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date: 10 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

We describe three theoretical principles from cognitive science that have implications for educational practice: introducing desirable difficulties during learning, processing information to extract meaning, and the importance of a match between the processing that occurs during initial learning and the processing required by the criterial task. We use these principles to evaluate the effectiveness of three strategies typically used to guide the initial learning of material (advance organizers, underlining and highlighting, and note taking) and three strategies for poststudy processing (retrieval practice, feedback processing, and spacing of practice). Finally, we consider the issues of long-term retention, transfer, and the relativity of memory phenomena, all of which often constrain the applicability of basic research to educational settings.

Keywords: memory, education, learning, long-term retention, transfer-appropriate processing, desirable difficulties, levels of processing

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