- The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Philosophy
- The Late Ancient Background to Medieval Philosophy
- Greek Philosophy
- Arabic Philosophy and Theology before Avicenna
- Avicenna and Afterwards
- Averroes and Philosophy in Islamic Spain
- Medieval Jewish Philosophy in Arabic
- Jewish Philosophy in Hebrew
- Latin Philosophy to 1200
- Latin Philosophy, 1200–1350
- Latin Philosophy, 1350–1550
- Medieval Philosophy after the Middle Ages
- Logical Form
- Logical Consequence
- Meaning: Foundational and Semantic Theories
- Mental Language
- States of Affairs
- Parts, Wholes and Identity
- Material Substance
- Mind and Hylomorphism
- Body and Soul
- Scepticism and Metaphysics
- Freedom of the Will
- Moral Intention
- Virtue and Law
- Natural Law
- Arguments for the Existence of God
- Philosophy and the Trinity
Abstract and Keywords
Aristotle's emphasis on substance introduced many problems into Western metaphysics, such as what accounts for the unity of a substance through accidental change. This article outlines four different views of material substance: the unity account; plurality of forms account; mereological account; and atomistic account. The first two are related in the sense that they are both hylomorphic accounts of material substances. The other two are less known, but the mereological account is important for later, more modern, discussions of substance.
Henrik Lagerlund is an Associate Professor and the Chair of Philosophy at the University of Western Ontario. He has published numerous articles in medieval philosophy, and his books include: Modal Syllogistics in the Middle Ages (2000), Representation and Objects of Thought in Medieval Philosophy (2007), and Rethinking the History of Skepticism (2010). He is also the editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy (2010).
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