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date: 15 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter will review research on cognitive style from different traditions in order to revaluate previous and existing theoretical conceptions of cognitive style and to redefine cognitive style in accordance with current cognitive science and neuroscience theories. First, this chapter will review conventional and applied research on cognitive style that introduces the concept of cognitive style as patterns of adaptation to the external world and demonstrate that, although cognitive style develops on the basis of innate abilities, it is modified further as a result of changing environmental demands. Next, we will review the latest trends in cognitive style research that integrate different style dimensions into unifying models as well as recent findings in transcultural neuroscience that have documented the existence of culturally sensitive individual differences in cognition and suggested a close relationship between sociocultural environment and specific neural and cognitive patterns of information processing. Finally, based on our review, we will redefine cognitive style as ontogenetically flexible individual differences representing an individual’s adaptation of innate predisposition to external physical and sociocultural environments and expressing themselves as environmentally and culturally sensitive neural and/or cognitive patterns of information processing.

Keywords: cognitive style, individual differences, information processing, neural mechanisms, sociocultural environment, innate predispositions

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