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date: 18 February 2020

Index

Index

(p. 731) This Index contains both subject and name entries. Arabic and Jewish names are indexed under the usual final element of their names (e.g. al-Baghdādī; Ibn Daud), except where a widely-used Latin name exists (e.g. Avicenna, Gersonides). Ancient Greek writers are indexed under their usual names in English; medieval Greek writers under their Christian names if they are known as ‘X of Y’ (e.g. George of Trebizond), but otherwise under their second names. Latin writers working before c. 1500 are indexed under their Christian names, but this criterion is applied flexibly, so that some earlier writers who are always known by their second names (e.g. Boccaccio, Ficino) or by a cognomen (e.g. Bonaventure) are indexed under them. Writers after 1500 are indexed under their second names.

Abbo of Fleury 184
‘Abd al-Jabbār 63
Abner of Burgos 141, 159
Abraham, Levi ben 151
absolute terms 398
abstraction 45, 85–88, 110, 167, 251–52, 348, 399
difference between abstract and concrete things 491–92
Abubacer: see Ibn Tufayl
Abū Bishr Mattā 67, 72, 84
Abū l-Hudhayl 60–63, 74
Abū Hurayra 540
Abū Ya‘qūb Yūsuf, Caliph 112
Academic School: see scepticism, Academic
accessibility relation (between possible worlds) 313
accidents 90, 118, 134, 171, 176–77, 181, 397, 426, 469, 507–8, 553, 713
in kalām (attributes) 64
inseparable 291–92
act and potency 480, 511–12, 515, 693–94
act(ion) 11, 72, 223, 252, 611
in accordance with nature 612
cognitive act 529
commanded acts (actus imperati) 571–72, 576–77, 580
elicited acts (actus eliciti) 571–72, 576–77
must themselves be willed? 576, 580
exterior and interior 597–99
intentional 570–71
mental acts 368, 373–74
are morally neutral? 593–94, 597–99
pure act 637
speech acts 294, 297
voluntary 570
Adam (husband of Eve) 48, 346, 573
Adam of Balsham (Parvipontanus) 170, 394
Adamitae / Parvipontani 170, 302–3, 394
Adam of Buckfield 207
Adam Wodeham 208, 213, 222, 224, 429
Adelard of Bath 185
Adhemar of St Ruf 185
Aeneas of Gaza 32
aesthetics 661–77
was there aesthetics in the Middle Ages? 12, 661–62, 671, 675–66
Hegelian paradigm of 66
aeviternity 535, 537
after-life 69
Agricola, Rudolph
De inventione rhetorica 226
Agrippa’s trilemma: see scepticism, Agrippa’s trilemma
al-Abharī 96
al-‘Āmirī
Kitāb al-fuṣūl 536
Alan of Lille 167, 185, 226
al-Andalusī, Ṣā‘id 130, 133
al-Ash‘arī 63–65, 68, 74, 143
al-Baghdādī, ‘Abd al-Laṭīf 95
al-Baghdādī, Abū l-Barakāt 95, 142–43, 540
Kitāb al-Mu‘tabar 142
Albalag, Isaac 152–53
Correction of Opinions 152–53, 156–57, 162
al-Balkhī, Abū l-Qāsim (al-Ka‘bī) 69
Alberic (of Paris) 170, 301, 394
Albricani/Montani 170, 394
Albert the Great 149, 200, 207, 210, 213, 222, 224–25, 227, 229, 346–47, 368, 388–90, 395, 534
Commentary on Prior Analytics 328
Commentary on pseudo-Dionysius 20
De causis et processu universitatis 535, 544
De quatuor coaequaevis 534
Tractatus de homine 201
Albertism 225
Albert of Saxony 221–22, 224, 230
Commentary on Physics 426, 477–78
Commentary on Sentences 222
Alberti, Leo Battista 675
(p. 732) Albornoz, Cardinal 233
Alcinous 18
Alcuin 168–69
Alexander of Aphrodisias 18–19, 24, 45, 121, 137–38, 150, 157, 195, 231, 319, 502, 513–14, 713
Alexander of Hales 200, 210
Commentary on Sentences 205, 207
Quaestiones disputatae antequam esset frater 202
Alexander Neckham 302
Alexandria 31–32
al-Fārābī 67–69, 74, 77, 86, 93, 107, 135, 141, 150, 152, 154, 229, 386
translated into Hebrew 149
translated into Latin 195
Attainment of Happiness 153
(Short) commentaries on Organon 122
Commentary on On Interpretation 68
Enumeration of the Sciences 67
The Principles of the Opinions of the Inhabitants of the Perfect City 68–69
Alfonso X, King 233
Alfonso Vargas of Toledo 233
al-Ghazālī 64, 74, 94–95, 106–7, 114–15, 117, 134, 139, 141, 540–41
translated into Latin 195
Deliverance from Error 95
translated into Hebrew 149
Incoherence of the Philosophers 65, 95, 107
commentary on 159 (Moses Narboni)
commentary on and translation into Hebrew (Albalag) 152
Intentions of the Philosophers 95, 156–57, 162, 274
The Pinnacle in Explaining the Meaning of God’s Beautiful Names 540
al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī 63
Alhazen 671
al-Jubbā’ ī, Abū Hāshim ibn 63
al-Īlāqī 96
al-Isfarā’īnī 537
al-Jurjānī
Book of Definitions 535
al-Juwaynī
Book of Guidance 537
al-Jūzjānī 96
al-Ka‘bī: see Abū l-Qāsim al-Balkhī
al-Kātibī 96
al-Kindī, 58, 65–67, 72, 74, 77, 84
circle of 132–34
translated into Latin 195
On First Philosophy 65–67, 73
On the Prostration of the Outermost Sphere 66
al-Lawkarī 96
Almain, Jacques, 246–47
al-Ma’mūn, Caliph 58, 62, 64
al-Ma‘ṣūmī 96
al-Maturīdī 75
Almohads 106–7, 112, 115–16
and the Jews 135
al-Muqammiṣ, Dāwūd 142
al-Naẓẓām 60–61, 63
al-Qirkisānī 144
al-Rāzī, Abū Bakr 59, 69–70, 531
al-Rāzī, Abū Ḥātim 69
al-Rāzī, Fakhr al-Dīn 69, 96, 143
Abridgement of Philosophy 94–95
al-Sīrāfī 67
Alsted, Johann 246
al- Suhrawardī 95–96, 143
al-Tabrizi 139
al-Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-Dīn 143
America: see New World
Ammonius 20, 32, 39, 44, 229, 387–88
Commentary on On Interpretation (Latin translation of) 318
analogy 136, 211, 230
of being 409–13
Anatoli, Jacob 150
Anderson, Alan 304
angels 20, 498, 508, 538
angelic language 368
Anonymus Barrocianus 33
Anonymus Heiberg 33
Anonymus Dorvillensis Categories commentary 454
Anscombe, G.E.M. 622, 626–28
‘Modern Moral Philosophy’ 605, 625
Anselm of Canterbury 11–12, 169, 173, 181, 247, 525, 534, 577, 596
De conceptu virginali et de originali peccato 592
De concordia 529
De grammatico 178
De veritate 573, 590–91
Epistola de incarnatione Verbi 175, 726
De processione Spiritus Sancti 175
Monologion 182, 368
Proslogion 182, 368, 690–93, 701
Anselm of Laon 169, 592
Anzulewicz, Henryk 532
apperception, unity of 142
appellation (appellatio) 178, 345
Apuleius
De dogmate Platonis 21
Periermenias 168
Aquinas, see Thomas Aquinas
Archimedes 195
argumentation, theory of 271–72
Argyropoulos, John 227, 247
Aristotle 10, 18, 24, 26, 32, 45, 47–48, 64, 66–67, 70, 72, 112, 137–39, 150, 152, 171–72, 187, 196–98, 204, 207, 209, 211, 222, 224, 227, 230, 249, 272, 294, 296, 322, 325, 379, 385–87, 392, 396, 414, 468–69, 472, 480–81, 487–88, 510, 525, 530, 534, 548–49, 570, 605–6, 608–12, 622–23, 625–27, 629–30, 632, 635, 671, 707, 713, 716, 729
(p. 733) ‘Arabic Aristotle’ 135, 140
Aristotelian essentialism 294, 725
commentaries on 204, 296
by Averroes 150–51, 162
John Buridan 214
John of Glogovia 225
Agostino Nifo 231
John Versor 225
Peter Tartaret 249
followers of: see Peripatetics
Giunta edition of 1550–52: 230
harmony with thought of Plato 19, 24
logic 19–20, 24, 31–33, 66, 73, 168, 181, 197, 227, 271, 276, 278–81, 315
commentaries on 35, 388
by al-Fārābī 122
metaphysics 560–62, 636
moral theory 622
natural philosophy 109, 150, 183, 486
teaching of it prohibited in Paris Arts Faculty 198
Aristotelian science 140, 150–51, 183, 212, 392, 725
translation of 167, 193–95, 222, 227, 247
Individual works: -
Categories 19–20, 22, 24, 31, 33, 34, 37, 39–41, 43–44, 166, 168, 171–72, 174–75, 177–78, 271, 291–92, 316, 388, 468–69, 635
commentaries on, by Ammonius 39
Anonymus Dorvillensis 454
Boethius 24
Iamblichus 531
Simplicius 40, 44
Walter Burley 425
translated into German 184 (see also Categoriae Decem)
Metaphysics 9, 88, 117–18, 155, 158–60, 272, 319, 387, 456, 469, 515, 576, 679
commentaries on, by Antonius Andreas 248
Averroes 117–20, 157
Dominic of Flanders 248
Iavelli 248
John Buridan 248
John Duns Scotus 204, 325
by George Pachymeres 35
Soncinas 248
Themistius (paraphrase) 158
Thomas Aquinas 119, 325, 679
Meteorology 154
commentary on, by Ibn Bājja 122
Nicomachean Ethics 227, 605–6, 608–12, 634–67
commentaries on, by Eustratios 34, 42, 388
Michael of Ephesus 42
Pachymeres 34
Thomas Aquinas 611, 679
On Generation and Corruption
commentaries on, by Ibn Bājja 122
John Buridan 456–58
On the Heavens 49, 316–19, 536
commentaries on, by John of Jandun 322
Peter of Auvergne 204
Simplicius 688
Thomas Aquinas 320
On Interpretation 33, 37, 159, 166, 168, 275–76, 294, 316–17, 344, 364–66, 388
commentaries on, by al-Fārābī 68
Ammonnius 318
Boethius 24, 317
John Duns Scotus 427
Michael Psellos 33
Thomas Aquinas 318, 407
Walter Burleigh 427
Wiliam of Ockham 373–74
translated into German 184
On Memory
commentaries on, by John Buridan 204
Peter of Auvergne 204
On the Soul 10, 85–88, 98, 110–11, 222, 231–32, 357, 368, 487, 492, 498–99, 508, 510–11, 532, 636
commentaries on, by Averroes 117, 119
Biagio of Parma 231
Giles of Rome 149
Ibn Bājja 122
John Duns Scotus 204
John Philoponus/Sophonias 35
Siger of Brabant 204
Thomas Aquinas 149
Parva naturalia
commentaries on, by John of Jandun 204
Michael of Ephesus 34
Metochites 36
Physics 49, 159, 272–73, 321, 479, 719
commentaries on, by Albert of Saxony 426
Averroes 155, 320
John Buridan 328, 458
Giles of Rome 149
John of Jandun 321
Metochites 36
Nicole Oresme 426
Pachymeres 35
Psellos 33
Robert Grosseteste 149
Philoponus, 319
Siger of Brabant (attrib.) 446
Simplicius 319, 688
Thomas Aquinas 156, 321, 470, 670
Poetics 271
Politics 227
commentary on, by Michael of Ephesus 34
Posterior Analytics 89, 100, 117, 169, 250, 277–78, 312, 387
(p. 734) commentaries on, 549
by Eustratios 42
John Buridan 548
Prodromos 34
Robert Grosseteste 207
Prior Analytics 33, 124, 168, 273, 280, 290–91, 293, 296, 317, 329–31
commentaries on, 328
by Albert the Great 328
Psellos 33
Richard of Campsall 330
Robert Kilwardby 272–75, 277–78, 328–30
Rhetoric 271
commentary on, by Stephanus(?) 34
Sophistical Refutations 33, 168, 271 367, 421, 447
commentary on, by Michael of Ephesus 34
Theology of Aristotle (extracts from Plotinus): see Theology of Aristotle
Topics 27, 168, 226, 271, 319
commentaries on, by Boethius (lost) 27
Boethius of Dacia 204
Radulphus Brito 456
Auctoritates Aristotelis 196
pseudo-Aristotle, On Plants 35
pseudo-Aristotle, Economics 227
Aristotle to Descartes, the jump from 5
Aristotelianism 386, 389, 547
Armstrong, David 393, 430–31, 435, 449, 554–55
Nominalism and Realism 715–16
Arnauld, Nicole
Correspondence with Leibniz 481–82
Ars Burana 428
Ars Meliduna 345, 428
artefacts 172, 451, 454–55, 460–61, 470, 491
arts
‘fine arts’ 661
intersection of concept of ars with that of beauty 667, 671
(seven) liberal 168–70, 183, 671, 674
transhistorical essence of art 661–62, 676
assertion 375
atomism 64–65, 70, 223, 250, 470, 474, 479–81
Augustine 4, 11–12, 21–23, 25, 168, 227, 253, 321–22, 344, 365, 404, 510, 514–15, 517, 525, 534, 570, 574, 577, 588, 596, 610, 662, 706
Confessiones 21–22, 534, 541
Contra Academicos 21, 548, 559
Contra Julianum 588–90
De civitate Dei 22–23, 322, 536–37
De cura pro mortuis gerenda 507
De doctrina christiana 346
De Genesi ad litteram 21, 183, 507
De immortalitate animae 506
De libero arbitrio 22
De moribus ecclesiae catholicae 506–7
De quantitate animae 507
De Trinitate 21–22, 24, 35, 169, 364, 507, 521, 528–29, 669, 708, 727
Augustinian Hermits 200
autonomy 570, 585
Avempace: see Ibn Bājja
Averroes 7, 9, 106–8, 112, 116–22, 136–37, 140, 150, 157, 161–62, 196, 227–30, 247, 321, 327–29, 331, 386–87, 392, 404, 502, 513, 538, 671
chronology of his works 123, 125
Giunta edition of 1550–52: 230
influence of al-Fārābī on 69
translated into Hebrew 148–51, 162
translated into Latin 150, 195
paraphrase commentary (talkhīs) on Aristotle 112
Colliget 112
Commentary (Middle) on Porphyry’s Isagoge 150
Commentary (Long) on Metaphysics 117–20, 124, 157–58
Commentary (Short) on On the Soul 121
Commentary (Middle: talkhīs) on On the Soul 121
Commentary (Long) on On the Soul 110, 117, 121–22, 231–32, 474
Commentaries on Physics 320
Commentary (Middle) on Physics
Gersonides super-commentary on 155
Commentary (quaesita) on Prior Analytics 320
Decisive Treatise 68
Epistle on the Possibility of Conjunction 121
Epistle on Conjunction with the Agent Intellect 121
The Incoherence of the Incoherence 117, 544
Commentary on 231 (Agostino Nifo)
Questions in Physics 538–39, 543–44
Averroism 212–13
Avicebron: see Ibn Gabirol
Avicenna 9, 83–96, 114–15, 134–36, 141–42, 150, 157, 160, 207, 229, 308, 321, 368, 386–87, 392, 404, 502, 510, 535, 537, 541, 671
as a logician 97
metaphysics 120
natural philosophy of 97
relationship to kalām 74
al-Ma‘ad 142
Book of the Healing/Cure (Kitāb al-Shifā’) 84, 90–91, 94, 115, 155, 388
translated into Latin 195
Book of Science forAlā’ al-Dawla 95
Pointers and Reminders 84, 115
(p. 735) Ayala, Martín Pérez de 234
Ayers, Michael 635
de Azpilcueta, Martín
Enchiridion 251
Baghdad 63, 84, 142
Bahmanyār 96
Báñez, Domingo 253
Bar Hebraeus 13
barbarians 655–58
Barbaro, Ermolao 229
Barcan formula 314
Bar Ḥiyya 148–49
Barlaam of Calabria 36, 43
Basil of Caesarea
Against Eunomius 726
Basra 63
Bayart, Arnould 313
Baumgarten, Alexander 661
beatific vision 576
beauty 12, 661, 667–71, 676
definition of 668
Beckett, Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury 646
being 9, 403–16
absolute being (al-mawjūd al-muṭlaq/ on haplōs) 117–18
being qua being 9, 469
esse of components of a human being 518–89
esse obiectivum 255
essence 83, 90–91, 93, 166, 181, 469, 550, 552–53, 635
Abelard’s understanding of essentia 448
of a composite 519–20
First Essence 134
primacy of essence 95
indifference of 388–89
essence-existence distinction 90–92, 95–96, 412, 638
existence 83, 89–91
mental and physical 91–92, 692
‘not a predicate’ 403
per se, conditions for 509
primacy of existence 95
(an) existent (al-mawjūd) 88–90
in most general sense 88
only the life of the intellect is properly 530
maximally excellent 699
mental 118–19
pure being (being itself: mawjūd bi-l-dhāt) 536
quiddity 83, 110
univocity of 211–12
various meanings of 406, 408
belief
beliefs are involuntary 161
believers and non-believers 645
Belnap, Nuel 304
Ben Ali, Samuel 142–43
Ben Ḥofni, Samuel 142
Bentham, Jeremy 628, 640
Berengar of Tours 181
Rescriptum contra Lanfrannum 177
Bergmann, Julius 433
Bermúdez, José 378
Bernard of Chartres
Commentary on Plato Timaeus (attributed to) 167–68, 185
Bernard of Clairvaux 170, 247
Bernard Silvestris 185
Bertold of Moosburg 399
Bessarion, Cardinal 37
Biagio Pelacani (Blasius) of Parma 230, 235, 502
Commentary on On the Soul 231
Bible 22, 33, 71, 138, 152–54, 157, 159–60, 162, 183, 198, 204, 230, 246, 354–55, 528, 533, 675
university lectures/commentaries on 205
bi-lā kayf (‘without 〈saying〉 how’) 64
blame 578, 584
Blemmydes, Nikephoras 35, 48–49
Boccaccio, Giovanni 227
Decameron 13
body
resurrection of the 95, 142, 497, 505, 507
figurative interpretations of 139
and soul 10, 472, 486–501, 505–20, 594
Boethius 4, 8, 12, 23–26, 204, 300–301, 387, 392, 525, 532–34
as translator 24, 167, 194, 290, 387
translations of 35, 168, 184
‘modern Boethius’ 532
commentaries on logic 168, 197, 291
logical textbooks 24, 168, 197
Commentary on Categories 24
Commentary (1st) on Isagoge 23–24
Commentary (2nd) on Isagoge 24, 167, 186, 291–92, 387
Commentary (1st) on On Interpretation 24, 317–18
Commentary (2nd) on On Interpretation 24, 317–18, 344, 348, 364, 368
Commentary on Cicero’s Topics 292
De arithmetica 23
De consolatione philosophiae 23, 25–26, 182, 526–28, 530, 532
commentaries on 185 (William of Conches); 222 (Peter of Ailly)
De musica 23
De syllogismo categorico 291
De syllogismis hypotheticis 35, 291, 295–96, 303
De topicis differentiis 35, 291–93
Opuscula sacra 23–25, 168–69, 174, 181, 292, 448, 526, 530, 536, 717
commentaries on 176–77 (Gilbert of Poitiers); 542 (Thierry of Chartres, attributed to)
(p. 736) Boethius of Dacia 152, 198, 212
Commentary on Topics 204
Bolzano, Bernard 246, 289, 435
Bonaventure 201, 208–10, 213, 247
Boniface VIII, Pope 646
books, production of 199
Book of Causes: see Liber de causis
Book on the Pure Good 27, 76, 132–33
Bourdieu, Pierre 676
Bracciolini, Poggio 227–28
Bradley, F. H. 439
Bradley’s Regress 435
Brentano, Franz 432
Brower, Jeffrey and Michael C. Rea
‘Material Constitution and the Trinity’ 707, 711–12, 718
Bruno, Giordano 662
Bukhara 84
Burgundio of Pisa 167
Burke, Edmund 651
Busembaum, Hermann
Medulla 248
Cajetan, Cardinal (Thomas de Vio) 230, 232
Commentary on Aquinas, Summa Theologiae 234
Calcidius
Commentary on Timaeus 21, 183, 534
Calov, Abraham 251
Campbell, Keith 390
Cantor, Georg 246, 689
Capabilities Approach 630–32
Capreolus: see John Capreolus
Carmelites 200
Carnap, Rudolf 313
Carruthers, Peter 378
Cassiodorus
Institutiones 168
Cassmann, Otto 251
casuistry 252
Categoriae decem 168
categories 252
categorical ontology 166–67
eleventh category (predicamentum enuntiabilium) 428
reduced to substance and quality 212
ten categories 24, 72, 166
division into rejected 228 see also: God, and the Aristotelian categories
cathedral schools 169
Caubraith, Robert
Quadrupertitum 226
cause 26
efficient 114, 156, 318, 577, 580–81, 699, 723
everything has a 37
exemplary causality 388–89
of existence 133
First Cause, the 113 see also: God
final 25, 37, 114, 628, 640, 699
first causes and principles 88–89
formal 571–72, 636, 668
free 577
material 156
mental causation 508
necessary 577, 581
occasionalist theories of causation 540
pre-eminent 699
Procession of Son and Holy Spirit as causal or not 723–25
causal reality is limited to natural reality 697
causal theory of reference: see reference, causal theory of
censorship 250
Chakrabati, Arindam 385
Chalcedonian Creed 532
Chaldaean Oracles 229
change
accidental: 488
Chappell, Vere 479
charity: see love
Charlemagne 169
Charles the Bald 169
Chartres 169
School of 170, 185–86
chimera 325
Choumnos, Nikephoras 36, 42, 46–49
Christ, Jesus: see Trinity, the Son
Chrysoloras, Manuel 227
Church
relationship between Eastern and Western 35
227, 18, 21, 589, 652, 655–56
Academica 548, 559
De inventione 21, 657
De legibus 656–57
De natura deorum 657
De officiis 654–55, 658–59
Disputationes Tusculanae 657
Somnium Scipionis 35
Topica 21, 292–93
citizenship 644
Clauberg, Johannes 254
Cleomedes 48
clerical status 198
cognition 547–62, 668
abstractive 212
intuitive 212
transparency thesis 550
and the Trinity 706
collationes 202–3
Cologne, Dominican studium at 200
commentary, as a genre 167
types of 204
(p. 737) complexe significabilia: see semantics, of sentences
composition and division 86, 553–54
compound and divided senses 330 see also: intellect, three operations of
concepts 366–74, 377–78
as signa naturalia 367
conceptualization (taṣawwur) 91
condemnations, ecclesiastical 198
Oxford condemnation of 1277: 273
Paris condemnation of 1270: 198
Paris condemnation of 1277: 198, 209, 458, 493
of unicity of substantial form 473
Vienne 1312 of view that intellective soul is not form of body 493, 499
conditional propositions 290–91, 298–99, 303–4
confession manuals 252
Conimbricenses
Manual of logic translated into Chinese 249
connotative terms 398
conscience
universal: see synderesis
consent 593–96
consequentiae 8, 271, 278, 281–82, 291, 304–6
consequentialist ethics 11, 605–7, 618, 625, 628
Constantinople 32, 50
Fall of (1453) 7, 37–38, 221, 226
contempt for God (contemptus) 592–93, 596
Copernicus, Nicholas 225
copula 406–11
Corcoran, John 276
corpuscularian theories 10, 478–79
Correia, Fabrice 640
Councils (Church)
Constance (1414–18) 221
Fifth Lateran (1512–17) 232
Rheims (1148) 185
Sens (1140) 596
Vienne (1312) 493
counterfactuals: see modality, counterfactuals
courage 595
Courcelle, Pierre 27
Covell, Charles 639
Craig, William Lane 529, 532, 539, 687–88, 690
Cranston, David 226
creation 66, 72, 90, 92, 132
continuous 64
of the world from eternal matter 154–55
naturalistic interpretation of 154
ex nihilo 134, 670
of the world in relation to time: see eternity, of the world
Crescas, Ḥasdai 141
Light of the Lord 160–61
crimes against humanity 624
Crockaert, Pierre 226, 234
crucifixion 473, 665
Cursus philosophicus, the rise of the 248
damnation 540
Dante Alighieri 227, 662
Commedia divina 13
Convivio 13
Danto, Arthur C. 674–75
David (Alexandrian logician) 20, 32
Davies, Brian 638
An Introduction to Philosophy of Religion 696
Davidson, Donald 376
Davidson, Herbert 688
De Bruyne, Edgar 661
Decalogue: see Ten Commandments
de dicto/ de re distinction 314, 323, 328–29, 636
deduction, theory of 276, 278
deeds, do not affect moral value 180
definite descriptions 331
definition
nominal 375
Delmedigo, Elijah 229, 238
demons 549–55
demonstration 67, 69, 89, 117, 136, 138, 152–53, 275, 513
De Morgan, Augustus 246
denominatives: see paronyms
deontological ethics 11, 605–7, 618, 622, 644
Descartes, René 11, 246–47, 250, 385, 487, 501, 505, 547, 552, 561, 627, 636
Meditationes de prima philosophia 479, 555
Principia philosophiae 479 see also: dualism, Cartesian
designators, rigid 332
De Soto, Domingo 226, 234
De iustitia et iure 234
Summulae (Commentary on Peter of Spain) 234, 247
determinism 37–78, 68, 156–57, 159–61, 231
astral 156–57, 163, 230
causal 141, 159, 160–61, 585
de virtute sermonis 344–45
Diderot, Denis 251
Dietrich of Freiburg 210, 399
difference and identity 12, 397, 445–62, 707, 715–16
difference in essence 448–49
difference in number 448–49
difference in property 709–10
identity over time 475–77, 483, 488
Indiscernibility of Identicals 73, 397, 711, 720, 726
numerical identity 456–57, 475–77, 482, 716 see also: mereology; sameness
differentiae 172–73
dignity 575
of human beings 229, 237, 631–32, 644
Diogenes Laertius
Lives 228
(p. 738) Dionysius the Areopagite: see pseudo-Dionysius
dispositions 624, 628, 631, 636, 640
disputations 197, 202–3
quodlibetal 202–3
divine command theory of ethics 60, 62, 64
Dominic of Flanders 248
Dominic Guzmán 199
Dominicans 192, 199–201, 209, 247
Aquinas used as point of departure 208–10
dominion (dominium) 212, 646–49, 651, 653
Donatus 204
Douglas, Gavin 226
dualism 494–97
Cartesian 493, 505, 508, 520
Platonic 10, 493, 505
rejected 506–10
Dungal 665
Durandus of St Pourçain 210, 234, 247
duration 527, 533–35
Dutilh Novaes, Catarina 276, 278, 281, 354
Du Trieu, Philippe
Manuductio 248
Dutton, Paul E. 167
duty, to act for public benefit 654
Dworkin, Ronald 633–34, 636
Law’s Empire 633
‘“Natural” Law Revisited’633
Taking Rights Seriously 633
Eckhart 13, 210, 226, 399
Eco, Umberto 661, 667
elements 481, 488, 506
Elias (Alexandrian logician) 20, 32
Élie, Hubert 433
emanation 87, 93, 99, 101, 132, 134, 137, 389
emotion 571, 584
theories of 14
emotivism 625
Encyclopaedia of the Sincere Brethren of Piety 133
entailment 223, 298–99, 303
imperfect and perfect 276, 299–300, 303–4, 306
d’Entrèves, Alessandro Passerin 624–25, 630, 637–39
enuntiabilia 408–11, 428
Epictetus
Enchiridion 228
Epicureanism 18, 21, 228
as label for nominalists 222
epistemology 11, 110–11, 547–62
epistemological optimism 548
equality 645, 656–57
Erasmus, Desiderius 226
Etchemendy, John 278
eternity 10, 154–55, 525–42
Boethian conception (our past is present to God) 182
as causal primacy 536–37
as changeless enduring 540
eternal creation 537
extended (everlastingness, sempiternity) 48–49, 525–27, 535, 538–42
double-endedly infinite 535–36
‘five eternals’ 69
God’s 66, 525
and levels of reality 536
of the Qur’ān 62
as the point at the centre of a circle 530
timeless 525–27, 532–33, 542
‘the unending and perfect possession of interminable life’ 526, 532
of the world (or not) 32, 37, 49, 66, 95, 134–35, 137–39, 153–56, 538–41, 690
Étienne Tempier, Bishop 198
ethics, status of 252–53
Eucharist 169, 177, 181, 250, 508
Euclid 33
Eudemian procedure: see thought experiments
Eunomus 31
Eustratios 33, 42, 45, 388
events 255
Everard of Ypres 185
evidence, self-evidence 142, 632
self-evident principles/statements 20, 142, 293, 496, 530, 598, 629
evil 19, 22, 60, 63–64, 69, 158, 658
can God do evil? 61, 68, 75
is a deficiency 179, 592
God is not responsible for 179
moral and non-moral 180
existence: see being, existence
externalism (about how words acquire meaning): see semantics of words, externalism
Fabri, Honoré 252
facts 423, 425
faculties
of arts 197–98, 212
Arts Masters in Paris 198
of law 197
of medicine 197
of theology 197
faith, different faiths 226
Falaquera, Shem Ṭov b. Joseph 144, 151, 153–54
Moreh ha-Moreh (Commentary on Maimonides’s Guide) 154
Fall 573
feudal system 643
Ficino, Marsilio 7, 228–29, 231, 235, 662
Commentary on Symposium 228
Theologia Platonica 228
Finnis, John 628–32, 636
Fundamentals of Ethics 629
Natural Law and Natural Rights 628, 639
(p. 739) Flasch, Kurt 235
flourishing 637
Fodor, Jerry 364, 371, 376–78
Fontaine, Resianne 151
Foot, Philippa 626, 628
form 44, 47–48, 110, 155, 710, 715
accidental 451, 475, 487, 492, 501
of body 518
and content 272, 275–80
educed from minimal matter 478
all forms extended except intellectual soul, angels and God 475
First Form 132
formal distinction 211, 396–97, 502, 720–22
and see: formalities
Giver of Forms (i.e. Agent Intellect) 93
hierarchy among 471
individualized 406–7
material 110
particular and universal forms 86–88
as soul of spheres 93
separate 110, 154
substantial: see substantial form
twelfth-century meaning of 174 see also logic: logical form
Forms, Platonic: see universals, Platonic Ideas
form and matter 10, 113, 118, 132, 134, 272–75, 279–80, 475, 481, 487, 515–20, 572
universal hylomorphism 134, 196
hylomorphic account of material substances 469–74, 624 see also: matter
formalities 720, 722
formalizantes 222, 395
foundationalism 623
ontological 624–28, 632, 635, 639
Fraenkel, Carlos 154
Frances Eiximenis 233
El Regiment de la cosa pública 238
Francis of Assisi 199
Francis of Marchia 201, 214, 247
Francis of Meyronnes 212, 214
Francis de Prato 395
Franciscans 192, 199–201, 233, 247
Spiritual Franciscans 201, 649–51
theological views 210–12
use of John Duns Scotus 208
Spiritual Franciscans 201, 649–51
Fredegisus of Tours 166
De substantia nihili et tenebrarum 183
freedom 11, 223, 230, 569, 589
as a metaphysical power 11, 569–70, 572, 583–85
as a multi-way power 11, 572–74, 581
dependent on reason 573–74
to do otherwise 26, 575, 583
theory of in relation to theory of purposiveness 572
Frege, Gottlob 289, 374, 403, 406, 414, 431, 435
‘Frege point’ (force-content distinction) 294, 297
Freudenthal, Gad 154
Fulbert of Chartres 169
Fuller, Lon 624–25, 630, 637, 640
Furtado, Francisco 249
Galen 70, 195, 319
Garber, Dan 13
Garlandus of Besançon
Dialectica 185, 296
Gassendi, Pierre 481, 561
Gaunilo of Marmoutiers,
Responsio pro insipiente 691–92
Gauthier, René-Antoine 628
Geach, Peter 294, 406, 414
genera: see universals
generation and corruption 469, 478, 488–89
Geoffrey of Aspall 207
George, Robert 629–30
Making Men Moral 629, 634
George of Trebizond 37, 227
Gerard of Abbeville 201, 203, 209
Gerard of Bologna 200
Gerard of Cremona 167, 194–95
Gerard Odo 214
Gerbert of Aurillac (Pope Sylvester) 169, 184
Gersonides 136–37, 141, 151
Wars of the Lord 155–59, 162
Ghiberti, Lorenzo
Third Commentary 671
Gilbert of Poitiers 394
Porretans 185, 302, 394
Commentary on Boethius Opuscula sacra 176–77, 323–24
Giles of Rome 149, 200, 209, 224, 247, 647
Gilson, Étienne 628
Glosulae in Priscianum 391
Goclenius, Rudolf 251
God 90–93
absolute power of: see omnipotence, of God
acts of necessity 93
anthropomorphism with regard to 62
and the Aristotelian categories 181
attributes of 61–62, 65, 71–72, 74, 94, 181–82, 540
essential and whether they can be predicated of 135–36, 143
co-eternal with God 537
without beginning or end 535
as (pure) being 536
as creator 132, 657
commands of 598
could cause a cognitive act indistinguishable from a natural one 556
not a deceiver 555, 559
essence of 43, 65, 71, 73, 94, 716–17
his essence is his existence 92
considered as like matter 708
(p. 740) like a universal 717
eternity of: see eternity
existence of, 152, 181–82
existence said of God only equivocally 136
known by reason 115
immutability of 539–40
ineffability of: see negative theology
final cause only 37
foreknowledge of: see: omniscience, of God
freedom (or lack of) of 65, 132, 137–39, 321, 326, 573
and human language 24–25, 353
Ideas in the mind of 18, 388–89, 395, 623
immutability of 159, 533
intellect of 26, 326
his knowledge: see omniscience, of God
(human) knowledge of God 663
known to all peoples of the earth 657
living 528
and natural law 637–39
Necessary Existent, see modality, Necessary Existent
power of, see: omnipotence, of God
predestination by, see predestination
principle of God’s necessary perfection 182
providence of, see predestination
simplicity of 65, 533, 539, 706, 710
source of existence 638
speech of: see Qur’ān
subject of metaphysics? 88–89
unity of, 61–63, 64–65, 71, 73
will of, 63, 134–35, 137–39, 223, 326, 610
Word of 529; see also: Christ see also: beatific vision
Godfrey of Fontaines 200, 203, 651
Quodlibeta 517–18
Godfrey of St Victor
Fons Philosophiae 393–94
Golding, Martin 631, 637, 639
good(s) 594, 629
beauty and 668–69
final 611, 617, 639
freedom as an aspect of our grasp of the 575
human 632
thin and thick theories of 634
humans capable of discriminating it from evil 60
of society 111
supreme 25, 111
and will of God 326
because willed by God, or not 252
Gothic Cathedral, the Idea of the 663
Gottschalk of Orbais 179
Goudin, Antoine 248
grace 179
compatible with power to do otherwise 575
grammar
as an indigenous Arabic discipline 67
speculative 212, 368
Great Schism, The 221
Greek texts, read in Latin world 221, 227, 230
Gregory the Great, Pope 529
Gregory VII, Pope 646
Gregory Nikephoros 36
Gregory of Nazianzus 33, 39, 41, 48–49
Oration 726
Gregory of Nyssa 169
To Ablabius 727
Gregory of Rimini 200, 208, 213, 224, 247, 253, 365, 374–77, 433–34, 538–39
Commentary on Sentences 214, 429
Grisez, Germain 628–29
‘The First Principle of Practical Reason’ 629
Grotius, Hugo 631–32
guilds 196–97
Guillaume de Saint-Amour 247
Gundisalvi, Dominicus
Liber de anima 149
Gutas, Dimitri 84, 115, 131, 136
Ḥabillo, Eli 149
haecceities 714
Halawi, Moses ben Joseph 140–41
Haldane, John 624, 626, 629, 636
Halevi, Judah
Kuzari 138–39
Hamilton, Sir William 246
happiness 222, 575–76, 589, 599, 611, 613
Hart, H.L.A. 584, 624–25, 630, 637
Harvey, Warren Z. 161
Hasker, William 533
Hegel, G.W.F. 663
Lectures on the Philosophy of Art 661
Hellenism in Christian theology 533
Helm, Paul 529–30, 532
Henry II, King of England 646
Henry of Ghent 200–201, 208, 210–11, 229, 247, 319, 357, 404
Quodlibeta 515–16, 544
Summa quaestionum ordinarium 202, 708–10, 717–18, 722
Henry of Harclay 211, 213, 502, 539
Henry Hopton 223
heresy 69
philosophers tried for 33
Hermann of Carinthia 186
Hermann the German 195
Hermes Trismegistus 226, 228
Hervaeus Natalis 210
hesychasm 36
Heymeric of Campo (Van de Velde) 225–26
hierarchy of beings 551–52, 559–60
(p. 741) Hilary of Poitiers
De trinitate 528, 669
Hilduin, Abbot of Saint Denis 663, 665
Gesta Dagoberti 665
Hillel of Verona 149
Hincmar of Rheims 179
Hintikka, Jaakko 313, 315
historiography of philosophy
Byzantine 29–30
Islamic 131
Jewish 131
late and post-medieval scholasticism 245–46, 255–56
late medieval and Renaissance philosophy 220–21
‘When was Medieval Philosophy?’ 7, 17
of theories of modality 312–15
history of philosophy, methodology in 4–6, 10–11, 435–36, 468, 532–25
continuism 9, 385–86, 389–99
discontinuism 385–89
philosophy of religion has a special place with regard to 12
semantic analysis as a method 9, 404, 415–16
Hittinger, Russell 625
Hobbes, Thomas 247, 576, 579–84, 624
The Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance 580–82
Holobolos, Manuel 35
Holy Spirit: see Trinity, Holy Spirit
homonymy and synonymy 39–41
Hrabanus Maurus 179
Hugh of Honau 185
Hugh Lawton 374
Hugh of St Cher 510
Commentary on the Sentences 205
Hugh of St Victor 663, 665
Didascalicon 671, 674–75
Hughes, George 331
Hursthouse, Rosalind 619
Husserl, Edmund 434–35
hylomorphism: see form, and matter
hypostasis 19–20, 44
Hypostatic Union 12, 25, 205
Iamblichus 19–20, 531
Iavelli, Crisostomo 248
Ibn Aknin, Judah 135
Ibn al-Haytham: see Alhazen
Ibn ‘Amr, Ḍirār 61, 75
Ibn Bājja 107–11, 114, 121, 150, 195
Rule of the Solitary 109, 111
Ibn Daud, Abraham 133, 135–38, 149, 156
Ibn Ezra, Abraham 133, 140, 148–49
Ibn Gabirol 108
Fountain of Life (Fons Vitae) 108, 133–34, 196
Ibn Ḥanbal 62, 69
Ibn Ḥazm 108, 122
Ibn Kammūna, Sa‘d 139, 143, 537
Examination of Three Faiths 143
Ibn Pakuda, Baḥya 133
Ibn Rushd: see Averroes
Ibn Ṣafwān, Jahm 75
Ibn Ṣaddiq 133–34
Ibn Sīnā, see Avicenna
Ibn Tibbon, Samuel 149, 154–55
Ibn Tufayl 108, 112, 116–17, 122
Hayy ibn Yaqẓān 112–15
Ibn Tumart 107, 115
Ibn Waqar, Joseph 140
Ibn Zayla 96
iconoclasm 32
idealism 255
Ideas, Platonic: see universals, Platonic Ideas
ignorance, invincible 248
illumination 87, 133, 211, 498
Illuminationist School 143
images: see mind, mental images
image worship 183
imagination 110, 120–21, 570
immortality 111
of human beings 497, 505, 674
of soul 10, 48, 152, 228, 231–32, 251, 497, 505–6, 508–9, 516–17, 522
Lateran decree of 1513 (Apostolici regiminis) on 251
natural reason does not lead to affirming 222, 231
of will 569
implication
paradoxes of 8, 289, 291, 296, 302, 304
imposition, of names 343, 345–53
original 355
primary 344
secondary 345
impossible positio: see modality, impossibility
Incarnation 574
individuals 166, 176, 507, 519, 714
individuation 40, 715
of arguments 694
by a bundle of accidents 173–74
essential 174–75
by matter 120
inference
imperfect and perfect inferences: see entailment, imperfect and perfect
infinity 226, 527–28, 539
impossibility of an actual 539, 689
an infinite series cannot be traversed 688–90
ingredients (as distinct from parts) 451
insolubles 143, 203
(p. 742) intellect 136, 496, 536
acquired 110, 121–22
active/ agent 85, 87–88, 93, 110–11, 120, 122, 163
identified with God 498–99
and being 530
can think about anything 494
conjunction between human intellect and divine intelligence 107, 111, 113, 121, 133
directly infused into each being by God 516
a disposition of the body 121, 512–15
(emanation of) Intelligences 92–93, 230, 389
First intellect/intelligence 133, 141
intellects itself eternally 157, 160
free from matter 120, 494
as hypostasis 18
incorrigible with regard to its proper object 553
intellective soul remains the same over time 476–77
passive/ possible/potential/ material 85, 110, 120
one for all humans 120, 212–13, 231–32, 474, 499
relationship between active and passive 86
separate 121–22
three operations of (simple apprehension, compounding and dividing, forming syllogisms) 369, 427
and will 569–70, 572, 575
intelligible species: see species intelligibilis
intelligibles
primary 89–91, 94–95
primary and secondary 86
secondary: see second intentions
intention
as basis for moral judgement 11, 180, 588–601
intentional objects 432–33, 693
second intentions 118, 253
inter-faith discussions 138–39, 143
internalism (about how words acquire meaning): see semantics of words, internalism
Introductiones montanes maiores 357, 464
intuition 387, 399, 629
dhawq (taste) 114
ḥads 87, 98
intuitionism 627
Investitures Controversy 645–46
is/ought problem 629
Ismailism 59, 69–70
Isidore of Seville
Etymologiae 168, 171
Israeli (Isrā’īlī), Isaac 72, 132
Book of Definitions 534
Italos, John 33, 45–46, 49
Iwakuma, Yukio 394
Izquierdo, Sebastián 255
James of Venice 34, 167, 194–95
James of Viterbo 200, 647
Jerome of Prague 221
Jesuits 251, 255
Jesuit colleges 249
John XXII, Pope 649–50
John Aurifaber 353
John Baconthorpe 200, 213, 247
John Blund 510
John Buridan 3, 9–11, 200, 203, 208, 212, 214, 221–26, 230–31, 272, 315, 330, 352, 365, 395, 479, 482, 559–60
Commentary on On Generation and Corruption 456–58
Commentary on On Memory 204
Commentary on On the Soul 488–89, 513–14
Commentary on Metaphysics 477, 558–59
Commentary on Physics 327–28, 458, 475–77
Commentary on Posterior Analytics 549, 556–57
De consequentiis 278, 330–31
Sophismata 331
Summulae de dialectica 207, 351
Tractatus de differentia universalis ad individuum 395
John Capreolus
Defensiones Theologiae Divi Thomae Aquinatis 225, 230, 234
John of Damascus 31, 35, 41, 46–47, 669
Exposition of the Faith 717
John Dorp
Commentary on Buridan’s Summulae 236
John Dumbleton 213
John Duns Scotus 3, 8, 10, 12, 200, 206, 208, 211, 213, 223–24, 229, 247, 253, 255, 304–6, 319, 352, 369–70, 385, 429, 433, 452, 469–71, 472–73, 475, 479, 481, 510, 514, 548, 577, 602, 637, 710–26
Commentary on On Interpretation 349, 427
Commentary on Metaphysics 204, 518–19, 576
Commentary on On the Soul 204
De primo principio 326, 699–702
Lectura on Sentences 324–26, 538
Ordinatio on Sentences (Opus oxoniense) 325–26, 349–50, 473, 518–20, 707, 709, 712–15, 717, 719–21, 723–25
Quodlibeta 210, 326, 509, 711–12, 727
Reportatio on Sentences 518, 711, 721–22, 726–27
and see: Scotism
John (Jean) Gerson 222
John of Glogovia 225
John Huntman 223
John Hus 221, 224
John of Jandun 152, 203, 212–13, 231, 500
Commentary on On the Heavens 318, 322, 327–28
Commentary on Parva naturalia 204
Commentary on Physics 321
John of Maisonneuve (de Nova Domo) 222, 224, 395
De universali reali 395
John of Nova Domus: see John of Maisonneuve
(p. 743) John Pagus (Le Page/The Page) 207, 395
John of Paris: see John Quidort
John Pecham (Peckham) 201, 209–11, 473, 671
John of Pouilly 201
John Quidort (of Paris)
De potestate regia et papali 645–49
John of Saint Giles 207
John of Salisbury 394
Metalogicon 170, 177
John Scottus Eriugena 169, 173, 226, 534
as translator 168–69
commentary on pseudo-Dionysius Celestial Hierarchy 665
De divina praedestinatione 179
Periphyseon 181, 531
John of Scythopolis 31
John (Johannes) Sharpe 223
John Versor 149, 225, 246
John Wyclif 221, 223, 230, 386, 395, 425, 431, 481
On Universals 395
Juan de Torquemada 233
Summa eccelsiastica 233
Judaeo-Arabic 131
jurisdiction 646, 648–49
Justinian, Emperor 20
kabbalah 140, 229
Kafiḥ, Joseph and Yiḥyeh 139
kalām 59–74, 84, 90, 116, 142, 535, 537, 540
Jewish 70–73, 131, 134, 149
Kanger, Stig 313
Kant, Immanuel 246, 251, 253–55, 289, 618, 623, 625, 693
Kantian ethics 11, 583, 585, 588, 600, 605, 622, 627, 629, 634, 640
kasb (taking on of responsibility for our actions) 63, 73
Kenny, Sir Anthony 403–16
may, after all, not have killed Aquinas’s First Way 696–97
Aquinas on Being 9, 405, 638
The Five Ways: St. Thomas Aquinas’ Proofs of God’s Existence 696, 698
Kent, Bonnie 618
kinds, natural: see nature, natural kinds
King, Peter 348, 353–54
Klima, Gyula 395–96
Kneale, William and Martha
The Development of Logic 315
knowledge, human
of first principles 42
innate 42
intellectual 85–88
and see: Intellect
natural 211
of particulars 143
recollection 42
self-knowledge 134 see also: epistemology; scepticism; omniscience, of God
Knuuttila, Simo
‘Time and Modality in Scholasticism’ 8
Koons, Robert C. 696
‘A New Look at the Cosmological Argument’ 693–96
Koran, see Qur’ān
Korsgaard, Christine 631
Kovach, Francis F.
Kretzmann, Norman 638
Introduction to The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy 4 see also: Stump, Eleonore and Normann Kretzmann
Kripke, Saul 313, 332, 635, 638
Naming and Necessity 635
‘Semantical Considerations on Modal Logic’ 313
Kristeller, Paul Oskar 671
Kydones, Demetrios and Prochoros 35
Lagerlund, Henrik 274
Landulph Caracciolo 212
Lanfranc of Pavia 181
language
conventional 344, 351, 355, 366
inner (sub-vocalized) 8, 363
Language of Thought Hypothesis (Fodor) 364, 371, 376
mental 9, 212, 223, 350, 363–78
speech model 364, 367–78
sentence model 364, 368–78
‘new theorists of’: see reference, causal/direct theory of
predication is a linguistic phenomenon 392 see also: sentences, mental
Laon 169
Laplace, Pierre-Simon, Marquis de 251
Las Casas, Bartolomé de 12, 655
Apologética Historia 656
De unico vocationis modo omnium gentium 658
Historia de las Indias 657–58
Lateran decree of 1513 (Apostolici regiminis): see immortality, of soul
law 141, 600, 643–44
canon 643
divine 623, 638
eternal 610, 623, 637–38
and freedom 578, 582
human 623
international 234
natural law 11, 182, 253, 548, 578, 595, 606, 609–12, 614–18, 622–40, 651, 654
positive 623
Roman 643
Le Féron, Blaise 247
Leftow, Brian 527–28, 530–32, 535, 544
‘The Ontological Argument’ 691
Lemonnier, Pierre 251
Leo the Jew 238
Leo the Mathematician 50
Lessing, Gotthold
Vom Alter der Ölmalerei aus dem Theophilus Presbyter 672
Lewis, C. I. 302
Lewis, David 342, 483, 540
Liar Paradox: see insolubles
Liber de causis 76, 167, 389, 536
de Libera, Alain 13, 386–89
liberal arts 168–69
liberalism
American tradition of 629
in jurisprudence 634
libraries 246
life 511–12, 526, 528, 530
eternal 589 see also: immortality
Lisska, Anthony 618
liturgy 664–67, 671
Locke, John 246, 385, 582, 649
Essay concerning Human Understanding 355–56, 586
Lokert, George 226
logic 8
application to God? 169
concerned with second intentions 118–19, 253
connexive 295–96, 300–302
contrasted with grammar 68
deontic 314, 332
epistemic 314, 332
logical consequence 8, 289–306
logical form 8, 271–82
variational conception of 276–80
logica modernorum 223
logica nova 194
logica vetus 168, 194
propositional 294
relevant(istic) 8, 289–90, 299–301, 303–4
subject matter of 117–18
temporal 282, 314
and theology 181
logical positivism 385
Lloyd, A. C. 45
Louis XI, King 224
Loux, Michael 393, 399–400
love 576, 578, 654
of God 589, 595–96, 599–600
intellectual love of God and neighbour 571
self-love 589
Lovejoy, Arthur J. 314
Lucretius
De rerum natura 21, 227–28, 480–81
Ludwig of Bavaria, Emperor 201
Luther, Martin 221
ma 110
MacBride, Fraser 393
MacDonald, Scott 623
McInerny, Ralph 628–29, 635–37
MacIntyre, Alisdair 600, 618, 622, 625–30, 632, 635–37, 639
After Virtue 625–26
Dependent Rational Animals 626
Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry 626
Macrobius
Commentary on Somnium Scipionis 21, 35, 183
commentary on 185 (William of Conches)
Magister Abstractionum (aka Richard the Sophister) 203
Magnaura, School at 50
Maimonides, Abraham 140
Maimonides, Moses 61, 132, 134–140, 142, 148–55, 161–62, 229
Guide of the Perplexed 135–38, 150, 153–54, 156, 158, 693–96, 701
commentaries on: 154 (Falaquera); 159 (Moses Narboni)
translation of 13, 196
Letter to Samuel ibn Tibbon 150
Treatise on Resurrection 139, 142
Major (Mair), John 226, 234, 245–46
Commentary on Sentences 226
Manuscripts
Oxford Merton College 61: 727
Vatican Reginensis latinus 571: 678
Vatican Urbinas graecus 35: 33
Vendôme Bibliothèque municipale 17C: 679
Wolfenbüttel Gudianus latinus 69: 672, 674
Worcester Cathedral F 69: 727
Manekin, Charles 163
Manichaeism 22
Marenbon, John 13, 177, 182, 323
Marsilius of Inghen 222, 224
Commentary on On Generation and Corruption 488–89, 491–92
Commenatry on On the Soul 514
Marsilius of Padua 12, 201
Defensor pacis 197, 652–55
Martianus Capella
De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii
glosses on 183 (Eriugena)
Martin, Chris (of Auckland) 177, 348–49
Martin of Dacia 212
Marty, Anton 432
materialism 18, 230, 493, 505, 513–15, 520
Matthew of Aquasparta 211, 247
matter 18, 47–48, 69, 109, 132, 493–94, 509, 512, 670
material constitution 706–11, 718, 722, 726
intelligible 274
minimal (minima materia) 478
pre-existent 47, 154, 272
(p. 745) Maximus the Confessor 31, 169
Maydole, Robert
‘The Ontological Argument’ 691–92
meaning, theory of 342, 356
‘foundational’ theories 342–52
‘semantic’ theories 342–43, 352–55
Medici family 221, 228
Meinong, Alexius 433–35, 693
Meister Eckhart: see Eckhart
Melanchthon, Philipp 226–27, 249
memory 86
and Procession of the Son 706–7
mendicant orders 192, 199–201; see also Dominicans, Franciscans
dispute with seculars in Paris 201
privileges 209
studia of 199–200, 213
mentalistic turn 253
mereology 9–10, 445–62, 714
a whole is (/not) nothing other than its parts 446, 450–53, 458–62, 475, 487, 512
integral parts distinct from metaphysical parts 10, 487
material substance accounted for by 474–79, 482
mereological essentialism 453–55, 479
mereological overlap 448
mereological rigidity 455–58
special composition question 458–62
succession of parts 476–77
Mersenne, Marin 561
metaphysics 9–10, 12
‘of finality’ 637
of light 662–63
place of within philosophy 251–52
of presence 530
subject-matter of 88–89, 117–18, 251–52
at summit of system of sciences 117
Metochites, Theodore, 36, 42–43
Michael of Ephesus 34
Michael Scotus 195
Micraelius, Johannes 251
‘Middle Ages’, invention of the term 661
miḥna 58–59, 62
Mill, John
On Liberty 585
Millikan, Ruth 363, 483
mind 486, 492–501, 506
mental images 26, 110, 121, 232, 348, 363, 497–98, 550
mental phenomena which resist physical explanation 496
minima naturalia 480–81
miracles 138, 230 508, 514
rejected 69–70
‘by way of miracle’ 153
modality 26, 94, 252, 282, 312–32, 635
accidental and essential modalities 320
alternative possibilities 60, 137, 323–25
Aristotelian conception of 8, 68
counterfactuals 203, 292, 325, 327–28, 331, 706, 723–25
extensional understanding of 315–21, 330
impossibility
doctrinal 319
impossible positio 203, 303–4, 319
intensional understanding of 321–32
Necessary Existent 92, 114, 136–37, 143, 638, 699, 723
necessity 89
necessity of the present 26, 317, 323–34
possible worlds (semantics) 8, 178, 289, 312–15, 326–27, 331–32
possibility 160
metaphysical possibility 323, 325–26
logical possibility 325–26
synchronic possibilities 211, 312, 455, 538
quantified 313
statistical model of 317–18, 325, 327
modal status of dependent divine persons 722–25
modal status of initial state of natural reality 695
modus rei 425–26
Mohyla, Prince Peter 248
Molina, Luis de 575
monasteries 31, 169
Mont Ste Geneviève 170
Montague, Richard 313
Moody, Ernest A.
‘The Medieval Contribution to Logic’ 315
Moore, G.E. 626, 629, 636
More, Sir Thomas 226
Moreland, J.P. 385, 390
Moses of Narbonne 139, 229
movement, analysis of 109
Moyn, Samuel 644, 651–52
Mu‘ammar 61
Mullā Ṣadrā 95
Mulligan, Kevin 640
Munk, Solomon 131
Mutazilites 59–66, 69–72, 142, 540
five chief doctrines of, 63
mysticism 111, 113–15
names 344–56
of non-existent things 166
proper 331–32, 351
unity of the name 394 see also: imposition, of names
Narboni, Moses 159
Treatise on Choice 159–60
naturalism 107–8, 113, 115, 154, 230, 389, 638, 695, 697–98, 700–701
in ethics 583, 622–23, 622–40
objectivist 624
(p. 746) nature 47–48
art as imitation of 670
common natures 388, 392, 396–97, 713–14
must be instantiated 714
Naturalistic Fallacy 626, 628–29
human
inborn (fiṭra) 113
natural kinds 19, 172, 294, 398, 628–29, 634–36, 638–39
natural light 551
order of nature 627–28
natural rights: see rights, natural
natural science 170, 182–83, 205, 213
limits of 156
natural teleology 552, 558, 560
natural theology 638
necessity: see modality
Needham, John T. 250–51
negation 294, 307–8
propositional 296–98, 301
negative theology 61, 65, 71, 136, 181, 226, 693
Nelson, Everett J. 636
Nelson, Herbert 531
Neoplatonism: see Platonism, Neoplatonism
Neubauer, Adolph 131
New World 221, 234, 248–49, 655–59
native Americans 234, 655–59
Newton, Isaac 109, 525
Nicholas of Amiens 185
Nicholas of Amsterdam 514
Nicholas Aston 223
Nicholas of Autrecourt 36, 214
Exigit ordo (‘Universal Treatise’) 480–81
Nicholas Bonet 214
Nicholas of Cusa 220, 225–26, 235
De pace Fidei 226
Nicholas of Methones 34
Nicholas of Paris 395
Nicole Oresme 222, 431
Commentary on Physics 426
Le livre du ciel et du monde 328
Nicomachus of Gerasa 33
Nifo, Agostino 230–32, 235
Commentary on Averroes, Incoherence of the Incoherence 231
nominales 170, 300–301, 324, 394, 454
nominalism: see universals, nominalism
Notker of St Gall 665
Nozick, Robert 634
Numenius 18
Nuremberg Trials 624
Nussbaum, Martha 622, 630–32, 634–36
Frontiers of Justice 631
obligation 8, 11, 578–79, 581–82
obligations (a type of disputation—obligationes) 202–3, 214, 223, 271, 281, 302–3, 315–21, 324–27
Ockhamism 426
O’Connor, D.J. 638–39
O’Connor, Timothy 687
Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency 700
Oderberg, David
‘Whatever is changing is being changed by something else, A reappraisal of Premise One of the First Way’ 698
Odo of Cambrai (/of Tournai) 173, 181
Olympiodorus 20
omnipotence, of God 65
God cannot do what is unjust 60
Can God undo what has been done? 182, 323
potentia absoluta 474
as basis for sceptical arguments 548
potentia ordinata 548
unrealized divine possibilities 322–23, 328
omniscience, of God
foreknowledge of contingents 10, 22, 25–26, 38 (gods), 137, 156–57, 211–12, 214, 228, 230, 529
knowledge of particulars 137, 141, 143, 157–60, 163
limited so as to guarantee freedom of choice 156, 159–60
only of universals 91–93, 95
unvarying 159
One, The 18–20, 65, 226, 536
ontological square, Aristotle’s 171–72, 177
ontology, invention of 246, 252
ordinationes 202
Orpheus 228
Orvieto, Dominican studium at 200
Oxford calculators 213
Pachymeres, George 35
Paderborn Cathedral, Treasure of 672–73
Padgett, Alan 529
paganism 20, 22, 25, 31, 38, 229, 234, 248, 649
all humans obliged to defend their own gods, taken for the true God 658
Golden view of 23
pagan understanding of virtue 589–90
Palamas, Gregory 26, 43
Panaccio, Claude 347, 350–51
Panofsky, Erwin 662–65, 667
Idea 662
Paris, schools of 169–70, 197; see also: universities, Paris
Parmenides 526
paronyms 178
participation 537
particulars 19
nothing exists which is not a particular (‘ontological particularism’) 168, 172, 174–78, 393
thick (Armstrong) 431
universals do not exist separately from 173
parts: see mereology
Pasnau, Robert 358, 399
Metaphysical Themes, 1274–1671 13, 220
passions 570, 580–81
Paul the Persian 13
Paul of Venice 223, 230–32, 235, 499
Logica magna 230
Logica parva 230
Paulinus of Nola 665
Paulo Barbo ‘Soncinas’ 248
peace 654
pecia system 199
Pedro Martinez de Osma 233
Pelagianism 23
Perera, Benet (Pererius) 251
Peripatetics 18, 33, 136–38, 143, 332, 534
Baghdad peripatetics 67, 84
peripatetici 395
perfect-being theology 182
Périon, Joachim 247
Perler, Dominik
Transformationen der Gefühle 13
Perotti, Niccolò 228
person
human persons 622–24, 626, 628–38
personally discrete 174
Peter of Abano
Conciliator 197
Peter Abelard 4, 8–9, 11, 170, 172–76, 306, 319, 385, 394, 454–55, 459–62, 588, 598–600, 708
Collationes 349
Logica Ingredientibus 167, 177–78, 296, 298, 300, 323, 348–49, 353, 391–92, 428, 454–55
Scito teipsum (Ethica) 180, 592–97
Sententia 459
Sic et non 358
Theologia Christiana 23, 448–51, 709–10, 718, 722
Peter of Ailly 222, 247, 375–76, 430–31
Commentary on De consolatione philosophiae 222
Peter of Aquila 211
Peter Auriol 200, 208, 212–14, 247, 502
Commentary on Sentences 206
Peter of Auvergne
Commentary on De caelo 204
Commentary on On Memory 204
Peter the Chanter 394
Peter of Capua 394
Peter Damian 181
De divina omnipotentia 182
Peter John Olivi 200, 208, 211
Peter of Poitiers 324
Peter of Spain 369, 410
Syncategoremata 303–4
Tractatus (Summulae logicales) 207, 225, 238, 247, 303–4
Peter of Tarentaise
Petrarch, Francesco 227, 230, 661
De sui ipsius et multorum ignorantia 227
Secretum 227
phantasms (phantasmata): see mind, mental images
Philip IV (the Fair), King of France 646
Philip Augustus 170
Philip the Chancellor 207, 510
Philo Judaeus 526, 533
Philoponus, John 32, 45, 49, 66, 174, 539
Against Aristotle 688–90, 701
Commentary on Physics 319
philosophers
heirs to the prophets 116
philosophismus 255
philosophy
analytical 3, 5, 8–9, 385, 389, 403–4, 415–16, 528, 625, 633, 635
analytical/Continental divide 13, 246, 415, 530
divisions of 171
falsafa, character of 59, 65
falsafa, distinction from kalām 67–68, 74
tradition of inherited by Jewish philosophers 152
contemporary philosophy’s debt to early modern debates 253–56
and monasticism 31
not a natural kind 29
oriental (al- ḥikma al-mashriqiyya) 112
philosophers improved by theological subject-matter 12
‘Renaissance philosophy’ 220–21
semantics of 50
(p. 748) structure of philosophical curriculum 249–50
and theology 224, 235
Photios 33, 43–44
phronēsis: see prudence
Piché, David 395
Pico della Mirandola, Gianfrancesco
Examen vanitatis doctrinae gentium 229
Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni 7, 229, 235
Conclusiones 229
De ente et uno 229
De hominis dignitate 229
Pike, Nelson 532
Pinborg, Jan 353
Pini, Giorgio 356
place 48
Plantinga, Alvin 332
Planudes, Maximus 35
Plato 18, 30, 70, 107, 152, 154, 170, 229, 231, 526, 614, 636
and Aristotle 37, 385, 387–88
harmony with his thought 19, 24
Platonic Ideas: see universals, Platonic Ideas
translations of 225, 227–28
Gorgias 227
Laws 227
Meno 387
Parmenides
Commentaries on: 20, 35 (Proclus and Pachymeres)
Phaedo 387
Phaedrus 227
Republic 227
Sophist 39
Symposium 228
Commentary on 228 (Ficino)
Theaetetus 39
Timaeus 18, 25, 48, 527–28, 530, 536
translated by Calcidius 21, 168, 170, 387, 534
commentaries on 183 (Calcidius); 185 (William of Conches)
Platonism 18–19, 21–22, 24–25, 38, 42, 150, 176–77, 252, 386, 530–31, 534
Middle Platonism 18, 21, 47
Neoplatonism 30–32, 47, 108, 111, 114, 132–33, 149–50, 181, 251, 386, 388–89, 528, 537, 663, 665
appositeness of term 18
Neoplatonic cosmology 93
Platonic schools 17
of Alexandria 18–20
of Athens 20
Renaissance Platonism, 228
‘the wild and wooly ideas of’ 220
pleasure 592
plenitude, principle of 314
Plethon, George Gemistos 37–38, 237
Pliny 245
Plotinus 7, 18–21, 43, 49, 65, 132, 167, 228–29, 526–28, 530
Arabic Plotinus 65, 132–33, 140
Pluta, Olaf 514
Plutarch 18
Pocock, Edward 113
poetry 67
Poirel, Dominic 678
Pomponazzi, Pietro 230–32, 235
De fato, de libero arbitrio et de praedestinatione 230–31
De immortalitate animae 231–32, 498
De incantationibus 230
Pope, power of the 647–48, 653–54
Popkin, Richard 548
Porphyry 18–20, 24, 45, 383, 387
Porphyry’s Tree 166, 172–73, 228, 411
Isagoge 19, 31, 44, 66, 150, 166–68, 174, 197, 387–88, 391–92
translations of 23–24
Port-Royal Logic 254
positio impossibilis: see modality, impossibility
possibility: see modality
potencies/potentiality, active and passive 318, 322–23, 325, 472, 624
potentia absoluta: see omnipotence, of God
Pourchot, Edmond 248, 253
poverty, apostolic 201, 649–51
Poza, Juan 246
practical reason: see reason, practical
predestination 10, 23, 223, 169, 230, 324
Carolingian debate on 179–80
determination by God (not) incompatible with freedom 575, 582
dual 179
world is providentially ordained 25
predication 175, 390–92, 403–11, 710
identity theory of 331
inherence theory of 407
per se and secundum quid 447
present, necessity of: see modality, necessity of the present
printing 246
Prior, A. N. 282, 315
prisca theologia 228
Priscian
Institutiones grammaticae 204
Commentaries on: 391 (‘Glosulae’)
probabilism: see casuistry
probability 294
Proclus 20, 33–34, 44–45, 167, 195, 226, 228–29, 386, 528, 530
Commentary on Parmenides 35
Elements of Theology 20, 34, 65, 389, 536, 542 see also; Book on the Pure Good; Liber de causis
(p. 749) Platonic Theology 20
Prodromos, Theodore 34
proofs, of the existence of God 12, 43, 72, 687–702
Aquinas’s 5 Ways 696
First Way (Argument from change) 696–98
Third Way (Argument from contingency) 537
Fifth Way (Teleological Argument) 563
cosmological argument 12, 638, 539, 687–90
‘God does not exist’ is a contradiction 223
kalām proofs 537
kalām cosmological argument 539, 687–90
Ontological Argument 182, 368, 690–93
no successful a priori 691, 693
Scotus’s causal argument 687
properties
essential 322
‘synthetic necessary’ 636
prophecy 87–88, 115–16, 138
rationally necessary for God to supply 71
validity of denied 69
propositions (in medieval sense): see sentences
maximal propositions 293, 300
propositio in re/ realis 223, 370, 372–73, 425, 431
propositions (in contemporary sense): see semantics, of sentences
propositionality 26, 294–301
propositional attitudes 375, 422–24, 428, 434–36
propositional content 294, 296–98
propositional operations 8, 294–98
Prosper of Aquitaine 665
protestantism 246–50, 254
prudence (phronēsis) 595, 608, 613–14, 616–17 634–35
Psellos, Michael 33, 39–41, 47–48
pseudo-Aristotle: see Aristotle, pseudonyma
pseudo-Dionysius 20, 31, 222, 226, 663, 665, 668
commentaries to 20
translations of 20, 168–69 (John Scottus Eriugena)
On the Divine Names 669
pseudo-Empedocles Book of the Five Chapters 132, 134–35
psychology, establishment of 246, 251, 515
Ptolemy 36, 245
punishment 38, 63, 68, 71, 141, 152, 161, 578
self-inflicted 179–80
Putnam, Hilary 8, 332, 350, 635–36, 638
Qalonimos, Qalonimos ben 151
quadrivium 168
quaestiones, structure of 204
quality 45, 100, 175–76, 178, 212, 237, 349, 397, 427, 429, 439, 457, 465
of propositional sentences 273, 276, 294–95, 300–301
primary and secondary 356
quantity 34, 100, 176, 417, 448, 473, 475
of propositional sentences 273, 276, 329
quiddity: see being, quiddity
Qur’ān 59–61, 66, 69, 90, 93, 108, 116, 537
created not eternal 58–59, 62, 65
Radulphus Brito 203, 212
Commentary on Topics 456
Ralph of Beauvais 394
Ralph Strode 223
Consequentiae 279
Ramon Llull 226, 247
Dialogue of the Gentile 13
rationality 64, 378, 571, 573, 584–85, 613
Ratramnus of Corbie 184
Rawls, John 631, 634–35
real presence (of Christ in Eucharist) 177
reales 394
realism 255
moral 253
propositional 223, 425
reason 26, 222, 512–13, 584, 634, 637, 652
and autonomy 570
and faith 25, 222, 231–32, 322, 474, 495–97, 500, 505, 509, 514
and humanity 656–57
limits of 64, 224, 231–32, 474
and natural law 578
practical 571–72, 575, 577, 580, 611, 615, 625, 629–30, 637
and revelation 108, 113, 116
trust placed in 64, 71
and virtue 589, 599, 610
recollection: see knowledge, recollection
rectitude: see rightness
Redemption 574
reductionism, ontological 212, 214
reference
abstract 390–91
Bedeutung 431
causal/ direct theory of 8, 345, 348
relation to supposition 354
Reinach, Adolf 433–34
relativity
conceptual 378
General (and Special) Theory of 539
relation 24, 136, 181, 186, 275, 279, 290, 293, 295, 299–300, 303, 305–6, 312–13, 329, 332, 398, 413, 431–33, 435, 439, 452, 460, 512, 527, 638, 694–95, 705, 707–9, 711, 714–45, 717, 719–26
causal 92, 371, 695, 697
relational change 719
relational ontology 192
relevance, see logic, relevant
(p. 750) reliabilism 554–55, 636
religion
naturalistic account of 107–8, 111
and philosophy 137
revealed 60, 64, 66, 69, 107, 116, 140, 638–39; see also: reason, and revelation
uses persuasive (not demonstrative) arguments 153
Relihan, Joel
The Prisoner’s Philosophy: Life and Death in Boethius’s Consolation 27
‘Renaissance Philosophy’ 7
reportationes 201–2
representation, mental 14
responsibility, moral 60, 71, 160, 583–84
taking on for our actions see: kasb
Resurrection: 473
revelation: see religion, revealed
Rheims 169
Richard Billingham 426, 431
Richard Brinkley 223, 372, 424–25, 426, 431
Richard Campsall 370, 377
Questions in Prior Analytics 330
Richard Ferrybridge (Ferribridge) 223, 430
Richard Fishacre 207
Commentary on the Sentences 205
Richard FitzRalph 201, 213
Richard Kilvington 213, 327
Richard Rufus of Cornwall 207
Richard the Sophister: see Magister Abstractionum
Richard Swineshead 213, 327
Richard of St Victor
De trinitate 717–18
rightness (rectitudo) 573, 590–91, 601
rights 11–12, 212, 643–59
contractarian rights theory 631
legal 11, 643–45
natural 11, 628, 643–45, 649–52
objective and subjective interpretations of 650–51
property rights 647
Robert Alyngton 223
Robertus Anglicus 392, 395
Robert Grosseteste 34, 149, 205, 207
as translator 195, 207, 388
Commentary on Posterior Analytics 207
De libero arbitrio 316, 324
Hexaemeron 205
Robert Holcot 213, 224, 365, 374, 424–25
Commentary on Sentences 555
Robert Kilwardby 207, 395, 473
Commentary on Prior Analytics 272–75, 328–30
De ortu scientiarum 274–75
De tempore 543
Robert of Melun 170, 394
Robertini/Melidunenses 170, 302, 345, 394
Rodrigues-Pereyra, Gonzalo 390–91
Roland of Cremona 207
Roscelin of Compiègne 175, 307, 394, 459–60
Roger Bacon 205, 671
Opus maius 345–46
Roger of Helmershausen 672–73
Rogers, Katherin 527, 529
Rome
attitudes to its history 22
sack of (410) 22
Rorty, Richard 637
Rosier-Catach, Irène 346, 391
Ross, Sir David 161
The Right and the Good 629
Royal Society 251
Ruaḥ Ḥen (a Hebrew encyclopaedia) 151
Rudolph, Conrad 663
Russell, Bertrand 422, 430–31, 435, 636
The Problems of Philosophy 390
Ryan, Alan 638–39
Saadia (Sa‘adia, Sa‘ādia) Gaon (Sa‘īd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi) 70–74, 132, 142
Book of Doctrines and Beliefs 71–72
Saint Denis, Abbey of 662–67
Saint Victor, School of 170
salvation 576
Sambuga, Joseph Anton 255
sameness 12, 445, 448–49, 456, 458, 476–77, 705–7, 709–18, 721–22, 726
relation to identity 706–26
Sánchez, Tomás
De matrimonio
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis 378
scepticism 11, 139, 214, 229, 352, 547–62
about knowledge of natural things 42
Academic 18, 548
Agrippa’s trilemma 548
Pyrrhonian 18
radical deception (malicious demon hypothesis) 547–55
Schedula diversarum artium (De diversis artibus) 672–76
scholastic method 663
scorn for God: see contempt for God
Scotism 222, 225, 233, 255
Sebastokrator, Isaac Komnenos 30
Sellars, Wilfrid 363, 398
semantic analysis 404
semantics of sentences 9, 181, 409–10, 421–36
complexe significabilia 426, 429, 433–36, 434
of conditional sentences (propositions) 298–99
sentences refer to dicta, which are quasi res or nothing 175, 428, 434
sentences refer to things (reism) 223, 424–25
(p. 751) from where do mental sentences derive their structure? (Structure Problem) 8, 365
reduced to semantics of words 424
semantics of words 167, 178, 342–56
ambiguities discussed by sophismata 203
externalism 345, 350–51, 355–56
internalism 345, 355–56
semantic triangle 344, 364–65, 368 see also: absolute terms; connotative terms; reference
seminal reasons 21–22, 205
Seneca
Epistulae morales ad Lucilium 21
sense 506, 668
internal senses 85–86, 88, 98, 512
cogitative faculty 87–88, 120; see also: imagination
sense-impressions 550–54
sense perception 85–86, 348, 496, 512, 668
sensitive soul 473–74, 511–12
sentences
formation of 87
mental 9, 272, 424–27
Sententia de universalibus secundum magistrum R. 391
separability, real and conceptual 292
Sergius of Resh‘ainā 13
Seth, Symeon 33, 49, 51
Sextus Empiricus 229
Outlines of Scepticism 547–48
translated into Latin 548
Sharples, Robert
‘Fate, Prescience and Free Will’ 27
Shiites,
division from Sunni Islam 74
Shimizu, Tetsuro 394
Siger of Brabant 152, 198, 209, 213, 227, 231, 404, 499
Commentary on On the Soul III 204
Commentary on Physics (attributed to) 446–48
signs 344
signa naturalia 367, 369
signification (significatio) 178, 343–44, 349–52, 355, 366, 398, 413
mode of signifiying distinct from 413
primary and posterior 136
similarity 390–91
essential 398
similitude(s) 152, 344, 366–67, 370, 427
Simon of Tournai 185
Simons, Peter 397
‘Why there are no states of affairs’ 434–35
Simplicius 40, 44, 229, 387
Commentary on On the Heavens 688
Commentary on Physics 319, 688
Simson, Otto von
The Gothic Cathedral 663
sin 179–80, 214, 592–96
Are sinners believers? 62–63
Original, transmission of, 181
Singer, Peter 627
Sinn 343, 431, 573
Skinner, Quentin 651
slavery 632–33
Slote, M.A. 619
Smart, J.J.C 540
Smith, Quentin 539
society
reform of 113–15
solitariness 107, 112, 114
Solomon ha-Cohen, Judah ben 6, 140, 151
sophismata 202–3, 227
Sophronias 35
soul 69, 451, 486–501, 505–20, 706
awareness of (self-awareness) 142–43
as hypostasis 18, 133
liberation of, 133
has no parts 142
immateriality of 251, 494–95, 506, 513
intellective: see intellect
considered within metaphysics 251
passions of 252, 366
preexistence of 41
separate souls 471, 473–74
of spheres 93
alone are substances 482
is a substantial form, not a complete thing 471
traducianism 48
two functions, biological and psychological 493
universal 183–84
vegetative, sensitive, intellective 133, 473–74, 510
World Soul 18
space 142–43
three-dimensional 250
species: see universals
species-ism 627
species intelligibiles 427, 550
spheres, heavenly 93, 94, 101, 113, 133, 138
Spinoza, Baruch 160, 246, 248
square of opposition 318
Stalnaker, Robert 357
states-of-affairs 9, 176, 255, 291 (essentia rei), 372, 421–36
status (‘condition’, ‘state’) 175–76
Steinschneider, Moritz 131
Stephen Langton 394
Commentary on Sentences 206–7
Stephanus (logician at Constantinople) 20, 32
Stephanus (early 12th C. Byzantium) 34
Stephen of Reati 395
Stephen Tempier: see Étienne Tempier
(p. 752) stoicism 18, 21, 25, 38, 47, 180, 231, 308, 534, 570, 632, 652
influence on logic 40–41, 294, 332
Strauss, Leo 139
studia generalia197, 200
Stump, Eleonore 554
Stump, Eleonore and Normann Kretzmann
‘Being and Goodness’ 624
‘Eternity’ 526–28, 530–32
Stumpf, Carl 422, 433
Suárez, Francisco 7, 255, 577, 581, 640
De legibus 579, 620
Disputationes metaphysicae 248, 577
substance 10, 118, 134, 176, 397, 411, 426, 461, 468–82, 506–7
substantial change 177, 475, 477, 481, 488
complete concept theory of 228
in kalām 64
indivisible 476–77
only particulars of natural kinds are substances 172
parts of substance are also substances 479
primary and secondary 19, 43–44, 171
separate substances 89, 110, 498
simple substances 133
substantial form: 10, 107, 118, 272, 352, 397, 451–52, 461, 470, 475, 481–82, 486–501, 508–10, 517, 624, 636, 670
causally efficacious: see cause, substantial form as
holistic conception of 119–20
plurality thesis (a substance has a plurality of substantial forms) 10, 107–10, 113, 273, 472–74, 477, 515–21
really identical with species 119;
rejected 480
explains synchronic unity 489–90
unicity thesis (a substance has only one substantial form) 10, 463, 470–73, 515, 517–18, 521
Sufism 140
Suger, Abbot of St Denis, 662–67
De consecratione 663–66, 676
Summa Zwettlensis (? by Peter of Vienna) 176, 185
supervenience 437, 514–15
strong 507–8
weak 512
supposition (suppositio) 27, 281, 353–54, 398, 410
personal 354, 410
simple supposition 398
material supposition 354, 398
Sura yeshiva 142
Swieżawski, Stefan
Dzieje Filozofi i europejskiej w XV wieku 236
syllogisms 8, 93–94, 184, 290, 293, 299–300, 725
composition of 87–88
demonstrative, dialectical, rhetorical, poetical 43, 67
form of 272–82
hypothetical 33, 168, 274, 293, 295–96, 299–300
modal 277, 312, 320, 328–30
non-Aristotelian 277–78
prosleptic 274
temporal separated from modal 315
symbols 113–14
syncategoremata 303, 426
synderesis 612–14
synonymy: see homonymy and synoymy
Syriac tradition of philosophy 13
Syrianus 20, 386, 528
taqlīd (uncritical acceptance of authority) 69, 107
Tarski, Alfred 403
‘Logical Consequence’ 289
Tartaret, Peter 249
teleology 11, 37, 119, 559, 617, 622, 628, 636–37, 639, 670
temperance 595
Ten Commandments 594–95, 599, 612–15
Themistius 18, 121, 150, 157, 195, 292–93, 387
Paraphrase of Metaphysics 158
Theodore of Gaza 37, 227
Theodoric the Ostrogoth 23, 25
Theodulf of Orleans 183
Theology of Aristotle 132–33
Theophilus presbyter (assumed author of Schedula diversarum artium) 672–74, 677
Thierry of Chartres 186, 226
Commentary on Boethius De trinitate (attributed to) 542
theurgy 20, 30–31
thing (al-shay’) 89–91
non-existent things 90–91
Thomas Aquinas 3, 9–12, 26, 136, 195, 200–201, 208–11, 213, 224, 227–28, 230, 247, 322, 327–28, 331, 352, 368–69, 395, 403–16, 433, 463, 469–75, 479, 510, 514, 517, 525–26, 529, 538, 549–55, 559–60, 622, 629, 637, 663, 667–71, 676–77, 722
canonization 208
translated into Greek 35
Aristotelian commentaries 209
Individual works: -
Commentary on Epistle to the Romans 613
Commentary on On Interpretation 318, 407
Commentary on On the Heavens 320
Commentary on On the Soul 149
Commentary on Nicomachean Ethics 611, 679
Commentary on Metaphysics 119, 325, 679
Commentary on Physics 156, 321, 470, 670
Commentary on pseudo-Dionysius, On Divine Names 20, 544, 667–69
Commentary on Sentences 209, 413–14, 542–43, 612–13, 717
De esse et essentia 83, 414
(p. 753) De spiritualibus creaturis 412
De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas 149
Quaestiones disputatae de anima 202, 471, 522
Quaestiones disputatae de malo 550–52
Quaestiones disputatae de potentia 202, 427
Quaestiones disputatae de veritate 202, 611, 630, 669
Summa contra Gentiles 201, 427, 508–9, 575, 612–13
Summa Theologiae 149, 201, 252, 318, 321, 325, 346–47, 358, 470–72, 492, 494–95, 498–501, 505–6, 508, 512, 522, 534, 542, 544, 552–53, 563, 571–72, 575, 578, 602, 609–18, 623–24, 668, 696–98, 701, 718, 720
substituted for Sentences as theological text-book 234 see also: Thomism
Thomas Bradwardine 213, 222
Insolubilia 203
Summa de causa Dei 201
Thomas of Buckingham 213
Thomas of Erfurt
Grammatica speculativa 212, 347
Thomas of Sutton 210, 213, 518, 522
Thomas de Vio: see Cajetan, Cardinal
Thomas Wylton 213
Thomism 208, 225
opposition to 222
Spanish Thomism of late Middle Ages 233–34
Thomson, Judith Jarvis 486–87
thought experiments 141–43, 328, 597, 706
Eudemian procedure (assuming the impossible to see what follows) 319
thought
structure of quasi-linguistic or not (the priority question) 363
Tierney, Brian 649–52
time 10, 48–49, 142–43, 531
A-series 529–31, 538
B-series 529, 531
cyclical 530
in relation to creation: see creation, of the world in relation to time
in relation to the mind 540–41
intellectual 531
simultaneity, ET- 527–28, 535
and see: eternity
topical argument 24, 168, 226, 290–93, 298–300, 303–4
Torah: see Bible
Tostado, el (Alonso Fernández de Madrigal) 233
Tractatus Emmeranus 303
transcendental(s) 98, 102, 110, 207, 228, 251, 274, 522, 623
transcendental argument 373
beauty as a 669
super-transcendental 254
‘transcendental turn’ 627, 630
transfiguration of the commonplace 674–75
translatio 353
translatio studiorum 386
translation
Arabic into Hebrew 6, 148–49
Arabic into Latin 6, 167
via Hebrew 13, 230
Greek into Arabic 6, 58–59, 65, 72
Greek into Latin 6, 35, 167, 194–95, 227–28
Latin into French 222
Latin into Greek 6, 35
Latin into Hebrew 6, 149
transubstantiation 223
Traversari, Ambrogio 228
Trinity, Holy 12, 22, 45, 61, 66, 73–74, 212, 214, 448, 668, 671, 705–26
The Father
The Holy Spirit - Gifts of 675
Procession of 707, 723
necessity of 705
The Son (Jesus Christ) 649, 664, 669
divine and human natures 31, 41
paradox of perfect freedom and obedience of 574
Procession of 706–7, 723
relationship with the Father 31
Persons of the Trinity 319, 448, 705
origination relations between 705
personal properties differ only according to reason 709
relationship of divine essence to the Persons 707–8
tritheism 45
trivium 168
Treatise on Universals (anonymous twelfth-century): see Sententia de universalibus secundum magistrum R.
tropes 171, 176–78, 393, 397, 714, 719–20
accidental and essential 397
relational 719
transferability of 177–78
truth 114, 116, 289, 368, 590, 669
analytical a posteriori truths 299
concealment of truth from masses 152–53, 160–61
doctrine of ‘double truth’ 152
eternal (or not) 528
what is once true is always true 324
truth-makers of sentences 323, 422–23, 434, 462
twenty-first century, ‘people know better because they live in the …’ 695
tyranny 659
understandings (intellectus) 344
unity, numerical 713–14
universal brotherhood 632, 652
(p. 754) universals 9, 24, 26, 86–87, 120, 166, 171–78, 183, 343, 385–99
acquiring universal concepts 87–88
anti-realism 176
are they corporeal? 44, 46
Armstrong-style 717
before/in/based on (or after) the many 44–45, 388–90
are concepts 175
collection theory 186
immanent realism 172–74, 391–93, 395
material essence realism 173
must be instantiated 174, 431
are names (not mere words) 394
nominalism 208, 221–25, 233, 255, 391–92, 396–99, 512, 651
contrasted with realism 393–6; see also nominales
non-realism, broad 46, 47
Platonic Ideas 18, 37, 48, 172, 222, 385, 387–88, 393, 716; see also God, ideas in the mind of
problem of is semantic in origin 390–91
realism 208, 224, 431
realist abstractionism 186
as second intentions, existing in the mind 118
theological reasons for 45
Wegestreit not a debate about 224
are only words 175, 394 see also: nature, common nature
universities 196–99
of Alcalá 221, 233–34
of Basel 221, 224
of Bologna 213, 229–30
of Catania 229
of Coimbra 247
of Cologne 221, 224, 233
of Cracow 221, 224–25
of Erfurt 224
of Florence 229–30
of Freiburg 224
of Heidelberg 222, 224–25
of Leipzig 224
of Louvain 221
of Montpellier 213
of Naples 229, 231
of Orleans 213
of Oxford 192, 200, 208, 222–23, 230, 233
of Padua 225, 229–31, 249, 251
of Parma 229
of Pavia 229–30
of Perugia 229
of Pisa 229–31
of Prague 221, 224
of Rome 229
of St Andrew’s 221
of Salamanca 233–34
of Salerno 231
of Siena 229
of Toulouse 233
of Tübingen 221, 224
of Uppsala 221
of Valladolid 233
of Vienna 221–22, 224–25 see also: faculties
ut pictura poesis 671