- The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Philosophy
- The Late Ancient Background to Medieval Philosophy
- Greek Philosophy
- Arabic Philosophy and Theology before Avicenna
- Avicenna and Afterwards
- Averroes and Philosophy in Islamic Spain
- Medieval Jewish Philosophy in Arabic
- Jewish Philosophy in Hebrew
- Latin Philosophy to 1200
- Latin Philosophy, 1200–1350
- Latin Philosophy, 1350–1550
- Medieval Philosophy after the Middle Ages
- Logical Form
- Logical Consequence
- Meaning: Foundational and Semantic Theories
- Mental Language
- States of Affairs
- Parts, Wholes and Identity
- Material Substance
- Mind and Hylomorphism
- Body and Soul
- Scepticism and Metaphysics
- Freedom of the Will
- Moral Intention
- Virtue and Law
- Natural Law
- Arguments for the Existence of God
- Philosophy and the Trinity
Abstract and Keywords
The first section of this article summarizes some key points of the possible worlds semantics, one of the most influential philosophical modal paradigms of the last century. The second section describes the main lines of the medieval uses of traditional extensional modalities, particularly in obligations logic and indirect proofs. The third section offers a brief account of early medieval deviations from ancient modal theories. The fourth section deals with Duns Scotus's intentional modal semantics and its applications. The fifth section discusses the influence of new modal semantics on modal logic.
Simo Knuuttila is Professor of Thelogical Ethics and the Philosophy of Religion at the University of Helsinki. His publications include Modalities in Medieval Philosphy (1993) and Emotions in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy (2006).
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