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date: 24 January 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Studies conducted in representative samples indicate a population prevalence of approximately 20%–30% for insomnia symptoms, 10% for insomnia syndrome, 2%–4% for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and 7%–12% for restless legs syndrome (RLS). In each case the dominant influences on prevalence are gender and age, with women showing a higher prevalence of insomnia and RLS, while men show a higher prevalence of OSA. Prevalence rates for insomnia and RLS rise steadily from early adulthood (20–25) to midlife (55–60), with many studies showing a monotonic continuation of this trend beyond 65 years. Longitudinal studies indicate annual incidence rates for insomnia of approximately 3%–7%, with health status, psychological profiles, and situational variables all supplying elements of significant risk. The incidence of insomnia also appears to be age related, increasing modestly across the life course. For many people (30%–40% and over) reporting insomnia symptoms and syndrome, symptom persistence is a high probability longitudinal outcome.

Keywords: Sleep, Insomnia, Epidemiology, Incidence, Prevalence, Risk factors

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