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date: 12 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

The current chapter provides a critical update on the effects of relevant psychotropic substances on sleep. Reviewed substances comprise over-the-counter sleep medications, synthetic drugs for insomnia, recreational drugs that affect sleep–wake behavior, and other CNS active drugs, such as stimulants, antiepileptics, or pain medication. For each class of substances, a short description of the pharmacological properties is given, followed by a review of its effects on sleep as well as of potential risks and side effects. In an evidence-based approach, meta-analyses will be referred to where available. Although significant progress has been made over the past decades in understanding the fundamentals of sleep–wake regulation and in treating sleep disturbances, future developments are needed to better meet the individual needs of patients with disordered sleep.

Keywords: Sleep, insomnia, medication, benzodiazepines, GABA receptor agonists, antidepressants, stimulants

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