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date: 20 February 2020

(p. 777) Index

(p. 777) Index

Page numbers in bold indicate figures or tables.

Abascal Carranza, Carlos, 352–53
abortion, 137, 225, 229, 538–39
abstentionism, 61, 67, 173
Abundis, Francisco, 604
access-to-information law, 272–73, 385, 389
accountability, 8, 15, 24, 91, 102, 111, 127, 270, 275, 335, 367, 369, 376, 390, 391, 410, 425, 436, 591–92, 666, 687, 738, 747, 758–59
Acosta, Mariclaire, 15, 18–19, 457
Acteal massacre, 218, 230n6
Adams, John, 31
advertising, 370, 372, 387
Aeroméxico Airline, 755
Aguayo Quezada, Sergio, 606
Aguirre Meza, Leonel, 280
Aguirre Velázquez, Ramón, 132
Agustín I, emperor, 36–37
Alcántara Sáez, Manuel, 286–87
Alduncin, Enrique, 600
Alduncin y Asociados, 604
alegality, 469, 483n11
Alemán, Miguel, 62, 65, 135, 259n8, 282n2, 293, 679
Alianza Cívica, 216
Allende, Ignacio, 35
Alliance for Change, 512–13, 532
Alliance for Progress, 715
Almazán, Juan Andreu, 57
Al Qaeda, 688
Althusius, Johannes, 32
Alvarez, Griselda, 460
Alvarez, Juan, 43
Alvarez, María Elena, 450
A.M., 600
AMEDI (Mexican Association for the Right to Information), 387
American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR), 606, 612
American Marketing Association (AMA), 612
Americas Barometer, 611
Amezcua Contreras, 473
Amigos de Fox, 321, 532
Amnesty International, 270–71, 274–75
amparos, 323, 330
anarchy, 39–40
anti-Americanism, 649–50, 652, 662
anticlerical policies, 532
anti-Communism, 704
antiglobalization, 400–401
Antiguo Régimen, 32–46
anti-immigrant sentiment, 702–3, 715
anti-imperialism, 170
antipoverty programs
conditional cash transfers, 559
decentralization, 549–51, 558
economic development, 7
Fox administration, 21, 559
impact in politics, 21, 557–58
income inequality, 332–33 n 7, 736
Opportunidades, 7, 88, 178, 180, 223, 559
presidential election of 2006, 574
Progresa, 557–59
Pronasol (National Solidarity Program), 8–9, 26, 106–7, 223, 549–51, 557–58, 560, 736, 755–58
public education, 557
Solidaridad, 223
Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, 558–59
vote buying, 557–58
voter turnout, 581
Zedillo administration, 21, 88, 559–60
Anti-Reelectionist Party, 55–56
(p. 778) antitrust policies, 329
Aponte Polito, Sergio, 280
APPO (Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca). See Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca (APPO)
Archivo General de la Nación, 49
ARCOP, 604
Arellano-Felix organization, 473
Argentina, 20, 120, 160–61, 227, 228, 236, 372, 624, 727
Arizona, 26, 712–13, 727
Arizpe, Ramos, 37
armed forces. See also civil-military relations
Access to Information Act of 2003, 272–73
accountability, 275
after independence, 676
armament acquisition, 273
Army Day, 280
autonomy, 266, 270, 275, 282, 283n10
Ávila administration, 282 n1
budget bills, 272–73
and the Catholic Church, 281–82
caudillos, 676
Center for Research and National Security (CISEN), 277
centralization, 265
corruption scandals, 724
developmentalist tasks, 278
Disciplinary Law for the Army and Air Force, 271
Disciplinary Law for the Navy, 271
executive branch, 268, 282
Federal Auditing Agency, 273
Federal Police, 280
fuero militar, 265, 284n15
as guardians of the Revolution, 267
Henriquista rebellion, 282 n2
HIV virus ruling, 272
human rights abuses, 270–71, 273–75, 280–82
Latin America, 265
Military Code of Justice, 275
national security, 283 n13
nonintervention principle, 280
policymaking, 277, 280
and the PRI, 268
professionalization, 267–69, 276–78
promotions process, 269
public security operations, 428–29
rule of law, 276
subjective control, 268–69
Tlatelolco Square massacre, 269, 283n3, 283n4
torture practices, 270, 274, 428
arms trade, 726, 740–41
arraigo, 431
Article 115, 556
Article 123, 336, 356–57 n 4, 357n5
Article 129, 442–43 n 23
Article 19, 387–88
Asemblea Legislativa del Distrito Federal (ALDF), 137
Asia, 329, 730, 731, 737–38
Asociación Cívica Nacional Revolucionaria (ACNR), 59, 679
Asociación Mexicana de Estudios de Opinión Pública, 612–13
Asociación Nacional de Gobernadores (ANAGO), 136
Aspe, Pedro, 754
assassination, 56, 138, 197, 279, 498, 724, 770n11
asymmetry, 649, 656, 661, 666–67, 674, 700–701, 715, 728
authoritarianism
candidate selection process, 504–6
decentralization, 556
and democracy, 54, 235, 481–82
democratic transition, 66, 438
elections, 54, 72n43
elites, as politicians, 286
governorship, 131, 137, 404
human rights abuses, 19
incumbents, 171
inequality, 319
journalism, 376, 383
local politics, 555
media, 379–82
New Federalism, 131
Oaxaca teacher's strike, 217
organized labor, 335–38, 356
and the PAN, 182
polyarchy, 74 n86
PRI hegemony, 148–50, 181, 234
Revolution of 1910, 56, 169, 425–26
Russia, 624
voter turnout, 510
Autonomous Technological Institute of Mexico, 305, 449
(p. 779) Autonomous University of the Federal District, 202, 229n1
autonomy
armed forces, 266, 270, 275, 282, 283n10
bilateral interdependence, 650
candidate selection process, 144, 305
civil-military relations, 83, 272, 277
countryside, 65
economic reform policy, 754
electoral courts (TRIFE), 212
Federal Competition Commission (CFC), 770 n15
Federal Electoral Institute (IFE), 193–94
fuero militar, 274
governorship, 123
indigenous rights, 401–2, 417n16
journalism, 370, 376
judiciary, 218–21, 227, 228
local politics, 546–47
media, 374
Mexico/U.S. relations, 651, 654–55, 661–66
military, 678
municipalities, 102, 129, 654–55
narcotics control, 666
New Spain, 35
Plan of Iguala, 36
social movements, 400–401, 417n16
state elections, 124
Zapatista revolt, 403, 405
auto parts, 733–34
Ávila Camacho, Manuel, 57, 282n1
ayuntamientos, 5, 34, 36, 38
Azcárraga Jean, Emilio, 384–85
Azteca, Televisión, 524, 537
Babb, Sarah, 305–6
Bachelet, Michele, 456
Bailey, John, 20
Baja California Norte, 530
Baja California Sur, 450, 452
Bajío, 171
balance of payments, 747–48
Banamex, 600, 610
Banco de Encuestas de Latinoamerica, 612
Banco de México, 600
Banco Nacional de México, 48
bankruptcy, 748, 755
Barbary Wars, 689 n5
Barragan, Marcelino Garcia, 283 n4
Barrales, Alejandra, 459
Barrio Terrazas, Francisco, 129, 174, 320
Bartlett Díaz, Manual, 131, 134, 224, 524–25
Basañez, Miguel, 23–24, 602–4, 606
Battle of Puebla, 677
Bazaine, François, 43–44
Beer, Caroline C., 22
Belden, Nancy, 606
Bendixen-Univisión, 602
Benítez Manaut, Raúl, 83, 277–79, 281
Bensusán, Graciela, 16–17
Berelson, Bernard, 596
Bergman, Marcelo, 689–90 n 10
Bermúdez, Sari, 457
big business, 318, 324, 325, 331, 367, 387. See also business community
BIIACS, 612
bilateral interdependence, 649–61, 666–67, 698–701, 709, 714
Binational Study (1997), 709–10
block grants, 8–9
Bolivia, 725
Bolsa Família, 88
book fair, 735
borderline, 650–52
Bourbon reforms, 33
bracero program. See immigration policy
Bradley, Will, 411
Brady Plan, 656
brain drain, 372, 728
Brandenburg, Frank, 53
Bravo Mena, Luis Felipe, 174
Brazil, 6, 20, 78, 79, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 120, 160–61, 203, 215, 227, 228, 377, 624, 727, 732, 737
bribes, 683–84
bridge loans, 656
Britain, 651, 688, 704
broadcasting ownership, 18
Bruhn, Kathleen, 11–12, 53, 306
budget bills, 15, 236, 256, 258n3, 272–73, 278–79
(p. 780) Buendía, Manuel, 471
bureaucracy, 8, 48, 102, 113, 448, 450, 746, 748, 753
Bush, George H.W., 500
Bush, George W., 539, 657, 710–11, 714
business community, 15–16, 48, 58, 127, 174, 183n8, 225, 229, 293, 294, 303, 304, 313–32, 332n4, 340, 352, 360n36, 577, 664, 703–4, 723–27, 757, 765, 766, 770n15. See also banks; big business
Business Coordinating Council (CCE), 315–17, 320
Caballero Juárez, José Antonio, 227
Cabañas Barrientos, Lucio, 679
Cabrera, María Rosa Márquez, 458
Cacho, Lydia, 389
caciques, 65, 119, 150
Cajigal, Sergio Estrada, 138
Calderón, Felipe
border control, 711
and the business community, 322
business political ads, 321
candidate selection process, 157, 299
criminal justice reforms, 672
domestic security, 671
election of, 12, 135, 167, 177, 535, 537
electricity industry, 764
executive-initiated legislation, 241, 243
expatriate voting rights, 507
fuero militar, 284 n15
geographic origins of politicians, 302
homicide rate, 468
human rights abuses, 15, 19, 436
immigration law, 26
judicial reform, 219, 226
labor rights, 360–61 n37
market-oriented economy, 750
media reform, 387
Mexico/U.S. relations, 659
migration, 713–14
narcotics control, 659–60
national security, 283 n13
negative campaigning, 22
neoliberal economics, 26
Oaxaca teacher's strike, 217
oil industry, 765
Opportunidades, 180
organized crime, 466, 672
organized labor, 352–54
and the PAN, 174, 178
policymaking, 254–55
sales tax, 765
taxation, 330
women politicians, 456, 458, 462
Zapatista revolt, 671–72
California, 708
Calles, Plutarco Elías, 56–57, 104, 169, 171, 302, 498, 532
Call to Legality, 192
Camacho, Manuel, 703–4
Camarena, Enrique, 471
camarilla system, 170, 172
cambio, 176–77
Camp, Roderic Ai, 16–17, 19, 288, 322, 610–11
campesinos, 736
Campos, Roy, 604
CANACINTRA (National Chamber of Transformation Industries), 319–20
Canada, 635, 733–34, 749
Cananea Copper Mine, 755, 770n17
candidate selection process. See also governorship; presidential elections; PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party)
assassinations, 770n11
autonomy, 144, 305
business community, 294, 315, 320
Calderón administration, 157, 299
camarilla system, 170, 172
career experience of politicians, 321
and the CEN, 11, 146, 147, 148–49, 151–53, 155–58, 160
Chamber of Deputies, 151
changes over time, 305–7
charismatic leaders, 153
coalitions, 639
Consejo Estatal Electoral (CEE), 135
debt crisis, 155
decentralization, 11
dedazo (finger tap), 134, 147, 172, 504–6, 516n9, 535
de la Madrid administration, 756
Democratic Current (Corriente Democrática), 188–89, 306, 504–5
democratic transition, 154–59, 298, 309n21
educational background, 290, 291, 305
Electoral Law of 1946, 170
executive branch, 151–52, 159–60, 237, 249
family dynasties, 153, 299, 300, 301, 516n9
federal deputies, 150–51
Federal District, 194
federal transfers, 145
Fox presidency, 157
Frente Electoral del Pueblo (FEP), 190
incumbents, 158, 159
Latin America, 287
local politics, 309n21
López Obrador presidency, 535
mentoring, 305–6
Mexican Employers’ Confederation (COPARMEX), 320
middle classes, 294, 295, 300, 516n9
multi-party democracy, 513–14
municipalities, 105, 111
neopanistas, 174–75, 183n8
organized labor, 16, 149, 150, 162n12, 174–75, 294, 320, 346–47
and the PAN, 12, 172–73, 293–94, 296, 309n21
Partido de la Revolución Mexicana (PRM), 60
partisanship, 295, 296, 297, 299
personal traits of candidates, 535–36
presidential election of 2000, 292, 535
primary elections, 66, 130, 134, 516n13
public opinion research, 21, 157–58, 503
rural areas, 152
Salinas de Gortari presidency, 189, 505
Secretary of Gobernación, 60–61, 147, 149, 156–57, 160, 162n8
sectoral assemblies, 66–68
single-member-district (SMD), 11, 151
socioeconomic status, 295
state party committee (CDE), 152
student leaders, 296
technocrats, 770n13
term limits, 169, 530
Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación (TEPJF), 135
Union Nacional de Productores de Garbanzos, 183n8
United States of America, 306
unity candidate, 157–59
upper-classes, 300
voter turnout, 508
Wake Forest University conference, 287
women politicians, 291–92, 308n18, 449, 462
working-classes, 294, 295
Zedillo presidency, 134, 157, 505
Cantu, Rodolfo Torre, 138
capitalism, 16, 57, 680, 727, 762
Carabias, Julia, 457
Cárdenas, Alberto, 535
Cárdenas, Cuauhtémoc, 167, 187–89, 193, 198, 350, 507, 533, 535, 537, 642n3, 756. See also Mexico City; presidential election of 1988
Cárdenas, Lázaro, 57–58, 60, 67, 124, 134, 135, 169, 171, 202, 268, 294, 305–6, 532, 703–5
Cárdenas Guillén, Osiel, 472–73
career experience of politicians, 304, 322
Caribbean, 370
Carlos I, 33
Carlos III, 33
Carlota of Belgium, 43
Carranza, Venustiano, 56, 678, 704
Carrillo Fuentes, Amado, 473
Carrillo Olea, Jorge, 133, 138, 404
Carter, Jimmy, 605–6, 708–9
Casanova, Pablo González, 613
Castañeda, Jorge, 205, 306, 436, 500, 532, 711
Castillo, Heberto, 191
Castro, Fidel, 651
Catholic Church
abortion legislation, 137, 229
abstentionism, 173
Antiguo Régimen, 32
and the armed forces, 281–82
candidate selection process, 60
Catholic Association of Young Mexicans (ACJM), 171
Constitution of 1812, 4–5, 34
Constitution of 1857, 40–41
Cristero Rebellion, 171, 633
Cristiada, 56
earthquake relief, 529
election violence, 66
Mexican Republic, 38–39, 104
and the PAN, 171–73, 532
presidential election of 2006, 538
privatization, 40
(p. 782) Reforma wars, 44
regionalism, 632
same sex marriage, 225
School of Salamanca, 32
secularism, 183 n7
Supreme Court of Mexico, 225
voter demographics, 577
voter turnout, 510, 518n23
caudillos, 153, 676
CCE (Private Sector Coordinating Council). See Business Coordinating Council (CCE)
cellular telephone, 372
CEMEFI (Centro Mexicano para la Filantropía), 612
CEN (National Executive Committee), 10, 11, 144–46, 147, 148–49, 151–53, 155–58, 160
censorship, 24, 370–71, 375–76, 601–2
Center for Journalism and Public Ethics (Cepet), 387–88
Center for Public Opinion Studies (CEOP), 605
Central America, 652, 709, 713, 722, 725–26, 729, 742n5
Central Bank, 759, 770n15
Central Coordinator of the Homeless (CUD), 408–10
centralization, 9–10, 33, 39, 41, 103–5, 119, 121–28, 171, 203, 235, 248, 265
Centro de Estudios de Opinión Pública (CEOP), 604
Centro de Investigacion para el Desarrollo (CIDAC), 554
Centro Mexicano para la Filantropía (CEMEFI), 440
Cepeda de León, Elena, 459
certification program, 655, 660, 665–66
Cervera Pacheco, Víctor, 135, 137, 221–22
Chamber of Deputies. See also legislative branch
candidate selection process, 151
divided government, 247
Federal Electoral Institute (IFE), 527
Federal Electoral Reform (LOPPE), 173
federalism, 122
FOBAPROA scandal, 221
governorship, 146
human rights, 435
increase of representatives, 499
incumbents, 183 n2
legislative process, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243
National Education Workers’ Union (SNTE), 347
organized labor, 16
pivotal politics model, 259 n8
political parties, 175, 176
and the PRD, 198, 201–2
and the PRI, 13, 107, 130, 167, 177–78, 192, 235, 237, 245, 529
proportional-representation (PR), 529
Special Commission on Aggression against Journalists, 388
term limits, 123
three-party system, 7
women politicians, 85, 453, 454
Chambers Law, 319–20
Chapultepec Accord, 332 n4
charismatic leaders, 12, 153, 191–92, 198, 200–201
charro (ranch culture), 633
Chávez, Hugo, 177, 205, 536, 733
Chiapas, 18, 153, 193, 218, 271, 283n5, 389, 403, 405, 416n6, 558, 680
Chicago Boys, 736
Chihuahua, 61, 320, 431–32, 439, 473, 605, 679
child prostitution, 428
Chile, 6, 20, 78, 79, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 205, 229, 372, 375, 414, 440, 456, 652, 727, 736–37
China, 355, 737
Christian Democrats, 172, 532, 633
Christmas truce, 513
church attendance, 586, 588–89, 632
CIDE University, 611
cientificos, 49
Ciudadanos en Medios, 389
Ciudad Juárez, 429, 435, 439
Civic Culture, 501, 504, 515, 613
civic journalism, 383
civil disobedience, 6, 64
civil liberties, 83
civil-military relations. See also armed forces; military
accountability, 15, 270
autonomy, 83, 272, 277
Chiapas rebellion, 283n5
(p. 783) democratic transition, 14–15, 83, 94, 282, 673
democratization, 266–67, 270–78
drug war, 277–82
elites, as politicians, 286
executive branch/military pact, 267, 282
Fox administration, 271–72, 275–76
independence, 265–66
legislative branch, 14–15, 269, 272, 275
Obregón administration, 679
opposition parties, 271
pluralism, 271
policymaking, 276
postrevolutionary Mexico, 267–69
and the PRD, 14–15, 271
and the PRI, 83, 267, 269
Revolution of 1910, 267, 678–79
Transparency Law, 15
Zedillo administration, 272
civil organizations, 12
civil rights movement, 706
civil service, 163 n15
civil unions, 137
civil war, 38–39, 41, 56
clientelistic networks, 111, 203, 321–22, 412, 481–82, 509, 638, 684
Clinton, Bill, 709–10, 715
Clouthier, Manuel J., 183n8, 214, 320, 466, 499–500
CMHN (Mexican Businessmen's Council), 315–16, 321
CNC (National Peasant Confederation). See National Peasant Confederation (CNC)
CND (National Democratic Convention), 402
Coahuila, 41
Coalition for the Good of All, 212, 217
Coalition of Workers, Peasants, and Students of the Isthmus (COCEI), 552
coalitions, 631, 637, 639, 642n3
cocaine, 469–70, 474
COECE (Coordinating Council of Foreign Trade Business Organizations), 318
Cofetel, 387
cold war, 651–52, 654, 674, 678, 706
Colima, 406, 614
collateral damages, 429
Colombia, 6, 78, 79, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 279, 680, 722, 725, 727, 739–40
colonialism, 4, 103, 119, 265, 424
colonization, 704
Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, 732–33
Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE), 764
Commission on Immigration Reform, 709
Committee for the Unity of Tepoztlán (CUT), 400, 404–6, 409
commodities, 727, 731
common law, 212, 225–26, 228
Communism, 60, 189, 190, 204–5, 532, 651
Comonfort, Ignacio, 41
Compañía de Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LFC), 764
Comparative Manifestoes Project, 190
Comparative National Election Project (CNEP), 578, 582, 589–90
competition
business community, 323–30, 634, 759
and democracy, 768
and the DTOs, 725
economic development and, 25
elections, 560, 571–74, 607, 622–23
electricity industry, 764
Federal Competition Commission (CFC), 330, 664, 759, 770n15
Institute for Competitiveness (IMCO), 738
judiciary, 560
lack of, 15
local politics, 109, 593
media, 373–75
and NAFTA, 664–65
nation-states, 674
political parties, 591, 768
presidential election of 1988, 601
presidential election of 2006, 639, 640
presidential elections, 597
private sector, 314
public opinion research, 634
statist ideology, 747
television, 383
trade liberalization, 329
comprehensive immigration reform (CIR), 711–12
CONCANACO (National Chamber of Commerce), 317
Concertación, 205
conditional cash transfers, 559
Confederación de Trabajadores de Mexico (CTM). See Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM)
Confederación Nacional Campesina (CNC). See National Peasant Confederation (CNC)
Confederación Nacional de Organizaciones Populares (CNOP), 183 n5
Confederación Patronal de la República Mexicana (COPARMEX). See COPARMEX (Mexican Employers’ Confederation)
Confederación Social Campesina, 65
Confederation of Mexican Labor, 16
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM), 127, 149–50, 169, 337–38, 345, 348, 350–51, 358n19
Conferencia Nacional de Gobernadores (CONAGO), 136
conscription, 6, 64
Consejo Estatal Electoral (CEE), 135
conservatives, 40, 41
conspiracy theories, 215
Constituent Cortes, 36–37
constitutional controversies, 222–24
constitutional monarchy, 40
Constitution of 1812, 4–5, 34, 37
Constitution of 1824, 37, 39, 103–4, 120, 425
Constitution of 1836, 39, 121
Constitution of 1857, 40–42, 46, 104, 121
Constitution of 1917, 83, 96n17, 104, 121, 183n7, 213, 335–36, 416n7, 425, 497–98, 529, 531, 704
Constitution of 1983, 107
Constitution of Apatzingán, 35, 424–25
Constitution of Cádiz, 36
Consulta, 604
contraception, 538
Convention 169, 405
Convergencia, 207 n7
Coolidge, Calvin, 653, 703–4
Coordinating Council of Foreign Trade Business Organizations (COECE), 318
COPARMEX (Mexican Employers’ Confederation), 174, 317, 320, 352
Corona, Ramón, 43
corporativismo, 172
Corral, Ramón, 49
Corriente Democrático, 59, 80
corruption scandals
armed forces, 724
cocaine smuggling, 469–70
Colombia, 89
coverage of, 758
criminal justice, 431, 688
customs officials, 726
democratic transition, 7, 684
and domestic security, 688
drug war, 280
and DTOs, 25, 89, 474–78, 484n20, 683, 722, 741n1
ejido system, 741 n1
elections, 62, 221–22, 230n6, 535, 741n1
FOBAPROA scandal, 204, 221
Human Development Index (HDI), 89
human rights abuses, 428, 437
immigration policy, 90
investigative journalism and, 18
judiciary, 219, 226, 685
Latin America, 90
Mexico, 89, 90
military, 18
money laundering, 321
municipalities, 102, 112
narco-industrial complex, 728, 740
narcotics control, 666
organized crime, 24–25, 468
organized labor, 354
police-justice system, 90, 672, 675, 686, 688
porfiriato, 47
presidential election of 1988, 11–12
and the PRI, 741 n1
public opinion research, 611
state legislatures, 221–22
subsidies, 741 n1
Transparency International, 7, 89
videoescándalos, 590
Cortes of Cadíz, 4
Cortes of Castilla, 33
Cossío, José Ramón, 223
Cota, Leonel, 215
Council for American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO), 612
(p. 785) Council of Regency, 36, 43
coups d’état, 266, 651, 677–78
Covarrubias, Ana Cristina, 601
coyotes, 707
Creasey, Robert, 715
Creel, Santiago, 135, 535
Cremoux, Raúl, 601
criminal justice, 225–29, 425, 430–31, 433, 435, 439, 611, 672, 685, 688, 716, 763
criollo caudillos, 265
Cristero Rebellion, 171, 633, 679
Cristiada, 56
CROM (Mexican Regional Labor Confederation), 337, 345, 357n5
CT (Labor Congress), 335, 345–46, 351–52, 354
CTM (Confederation of Mexican Workers). See Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM)
Cuba, 190, 651
CUD (Central Coordinator of the Homeless), 408–10
Cué de Duarte, Irma, 449
cultural backlash, 716
Curran, James, 373
customs officials, 726
CUT (Committee for the Unity of Tepoztlán), 400, 404–6, 409
Dahl, Robert, 65, 74n86
daily polls, 609
databases, 612
Data OPM, 604, 611
Davidow, Jeffrey, 657
daylight-savings time, 135–36
debt crisis
bridge loans, 656
business community, 316–18
candidate selection process, 155
de la Madrid administration, 128–29, 339, 548, 748
democratic transition, 79
and DTOs, 469
economic development, 58–59, 87
El Barzón debtor's movement, 400, 406–8
inflation, 339, 748
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 58, 188, 547, 760
job creation, 762
maquiladora industry, 339
and the middle class, 659
municipalities, 106
neoliberal economics, 315
oil industry, 188, 547
and the PRI, 105, 128–29, 512
social movements, 408
and taxation, 74 n84
decapitation strategy, 472
decentralization
antipoverty programs, 549–51, 558
authoritarianism, 556
candidate selection process, 11
de la Madrid administration, 134, 551, 556
and democracy, 128
democratic transition, 8–9, 134
democratization, 9, 446
economic development, 548
elections, 124
executive branch, 9
federalism, 8–9, 446
governorship, 9
local politics, 9–10, 22, 555–60
municipalities, 7–8, 129, 556–57
Municipal Reform, 129
policymaking, 624
political parties, 105–7
and the PRD, 624
presidential power and, 14
and the PRI, 8–9, 66, 119–20, 145–46, 556
state legislatures, 9–10
taxation, 223
Zedillo administration, 107, 155
dedazo (finger tap). See candidate selection process
defamation laws, 385, 389–90
deforestation, 409
Dehesa, Teodoro A., 49
de la Garza, Lázaro, 40–41
de la Madrid, Miguel
debt crisis, 128–29, 339, 548, 748
decentralization, 134, 551, 556
depression, 757
deregulation, 754
earthquake, 408–10
economic development, 733, 736
economic reform policy, 749
elites, as politicians, 288
(p. 786) GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), 188
market-oriented economy, 746
Mexico/U.S. relations, 653
municipalities, 106
neoliberal economics, 189, 504
presidential election of 1988, 59
privatization, 317, 339–40, 751
PSE (Economic Solidarity Pact), 317–18
recession, 525
trade liberalization, 738
Washington Consensus, 731
women politicians, 289, 290
de la O, Genovevo, 58
de la Peña, Ricardo, 604
de las Casas, Bartolomé, 424
de las Heras, María, 604
Delgado Peralta, Martha, 458–59
democracy. See also democratic transition; democratization; rule of law
authoritarianism, 54, 235, 481–82
business community, 318–23
candidate selection process, 513–14
Colombia, 6, 92, 93
and colonialism, 4
Committee for the Unity of Tepoztlán (CUT), 405
competition, 768
corruption scandals, 89
decentralization, 128
Democratic Current (Corriente Democrática), 195
and DTOs, 20, 468–69
gunman's democracy, 68
human rights, 18–19, 389, 432
illiberal democracy, 83, 94
Latin America, 6, 82, 92, 93, 95
Latinobarómetro, 611
leftist politics, 187–95
levels of democracy, 82
liberal-pluralist ideals, 369–79
local politics, 9–10, 545–46, 561
media, 379–80
Mexico/U.S. relations, 658–59
multi-party democracy, 138–39, 145, 513–14, 548, 551
municipalities, 102
narco-politics, 466
National Endowment for Democracy, 663
and nationalism, 657
opposition parties, 768
organized labor, 345–46
party ideology, 206n1
party politics, 144–45
pluralism, 5
political advertising, 18
political parties, 144–45
Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca (APPO), 411
pre-democratic era, 17–18, 22, 289, 292, 293, 303, 304
and the PRI, 66
public opinion research, 7, 24, 92, 93, 414, 591, 596–97, 614–15
savage democracy, 66
during Spanish rule, 5
state legislatures, 138–39
United States of America, 658–59
urban areas, 499
USAID, 663
voter turnout, 581
democratic consolidation, 289, 292, 293, 304
Democratic Current (Corriente Democrática). See presidential election of 1988
democratic transition. See also democratization; elections; presidential election of 1988
accountability, 758
authoritarianism, 66, 438
business community, 15–16, 313–14
cambio, 176–77
candidate selection process, 154–59, 298, 309n21
career experience of politicians, 304, 305
and the CEN, 155–58
civil-military relations, 14–15, 83, 94, 282, 673
clientelistic networks, 684
concertacesiones, 213–14
corruption scandals, 7, 684
crazy quilt, 553–54
debt crisis, 79
decentralization, 8–9, 134
deficiencies of, 437–40
democratic consolidation, 288
and DTOs, 20, 95
earthquake impact, 548
(p. 787) economic development, 469
economic reform policy, 745, 758–60, 768–69
electoral culture, 68
electoral reforms, 190
elites, 288, 289, 309n24, 399
executive branch, 128, 133, 235–38, 257
family dynasties, 300
Federal Electoral Institute (IFE), 128, 524
Freedom House scorecard, 80, 81, 96n7
geographic origins of politicians, 302
governorship, 133–38, 155, 292
human rights, 18–19, 270, 427–28
illiberal democracy, 83
indigenous rights, 431
journalism, 367–68, 383, 392
judiciary, 13–14, 94, 132–33, 415, 438, 684–85
Latin America, 438, 682
leftist politics, 11, 80, 413
legislative branch, 14, 95
lobbying, 767
local politics, 547
media, 17–18, 380
metaconstitutional powers, 257
Mexican Political Biographies Project (MPBP), 288
Mexico/U.S. relations, 662
municipalities, 6–8, 136
and NAFTA, 80
nature of, 77–83
neoliberal economics, 26
New Federalism, 130–32
and NGOs, 80, 440
nongovernmental careers, 293
opposition parties, 10, 514
organized crime, 682, 684
organized labor, 335–36, 688
and the PAN, 167–68, 179
patronage networks, 684
pluralism, 81, 128, 684
political parties, 6–7, 79–84, 85, 94–95, 298, 399
political volatility, 182
Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca (APPO), 410–12
and the PRD, 11–12, 155, 187, 206
pre-democratic era, 288
and the PRI, 21, 79, 95, 128, 525, 553–54
public insecurity, 681–84
public interest journalism, 392
public opinion research, 24
reelection rule, 8, 95
rule of law, 211
in Russia, 624, 687
Salinas administration, 132, 663, 670n37
security challenges, 675
social movements, 398–99
socioeconomic status of politicians, 303
state legislatures, 9, 128–38
subnational politics, 553–54
technocrats, 305
television, 383–84
urbanization, 79
voters, 526, 592–93
voter turnout, 78, 508
women politicians, 86, 287, 450, 463–64
Zedillo administration, 760
democratization. See also democracy; democratic transition
and the business community, 331–32
civil-military relations, 266–67, 270–78
decentralization, 9, 446
demographics, 22–23
divided government, 769
drug war, 138
economic reform policy, 763, 766–68
elections, 83, 94, 533–36
human rights, 432
judicial reform of 1994, 219–20
Latin America, 659
local politics, 553–54, 624
municipalities, 103, 111, 113
organized labor, 16–17, 338–51
and the PAN, 174
presidency, 14
public opinion research, 525
and the rule of law, 681
social movements, 412–15
Subnational Politics and Democratization in Mexico, 553–54
voted transition, 574
voters, 571–74
women politicians, 17
demographics, 571, 573–74, 575, 577–81, 696, 700
deportations, 699, 704–5, 707, 710, 712
deregulation, 744, 749–50, 754, 755
(p. 788) desertion rates, 15
Díaz, Felix, 45
Díaz, Porfirio, 43–49, 55–56, 104, 213, 300, 304, 651, 677
Díaz, Socorro, 449
Díaz Guerrero, Rogelio, 600
dictatorships in Latin America, 678
Diez, Jordi, 14–15
dirty wars, 270, 427, 435, 680
Disciplinary Law for the Army and Air Force, 271
Disciplinary Law for the Navy, 271
disequilibrium, 468–69, 471
diversification, 610–12
divided government, 235, 238–39, 241, 242, 247–58, 767, 769
domestic drug consumption, 683–84
domestic investment, 323, 326, 327, 328
domestic policy, 650, 655, 657, 659–60, 664–65, 699–700
domestic security, 666, 671–72, 673, 674–75, 678–81, 686–88, 698
domestic violence, 203, 428
dominant presidency, 237, 239, 241, 242, 257
Domingo, Pilar, 226
Domingo Arenas, 65
Domínguez, Jorge I., 22
Dominican Republic, 371
double militancy, 410
DREAM Act, 712
Drijanski, Patricia, 152
Drug Free America Foundation Inc, 226
drug-trafficking organizations (DTOs). See DTOs (drug-trafficking organizations)
drug war. See also Calderón, Felipe; DTOs (drug-trafficking organizations)
accountability, 91
bilateral interdependence, 666
budget bills, 278–79
certification program, 655
civil-military relations, 277–82
collateral damages, 429
corruption scandals, 280
domestic drug consumption, 683–84
domestic security, 178, 278, 666
Fox administration, 279
GDP, 25, 683
gun control in America, 686–87
human rights abuses, 15, 19, 278, 428, 436, 672
illegal alien problem, 716
immigration, 27
and incumbency, 180–81
Inter-American Development Bank, 25
and the judiciary, 229
Latin America, 95, 279, 428, 722, 725, 739–40
legalization of drugs, 226
Mexico/U.S. relations, 27, 660, 670n45
migration, 25, 707, 713–14, 717
and the military, 15, 90–91, 685–86
money laundering, 686
municipalities, 561
national security, 15, 24–25, 182, 277, 282, 666
Planning Center for Drug Control, 280
political impact of, 12–13, 551
state legislatures, 137–38
terrorism, 279
Turkey, 725, 740
and the United States, 25, 95, 660, 670n45
DTOs (drug-trafficking organizations). See also Calderón, Felipe; drug war; individual organizations; narco-industrial complex
assassination, 724
bilateral interdependence, 652
bribes, 683–84
business community, 723–27
candidate selection process, 478–80
coalitions, 471–72
cocaine smuggling, 469–70, 474
competition, 725
corruption scandals, 25, 89, 474–75, 477–78, 484n20, 683, 722, 741n1
debt crisis, 469
decapitation strategy, 472
and democracy, 20, 468–69
democratic transition, 20, 95
economic development, 7, 25, 469
economic reform policy, 745, 758–60, 768–69
elites, 472–73, 476
evolution of, 482n3
Federal Security Directorate (DFS), 471
GDP, 475
governance, 466–67
governorship, 131
guerrilla movements, 477
(p. 789) homicide rate, 468
human rights abuses, 482
income inequality, 683–84
infiltration of government, 468
informal economy, 480–81
internecine violence, 672
intimidation, 723–24
journalists, 472–73
judiciary, 477–79
kidnappings, 723
legislative branch, 477
marijuana, 476
massacres, 723
and the media, 18, 472–75, 479–80
Mexico/U.S. relations, 655
migration, 717
and the military, 467–68, 479
money laundering, 471, 474–76, 723
and NAFTA, 682–83
national security, 7, 480, 681
ni-ni's (ni estudian, ni trabajan), 683
oligopoly, 723, 739
paramilitary organizations, 472, 484n20
police-justice system, 467–68
policymaking, 468, 652
political campaigns and, 480, 486n46
and the PRI, 471–72, 480
prisoners rights, 473
public safety, 467
reorganization of, 471
rule of law, 482
security trap, 467–68
shadow economy, 478–79
shadow police, 478–79
smuggling, 470–71
state capture, 477–78
taxation, 683
and terrorism, 20, 477–78, 480
torture practices, 472–73
and the United States, 7, 473–74, 688
weapons, 476–77
dual citizenship, 507
Durango, 181
Dutch disease, 730
Earth Day, 413
earthquake, 59, 80, 129, 189, 398, 400, 408–10, 499, 529, 548, 748
Ebrard, Marcelo, 206, 225, 458
Echeverria, Luis, 149, 298, 316, 427, 708–9, 731
economic development. See also economic reform policy; GDP; NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area)
accountability, 738
antipoverty programs, 7
Asia, 730, 737–38
big business, 325
Chicago Boys, 736
competition, 25
debt crisis, 58–59, 87
decentralization, 548
de la Madrid administration, 733, 736
democratic transition, 469
domestic investment, 323, 326, 327, 328
and the DTOs, 7, 25, 469
economic modernization, 623–24, 627, 630, 634–35, 636, 637, 639–40
El Barzón debtor's movement, 417n22
elections, 533–40
entertainment industry, 735
exports, 731, 733, 738
federal government, 747–48
foreign investment, 323, 325, 326, 327, 328
Fox presidency, 176–77
illegal alien problem, 739
and the illicit economy, 682–83
immigration policy, 702–3, 715
import-substitution-industrialization (ISI), 469, 525, 735
income inequality, 316, 731, 736
and incumbency, 180–81
industrialization, 316, 339
investment in, 323
Latin America, 86, 87, 732–33, 736–37
and local politics, 545, 547, 550–55
manufacturing sector, 635, 730, 732–36
market-oriented economy, 370, 383, 658–59, 662–64, 669n27, 744–46, 750
Mexican miracle, 58, 316, 323–24, 381, 547
Mexican Republic, 47–48
monopolistic practices, 331
municipalities, 109
narco-industrial complex, 740
National Lottery, 354
oil industry, 316, 748
Opportunidades, 7
and organized crime, 681, 689–90n 10
(p. 790) partisanship, 589, 592
per capital income, 86, 87
policymaking, 324, 655
porfiriato, 48
PRI hegemony, 170
private sector, 313, 332n1
privatization, 87
protectionism, 316, 735, 744
PSE (Economic Solidarity Pact), 314, 317–18, 331, 769n5
and public safety, 682
recession, 194
remittances, 328, 507, 701
restructuring process, 338–41, 354–55
Salinas administration, 654, 731, 733
shadow economy, 481
Shared Development, 316
sociotropic voting, 534
Stabilizing Development program, 705
statist ideology, 747–48
tourism in Mexico, 739
unemployment rate, 682
Washington Consensus, 731
Zedillo administration, 731
economic reform policy, 538–39, 627, 630, 744–46, 749–62, 751, 761, 763, 764, 765–69. See also neoliberal economics
educational background, 290, 291, 305, 447–49, 517n21, 573, 576, 579, 581, 586, 587, 632, 658
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 705
Eisenstadt, Todd A., 13–14
Ejército Insurgente Mexicano (EIM), 680
Ejercito Popular Revolucionario (EPR), 680
ejido system, 169, 173, 401, 416n7, 419n39, 736, 741n1, 750
El Barzón debtor's movement, 400, 406–8, 417n22
El Día, 605
elections. See also candidate selection process; Federal Electoral Institute (IFE); presidential elections; voters; voter turnout
antipoverty programs, 21, 557
authoritarianism, 54, 72n43
autonomy, 124
business community, 320–21
campaign reform, 21
Civic Culture, 501, 515
competition, 560, 571–74, 607, 622–23
compulsory voting, 577–78
concertacesiones, 213–14, 216–17
Constitution of 1812, 34–35
corruption scandals, 62, 221–22, 230n6, 535, 741n1
democratic transition, 20–21, 81, 412, 426
democratization, 83, 94, 533–36
economic development, 533–40
economic voting, 637
election rigging, 509
Electoral College, 214
Electoral Court of the Judicial Power of the Federation (TEPJF), 212
electoral courts (TRIFE), 13, 173, 212, 214, 514, 524
Electoral Law of 1946, 170
electoral reforms, 22, 67, 173–74, 193–94, 514, 526–30, 548, 760
Electoral Tribunal of the Judicial Power of the Federation (TEPJF), 216
exit-polling, 24, 524, 578, 580, 597, 605, 608–9
financing of, 10, 527–28
hyperpresidency, 5–6, 54–55, 64
incumbents, 181, 533–36, 540
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), 436
judicial oversight, 21
legislative branch, 560
local elections, 129, 546–47, 548, 591
local politics, 21–22, 63–64, 591
mapaches (vote bandits), 196
media, 21, 62, 382, 384, 389, 391, 528, 758, 760
Mexican Republic, 44–45
midterm elections, 235, 237, 385, 393n8, 573, 579, 609–10, 669, 687
mobilizations, 579
municipalities, 8, 65, 68, 106, 109, 320–21
National Revolutionary Party (PNR), 65–66
negative campaigning, 22
one-party rule, 560
organized labor, 62–64, 337, 350–51, 353
Partido Popular Socialista (PPS), 67
partisanship, 23, 513, 533–36
political advertising, 18
political recruitment, 4
polyarchy, 64–68
postelectoral conflict, 213–14, 229n3
pre-election polling, 597, 603, 604–5, 608–9, 613, 617n27
and the PRI, 8, 107, 167, 235, 237, 245, 529, 573, 605, 629, 746, 769n2
primary elections, 11, 60, 66, 130, 134, 146, 147, 156–58, 159, 160, 196, 503, 505–6, 516n13, 526, 535, 537, 565–66
proportional-representation (PR), 61, 67, 106, 173
public financing, 155, 169, 173, 196, 205–6
public opinion research, 21, 501, 502–3, 537, 599, 604–7
regime cleavage, 511–12
regionalism, 3, 23, 630, 631, 640–41
as ritual, 53, 68, 381–82, 552
Salinas administration, 214
secret ballot, 405
sociotropic voting, 534
during Spanish rule, 4–5
state legislatures from 1979–2003, 175
strategic voting, 538–40, 609
televised debates, 535–36, 573, 606
transparency, 21
usos y costumbres, 405
violence, 63, 190
vote buying, 216–17
and the Zapatistas, 401
Zedillo administration, 528–29, 663
electricity industry, 764, 767
elites
bank nationalization, 748
business community, 316, 322
candidate selection process, 504
civil-military relations, 286–87
decisionmaking, 306–7
democratic transition, 288, 289, 309n24, 399
and the DTOs, 472–73, 476
economic reform policy, 756
election reform, 412
family dynasties, 299, 300, 322
generational differences, 301, 309n24
and human rights, 433, 435, 437
and the judiciary, 685
in Latin America, 286
media, 379, 381, 391
Mexican Political Biographies Project (MPBP), 288
Mexico/U.S. relations, 667
and the middle class, 659
and NAFTA, 664
narco-industrial complex, 724, 740
newspapers, 371
organized labor, 338–39
out-migration, 728
pluralism, 288
policymaking, 747
political campaigns, 498–99
as politicians, 286–87, 289, 307, 448–50
presidential election of 2006, 590
proportional-representation (PR), 464 n3
public interest journalism, 384
public opinion research, 599
radio, 371–72
regionalism, 630
social movements, 412–13
technocrats, 548, 746
women politicians, 286–87, 289, 448–50
and the Zapatistas, 403
Elizondo, Patricia Flores, 458
El Nacional newspaper, 604–5, 612
El Norte newspaper, 600, 605
emigrants, 561
employer protection contracts, 340
Encuestalia, 604
Encuesta Nacional de Corrupcion y Buen Gobierno, 611
ENCUP, 611
ENGOs (environmental non-governmental organizations), 409–10, 413, 417n28
Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act (EBSVERA), 711
enterprise crime, 470
entertainment industry, 735
environmental movement, 400, 405, 408–10, 417n28, 436, 660, 664
Environmental Protection Law and Forestry Law, 409
Escobedo, Mariano, 43–44
Esparagoza Moreno, Juan José, 473
(p. 792) Espinosa Cantellano, Patricia, 458
Estado de México, 181, 199–200
Este País, 604–6, 614–15
ethics codes, 376, 387–88
eugenics movement, 702
European Society for Opinion and Market Research (ESOMAR), 612–13
European Union, 436
Evangelicals, 577
Examen, 605
Excélsior, 605
exceptionalism, 77–78, 94
exclusion clauses, 336–37, 356n3
executive branch. See also presidential elections
armament acquisition, 273
armed forces, 268, 282
budget bills, 236
business community, 321–22
candidate selection process, 151–52, 159–60, 237, 249
career experience of politicians, 322
centralism, 83
centralization, 9, 235
civil-military relations, 267, 282
Constitution of 1824, 37
decentralization, 9
democratic transition, 128, 133, 235–38, 257
divided government, 238–39, 248, 767
dominant presidency, 237
eligibility requirements, 516 n9
executive-initiated legislation, 239, 240, 242, 243
family dynasties, 299, 301
as guardian of stability, 256–57
and human rights, 438
hyperpresidency, 64, 119–20
immigration policy, 700
intermestic relationship, 660
international treaties, 243
judiciary, 745
legislative branch, 745–46
legislative process, 244, 245, 246
Mexican Republic, 39
Mexico/U.S. relations, 662, 666
party militancy, 298
patronage networks, 249
pivotal politics model, 248–56
policymaking, 235
policy shocks, 234–35
power of, 203–4
presidencialismo, 219, 745
PRI hegemony, 14, 130, 149, 234
public opinion research, 235
Supreme Court of Mexico, 218–20
and the technocrats, 746
term limits, 497
veto power, 151, 235–36, 257
women politicians, 19, 291, 456–59
exit-polling. See elections
expansionism, 649–51
expatriate voting rights, 503, 506–8, 514–15, 716
extortion-protection, 470–71, 481
factions, 196–97, 206
Failed State Index, 91
family dynasties, 153, 287, 299, 300, 301, 322–23, 328–29, 369, 380, 516n9, 552
FDN (National Democratic Front), 59, 187, 189–92, 642n3
Federación de Partidos del Pueblo Mexicano (FPPM), 58
Federal Access to Information Institute (IFAI), 389
Federal Auditing Agency, 273
Federal Competition Commission (CFC), 330, 664, 759, 770n15
Federal Conciliation and Arbitration Tribunal, 336, 356–57n 4
federal deputies, 150–51
Federal District, 194, 458–59
Federal Electoral Institute (IFE), 22, 80, 128, 173, 193–94, 207n8, 215–16, 230n6, 387, 508, 513, 523–24, 527–29, 572, 578–79, 591, 760
Federal Electric Commission (CFE), 329
federal government
accountability, 369
economic development, 747–48
Federal Institute for Access to Information (IFAI), 431, 436
Federal Labor Law, 336, 356n3, 704, 766
Federal Law on Transparency and Access to Information, 427
(p. 793) Federal Police, 280
Federal Promotion Law, 444–45 n 47
Federal Security Directorate (DFS), 471
federal transfers, 107–9, 111–12, 130, 134, 145, 155, 223
Federation of Public Service Workers’ Unions (FSTSE), 347, 348, 358n20
power structure, 745
public opinion research, 605, 614
security functions, 672, 673
Félix Gallardo, Miguel Angel, 471
feminicidios, 435, 439
feminism, 447
Fernández, Arturo, 754
Fernando VII, 33, 35–37
Figueroa, Rubén, 63–64, 131
First Federal Republic, 38–39
Fitch, Samuel, 278
Flores, Luis Alamillo, 58
flower vendors, 672
FOBAPROA scandal, 204, 221
food, 684, 762
Ford, Gerald, 708
foreign investment, 323, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 339, 372, 655, 678, 727–28, 731, 733–34, 745, 748, 757, 760, 761
foreign policy, 136, 431, 435–36, 443n30, 660, 702, 710, 715
Fox, Martha, 353
Fox, Vicente. See also PAN (National Action Party); presidential election of 2000
Alliance for Change, 512–13, 532
Amigos de Fox, 321, 532
antipoverty programs, 21, 559
and the business community, 320, 322
candidate selection process, 157
civil-military relations, 271–72, 275–76
criminal justice reforms, 685
decapitation strategy, 472
drug war, 279
economic development, 176–77
election of, 12, 132–33, 167, 500, 573
electoral reforms, 194
electricity industry, 767
ENGOs (environmental non-governmental organizations), 409–10
environmental movement, 436
executive-initiated legislation, 239
expatriate voting rights, 507
Federal Electoral Institute (IFE), 80–81
Federal Labor Law, 766
governorship, 174–75, 176, 193, 531
human rights agenda, 426–29, 434, 436
immigration policy, 660, 697, 708, 710–12, 714
indigenous rights, 255
judicial reform, 219
market-oriented economy, 750
Mexico/U.S. relations, 653–54, 659
money laundering, 321
municipalities, 108
negative campaigning, 22, 537
neoliberal economics, 26
and NGOs, 444–45n 47
Oaxaca teacher's strike, 217
oil industry, 765
Opportunidades, 178, 559
and organized labor, 351–53
PAN candidate for governor, 129
PEMEXGate, 230n6
pivotal politics model, 255
Plan Puebla-Panama (PPP), 419n39
policymaking, 254
Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca (APPO), 411
popularity of, 534–35, 538–40
and the PRD, 187
pre-election polling, 609
quotas, 19
San Andrés Accords on Indian Rights, 416n12
support for, 176
taxation, 177, 765, 767, 770n20
televised debates, 537
Tlatelolco Square massacre, 217
veto power, 238, 256
voter turnout, 580
women politicians, 457–58, 462
Zapatista revolt, 428
fractionalism, 196–97
France, 4, 33, 39, 42–43, 676–77
Franco, Itamar, 737
fraud. See elections
Freedom House scorecard, 80, 81, 96n7
freedom of expression, 375–76, 378
(p. 794) Frente Democrático Nacional (FDN), 59, 187, 189–92, 642n3
Frente Electoral del Pueblo (FEP), 190
Frente Zapatista, 68
Friedrich Ebert Foundation, 389
fuero militar. See military
Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación (FAL), 680
Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias Colombianas (FARC), 680
Fuerzas de Liberación Nacional (FLN), 680
Fundacion Este Pais, 611
Fund for Public Security, 278
fundraising, 21, 514
Gabinete de Estudios de Opinión (GEO), 604
Gallegly amendment, 709
Gallup polls, 524, 602–3
Galván, Ferrer, 62
Galvez, Xóchitl, 457–58
Gámiz, Arturo, 679
García, Amalia, 450, 460
García Luna, Genaro, 476
gatekeeping role, 368–70, 377, 390
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), 188, 317, 551
gay rights, 402, 433
GDP, 25, 37, 56, 65, 161n1, 180, 317, 325, 326, 327, 328, 470, 473, 475, 481, 636, 683, 729–33, 760, 761, 762
gender, 581, 586, 587
gender crimes, 435, 462, 612
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)., 551, 749
Germany, 704
ghost unions, 340
Gilded Age, 48
Gillingham, Paul, 5, 8
Giménez, Rafael, 604
Gini coefficient, 323
Glade, William P., 13, 24–25
Global Forum on Migration and Development, 701
globalization, 635, 655, 674, 680–88, 726
golden parachutes, 754–55
golf club, 400
Gómez, Gustavo, 378
Gómez Mont, Fernando, 430
Gómez Pedraza, Manuel, 689 n4
Gómez Sada, Napoleón, 353
Gómez Tagle, S., 414–15
Gómez Urrutia, Napoleón, 353–54
González, Francisco, 46
González, Humberto, 406–7
González, Manuel, 47
González, Pablo, 56
Good Neighbor policy, 715
Gordillo, Elba Esther, 162n6, 354, 449
Gosplan, 729
governance, 466–67, 513, 528–29, 548–50, 552, 555, 560, 684, 699
governorship
agricultural subsidies, 407
armed forces, 268
Asociación Nacional de Gobernadores (ANAGO), 136
assassination, 279
authoritarianism, 131, 137, 404
autonomy, 123
business community, 293
candidate selection process, 11, 146, 147, 149–53, 154, 155, 156, 159, 160, 292, 294, 309n21
career experience, 292, 305
and the CEN, 10
Chamber of Deputies, 146
characteristics of, 124, 125
Conferencia Nacional de Gobernadores (CONAGO), 136
decentralization, 9
democratic transition, 133–38, 155, 292
and DTOs, 131
election rigging, 65, 161n3
family dynasties, 287
Fox election, 174–75, 176, 193, 531
human rights, 137
incumbents, 181
Latin America, 120, 160–61
mayors as stepping stones, 17, 125
media subsidies, 381
military, 153
National Law School, 124
Oaxaca, 554
organized labor, 293
and the PAN, 129, 131–32, 174–75, 317, 500, 530, 573
policymaking, 126
and political success, 161 n3
(p. 795) Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca (APPO), 411
as power brokers, 10
and the PRI, 10, 122–26, 125, 143–44, 161n2, 161n3, 530
public opinion research, 24, 607
reelection, 161
Salinas election, 124
state legislatures as stepping stones, 124–25
student leaders, 293
taxation, 203
term limits, 126
veto power, 127, 133
women politicians, 17, 19, 291, 292, 460–62
Gran Circulo de Obreros de Mexico, 46
Gran Comisión, 127
Great Britain, 38
Great Depression, 56, 702, 705
Green, Rosario, 449–50, 457
green brigades, 409
green cards, 706
Greene, Kenneth F., 306
Green Party (PVEM), 61, 532, 573
gridlock interval, 251, 252, 253
Grotius, Hugo, 32
Grupo Beta, 709
Grupo Carso, 320, 329
Grupo México, 353
Grupo Minera, 770 n17
Grupo Oaxaca, 436
Guadalajara, 305, 614, 735
Guanajuato, 174, 320–21, 531, 680
Guatemala, 6–7, 78, 79, 82, 84–93, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 708, 765
Guerra, François-Xavier, 47
Guerra, Juan N., 472
Guerrero, 178, 200, 268, 435, 553, 679, 680
Guerrero, Isabel, 319, 329
Guerrero, Manuel Alejandro, 375–78
Guerrero, Vicente, 689 n4
guerrilla war, 78–79
guestworker program, 703, 708
Guevara Manzo, Gloria, 458
Gulf cartel, 472–73
gun control, 686–88, 722, 724–25
gunman's democracy, 68
Gutiérrez Barrios, Fernando, 154
Guzmán, Miguel Henríquez, 57–58
Guzmán Loera, Joaquín, 472–73
Habermas, Jürgen, 369–70, 375
Haggard, Stephan, 236
health care, 48, 88, 768
hegemony of the PRI. See also PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party)
candidate selection process, 11, 746
centralization, 121–28, 171
civil service, 163 n15
clientelistic networks, 111
economic reform policy, 753, 755
elections, 746, 769n2
executive branch, 14, 130, 149, 234
hyperpresidency, 121–22, 529
journalism, 368, 380–82
local politics, 21–22
media, 148, 380–82, 512
opposition parties, 499, 746
Parties and Party Systems, 572
party identification, 584
policymaking, 234, 745
reelection rule, 122
regionalism, 630
Secretary of Gobernación, 162 n8
social control, 746
state legislatures, 121–28, 130–31
television, 371
unified government, 238–39, 241
veto power, 767
voter turnout, 498–99
Henrique Cardoso, Fernando, 737
Henriquista Guzmán, Miguel, 282 n2
Henriquista rebellion, 282 n2
Hernández-Rodríguez, Rogelio, 287
Hernández Sánchez, Raquel Olivia, 459
Heroico Colegio Militar, 271
Herrera, Maria Teresa, 457
Herrera Flores, Sandra Denisse, 458
Hidalgo, Miguel, 35
High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCR), 435–36, 699–700
Hiskey, Jonathan T., 21–22
HIV virus, 272
Hobsbawm, Eric, 64
(p. 796) Holmes, Stephen, 211
Homeland Security Act, 711
Hong Kong, 733–34
Hoover, Herbert, 702, 704
Hoshino, Taeko, 328
Hughes, Sallie, 17–18
Human Development Index (HDI), 88, 89
human rights. See also drug war; indigenous rights; judiciary; military; NGOs (non-governmental organizations); torture practices
accountability, 425, 436, 666
Amnesty International, 270–71, 274–75
and the armed forces, 270–71, 273–75, 280–82
authoritarianism, 19
Border Patrol abuses, 707
Central Coordinator of the Homeless (CUD), 408–10
Chiapas rebellion, 271
under colonialism, 424
Constitution of 1824, 425
Constitution of 1917, 425
Constitution of Apatzingán, 424–25
corruption scandals, 428, 437
criminal justice, 425, 433, 435, 439
and democracy, 18–19, 389, 432
democratic transition, 18–19, 270, 427–28
Dirty War, 427, 435
and DTOs, 482
elites, 433, 435, 437
executive branch, 438
Federal Law on Transparency and Access to Information, 427
feminicidios, 435, 439
foreign policy, 431, 435–36, 443n30
Fox administration, 426–29, 434, 436
freedom of expression, 378
governorship, 137
Grupo Oaxaca, 436
High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCR), 435–36, 699–700
Human Rights Commission, 280, 426
Human Rights Council, 443n30
Human Rights Watch, 275
human trafficking, 428
immigrants, 698–99
immigration policy, 709, 712–13
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 19, 273–74, 281, 428–29
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 435–36
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), 436
international treaties, 424–25
journalism, 389
Latin America, 229
and the media, 270, 430, 437
Mexican Commission for the Defence and Promotion of Human Rights, 274
Mexican Federation of Ombudsmen, 444n39
Mexican foreign policy, 431, 443n30
Mexican Institute for Democracy and Security (Insyde), 389
Mexico/U.S. relations, 658–59
migrant rights, 704, 708
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 430–31, 435–36
and NAFTA, 270, 664–65
National Human Rights Commission, 131, 271, 273–74, 281, 427, 429, 433–34
National Human Rights Program, 435
non-refoulement, 700
Oaxaca teacher's strike, 13, 229, 428, 441n9
ombudsmen, 433
opposition parties, 270
Organization of American States (OAS), 434–35
organized crime, 428
and the PAN, 434
policymaking, 438–40
and political parties, 437
and the PRD, 433
and the PRI, 427, 434
prison abuse, 389, 428
public education, 437
public security operations, 425, 436–37
refugee crisis, 432
rule of law, 425, 432, 438
in rural areas, 438
Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture, 430–31
Supreme Court of Mexico, 13, 217, 229
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 425
truth commission, 426–27
(p. 797) Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 423–25
whistleblowers, 19
women, 428–29, 433
writ of amparo, 212–13
Zacatecas Joint Communiqué, 709–10
Huntington, Samuel, 268–69
Hurtado, Javier, 287
hyperpresidency, 5–6, 54–55, 64, 119–22, 529
hypersensitivity, 657–58
Ibarra, Alejandro, 731
Ibarra, Rosario, 214
Ibarra de Piedra, Rosario, 457
Ibero-American University, 613
Iglesias, Ignacio, 40, 45, 213, 228
illegal alien problem. See immigration policy
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), 707, 709–10
illiberal democracy, 83, 94
illicit drugs, 722, 725
illicit economy, 682–83
Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers and Copycats are Hijacking the Global Economy, 729
IMF (International Monetary Fund). See International Monetary Fund (IMF)
immigrants. See immigration policy
immigration. See immigration policy
immigration policy. See also border control; migration
and agriculture, 703, 715
asymmetry of, 715
bilateral interdependence, 698–701, 714
Binational Study (1997), 709–10
bracero program, 702, 704–5, 714–15
Bush administration, 710–11, 714
business community, 703–4
Cárdenas administration, 703–4
Central America, 709, 713
Clinton administration, 709–10, 715
Commission on Immigration Reform, 709
comprehensive immigration reform (CIR), 711–12
corruption scandals, 90
domestic policy, 699–700
DREAM Act, 712
drug war, 27
economic development, 702–3, 715
executive branch, 700
foreign policy, 702, 710
Fox administration, 660, 697, 708, 710–12, 714
Gallegly amendment, 709
green brigades, 706
Homeland Security Act, 711
human rights, 709, 712–13
illegal alien problem, 706–7, 716, 726, 739, 742n5
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), 707, 709–10
immigrants, 698–700, 705, 713–14, 717
Immigration Act of 1917, 703
Immigration Act of 1990, 707
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, 706
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), 706–8
Immigration Working Group, 709
Institute for Mexicans Abroad (IME), 716
International Labor Organization, 699
Johnson-Reed Quota Acts, 703
Kennedy administration, 715
Korean War, 704, 715
labor shortages, 703
laissez-faire regime, 702
Latin America, 703–4
legislative branch, 700
lobbying, 709
Mexico/U.S. relations, 26, 428, 702–5, 708–9, 712–17
migrant rights, 708
and NAFTA, 404
nationalism, 708
national security, 700–701, 703
Obama administration, 711–12, 714
oil industry, 708
organized labor, 704
police-justice system, 712
policy of no policy, 708–10
population growth, 708
poverty, 715
(p. 798) Program for Mexican Communities Abroad (PCME), 716
protectionism, 704–5
pull factor, 706–7
racial profiling, 714
REAL ID Act, 711
reforms of, 660
repatriation, 704
restrictions on, 703–4
SB 1070, 712–13
September 11, 2001, 710–11, 714
Texas Proviso, 705, 715
trade liberalization, 697
unemployment rate in Mexico, 704
unilateralism, 687, 697, 702–4, 714–15
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 699
U. S. Commission on Immigration Reform, 709
U.S. Mexican Binational Commission, 709
visas, 701, 703, 705–7, 713
wages, 715
Working Group on Prospects and Design of Platforms for the Construction of a Mexican Migration Policy 2005, 713
World War I, 705
World War II, 697, 702
Zacatecas Joint Communiqué, 709–10
Zedillo administration, 709–10
impeachments, 133, 221, 590
import-substitution-industrialization (ISI), 469, 525, 635, 730, 735, 747, 749
impunity, 280–81
income distribution, 87, 88
income inequality, 102, 316, 329, 332–33n7, 356, 414–15, 683–84, 731, 736, 760, 762
Indemerc, 604
India, 737
indigenous rights. See also human rights; Zapatista Army of National Liberation's (EZLN)
Acteal massacre, 218, 230n6
autonomy, 401–2, 417n16
colonialism, 265
Constitution of 1812, 34
Convention 169, 405
criollo caudillos, 265
democratic transition, 431
Fox administration, 255
independence, 77
Leyes de Indias, 424
local politics, 554
Mexican Republic, 40, 45
National Indian Congress (CNI), 417n16
National Indigenous Alliance in Support of Autonomy (ANIPA), 417n16
National Peasant Confederation (CNC), 169
Office for the Development of Indigenous Communities, 457
Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca (APPO), 400–401, 405, 411
Reforma wars, 41
regionalism, 633
Salinas de Gortari presidency, 405
San Andrés Accords on Indian Rights, 402–3
torture practices, 428
Yaqui rebellion, 46
individualism, 634
industrialization, 169, 316, 339, 632, 635, 730
inflation, 316, 317, 339–40, 341, 343, 352, 748–49, 760, 762
informal economy, 480–81
infrastructure, 601, 756, 763
Inquisition, 4–5, 34
Institute for Competitiveness (IMCO), 738
Institute for Mexicans Abroad (IME), 713, 716
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). See PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party)
Instituto Ciudadano de Estudios Sobre la Inseguridad (ICESI), 611
Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas, 504
Instituto Federal Electoral (IFE), 61, 85
Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM), 305, 449
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), 449
insurgency, 37–40, 674, 679–80
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 19, 273–74, 281, 428–29
(p. 799) Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 435–36
Inter-American Development Bank, 25, 729
intermestic relationship, 27, 660, 672
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), 436
International Journal of Opinion and Attitude Research, 600
International Labor Institute, 405
International Labor Organization, 699
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 58, 188, 547, 656, 748, 760
international treaties, 243, 424–25, 442–43n 23
Internet, 372, 589–90, 605
intimidation, 723–24, 727, 740
Investigaciones sobre Opinión (ISOP), 604
investments, 324–25, 326, 327, 328
Iran/contra episode, 726
Iraq, 216, 654, 711
ITAM (Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México), 611–14
iterated games, 701
Iturbide, Agustín de, 36, 120, 676
Jalisco, 41, 406, 552, 703, 737
Jaramillo, Rubén, 58
job creation, 760, 762
Johnson-Reed Quota Acts, 703
José I, 33
journalism, 18, 367–71, 373, 375–78, 380–85, 387–90, 392, 392n1, 605. See also journalists; media
journalists, 17–18, 217, 372, 382–85, 387–88, 390, 392n1, 411, 428, 441n9, 471–73, 723, 740–41. See also journalism
Juárez, 279, 462
Juárez, Benito, 40, 41–45, 104, 523, 677
Juárez DTO, 473
Judicial Council, 221
judiciary. See also Supreme Court of Mexico
accountability, 687
autonomy, 218–21, 227, 228
and the business community, 323
competition, 560
corruption scandals, 219, 226, 685
decisionmaking, 306
democratic transition, 13–14, 94, 132–33, 415, 438, 684–85
drug war, 229
and DTOs, 477–79
ecclesiastical courts, 40
economic reform policy, 763
El Barzón debtor's movement, 407
electoral courts (TRIFE), 13, 173, 514, 524
and elites, 685
executive branch, 745
family dynasties, 299, 301
Fox administration, 219
human rights abuses, 19, 425, 428, 437
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 435
journalists, 388
judicial oversight of elections, 21
judicial reform, 228
local politics, 546–47
media oversight, 374
military, 429
narco-industrial complex, 728
New Federalism, 130
organized crime, 25, 675
organized labor, 353, 356–57n 4
party militancy, 298
power of, 83
presidential election of 2006, 167
professionalization, 459, 759
public opinion research, 13–14, 219–20
reforms of, 13, 218–22, 459, 759–60
regime change, 673
rule of law, 211–12, 673
tenure, 219
torture practices, 428
trial system, 225–29
USAID, 663
women politicians, 459
Zedillo presidency, 219–22
Kennedy, John F., 715
Kessel Martínez, Georgina, 458
kidnappings, 473, 679, 723, 727, 740
Kladt Sobrino (KS), 404–5
Klesner, Joseph L., 3, 23
Korean War, 704, 715
Krehbiel, Keith, 248–56
(p. 800) Labastida Ochoa, Francisco, 134, 167, 176, 524, 526, 531, 535–39
Labor Board of Conciliation and Arbitration, 224
Labor Congress (CT), 335, 345–46, 351–52, 354
labor costs, 766
labor shortages, 704
Lacandón rain forest, 402
La Democracia en México, 613
La Familia, 472–73
Lagunes, Gonzalo, 63–64
La Jornada; Opinión Profesional, 604, 605
La Linea DTO, 473
land reform, 401
Langston, Joy, 10–11, 17, 19
Latin America. See also drug war; individual countries
and the armed forces, 265
business community, 331
candidate selection process, 287
cellular telephone, 372
Communism, 190, 204–5
coups d’état, 266, 651, 678
democracy, 6, 82, 92, 93, 95, 662
democratic transition, 438, 682
democratization, 659
dictatorships, 78
economic development, 86, 87, 732–33, 736–37
elites, 286
governorship, 120, 160–61
human rights, 229
immigration policy, 703–4
insurgent movements, 679
Internet, 372
journalism, 370
Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP), 414
Latinobarómetro, 611, 669n27
legalization of drugs, 226
and the media, 377
narco-industrial complex, 729
neoliberal economics, 744
partisanship, 592
political institutions, confidence in, 93
political recruitment, 4
poverty, 205
presidential powers of, 235–36
Project on Race and Ethnicity in Latin America, 612
recession, 738–39
redistributive programs, 25
veto power, 236
voter turnout, 84
women politicians, 20, 85, 86, 456, 464
World Association for Public Opinion Research (WAPOR), 612
Latinos, 707, 716, 735
La Voz de Michoacán, 605
Law on Wildlife, 409
Lawson, Chappell, 22
Lazcano Lazcano, Heriberto, 473
League of Nations, 425
leftist politics. See also PRD (Party of the Democratic Revolution)
Calderón administration, 254–55
and Cárdenas, 187
Chávez presidency, 177
coalitions, 642 n3
Communists, 60, 190
and democracy, 187–95
Democratic Current (Corriente Democrática), 59
democratic transition, 11, 80, 413
dirty wars, 270
economic reform policy, 756
election bans, 572
electoral reforms, 193
and the FDN, 59, 187, 189–92, 642n3
Federal Electoral Reform (LOPPE), 173
Heroico Colegio Militar, 271
ideology, 190, 191, 206n1
insurgent movements, 679–80
Latin America, 177
legalized, 81
López Obrador presidency, 178
market-oriented economy, 662–63
neoliberal economics, 204
populism, 205
presidential elections, 57–58, 178, 499–500, 573–74, 580
rise of, 641–42 n 2
Sinaloa, 593 n9
legislative branch. See also Chamber of Deputies; Senate
budget bills, 236, 258n3
business community, 320–21
(p. 801) career experience of politicians, 305
civil-military relations, 14–15, 269, 272, 275
Constitution of 1812, 34
criminal justice reforms, 685
democratic transition, 14, 95
divided government, 238–39
and DTOs, 477
educational background, 347
elections, 560
and the executive branch, 745–46
executive-initiated legislation, 241, 242
family dynasties, 299, 301
Federal Competition Commission (CFC), 759
immigration policy, 700
Mexican Republic, 39
New Federalism, 130
organized labor, 346–47, 348–49
and the PAN, 132–33
pivotal politics model, 249–56
PRI hegemony, 122, 130
private sector, 322
privatization, 759
proportional-representation (PR), 61, 67
quota system, 447
reelection rule, 84, 96n17, 497
single-member-district (SMD), 529
as source of change, 256–57
Sovereign Provisional Governing Junta, 36
state-labor relations, 336
voter turnout, 575, 578
weakness of, 203
women politicians, 85, 86, 95, 286–87, 290, 291, 450, 451, 452, 462–63
working-classes, 347
legitimacy crisis, 572
Lerdo de Tejada, Sebastián, 40, 45–46
Levy, Daniel, 53
Ley de Población, 713
Leyes de Indias, 424
Ley Federal de Organizaciones Políticas y Procesos Electorales (LOPPE), 67, 173
Ley Televisa, 322
liberalism, 40–44, 46–47, 104–5, 119, 121
liberal-pluralist ideals, 369–79
licensing, 374, 378
Lichtinger Waisman, Victor, 409–10
Licona, Vicente, 604
Liga Comunista del 23
de Septiembre, 679
Limantour, José Yves de, 49
liminality, 384, 392n7
literacy, 6, 64, 501, 601, 703
lobbying, 323, 328, 350, 372, 386, 391, 439–40, 444–45n47, 664, 709, 752, 767
local elections, 5–6, 129, 546–48, 591, 593n9, 623–24, 627, 638, 640–41. See also governorship; mayors
local politics. See also local elections; municipalities
antipoverty programs, 559–60
authoritarianism, 555
autonomy, 456–57
caciques, 65
candidate selection process, 309n21
career experience of politicians, 304, 305
coalitions, 639
competition, 593
decentralization, 9–10, 22, 555–60
and democracy, 9–10, 545–46, 561
democratic transition, 547
democratization, 553–54, 624
economic development, 545, 547, 550–55
family dynasties, 301
fraud, 591
governance, 552
indigenous rights, 554
interest in, 501, 515–16n 3
judiciary, 546–47
opposition parties, 550–55
and the PAN, 10, 128
and the PRD, 552
and the PRI, 21–22, 545, 573
public opinion research, 605
recession, 551
return of, 545–46
socioeconomic status of politicians, 303
voting behavior, 23
women politicians, 292, 461–62
lock-in, 750, 752–53
Lombardo, Marcela, 456–57
López, Carlos, 604
López Mateos, Adolfo, 296–97
López Obrador, Andrés Manuel, 13, 134–35, 167, 174, 178, 182, 196, 202–3, 205, 211–12, 289, 507, 531, 533, 535–36, 584–85, 590. See also presidential election of 2006
(p. 802) López Portillo, José, 190, 290, 316, 457, 548, 708, 731, 748
Lora, Eduardo, 763
Loría, Cecilia, 458
Los Angeles Times, 600, 605
Los Valores de los Mexicanos, 600
Los Zetas DTO, 472–73
Lozada, Manuel, 46
Lula da Silva, Luíz Inácio, 737
Luna Ramos, Margarita, 459
Luther, Martin, 32
Luz Alegría, Rosa, 457
macroeconomic policies, 415, 760
macropartisanship, 581–82, 585, 589
Madero, Francisco, 49, 55–56
Madrazo Pintado, Roberto, 131, 134–35, 178, 351, 526, 531, 535
madrinas, 478–79
mafia, 484 n16
Magallanes, Javier Real, 280
Magaloni, Beatriz, 80, 218–19, 221
Magar, Eric, 256
manufacturing sector. See economic development
Maoist politics, 189
mapaches (vote bandits), 196
maquiladora industry, 339, 355, 409, 734
marijuana, 476
market-oriented economy. See economic development
market research, 597, 604, 612
Martínez, Ifigenia, 450
Martínez, Patricio, 131
Martínez, Rosario, 602
Marxism, 680
massacres, 723
mass graves, 723
Mattiace, Shannan, 18
Maximilian Von Habsburg, 42–43
Mayhew, David R., 168–69
mayors, 17, 19, 106, 110–11, 125–26, 136, 194, 198, 203, 290, 291, 292, 293, 381, 531, 605, 760
McCann, James A., 20–21
media. See also journalism; television
access-to-information law, 385, 389
accountability, 367, 390, 391
advertising, 387
authoritarianism, 379–82
autonomy, 374
business political ads, 321
Calderón administration, 387
competition, 373–75
defamation laws, 385, 389–90
and democracy, 379–80
democratic transition, 17–18, 380
and the DTOs, 18, 472–75, 479–80
economic reform policy, 755
elections, 21, 62, 382, 384, 528, 760
elites, 379, 381, 391
family dynasties, 369, 380
foreign investment, 372
hierarchies in, 368–71
human rights, 270, 430, 437
Ley Televisa, 225
licensing, 374
lobbying, 372, 391
media observatories, 377, 389
Mexican Association for the Right to Information (AMEDI), 387
Mexican Republic, 47
Mexico/U.S. relations, 658
migration-related deaths, 708
monopolistic practices, 228–29, 390, 391
negative campaigning, 22, 528, 536
oligarchy, 387
opposition parties, 384
organized crime, 383
policymaking, 378–79, 385–86, 391
political campaigns, 18, 146, 387, 514, 573, 589–90
political impact of, 4
and the PRD, 197
presidential election of 1988, 500
presidential election of 2000, 524
PRI hegemony, 48, 148, 380–82, 512
private sector, 370, 374
privatization, 26, 758
propaganda, 374
public opinion research, 24, 607, 615
reforms of, 368, 378–79, 387
regulations, 374
subsidies, 374, 381
transparency, 378, 759
voter turnout, 510, 579
median party, 250, 251, 252, 253–54, 258n7
(p. 803) Medina, Felipe, 559
Medina Mora, Eduardo, 475
Medina Plascencia, Carlos, 129–30, 132
Mejía, Tomás, 41
Menchaca, Fernando Vázquez de, 32
Menem, Carlos, 624
Menéndez Alarcón, Antonio V., 371
mentoring, 305–6
Mercado, Patricia, 457
Merkel, Angela, 456
metaconstitutional powers, 235, 237, 257
Mexicana Airline, 755
Mexican-American War, 425
Mexican Association for the Right to Information (AMEDI), 387
Mexican Businessmen's Council (CMHN), 315–16, 321
Mexican Commission for the Defence and Promotion of Human Rights, 274
Mexican Communist Party (PCM), 190
Mexican Electricians’ Union (SME), 354
Mexican Employers’ Confederation (COPARMEX), 317, 320, 352
Mexican Federation of Ombudsmen, 444 n39
Mexican Institute for Café (INMECAFE), 401, 416n6
Mexican Institute for Democracy and Security (Insyde), 389
Mexican Institute of Public Opinion, 599–600
Mexican Institute of Social Security employees, 350
Mexican Mining and Metalworkers’ Union (SNTMMSRM), 353–54
Mexican Political Biographies Project (MPBP), 288, 320
Mexican Regional Labor Confederation (CROM), 337, 345, 357n5
Mexican Research Association (AMAI), 608–9
Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), 338
Mexico. See also Mexico/U.S. relations
Agustín I, emperor, 36
bankruptcy, 499
bilateral interdependence, 649–50
capitalism, 16
democratic transition, 6
democratization, 17, 432
demographics, 601
domestic security, 688
economic development, 7, 95, 331, 730–41
exceptionalism, 77–78, 94
exports, 727
Federal Labor Law, 704
GDP, 25, 317, 470, 475, 732
human rights abuses, 270–71, 428
illegal alien problem, 726
immigration policy, 702–3, 709
income inequality, 102
independence, 33–36, 650–51
Institute for Mexicans Abroad (IME), 716
invaded by U.S., 39, 678
League of Nations, 425
levels of democracy, 82
literacy rates, 501
media reform, 368, 378–79
Mexican-American War, 425, 696
Mexican miracle, 58, 316, 323–24, 381, 547
Mexican Republic, 37–41, 44–49, 104
Mexico Panel Studies, 582
migration to America, 26
Napoleon III invasion, 42–43
nationalism, 649–50
neoliberal economics, 744
Pastry War, 676
political parties, 84, 85
protectionism, 655
Roman law system, 212
security trap, 20, 467–68
Silicon Valley, 735, 737
Sociedad Mexicana de Estudios de Opinión Pública, 612
statistical profile, 79
suffrage, 27 n1
taxation, 765
Texas annexation, 676–77
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 677
voter turnout, 68
women politicians, 85, 86
World Values Surveys, 201, 610
Mexico City
abortion legislation, 137, 225
Asemblea Legislativa del Distrito Federal (ALDF), 137
Cárdenas as mayor, 130, 134, 500, 533, 584, 756
(p. 804) Central Coordinator of the Homeless (CUD), 408–10
Chamber of Commerce, 320
daylight-savings time, 135–36
earthquake, 59, 80, 129, 189, 529, 548
economic modernization, 637
government of, 140 n3
and human rights, 433
López Obrador as mayor, 531, 535, 584
mayoral elections, 194, 760
National Meeting of Ecologists, 409
and the PAN, 171
pollution, 664
and the PRD, 200, 202, 204, 625, 633
pre-election polling, 603, 604
presidential election of 2006, 210–12, 540–41, 608
protests, 540–41
public opinion research, 602
railroad, 46
same sex marriage, 137, 225
strikes, 641–42 n 2
suffrage, 34
México-Social, 600
Mexico/U.S. relations
asymmetry of, 661, 666
autonomy, 651, 654–55, 661–66
bilateral interdependence, 651–60
border control, 661, 701–2, 709
bracero program, 704–5, 714
Calderón administration, 659
cold war, 651–52, 654, 678
de la Madrid administration, 653
democracy, 658–59
democratic transition, 662
Díaz administration, 651
domestic security, 686, 688
drug war, 27, 660, 670n45
and elites, 667
environmental movement, 660
executive branch, 662, 666
Fox administration, 653–54, 659
immigration policy, 26, 428, 702–5, 708, 712–17
intermestic relationship, 27
Iraq War, 654, 711
Latin America, 652–53
migration, 658, 696–97, 706, 717
and NAFTA, 27, 709, 768
nationalism, 660–62, 666–67, 676
national security, 652–54, 661
oil industry, 655
and the PAN, 654, 663
policymaking, 651, 654, 657, 659, 661, 663–65
public opinion research, 667
recession, 660
Security and Prosperity Partnership for North America, 711
September 11, 2001, 651–52, 661, 711, 768
supply and demand of illicit drugs, 722
World War I, 651, 676, 678
World War II, 678, 704
Michoacán, 41, 178, 193, 197, 200, 278, 389, 406, 472–73, 605, 680, 703
Middlebrook, Kevin T., 16–17
middle classes, 170, 199, 200, 294, 295, 300, 302, 303, 400, 406, 448, 516n9, 547–48, 572, 587, 638, 659, 738, 746, 757
Middle East, 726, 742n5
midterm elections. See elections
migrant rights, 704, 708
migrant workers, 200, 702, 704–5, 725. See also migration
Milenio DTO, 472
military. See also armed forces; civil-military relations
Acteal massacre, 218
caciques, 65
as candidates, 66
career experience, 304
Constitution of 1836, 121
corruption scandals, 18
dictatorships in Latin America, 78
domestic security, 678–79
drug war, 15, 90–91, 685–86
and the DTOs, 467–68, 472, 479, 484n20
election rigging, 61
elites, as politicians, 286–87
fuero militar, 38, 265, 274–75, 281, 284n15
governorship, 153
human rights abuses, 15, 19, 429, 672, 675
judiciary, 429
Mexican Republic, 38, 45
militarization, 685–86
Military Code of Justice, 275
(p. 805) organized crime, 675
porfiriato, 48
presidential election of 1952, 58
public security operations, 432, 442–43n 23
Reforma wars, 41–43
Revolution of 1910, 56
socioeconomic status of politicians, 303
torture practices, 270, 274, 428
Westphalian State, 673
Mills, C. Wright, 286
mining industry, 37–38, 46, 343, 353
Ministry of Defence, 15, 273, 277, 279
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 430–31, 435–36
Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (STPS), 336–37, 352–53
Ministry of Social Development, 756
Ministry of the Interior, 611
Ministry of the Navy, 15
Mirafuentes, Alejandra Sota, 458
Mitofsky, Warren, 606
Mizrahi, Yemile, 306
mobilizations, 398,