottin, 520
De Poix, Carol, 526
political jokes, 43
Polly Pepper’s Chicken Pie (Sidney), 313
Poor Law Acts, 268
the poor
conditions of, 262–63
plight of, 267
presentation of, 266, 271
view of, 260
Poppy Seed Cakes (Petersham, M. & M.), 118
popular culture, 59, 241
postcolonial theory, 29–30, 257–258, 271, 271n2, 405n6,
post-ethnic identity, 28
postethnicity, 365–67
Postman, Neil, 542
postmodern reception study, 294
Potter, David, 352
poverty
breeding v., 316
in Britain, nineteenth century, 257
as inspiration, 120
leaving behind, 390
politics of, 27
power, 46–49, 101–103, 191–92, 382–83
of children’s books, 36
colonization and, 257, 451
of domestic orientalism, 257
gendered, 85, 524–25
in Harlem Renaissance, 139
of Nazi party, 156
prejudice and, 381–83
publication as, 139
Power, Effie L., 130
powwow, 304–5, 307n11
preindustrial America, as permissive environment, 502
prejudice, power and, 381–82
Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act, 270
Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children (Zelizer), 16
(p. 578) Prime Baby (Yang), 231
primers, 72, 81, 86, 87, 88n2, See also New England Primer
The Prince and the Pauper (Twain), 284, 293, 481
The Princess and the Goblin (MacDonald, G.), 74
princess story, reframing, 529–30
printerly conventions, 446
printing
reading and, 413–14
as trope, 414
printmaking, 116
Printz Award, 231
privilege
distribution of, 400
of innocence, 31
Production Code, 149, 498–99
progressive education, 214, 226n2
protective impulse, in children’s literature criticism, 72–73
Protestant religious culture, 415
psychiatric language, in comics, 175
Psychological Care of Infant and Child (Watson, John), 156
psychological realism, 94, 96
moral ambiguity of, 99
puberty, 28, 352, 356
publication, as power, 139
public school. See British public schools
Pullman, Phillip, 17, 31, 105–7, 109n13, 539
on adult v. children’s writers, 551
education of, 539
Lewis and, 551–52
as storyteller, 552
style of, 551
punishment
images of, 510
in tomboy tradition, 510–11
Puritans, 15
fears of, 301
purity, 101, 478
racial, 302
“The Quadroons” (Child), 302
queerness, 225–26. See also homosexuality.
queer studies, 456
queer theory, 3, 30
children’s literature and, 223, 456
Quick Henry, the Flit! (Seuss), 189
Rabelais and His World (Bakhtin), 190
race, 13–14
as dualistic, 297
politics of, 301–2
portrayal of, 305–6
study of, 241
racial caste system, 101
racial essentialism, 240
racial identity, 13–14, 360, 365–67, 368n2
racial purity, boundaries of, 302
racial science, 14
racial stereotypes, 239–41, 243
racism, 134, 241–42, 335, 401, 505
depiction of, 161
discourse on, 391
power and, 381, 383
resistance to, 382
in Roughing It, 299
Taylor, M., on, 373
Twain and, 299–300
Ragged Dick (Alger), 315
Ragged London (Hollingshead), 262–63
Rahn, Suzanne, 372
Rainone, Nanette, 531
Ramona (Jackson), 306
Ransom, John Crowe, 53, 58, 67n5
Ratzinger, Cardinal Joseph, on Harry Potter series, 45
Reaching Out (Jiménez), 390
reader, 38–39, 42, 43. See also child reader
adult readers of children’s literature, 36–37, 40–41, 103, 105, 106
identity of, 40–41, 450
readership
flexibility of, 107, 296
implied, 39–40, 47–48, 80
reading. See also critical reading practices
adult v. child, 62
as cultural reproduction, 416–17
experience and, 41
Jarrell on, 62
instruction laws on 417, 428n9
printing and, 413–14
process of, 41
purpose of, 40–41
repetition and, 412
Sánchez-Eppler on, 414
as transmission of religious beliefs, 417, 420–422
value of, 60–61
rebel figures, 298
reception study, 294, See also audience, readers, readership, reading
Reed, John, on British public schools, 456–57
Reed, Talbot Baines, 457
Reid, Julia, 278
Reimer, Mavis, 13, 28
religious identity, 28, 355–56, 358–59, 361–64, 367
New England Primer and, 414
inculcation of, 269
search for, 365
religious symbolism, in Froggy’s Little Brother, 269
Religious Tract Society (RTS), 269
replication, theme of, 411
respectability, rhetoric of, 260
(p. 579) Revard, Carter, 299, 302
Reynolds, Kimberley, 13–14, 27
The Rhetoric of Fiction (Booth), 95
Richardson, Alan, 541–42
Riesman, David, 28, 352–53, 357, 361, 364
on children, 353, 359–60
on conformity, 353–54
on inner- v. other-directed, 356, 359
Ritterhouse, Jennifer Lynn, 134
The Road (McCarthy), 277
The Road to Memphis (Taylor, M.), 372
Robinson Crusoe
appreciation of, 445
formative appeal of, 435–36
manhood in, 446
publication of, 435
Seidel on, 446
setting of, 444
Robinson der Jungere (Campe), 435
Rodgers, Mary, 520
Rogers, Carl, 220
Rogers, John, 416, 419, 426
Roiphe, Katie, 38
Roller Skates (Sawyer), 498, 501–2
heroine of, 507
Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (Taylor, M.), 14, 371–72
romantic friendships, 459, 462, 469n2
dangers of, 464
Romanticism and the Vocation of Childhood (Plotz), 272n5
Rooke, Patricia, 336
Rosaldo, Renato, 301
The Rosary Comic Book (Yang), 231
Rose, Jacqueline, 3, 45, 476
Rosenberg, Teya, 10, 24
Ross, Diana, 520
Ross, Harold, 123
Roth, Rita, 191–92
Rotundo, E. Anthony, 296
Roughing It (Twain), racism in, 299
Rousseau, Jean-Jacque, 443
Rowlandson, Mary, 301, 421
Rowling, J.K., 93, 97–102, 105–8
on adult books, 103–4
criticism of, 95–96
literary influences of, 94
narrative style of, 95–97
Rubin, Jerry, 198
Rudd, David, 81
Rugby, Tennessee, 455–56
Rugby School, founding of, 457
Runton, Andy, 243
Sadker, David, 531
Sadker, Myra, 531
Said, Edward, 257
Salinger, J.D., 44
salvation, 262
spiritual, 467–69
same-sex crushes. See crush(es)
Sammond, Nicholas, 12, 25, 504
Sánchez-Eppler, Karen, 30
on children, 13–14
on reading, 414
Sandars, T.C., 468
satire, 94
of Twain, 296
savage, 449
Sawyer, Ruth, 498
scapegoat, function of, 303
scavenging, children’s writing and, 434–35
Schechner, Richard, on drama/script/theatre/performance, 478
Scheckel, Susan, on American Indians, 297
Schields, Gretchen, 240–41
schizophrenia, study of, 202
Schlesinger, Leon, 149–50
Schnell, R.L., 336
schoolboy/schoolgirl crush. See crush(es)
school knowledge, 243. See also education.
school story, 94, 97–100, 108n7, 457. See also Harry Potter series; Tom Brown’s Schooldays
boy book and, 294–95
homoeroticism in, 458–59
same-sex relations in, 459
Schroeder (character), 172–73
Schulz, Charles M., 25, 168–72, 181–84
childhood of, 173
on childhood, 176–77, 183
cross-writing of, 178, 184–85
fictive kids of, 174–75
formula of, 181–82
on innocence, 173–74
influence of, 179–181
work ethic of, 167
Schwartz, Ben, 173
Schwartz, Eugene, 220
Scofield, Sandra, 531
Scotland
dialects of, 277–78
division of, 287
Highland v. Lowland, 285–86
Seale, Bobby, 201
second-wave feminism, 529
children and, 522–23
on manhood, 531
second-wave feminist activism, 521
Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky, 85
on avunculate, 225
on homophobia, 87
on public schools, 458
on sexuality, 511
Seduction of the Innocent (Wertham), 124
The Seekers, 520
(p. 580) Segel, Elizabeth, 505
segregation, 135, 161–62, 373
Seidel, Michael, on Robinson Crusoe, 446
Selected Poems (Jarrell), 54
self-determination, 413
Self-Help (Smiles), 260
Selznick, Brian, 212
Sendak, Maurice, 26, 66n1, 74, 124, 211, 224–26
awards of, 211
childhood of, 211, 223
as child psychologist, 212
depression of, 223
dreamwork of, 214, 220
education of, 216
Freudian influence on, 219
illustrations by, 53, 57
on Jarrell, 54
on Seuss, 195
sexuality of, 211, 222–26
Tatar on, 225
training of, 215–16
sentimental identifications, 301–2
“separate but equal,” 160, 163n22
Serlin, David, 212
Serraillier, Ian, 276
Serrato, Phillip, 13, 29
Seth (Canadian cartoonist), 178–79
Seuss, Dr., 26, 74, 191, 193, 197, 205, 206
on children, 191, 200, 205–6
crucial period of, 193
education of, 189
Sendak on, 195
Spock and, 213
as subversive, 190, 197
The Seven Lady Godivas (Seuss), 195
The Seven-League Crutches (Jarrell), 54
Sewell, Anna, drawings by, 131
Sewell, Elizabeth, 196–97
sex, war and, 461
sex identity, Spock on, 532
sexism, persistence of, 534
sex roles, 521, 524, 531. See also tomboy
acceptance of, 505
models for, 525
studies of, 534
sexual friendship, dangers of, 464
Sexual Inversion (Ellis), 459–60
sexuality, 555
attitudes toward, 46
Butler on, 511
celebration of, 547–48
in children’s literature, 83–88, 477, 478, See also homosexuality
In Peter Pan, 487
discursive formations of, 456
in Frog and Toad Together, 83–88, 88n8
Halberstam on, 511
historians of, 458
of Lobel, 85–86
as problematic, 81
Sedgwick on, 511
of Sendak, 211, 222–26
sexual revolution, 193
sexual symbols, 46
Seymour—an Introduction (Salinger), 44
Shaddock, Jennifer, 222
Shadowed Lives: Undocumented Immigrants in American Society (Chavez), 395
Shannon, George, 82
sharecropping, 386n3
Sharpsteen, Ben, 147
Shavit, Zohar, 12
Shaw, Bernard, 488
Shaw, John F., 269–70
Sheng-mei Ma, 240–41
Shen of the Sea (Chrisman), 119
Shortsleeve, Kevin, 13, 26
Sidney, Margaret, 14, 28, 313–23
Signal, 7
The Sign on Rosie’s Door (Sendak), 215
The Silver Sword (Serraillier), 276
Skippy (Crosby), 171, 176
skulls, scientific study of, 299
slavery, 382, 426
as business, 384–85
in children’s literature, 139
defining liberty through, 297
politics of, 302
sharecropping and, 386n3
Smashing Time (Davis, D.), 38
Smiles, Samuel, 260
Smith, Georgina Castle. See Brenda
Smith, Henry Nash, 296
Smith, Katharine Capshaw, 12–13, 25
Smolderen, Thierry, 171
Snedeker, Caroline Dale, 498
The Sneeches (Seuss), 191, 193
Snow White (Disney), 151
social change/reform, 269, 504
in Are You There God? It’s Me, Margaret, 356
children/literature as vehicles for, 25
progress and, 141
social class, See class
social cohesion, 156
social order, 155–56
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK), 269
solitary reverie, reading and, 412
Sollors, Werner, 364, 366
on hardness, 361
on identity, 360–61
Song of the Trees (Taylor, M.), 371–72, 376
The Souls of Black Folk (Du Bois), 135
South and Central American Tales from Silver Lands (Finger), 118
The Soveraignty and Goodness of God, Together with the Faithfulness of His Promises Displayed; Being an Account of the Captivity (p. 581) and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson (Rowlandson), 301, 421
Speare, Elizabeth George, 498
Spencer, Herbert, 13
Spiegelman, Art, 181
spiritual salvation, crush and, 467–69
Spitz, Ellen Handler, on classic picture books, 220
Spock, Benjamin, 157
homosexuality and, 532
Seuss and, 213
on sex identity, 532
Spring of Prague, 193
Spufford, Francis, 9
Stalky and Co. (Kipling), 457, 465
Stanley, A.P., 468
Steedman, Carolyn, 16
Steig, William, 183
Steinem, Gloria, 520, 524
stereotypes, See also prejudice
of American Indians, 297
discomfort produced by, 239–41
ethnic, 26
gender, 520, 524
racial, 239–41, 243
Stevenson, Deborah, 7
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 27, 276–77, 279–87, 290
as educator, 278, 289
illness of, 275
political opinions of, 288–89
Still She Haunts Me (Roiphe), 38
Stone Book Quartet (Garner), 277
Stoneley, Peter, 316, 319–20, 323, 324n9
story, vitality of, 107
storytelling
as caring act, 48
importance of, 385
of Pullman, 552
traditional, 116
Stott, Andrew, 83
straight man role, 82, 84–85
Strange Case Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (Stevenson, R.), 275
Streatfeild, Noel, 109n8
street arab fiction, 256–67
conventions of/in, 266–67, 270
“good” death in, 268–69
lessons of, 262
writers of, 269
street arab novel, 27
street arabs, 256–57, 332, 335, 339–340
street children, 256–59, 262–68, 270
strip genre, 171
strip kid, 171, 177. See also comic-strip child
Strong-Boag, Veronica, 342
structures of feeling, 331
Struggling Upward (Alger), 315
Struthers, E.A., 334, 338
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), 190
Sturges, Philomen, 11–12
subjectivity, p. 412
subtextual discourse, 299
on American Indians, 303–4
in Frog and Toad Together, 85–87
The Subtle Knife (Pullman), 546, 553
subversion
of children’s theater, 487–88
of xenophobia, 393
Sundquist, Eric J., 298, 302
Superfudge (Blume), 351
Surrealism, 169
surrogate family, 320
survival narrative, 434
Swift and Carroll: A Psychoanalytical Study of Two Lives (Greenacre), 46
Swinnerton, James, 169
The Swiss Family Robinson, 30, 444 f
adaptations of, 437–38
colonizing stance of, 449
as domestic celebration, 451
as family endeavor, 436–37
gender norms in, 445
plot/form of, 437
preface to, 442
publication of, 434
as reference book, 443–44
setting of, 444
Sylvie and Bruno (Carroll), 36
Tales of a Fourth-Grade Nothing (Blume), 351
Tan, Amy, 240–41
Tang Monk Disciples Monkey King (Chen & Ma, W.), 235
Tatar, Maria, on Sendak, 225
Tate, Allen, 58, 68n7
Taylor, Charles, 105
Taylor, Henry, 56
Taylor, Mildred, 14, 377–84
on African America, 372
Black Student Alliance activity of, 374
career of, 385–86
civil rights movement and, 373–74
education of, 371
Ethiopia and, 374–75
Peace Corps service of, 374–75
publication of, 376
on racism, 373
teachers, influence of, 359
technology, absence of, 81
Tenniel, John, 39
Tent City, 396
Terriss, Ellaline, 487
Tezuka, Osamu, 168
Thacker, Deborah, 227n5
Their Eyes Were Watching God (Hurston), 131
Then Again Maybe I Won’t (Blume), 351
There’s a Wocket in My Pocket! (Seuss), 193
third force psychology, 220
Thomas, Donald, 38, 46
Thomas, Isaiah, 416
Thomas, James, 104
Thomas, Joseph, on The Bat Poet, 56, 58, 61
Thomas, Marlo, 519–22, 525, 528–34
career of, 523–24
impact of, 526–27
Thomas, Ronald R., 217
Thompson, Flora, 270
Thompson, Michael, on Where the Wild Things Are, 221–22
Thomson, Shawn, 445
Through the Looking-Glass (Carroll), 23, 35–36, 39–45
as bound by time, 48–49
as classic, 37–38
as love letter, 47
pedophilia and, 46
translations/representations of, 37–38
Till, Emmett, 379–80
murder of, 374
de Tocqueville, Alexis, 352
togetherness, idea of, 76, 79
A Token for Children: Being an Exact Account of the Conversion, Holy and Exemplary Lives and Joyful Deaths of Several Young Children (Janeway), 15
Tolkien, J.R.R., 277
tomboy tradition/phenomenon, 497, 500, 504, 506–7, 509
Abate on, 498, 503, 508, 514n9
“Cop-Out” genre and, 525
haircuts of, 513n6
as historical fiction, 501
MacLeod on, 501–2
new model of, 512
parameters of, 499
prevalence of, 505
punishment in, 510–11
Tom Brown at Oxford (Hughes, T.), 455
Tom Brown’s Schooldays (Hughes, T.), 16, 30, 97–99, 455–56, 458–60, 462–69
central narrative arc of, 457
crush dynamic in, 461
as model for boys’ school stories, 457
Tom Sawyer, Detective (Twain), 295
Tom Sawyer Abroad (Twain), 295
Töpffer, Rodolphe, 123
topoi, 321
Toronto Children’s Aid Society, 343–44
And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street (Seuss), 189, 193
Tracy, Steven, 137, 143
The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson (Twain), 293
Trail of Tears, 297
transnational mythology, 245
Travisano, Thomas, 58
Treasure Island (Stevenson, R.), 275, 282
tree motif, 227n8
Tribunella, Eric L., 16, 30
Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book (Kingston, M.), 234
Trites, Roberta Seelinger, 381
trope(s)
of American Indian burials, 302
of American Indians, 301
of children’s culture, 521
gender, 524
printing as, 414
The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle (Avi), 512, 515n20
The Trumpeter of Krakow (Kelly), 119
von Tschudi, Friedrich, 224
Tubman, Harriet, 138
Twain, Mark, 27, 284
on African Americans, 298
on American Indians, 297–307
bankruptcy of, 293
on childhood, 296–97
cross-writing by, 295
first novel of, 293–94
McNutt on, 300, 306n7
racism and, 299–300
satire of, 296
as supporter of children’s theater, 481
Two Years Ago (Kingsley), 468
undocumented immigrants, 391
status of, 403
The Upward Climb: A Course in Negro Achievement (Haskin), 141
upward climb, metaphor of, 141–42
Uses of Enchantment (Bettelheim), 225
Vallone, Lynne, 5, 43
Varty, Anne, 476
A Very Special House (Johnson, C.), 215
Vice Versa: A Lesson to Fathers (Anstey), 284
Vicinus, Martha, 460
Victoria Through the Looking Glass: The Life of Lewis Carroll (Lennon), 46
Vietnam War protests, 193, 206
visibility, gendered power and, 524–25
visual coherence, 122
visual imagery. See also comics, illustration. graphic novels, movies, picture books,
in children’s culture, 12
gender norms in, 525
and literature/language 124, 216
resonance of, 10–11
verbal incongruities with, 183
(p. 583) Vizenor, Gerald Robert, 234
Voices in the Park (Browne), 74
Voigt, Cynthia, 276
Voting Rights Act, 375
The Voyage of Doctor Doolittle (Lofting), 119
A Voyage to Patagonia (Hale, Charles), 446
Wall, Barbara, 48
Walrod, Amy, 11
Walsh, Jill Paton, on Frog and Toad stories, 73
Walt Disney Productions, 147, 162n2
feature films, 150
plot template of, 150–52
reputation of, 148, 150
Walter, Natasha, 107–8
war
Crofters’, 287–89
exigencies of, 156–57
nuclear, 191
sex and, 461
Vietnam, 193, 206
Ward, Lynd, 123
Ware, Chris, 179–80
Warner, Marina, 106
Warner, Michael, 423
Warner Brothers’ Looney Tunes & Merry Melodies, 149–50
Watergate scandal, 193
Watson, John B., 156
Watson, Julia, 392
Watson, Sally, 31, 498–500, 502–5, 507–12, 512n1
popularity of, 497
swashbuckling plots of, 506
on writing in a tradition, 501
Watson, Victor, 48
Watters, David H., 417
Watterson, Bill, 171
Webster, Noah, 423–24
Wee Willie Winkie’s World (Feininger), 169
Weikle-Mills, Courtney, 15, 29
Weinstein, Cindy, 322–23, 325n12
Welfare State, modern, 270
The Well: David’s Story (Taylor, M.), 372
The Well-Wrought Urn (Brooks), 65
Wenhai Ma, 235
Wertham, Fredric, 124
Westman, Karin E., 10, 24
“What Was I Scared Of?” (Seuss), 204–5
Wheatley, Phillis, 138
Where the Wild Things Are (Sendak), 26, 74, 211, 214–19, 224–26
Caldecott Medal of, 212
colonialist echoes of, 222
Nodelman on, 220
Oedipal experience in, 222–23
as psychological primer, 213
Thompson on, 221–22
Whistler, James Abbott McNeill, 116
White, Thomas, 419
Whitman, Walt, allusion to, 142
Whitney, Marian, 320–21
Wilder, Laura Ingalls, 131, 498
Willard, Nancy, 66
Williams, Garth, illustrations by, 53
Williams, Martin, 170
Williams, Raymond, 331, 339–40
“William’s Doll,” 530–33
Wind in the Willows (Grahame), 86
witchcraft, as abomination, 45
The Witch of Blackbird Pond (Speare), 498, 501–3, 514n16
heroine of, 507
Witch of the Glens (Watson, S.), 499
Wojik-Andrews, Ian, 12
Womack, Peter, 286
The Woman at the Washington Zoo (Jarrell), 54, 68n13
women, domestic role of, 525
Women on Words and Images, 524–25
The Wonderful Locomotive (Meigs), 123
wonderland, meaning of, 38
Wood, Naomi, 17, 31
Wood, Samuel, 424
Woodson, Carter G., 140
Words about Pictures (Nodelman), 11
The World of Alice (Batey), 43
worthy lives, 392–93
Wounded Knee massacre, 297
Wright, Terence, 465
writers, lives of, 44
children as, 438–42
Wyss, Johann David, 433, 436
Wyss, Johann Rudolf, 433, 436, 442
xenophobia, 333, 401
intensification/proliferation of, 391
subversion of, 393
Xeric Grant, 231
Xuanzang’s historical journey, 233–34
Yamate, Sandra S., 242
Yang, Gene Luen, 14, 26, 232–36, 239–46, 248n20
alias of, 231
Monkey King interest of, 237–38
The Year of Jubilo (Sawyer), 498, 502
friction in, 508
Yellow Kid, 169–70
Yep, Laurence, 242
Yertle the Turtle (Seuss), 191, 193, 195
Yippies, 198
Yonge, Charlotte Mary, 258
Yoo, David, 243
You Don’t Look 35, Charlie Brown! (Seth), 179
Young Adult literary realism, 383
(p. 584) Young Adult literature, 539
Asian American, 243–4
Of the 1970s, 533
“Youth” (Hughes, L.), 142–43
youth, crushes in, 456, 459–60
youth leadership, 141–42
Youth of Darkest England: Working-Class Children at the Heart of Victorian Empire (Boone), 14
Zangwill, Israel, 360–61
Zelizer, Viviana, 16, 339, 343–44
Zipes, Jack, 45, 108n2
Zolotow, Charlotte, 530–31