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date: 25 January 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter discusses the diagnostic criteria, etiologies, and differential diagnoses of nightmares in adults. Various methods and tools for the clinical assessment of nightmares are also presented. Emerging evidence suggesting the appropriateness of targeting nightmares as a primary comorbid sleep disorder in psychiatric disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder) is also discussed. Finally, available cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments for nightmares are reviewed. Future directions in investigating the pathophysiological and neurobiological underpinnings of nightmares and in developing effective therapeutic strategies across the life span are also discussed.

Keywords: nightmares, dreaming, sleep, sleep disorders, psychopathology

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