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date: 06 July 2022

(p. 851) Index

(p. 851) Index

A-12 aircraft, 73, 82
Aamodt, Michael G., 531
Abakumov, Viktor, 777, 781, 787
Able Archer command-post exercise (1983), 151
Abou-Elmaati, Amed, 676
Abu Ghraib, 268–69, 297
Abwehr Ultra, 511, 791 n2
academic study, of national security, 138–41
access codes, 26
accountability, 627–753
in Australia, 682–85
in Canada, 673–98
DCI and, 721–22
dimensions of, 719–21
document, 26
ethics and, 735–53
future of, 732–33
GAO and, 401 n9
GCHQ and, 643–45, 701, 713
goals of, 729–32
Intelligence Accountability Act, 499
intelligence and, 27–28, 52–53, 213–15, 497–99, 719–34
Johnson, L. K., and, 676, 716
politicization and, 728–29, 762
politics of, 719–34
“process accountability,” 728–29
reforms and, 761–70
RIPA and, 645 n15, 648, 695, 701, 704
secrecy and, 657–72, 703–4
SIS and, 644–45, 701, 708
state secrets privilege and, 657–72
totalitarian regimes and, 736
in UK, 699–718
Acheson, Dean, 115, 487
Ackerman, Ken, 507
Ackoff, Russell, 346
Re-Defining the Future, 346 n4
Acquis Communautaire, 770
Acton, Lord, 27
Adams, John, 330
Adams, John Quincy, 330
Adams, Sam, 129–30
adaptive realism, 49
Addington, David S., 252
Adelman, Howard, 312
Adenauer, Konrad, 793–95, 799
administrator-custodians, 491
Afghanistan
Canada and, 675–76
mujahideen in, 25, 144, 363, 449, 834
Northern Alliance of, 90, 144, 212–13, 223
Al Qaeda in, 24–25, 144
Reagan and, 23–25, 615
UK and, 709–10
UN and, 275
US in, 242, 245–47
USSR and, 23–25, 359, 363, 782
Africa Command (AFRICOM), 581, 584
AFRICOM. See Africa Command
Aftergood, Steven, 234
aggressive bureaucratic competition, 365
Agrell, Wilhelm, 345 n3
aircraft
A-12, 73, 82
JSTARS, 428
Predator, 17, 583, 591
for reconnaissance, 6, 17, 25, 73, 82, 216
SR-71, 82, 220
U-2, CIA and, 73, 83, 115, 148, 176, 178
U-2, Eisenhower and, 127, 442
U-2,IMINT and, 127, 129, 220, 237, 261, 442, 449
Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Agency, 243
airport security, 19–20
Albania, 127, 144, 260
Aldrich, Richard, 140, 144
alert systems, 66–67
Alexander, Keith B., 248–49
Allen, George, 722
Allen, Lew, 185
Allen, Richard, 182
Allende Gossens, Salvador, 489 n4, 617–18, 721
Allhoff, Fritz, 744
Allison, Graham, 473
all-source fusion, 22, 139, 190, 394
Almalki, Abdullah, 676
Alwan, Rafid Ahmed (“Curve Ball”), 18
American Expeditionary Force (AEF), 109, 216
American Historical Association, 418
American Historical Review (journal), 79
American intelligence culture, 361–66, 433
(p. 852) Amery, John, 522, 527
Ames, Aldrich Hazen
CI and, 27, 81, 96, 185, 528–29, 533
KGB and, 541–44, 549, 784
reforms and, 100, 192, 721
USSR and, 133, 263–65, 267, 269, 273–74, 364, 724
Amit, Meir, 820
Amnesty International, 321
analysis
analytical culture and, 457
analytic integrity officers, 419
Analyzing Intelligence (George, R., and Bruce, J.), 405
assessments of, 400–401
Bay of Pigs Invasion and, 359
Betts and, 384, 453
competitive, 375–86
of cost, 413 n7, 758 n2
counterterrorism and, 401
covert actions and, 393, 448–49
crisis of, 359–74
DNI and, 412
ethics and, 417–20
future of, 409–13
of intelligence, 65–66, 82, 122, 279–82, 343–57, 375–86
in intelligence cycle, 20, 393, 409–13
intelligence estimates and, 444
Kent and, 370, 372, 398, 730
methodologies of, 378–81, 389–403, 417
NIC and, 385–86, 457–58, 466
of OSINT, 230–31, 235
performance measures for, 400–401
policymaking and, 395–402, 443–47
The Psychology of Intelligence Analysis (Heuer), 405
research and development for, 415–17
secrecy and, 390, 393, 399, 418
Studies in Intelligence and, 404
theory of, 375–86, 389–403
training in, 404–5, 448
uncertainty and, 404–21
analytic integrity officers, 419
Analyzing Intelligence (George, R., and Bruce, J.), 405
“Anarchist Fighters,” 507
anarchists, 507–8
Anderson, George W., 179–80
Andrew, Christopher, 73–75, 79, 140, 144
For the President's Eyes Only, 609 n2
Andropov, Yuri, 777, 786–87
Angleton, James, 96, 828
Angola, 279, 287, 610 n6
Annan, Kofi, 282
antiballistic missile system (ABM), 132
Anti-Terrorism Act, 674–75, 687
Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act (2001), 645 n16, 652
anti-war movement, 27, 118, 130
Applebaum, Anne, 776
Arab-Americans, 271–72
Arar, Maher, 53, 312–13 n3, 329, 676, 743
Arar Commission, 673, 677
Arbenz Guzmán, Jacobo, 24, 615
Argell, Wilhelm, “When Everything is Intelligence, Nothing is Intelligence,” 722
Argentina, 761, 764–66, 768–69
Arguelles, José Augustin, 331–33, 335 t
Aristotle, 741
Arkin, William, 574
Armed Services, mission of, 112–14
Armstrong, Anne, 175, 182, 184
Army Air Forces (AAF), 111
Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM), 243
Army Knowledge Online, 415
Arnold, Henry, 562
Ashcroft, John, 251
Aspin, Les, 13, 133, 185
Aspin-Brown Commission, 7 n3, 134, 185, 630 n5
al-Assad, Hafez, 816
assassinations
Church Committee and, 727
CIA and, 23, 25, 285
as covert actions, 143, 599
Eisenhower and, 28, 126–28
Ford, G., and, 180
Hitler and, 272–73
Israel and, 744
SIS and, 144
assessments
of analysis, 400–401
of failures, 77, 87, 89, 97, 359–61
of intelligence, 87–103, 396
measures of success and, 499–500
of threat, 45–46, 375–76, 453, 455, 460
assets, 15, 222, 393
asset validation, 544–48
associations and hypotheses, 354 f, 355
“asymmetric threat,” of terrorism, 455
atomic energy, 108–9, 148
Atomic Spy Ring, 527, 555–66
Atom Spy, 555–66
Atta, Mohammed, 267
Attlee, Clement, 562
Augustine (saint), 741
Aum Shinrikyo movement, 834
Australia
accountability in, 682–85
AIC and, 824, 835
(p. 853)
ANZUS and, 612
ASIO and, 681, 826–28, 831–35, 837, 841
The Australian Intelligence and Security Services 1900-1950 (Templeton), 824
Australian Security Intelligence Organization Act (1979), 645 n17
Australian Special Wireless Group, 825–26
codebreaking in, 825–26
intelligence in, 438, 463, 823–42
national security of, 823–42
strategic intelligence in, 829–33, 836
terrorism in, 834–40
UKUSA and, 825
in Vietnam War, 830
Australia-New Zealand-United States (ANZUS), 612
The Australian Intelligence and Security Services 1900-1950 (Templeton), 824
Australian Intelligence Community (AIC),824, 835
Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS),683–84, 827–29, 831–33, 837, 841
Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO), 681, 826–28, 831–35, 837, 841
Australian Security Intelligence Organization Act (1979), 645 n17
Australian Special Wireless Group, 825–26
authoritarian regimes, 47, 51, 759
authority, substantive, 605
Authorization to Use Military Force (AUMF), 337
autonomy, 48–49
Avant, Deborah D., 50
avian influenza, weaponization of, 382
Aviation Week (journal), 237
Avigur, Shaul, 807
Baginski, Maureen A., 248
Bagosora, Théoneste, 290
Baird, Zoe, 185
Baker, Norman, 651
Baker, William O., 176
Bali bombings, 712, 834–35
Ball, D., 825
Breaking the Codes, 825
Baltic states, 776, 785
Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, 197
banking system, 38
Bank of Credit and Commerce International, 197
el-Banna, Jamil, 709
Bar-Joseph, Uri, 345 n3, 372
Barlow, Richard M., 667
Bartko, George “Dennis,” 249
Battle of Fallujah (2004), 247
Battle of Midway (1942), 65, 111, 166
Bauer, William, 312, 324
Bay of Pigs Invasion
analysis and, 359
CIA and, 24, 28, 73, 77, 122, 128, 365, 370, 449–50, 570
Cuba and, 24, 28, 73, 77, 122, 128, 172, 177, 359, 365
Kennedy, J. F., and, 475, 614 n9, 721
PFIAB and, 172, 177
Bazarov, Boris, 509
Bean, Hamilton, 239
Beaumarchais, Pierre Augustin Caron de, 609
Beck, Ulrich, 46, 49
Beckett, Margaret, 646, 710, 712, 714
Begin, Menahem, 811
Belgium, 207, 217
belief perseverance, 366
Bell, Griffin, 513–14
Bell, Stewart, Cold Terror: How Canada Nurtures and Exports Terrorism Around the World, 312
Bell, William, 529
Bellah, Robert, 520
Ben-Gurion, David, 813, 819
Ben-Menashe, Ari, Profits of War, 747
Beobachtungs-Dienst, 163–64
Berezovsky, Boris, 786
Berger, Samuel, 184
Beria, Lavrentiy, 777, 781
Berki, Robert N., 47
Berlin Tunnel, 77, 126–27
Berlin Wall, 34, 486, 496, 796, 798
Best, Robert, 523
best practices, 62, 76, 79
measures of success and, 499–500
Betrayal and Deceit: The Politics of Canadian Immigration (Campbell), 312
Betts, Richard, 375
analysis and, 384, 453
cognitive pathologies and, 458–59
Bevin, Ernest, 144
biases, 390
motivated, 369–72, 398, 460
policymaking and, 369–72
of politicization, 242, 360, 363, 373, 398, 444, 458–63, 472–74
scientific, 399
unmotivated, 366–69, 391, 456–58
“bidding back,” 303–6
Biddle, Charles J., 658
Bill of Rights, 745
Bin Laden, Osama
Clinton and, 21–22
OSINT and, 233, 236
Al Qaeda and, 243
Binnet, Max, 819
Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions, 203
biological weapons, 192, 446, 707
(p. 854) Bissell, Richard, 127–28
Black, William, Jr., 305
blackmail, 269, 530, 735, 766
black operations v. white operations, 575–77
“black sites,” of CIA, 51
Black Tom munitions terminal, 507
Blackwater USA, 299
Blair, Dennis C., 432, 750 n3
Blair, Tony, 476, 707, 709, 711
Blamey, Thomas, 825
Bletchley Park, 160, 164–65, 557
Blix, Hans, 457, 461
blogosphere, 234–35, 415
Bloomingdale, Alfred, 182
blow-back, 598–99
Blum, Eberhard, 792
Board of National Estimates, 115
Bobkov, Fillip, 785
Boland Amendments, 748
“Bomber Gap,” 118, 127, 179, 370
Bond, James, 54, 530, 532
Booz Allen Hamilton, 299, 301, 304
Boraz, S., 757 n1
border issues, US-Canadian, 310–27, 674–75
Boren, David, 184
Borman, Frank, 182
Born, Hans, 745
Bosnia, 94, 221, 276, 428
Botha, Pik, 286, 288
Bouchiki, Ahmed, 747, 818
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, 281
Bowman, M. E. (“Spike”), 516
Brady v. Maryland 1963, 198–99
Brahimi Report, 282
brain drain, 303–6
brainstorming, 381
Brandt, Willy, 219, 796
Brauner, Phyllis, 664
Brauner, William H., 663
Breaking the Codes (Ball and Horner), 825
Breaking the Phalanx (MacGregor), 417
Brezhnev, Leonid, 777, 783
British Intelligence and Security Services, 39, 124–25
British Mandate, in Israel, 807, 812
Brooks, David, 399
Brown, Gordon, 647, 705, 711–15
Brown, Harold, 133
Brown, Wilson M., III, 664–65
Brown Commission, 386
Bruce, David K. E., 175
Bruce, James, Analyzing Intelligence, 405
Brugioni, Dino, 178
Brundrett, Frederick, 148
Bruneau, Thomas, 757 n1
Bruner, Jerome, 399
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 182, 495
budgets
cuts, by Clinton, 298
for intelligence, 447–48, 499
Office of Management and Budget, 117
Bulgaria, 763
Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV), 791, 803
Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), 803
Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), 790–805, 791 n2
Bundestag, 791, 794, 797
Bundeswehr, 790–91, 791 n1, 793, 799, 801–2
Bundy, McGeorge, 25, 72 n2, 488
bureaucracy
aggressive bureaucratic competition and, 365
of CIA, 10 f, 11 f
of government, 397–98, 437–38
of intelligence community, 7–11, 8 f
retaliation by, 749
structures of, 108, 463–67
Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR),7, 368
Burgess, Guy, 81, 218
Burkert, Walter, 519
Burma, 38
Bush, George H. W.
CIA and, 119, 133, 181, 371, 450, 486, 490 n7, 493
covert actions and, 610 n6
as president, 176, 183–85
Skull and Bones Society and, 490 n6
Bush, George W.
CIA and, 238
civil liberties and, 253, 262
DNI and, 731
domestic spying and, 118, 186, 242–43, 250, 349
FISC and, 726
GWOT and, 92, 296, 336, 462
national security and, 35, 172, 239, 250, 445, 630 n6
9/11 attacks and, 212
NSA and, 244
PFIAB and, 172, 175–76, 185–86
politicization and, 119, 371, 731
Al Qaeda and, 475, 579–80
state secrets privilege and, 657, 669
WMDs and, 91–92, 134, 457–58
Butler, Robin, 458
Butler Committee, 461–62
Butler Report, 714
Byers, Wheaton, 179
By Way of Deception (Ostrovski), 747
Cairncross, Frances, 407
Cambodia, 721
Cambridge Five, 263, 527
camouflage, 26, 394 n5
(p. 855) Campbell, Charles, Betrayal and Deceit: The Politics of Canadian Immigration, 312
Campbell-Savours, Dale, 716 n4, 717
Canada, 167–68
accountability in, 673–98
Afghanistan and, 675–76
Betrayal and Deceit: The Politics of Canadian Immigration (Campbell), 312
Canada's Immigration Policy (Collacott), 312
Canadian Car and Foundry Plant, 507
Canadian Council of Refugees, 322 n12
CATSA and, 673, 694, 694 n8
CBSA and, 314–18, 675
CIC and, 314, 690
Cold Terror: How Canada Nurtures and Exports Terrorism Around the World (Bell), 312
CSEC and, 674–75, 690
CSIS and, 673, 677 n1, 685–87, 690
Department of Justice Canada and, 318 n6
FINTRAC and, 690
immigration in, 310–27
intelligence in, 314–16
9/11 attacks and, 674
oversight in, 678–81
parliamentary oversight in, 688–89
PSC and, 674
refugees in, 319–22
scandals in, 685–86
US-Canadian border law enforcement,310–27, 674–75
Who Gets In: What's Wrong with Canada's Immigration Program, and How to Fix It (Stoffman), 312
Canada's Immigration Policy (Collacott), 312
Canadian Air Transportation Safety Act (CATSA), 673, 694, 694 n8
Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA), 314–18, 675
Canadian Car and Foundry Plant, 507
Canadian Council of Refugees, 322 n12
Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), 673, 677 n1, 685–87, 690
Cannon, Clarence, 498
capital-intensive economics, 363
Caplan, Elinor, 320, 321 n8
Capone, Al, 355
Carlton, Eric, 519
Carns, Michael, 498
Carstens, Karl, 796
Carter, Jimmy
Brzezinski and, 182, 495
Castro and, 442
CIA and, 131–32, 448, 450
FBI and, 513
Iran and, 16
PFIAB and, 175–76, 181–82, 187
Turner and, 9, 25, 181, 426
Carter, John J., Covert Operations as a Tool for Presidential Foreign Policy in History, 609 n2
case officers, 550–51
Casey, William
CIA and, 76, 182, 371, 488, 490, 490 n7
congressional oversight and, 499
covert actions and, 131
politicization and, 721
Reagan and, 618–19
Castro, Fidel
Carter, Jimmy, and, 442
CIA and, 24–25, 128, 130, 230, 365
Eisenhower and, 615
Helms and, 724
Kennedy, J. F., and, 177, 450, 615, 622 n17
Cavanaugh, Thomas Patrick, 529
Ceausescu, Nicolae, 813
censorship, 26, 51
Center for Army Lessons Learned, 417
Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR), 758, 758 n3
Center for Military Information (ZNBw), 790, 799
Center for Naval Analyses, 386
Center for the Study of Intelligence, 82, 391
Centers for Disease Control, 411
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
assassinations and, 23, 25, 285
Bay of Pigs Invasion and, 24, 28, 73, 77, 122, 128, 365, 370, 449–50, 570
“black sites” of, 51
bureaucracy of, 10 f, 11 f
Bush, George H. W., and, 119, 133, 181, 371, 450, 486, 490 n7, 493
Bush, George W., and, 238
Carter, Jimmy, and, 131–32, 448, 450
Casey and, 76, 182, 371, 488, 490, 490 n7
Castro and, 24–25, 128, 130, 230, 365
Central Intelligence Agency Act (1949), 486
Central Intelligence Bulletin, 496
Central Intelligence Group and, 486
Chile and, 130, 489 n4
Church Committee and, 173, 236, 722, 726
CI and, 77, 82, 96, 100, 133, 195, 267
Colby and, 14–15, 76 n6, 488, 490 n7, 491, 498
Cold War and, 8–9, 73, 77, 96, 123
congressional oversight of, 77, 119–20, 125, 130–31, 573–74, 677 n1
Contra faction and, 3–4, 24, 131–32
covert actions and, 82, 118, 122, 125, 127, 142, 259–60, 365, 422, 494 n11, 569, 577–78
culture of, 361–66
DCI and, 8, 630
democratization of, 123
Deutch and, 304, 500
DO of, 9, 11 f, 82
(p. 856)
drug experiments by, 236
Dulles, A., and, 72 n2, 76 n6, 126, 128–29, 215, 365, 488–89, 490 n7, 498, 749
Eisenhower and, 488 n3, 495, 500, 587–88
FBI rivalry with, 126, 134
founding of, 112–13, 123
Gates and, 76 n6, 94, 151, 371, 397, 441, 490 n7, 498, 498 n15, 725, 729
Germany and, 792–93, 795
Goss and, 238, 298, 304
Guatemala and, 24, 128, 185
Hayden, M., and, 82, 88, 92, 304, 306, 490 n7, 491 n8, 580, 587–88, 604, 624, 633, 724
Helms and, 721
history of, 70–86, 112, 122–37, 485–89
History Staff of, 71, 73–75, 76 n5, 76 n6
HUMINT and, 362–64
inspector general of, 680, 723, 731–32
interrogation techniques of, 19, 731
Iran and, 367–68, 570
Iran-Contra scandal and, 3–4, 24, 131–32
IRTPA and, 134, 264
Japan and, 363
Kennedy, J. F., and, 83, 128–29, 495
Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (Weiner), 74 n4, 135, 304, 745
McCone and, 82, 129–30, 425–26, 488, 490 n7, 492
mission of, 125, 133–34, 190, 260, 384
National Security Act and, 8, 78, 125, 190–91, 218, 273, 485 n1, 487, 489, 589, 630
NATO and, 489 n4
9/11 attacks and, 123
Nixon and, 496, 614 n9, 730
North Korea and, 100, 135, 248, 362–64
NRO and, 115
ODNI and, 80 n9, 107
Open Source Center of, 229–30, 240
organizational framework of, 10 f, 11 f
Pahlavi and, 367–68
performance measures for, 92, 94, 96–98
PFIAB and, 175
President's Commission on CIA Activities, 680 n4
Al Qaeda and, 212–13
Reagan and, 131–32
recruitment and, 466
reform of, 49, 117, 306–7, 630 n2
renditions and, 135
rise and fall of, 122–37
Schlesinger and, 183, 488, 490, 490 n7, 492–93
Strategic Intent 2007-2011, 730
Studies in Intelligence, 4, 73–74, 74 n4, 80, 237, 404, 758
Tenet and, 261, 371, 448, 462, 488, 490 n7, 491
treason cases in, 4
Truman and, 22, 73, 83, 115, 259, 486
Turner and, 94, 488–89, 488 n3, 492–93
U-2 aircraft and, 73, 83, 115, 148, 176, 178
USSR and, 115
war protesters and, 27, 118, 130, 668
WMDs and, 123, 134
Woolsey and, 15 n11, 18, 146, 487, 490 n7, 491
Central Intelligence Agency Act (1949), 486
Central Intelligence Bulletin (CIA), 496
Central Intelligence Group, 486
centralization, 49, 637
chain of custody issues, 193, 198
Challenger shuttle, 352
Chandler, Douglas, 523
Chechnya, 776, 786–87
checks and balances, 669–72
Chekists, 775–76, 785
chemical warfare, 17, 192, 446, 707
Cheney, Richard, 46, 244, 250, 252–53, 462
Cheney Doctrine, 46, 52
Cherkashin, Viktor, 263, 265, 267, 269
Cherne, Leo, 173–75, 182–83
Chernenko, Konstantin, 232
Chesney, Robert, 670
Chicago Tribune, 125
chief of station (COS), 9
Chifley, Ben, 825–26, 830
Chilcot, John, 655
Chile
CIA and, 130, 489 n4
covert actions in, 116, 614 n9, 617–19
intelligence in, 759, 761, 764
Chi Mek, 516
Chin, Larry Wu-Tai, 271, 529
Chinese embassy bombing, in Belgrade, 97 n4, 428
Chinese-Taiwan dispute, 381
Chomeau, John, 727
Church, Frank, 118, 130, 135, 180, 680 n4
Church Committee
assassinations and, 727
CIA and, 173, 236, 722, 726
covert actions and, 23 n13, 173, 499
domestic spying and, 118
FBI and, 722
Helms and, 721, 724
NSA and, 722
Churchill, Winston, 143, 217, 394, 611
cipher systems, 81, 109, 156, 161, 164–65
Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC), 314, 690
civilian intelligence, 189–98, 209, 788
civil liberties (p. 857)
Bush, George W., and, 253, 262
FBI and, 125, 516–17
intelligence community and, 43, 108, 197, 208, 803
in UK, 711
civil-military relations (CMR), 757
civil rights movement, 27, 118
Civil War, extradition and, 331–33
Clancy, Tom, 404
clandestine operations, 3, 59, 202, 551
v. covert actions, 570
NCS and, 9, 11, 82, 448, 539
Clapper, James R., Jr., 633–34
Clarke, Carter, 564
classified documents, 234–35, 476
CIPA and, 192–93, 199–200, 206, 514
controlled, 239
histories, 78
Studies in Intelligence as, 4
US v. Reynolds and, 658, 664
Classified Information Procedures Act (1980)(CIPA), 192–93, 199–200, 206, 514
Clausewitz, Carl von, 376, 453, 632
Clegg, Hugh G., 124
Clemens, Hans, 794–95
Clemente, Jonathan, 737
Clifford, Clark, 175, 178–79
climate change, 37–38
Clinton, Bill, 496
bin Laden and, 21–22
budget cuts by, 298
covert actions and, 448
former Yugoslavia and, 428
Gates and, 488 n3
Netanyahu and, 820
PFIAB and, 174, 176, 184–85
Presidential Decision Directive 35 of, 92
Woolsey and, 9, 488 n3
club mentality, 362, 367
Coast Guard Intelligence Service, 7, 7 n4, 196, 223
Cockroft, John, 560
codebreaking
by Australian Special Wireless Group, 825–26
Japan and, 160, 165–66
terminology of, 81
by UK, 111, 156, 159–67, 557
by US, 19, 72, 111, 156, 159–60, 393
by USSR, 159–62
codemakers, 156, 163–65
cognitive pathologies, 51, 453. See also biases
Betts and, 458–59
cognitive dissonance, 457
cognitive limits, 456–58
mirror-imaging, 362, 458
self-deception, 526
Colby, William E.
CIA and, 14–15, 76 n6, 488, 490 n7, 491, 498
CI and, 540
congressional oversight and, 725
Honorable Men, 745
Iran and, 25
Kissinger and, 450
Rumsfeld and, 450
Cold Terror: How Canada Nurtures and Exports Terrorism Around the World (Bell), 312
Cold War
CIA and, 8–9, 73, 77, 96, 123
CI and, 539
communism and, 113, 116–18, 122, 124
computers and, 167–70
cooperation during, 219–20
covert actions and, 587–89, 609
FBI and, 512–13
Germany in, 127, 145, 790–98
intelligence during, 28, 33–35, 43, 112–16, 259–60
intelligence estimates and, 149
Journal of Cold War Studies, 79
Nixon and, 116–18, 496
Penkovsky and, 18, 395
politicization and, 132
SIGINT in, 167–70
UK and, 138–54
Woolsey and, 13
collaboration
in developing democracies, 767
interagency, 50–51, 350–51, 396–400, 418
international, 212–25
risk assessment and, 214–15, 219
Collacott, Martin, Canada's Immigration Policy, 312
collection phase, in intelligence cycle, 15–17, 393–95
Collection Requirements and Evaluation Staff (CRES), 92
collective intelligence, 16, 63–65
collectivization, in USSR, 267
Collins, Susan, 631
Colombia, 764, 766–67, 769
Combined Bombing Offensive, 111
commando operations, 111
Committee of Secret Foreign Correspondence, 258
Commonwealth Security Service (CSS), 825
communications intelligence (COMINT), 243
Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC), 674–75, 690
(p. 858) communism
Cold War and, 113, 116–18, 122, 124
Constitutional issues and, 113, 118
in Europe, 507, 527
McCarthy and, 721
in the western hemisphere, 615
Communist Party
in Germany, 558–59, 563
glasnost and, 778
Khrushchev and, 777
in PRC, 529
in US, 118, 507, 509
in USSR, 152, 232, 775
compartmentalization, 88, 365, 552–53, 737
competition, and politicization, 459–60
competitive analysis, 375–86
after intelligence failures, 376–77
obstacles to, 382–85
techniques/methodologies of, 378–81, 389–403, 417
“complexities”
The Complexity of Terrorism: Social and Behavioral Understanding (Hayden, N.), 348 n9
in homeland security, 343–58, 344 t, 351 t
in law enforcement, 353–55
sensemaking of, 352–57
of terrorism, 347–49
The Complexity of Terrorism: Social and Behavioral Understanding (Hayden, N.),348 n9
Comprehensive Communications Act, 507
Computer Network Attack (CNA), 170
computers
Cold War and, 167–70
in warfare, 452–53
The Conduct of the Persian Gulf War (DOD), 220
Congo, 275–77, 279
UN Operation in the Congo, 284–86
congressional oversight
Casey and, 499
Colby and, 725
covert actions and, 589, 592–97, 620–21
funding and, 95, 112, 300, 430, 447–48, 620–21, 620–21 n16
Hayden, M., and, 593 n5
of SOF, 569
theory of, 53, 765
Congressional Research Service, 173, 239
Congress of Vienna, 408
Conklin, Jeff, 350
Connally, John B., 180
Conolly, Richard L., 176
Conquest, Robert, The Great Terror, 776
Conrad, Clyde, 541–42, 541 n11
consequentialist theory, 741, 751
Constitutional issues
Communism and, 113, 118
covert actions and, 590, 598, 601
due process, 189–90, 193, 333
ethics and, 745
fifth amendment, 200
fourth amendment, 253
in Germany, 803–4
sixth amendment, 200
wartime powers and, 251, 726
containment, 259
Continental Army, 258, 609
Continental Congress, 215, 258, 608
contingency analysis, 379
contractor employees, 296, 532
Contra faction
CIA and, 3–4, 24, 131–32
Iran-Contra scandal and, 449–50, 570, 583, 595, 622, 680, 724
Control Intelligence Staff, 390 n1
controlled operations, 545–47, 550
Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI), 239
Convention Against Torture (CAT), 334, 337
Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE), 149
Coolidge, Calvin, 508
Cooper, Yvette, 706–7
cooperation
in Cold War, 219–20
in global era, 212–25
in intelligence community, 50–51, 356–66, 389, 390 n1, 396–400, 418
IRTPA and, 8 n5, 50, 213, 223, 411–12
NGA and, 223–24, 410, 423, 427
SIGINT and, 222, 423
core collectors, 550 n22
cost
analysis of, 413 n7, 758 n2
of failures, 48, 52–53
counterespionage, 26, 540–44
counterfeiting, 23
counterinsurgency, 417, 581
counterintelligence (CI), 6
Ames and, 27, 81, 96, 185, 528–29, 533
Atomic Spy Ring and, 527, 555–66
case studies of, 546–47
challenges of, 537–54
CIA and, 77, 82, 96, 100, 133, 195, 267
Colby and, 540
Cold War and, 539
Counterintelligence Enhancement Act (2002), 196
counterintelligence states, 47, 759
countersubversion as, 538
counterterrorism and, 552
definitions for, 537–40
DHS and, 538
FBI and, 505–17
(p. 859)
in Germany, 794–95
Hanssen and, 96, 100, 265–67, 551
IMINT and, 15, 25, 81, 393
The International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (journal), 4, 79, 239, 404, 758
KGB and, 265, 267–68, 537, 539–50, 759
law enforcement and, 553–54
NSC and, 554
offensive v. defensive, 394 n5
Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 7, 17
OSINT and, 236–37
reform of, 509–10
risk assessment and, 553
security and, 25–27, 192
SIGINT and, 111, 148–49, 544–45
training in, 509–10
in WWII, 399, 549–50
Counterintelligence Enhancement Act (2002), 196
counternarcotics enforcement, 197
countersubversion, 538
counterterrorism
analysis and, 401
CI and, 552
covert actions and, 604
Gates and, 580
homeland security and, 60–62
NCTC and, 196, 297, 464–65, 580
Policy Counterterrorism Evaluation Group, 462
SOF and, 576 t
in USSR, 787
courts, and intelligence, 651
covert actions, 23–25, 72
analysis and, 393, 448–49
assassinations as, 143, 599
Bush, George H. W., and, 610 n6
Casey and, 131
in Chile, 116, 614 n9, 617–19
Church Committee and, 23 n13, 173, 499
CIA and, 82, 118, 122, 125, 127, 142, 259–60, 365, 422, 494 n11, 569, 577–78
v. clandestine, 570
Clinton and, 448
Cold War and, 587–89, 609
Congress and, 589, 592–97, 620–21
Constitutional issues and, 590, 598, 601
counterterrorism and, 604
Covert Operations as a Tool for Presidential Foreign Policy in History (Carter, John J.), 609 n2
Desperate Deception: British Covert Operations in the United States 1939-1941 (Mahl), 611 n7
Eisenhower and, 128, 448, 728
executive process and, 597–98, 601
failures of, 622
Gates and, 588 n1
Geneva Conventions and, 582, 582 n2
in Guatemala, 442, 570, 615
GWOT and, 572–73
Iran-Contra scandal and, 3–4, 24
by Israel, 817–20
Johnson, L. K., and, 610 n5, 619 n15
Kennedy, J. F., and, 448
Kissinger and, 619
law enforcement and, 196
National Security Act and, 590–95
NSC and, 589, 589 n2
Pentagon-style, 569–86
policymakers and, 613–19
presidents and, 589, 591–92, 601, 609 n2, 613, 617–21
Reagan and, 610 n6, 611
risk assessment and, 581–84, 613–14
SOF and, 569, 575–84, 576 t
strengths and weakness of, 608–25
TECHINT and, 588
Turner and, 25
in UK, 142–45
Covert Operations as a Tool for Presidential Foreign Policy in History (Carter, John J.), 609 n2
Covey, Stephen M. R., 520
Cradock, Percy, 139, 141, 145, 150–52
The Craft of Intelligence (Dulles, A.), 273, 487
crimes
cybercrime, 203, 552–53
against humanity, 207–8
organized, 354–55, 736, 762
political, 202
criminal statutes, 201–7
crippies, 167
crisis, of analysis, 359–74
Critchfield, James, Partners at the Creation, 795 n4
critical thinking, 389–92, 396–400, 453–67
Croatian Republican Brotherhood, 828
cross-border raids, 591
Crown Prosecution Service, 641
Crutchfield, James P., 347 n5
cryptanalysis, 81, 113, 156, 160, 393
cryptography, 155–56, 161–68, 408
Cryptologia (journal), 4
cryptologic linguists, 249, 394
cryptology, 111, 155–56, 159–70, 512
(p. 860) Cuba
Bay of Pigs Invasion and, 24, 28, 73, 77, 122, 128, 172, 177, 359, 365
Kennedy, J. F., and, 28, 261, 365, 473
Missile Crisis in, 18, 115, 129, 148, 177–78, 261, 359, 410, 450, 473, 630
Roosevelt, K., and, 615 n10
US relations with, 14
cultural insensitivity, 361–62, 364
culture
of American intelligence, 361–66, 433
analytical, 457
of CIA, 361–66
Cunningham, Randy “Duke,” 305
Currie, Lauchlin, 263, 512
cybercrime, 203, 552–53
Cyprus, 291
Czechoslovakia, 115, 141, 178, 763
Czech Republic, 785
Dalai Lama, 751
Dallaire, Roméo, 288–90
“dangle” operations, 545, 545 n18, 550
d'Aquina, Iva Toguri (“Tokyo Rose”), 523
Dar, Avraham, 818–19
Darden, Colgate, 175
Darfur, 260, 277
data mining, 65, 234
Daugherty, Harry, 508
David, Ruth, 412 n6
Davis, Jack, 379
Davis, Legrome D., 665
Dayan, Moshe, 811, 820
Deane, Silas, 608
Dearlove, Richard, 144–45
decentralization, 49, 350
deception, 383, 394 n5, 399, 736
decision-making
decision advantage and, 389–403
requirements, 351 t
speed in, 454–55
defense, and intelligence, 422–34, 629–39
defense attachés, 423
Defense Civilian Intelligence Personnel System, 634
Defense Human Resources Activity (DHRA), 525
Defense Imagery and Geospatial Organization (DIGO), 683, 827, 833
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
founding of, 7, 114, 128–29, 218, 223
Iran and, 131, 368
mission of, 422–23
PFIAB and, 175, 177
Defense Intelligence Enterprise, 633 n12
Defense Intelligence Staff (DIS) (UK), 140, 641–42
Defense Mapping Agency, 425
Defense Signals Directorate (DSD), 683–84, 827, 837, 841
defensive counterintelligence, 394 n5, 401
DeFreitas, John, III, 248
Deleon, Linda, 732
Deletant, Dennis, 760
Delta Force, 577
democracies
in developing world, 757–73
in Eastern Europe, 761–63
intelligence in, 52, 72, 85, 408, 418–20, 449–50, 498, 719
OSS and, 72–73
Secrecy and Democracy (Turner), 237
democratic civilian control, 757 n1, 765–68
democratization
of CIA, 123
of intelligence community, 51–52, 757–58, 765–68, 771
politicization and, 51
“third wave” of, 759–61
deniability, plausible, 588–89, 727
“denial and deception,” 383, 399
denied area, 545, 545 n19
Denmark, 355
Denning, T., 699–700
deontological theory, 741
Department of Defense (DOD), 197
The Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, 220
DNI and, 423–24
intelligence in, 422–34
NSA and, 423, 427
ODNI and, 432–33
satellites and, 424, 427, 430–32
TECHINT and, 424–25
Department of Energy (DOE), 185
Department of Homeland Security (DHS). See also homeland security
CI and, 538
founding of, 7, 223, 464–65, 632, 722
law enforcement and, 195–97
OSINT and, 231
private sector and, 301
Department of Justice Canada, 318 n6
Dershowitz, Alan, 743–44
Descazes, Rosario, 265
design considerations, 351 t
Desperate Deception: British Covert Operations in the United States 1939-1941 (Mahl), 611 n7
de-Stalinization, 777
Detainee Treatment Act, 270
Deutch, John
CIA and, 304, 500
as DCI, 442–43, 490 n7, 492, 724
developing democracies
collaboration in, 767
intelligence in, 757–73
professionalism in, 763, 766, 768
devil's advocacy, 379, 382, 384–85
Diana (princess of Wales), 144
Dilks, David, 140
Dillinger, John, 509
Diplomatic History (journal), 79
diplomatic immunity, 202
Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE), 611–12
Directorate of Intelligence (DI), 92, 382, 467
Directorate of Operations (DO), 9, 11 f, 82
Directorate of Science and Technology (DS&T), 11, 177, 302
Directorate of Support (DS), 11
Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), 485–501
accountability and, 721–22
CIA and, 8, 630
Deutch as, 442–43, 490 n7, 492, 724
Goss as, 173, 186, 489, 490 n7, 492
Helms as, 76, 76 n6, 371, 392 n3, 488, 490 n7, 498
influence of, 115, 488–89, 499
mission of, 112–13, 125, 219, 486
SIGINT and, 115
Smith, W., and, 488–90, 490 n7, 492, 630
Director of National Intelligence (DNI)
analysis and, 412
Bush, George W., 731
DOD and, 423–24
founding of, 8 f, 8 n5, 229, 465, 631, 722, 731
IRTPA and, 196, 423, 429–30, 465–66, 631
McConnell as, 302–4, 382, 432, 632–33, 635–36, 750 n3
mission of, 213–14, 223
Negroponte as, 186, 214, 302, 432, 532, 632
9/11 attacks and, 429–30
reforms and, 465
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (DCIA), 485–86, 485n1
IRTPA and, 495 n12
discovery rules, 198
disgruntlement, 530–33
disinformation, 235–36, 546, 548–50, 791
disruptive technologies, 108–9
dissemination
compartmentalization and, 552–53
Gates and, 21
intelligence cycle and, 436–501
of PDB, 21, 88, 496
policymakers and, 437–51
politicization and, 472–84
SIS and, 453, 464
document accountability, 26
Doerrenberg, Dirk, 539 n6
Dole, Bob, 281
domestic spying
Bush, George W., and, 118, 186, 242–43, 250, 349
Church Committee and, 118
FBI and, 510–13
Hoover and, 27–28, 118
“dominant battlespace awareness,” 453
Dominican Republic, 489 n4
Donald, D., 50
Donohue, Laura, 47
Donovan, William J. (“Wild Bill”), 111, 124–25, 217, 259, 272
Doolittle, James H., 176–77, 728
Doolittle Committee, 587
Dorgan, Byron, 311 n2
double agents, 394, 399, 510, 551
misuse of term, 81, 545 n18
The Double-Cross System (Masterman), 551
Dover, Robert, 50
downsizing, 630, 630 n5, 762
Drucker, Peter, 412
drug cartels, 539, 767
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), 7, 82, 196, 223, 243
drug experiments, by CIA, 236
due process of law, 189, 209, 333
Dujmovic, Nicholas, “Extraordinary Fidelity: Two CIA Prisoners in China, 1952–1973,” 74 n4
Dulles, Allen W.
CIA and, 72 n2, 76 n6, 126, 128–29, 215, 365, 488–89, 490 n7, 498, 749
The Craft of Intelligence, 273, 487
Eisenhower and, 425, 449
OSS and, 272–73
Dulles, John Foster, 449, 487–88, 498
Dunlap, Jack, 178
Duquesne, Frederick, 510
Dzershinsky, Feliks, 775
(p. 862) early warning, and OSINT, 231–32
Eastern Europe
democracies and, 761–63
Israel and, 810
Russian Federation and, 783
Stalin and, 147
eavesdropping program
McConnell and, 251
NSA program of, 250–54
Echelon program, 456
Economic Espionage Act (1996), 524
economic treason, 524
Egypt, 267, 370, 582, 746, 815–16
Ehrlichman, John, 496
Eichmann, Adolf, 807, 817–18
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
assassinations and, 28, 126–28
Castro and, 615
CIA and, 488 n3, 495, 500, 587–88
covert actions and, 128, 448, 728
Dulles, A., and, 425, 449
military-industrial complex and, 115, 126, 307
Pahlavi and, 614–15
PFIAB and, 172, 174–77, 187
Powers and, 442
U-2s and, 127, 442
Elad, Avraham, 818–19
electronic intelligence (ELINT), 155, 190, 243
Ellison, Graham, 50
embassy attacks, by Al Qaeda, 34
Encounter (journal), 127
encryption, 408
Encyclopedia Britannica, 81
Enigma machines, 155, 161–62, 164, 168, 217
Entente, 158–59
Erhard, Ludwig, 796
Erickson, Richard, 679
Ervin, Sam, 414 n8
espionage, 3, 25, 109, 143, 192
Espionage Act (1917), 109, 522–23, 533
Espionage Cases 1974-2004 (PERSEREC), 525
estimates. See intelligence estimates
ethics
accountability and, 735–53
analysis and, 417–20
Constitutional issues and, 745
“Ethics Phobia in the U.S. Intelligence Community” (Goldman), 750
intelligence and, 51–52
literature on, 745–48
policymakers and, 739
professional codes of, 737–38
test cases of, 739–40
torture and, 737, 743–45
“Ethics Phobia in the U.S. Intelligence Community” (Goldman), 750
Ethiopia, 580, 814
ethnocentricity, 361–62
Europe
communism in, 507, 527
Eastern, 147, 761–63, 783, 810
European Union, 39, 354, 761–62, 767, 770, 804
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), 648–49, 655, 685
European Court of Human Rights (E Ct HR),649–52
Evans, Don, 186
Evans, Garth, 830
Evans, Jonathan, 46
Evatt, H. V., 826, 830
event prediction, 61–62, 65–67
Every Spy a Prince (Raviv and Melman), 747
evidence, 654–55, 667, 670
evil, organizational, 737
“evil empire,” USSR as, 371, 515
executive privilege, 173, 181
executive process, and covert actions, 597–98, 601
expanded targets, of treason, 523–24
extradition treaties
in Civil War, 331–33
in France, 329, 333
Pahlavi and, 329
Supreme Court rulings on, 334
in US, 191, 202, 328–33
Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counterrevolution and Sabotage (CHEKA), 775, 778
“Extraordinary Fidelity: Two CIA Prisoners in China, 1952-1973” (Dujmovic), 74 n4
extraordinary rendition, 19, 201, 328–40, 582, 802
Eytan, Walter, 817
facilitative power, 47
failures
assessments of, 77, 87, 89, 97, 359–61
competitive analysis after, 376–77
cost of, 48, 52–53
of covert actions, 622
of policymaking, 438, 449, 613–16, 621–23
of surveillance, 452–53
Fairless, Benjamin, 176
Falklands War (1982), 141, 679
Fall, Albert B., 508
Falun Gong, 35
“Family Jewels” expose, 82, 450
fascism, 116, 259, 527
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 7, 96, 109n1 (p. 863)
Carter, Jimmy, and, 513
Church Committee and, 722
CI and, 505–17
CIA rivalry with, 126, 134
civil liberties and, 125, 516–17
Cold War and, 512–13
domestic spying and, 510–13
FISC and, 731
Fuchs and, 556–57, 562
Hanssen and, 27, 269, 273–74
history of, 505–17
Hoover and, 112–13, 124–25, 259, 489, 507–9
KGB and, 512–16
Latin America and, 111, 511
mission of, 112–13, 125, 191, 516
PFIAB and, 175
reform of, 49, 508–10, 513–14
Roosevelt, F., and, 509
Wilson, W., and, 506
Federal Communications Commission, 507
Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, 200
Federal Security Service (FSB), 784–87
Federal Tort Claims Act, 658–59
Federation of American Scientists (FAS),239, 758
Fedochuk, Vitaliy, 781
Fedorenko, Sergey, 527
Feith, Douglas, 371, 462
Felfe, Heinz, 794–95
fiduciary relationships, 413–15
Figes, Orlando, The Whisperers, 776
financial crisis (2008), 242–43
financial topics, 7
Financial Transactions and Report Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC), 690
Fingar, Thomas, 382, 389
Finletter, Thomas K., 660–61, 664–65
1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (Delta Force), 577
Fischer, Benjamin, 781
Fischer, Joschka, 797, 799–800
Fleming, Ian, 217
From Russia, With Love, 268
Flood, Philip, 683, 832–33, 838–39
Flood Commission, 684, 832–33, 836, 839
Floyd, “Pretty Boy,” 509
Foertsch, Volker, 797
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 71
force protection, 538
Ford, Gerald
assassinations and, 180
“Family Jewels” expose and, 450
HUMINT and, 180–81
PFIAB and, 176, 180–82, 184
politicization and, 119
President's Commission on CIA Activities and, 680 n4
Ford, Harold, 729
Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act (1998), 334
Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 461
Foreign Assistance Act (1961), 590 n4
Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS), 229–30, 233–34, 271, 411
foreign instrumentation signals intelligence (FISINT), 243
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (1978) (FISA)
amendments to, 209
Hayden, M., and, 252
surveillance and, 193–94, 203, 514, 680
violations of, 250–52
wiretap and, 193–94
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), 250–52, 514
Bush, George W., and, 726
FBI and, 731
surveillance, 194, 680
foreign intervention, 108, 204
foreign language deficiency, 362, 367–68
For Official Use Only (FOUO), 239
Forschungsamt, 160–61
For the President's Eyes Only (Andrew), 609 n2
forward-looking infrared (FLIR) cameras, 279
fragmentation, of national security intelligence, 49–50, 61
France, 158–62, 168, 215–17
extradition treaties and, 329, 333
NATO and, 489 n4
Francis, Diane, Immigration: The Economic Case, 311–12
Franklin, Benjamin, 215, 745
Franks, Tommy, 428
Franks Report, 141, 146
Fraser, Malcolm, 681, 828, 831 n1, 832
Frauenknecht, Alfred, 812
Freedman, Lawrence, 380
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 237, 669
Freeh, Louis, 266, 516
free market ideology, 363–64
Fremont, John, 332
Freud, Sigmund, 439
Friedman, Stephen, 185–86
From Russia, With Love (Fleming), 268
Fuchs, Klaus, 512, 523, 555–66
Fukuyama, Francis, 520
Fuld, Leonard, 231 n3
(p. 864) Fuller, Graham, 729
funding, by congress, 95, 300, 430, 447–48, 620–21, 620–21 n16
Future Imagery Architecture (FIA), 302–3
Gadahn, Adam, 528
Galileo project, 414, 414 n9
gang activity, 61–62, 769
Gang of Eight, 573, 575, 593
Gast, Gabriele, 797
Gates, Robert
CIA and, 76 n6, 94, 151, 371, 397, 441, 490 n7, 498, 498 n15, 725, 729
Clinton and, 488 n3
counterterrorism and, 580
covert actions and, 588 n1
dissemination and, 21
as Secretary of Defense, 633, 635–37
Gauk Commission, 783
Gayler, Noel, 19
Gaza Strip, 810
Gehlen, Reinhard, 792–96
Gehlen group, 792, 799
General Accountability Office (GAO), 401 n9
General Intelligence Division (GID), 507–8
Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), 758, 758 n3
Geneva Conventions
covert actions and, 582, 582 n2
Guantanamo Detention Center and, 726
Al Qaeda and, 337, 582, 582 n3
torture and, 200–201, 285, 334, 336
genocide, 207–8, 288–90
George, Alexander, 380
George, Roger, 378
Analyzing Intelligence, 405
geospatial intelligence (GEOINT), 15, 169, 425
Germany
BND in, 790–805, 791 n2
CIA and, 792–93, 795
CI in, 794–95
in Cold War, 127, 145, 790–98
Communist Party in, 558–59, 563
Constitutional issues in, 803–4
Israel and, 797
NATO and, 792, 797–98
parliamentary oversight in, 791
unification of, 799–801
wiretap in, 796
in WWI, 506–7
Ghaddafi, Muammar, 144
Gibli, Binyamin, 819
Giglio v. US 1972, 198–99
Gill, Peter, 679, 716, 764
Intelligence in an Insecure World, 44 n1
Gillars, Mildred, (“Axis Sally”), 523
glasnost, 778
Glass Ceiling Study, 133
“global brain,” 63
global era intelligence, 212–25
globalization, 60, 67, 312, 527–28, 533
global positioning systems (GPS), 169, 222
Global War on Terrorism (GWOT)
Bush, George W., and, 92, 296, 336, 462
covert actions and, 572–73
intelligence and, 95, 270, 406
McConnell and, 580
National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism and, 579
NSA and, 242, 254
terrorism and, 92, 95, 242
UK and, 648–49
Globke, Hans, 793
Godfrey, John, 217
Gold, Harry, 565
golden age, of TECHINT, 410, 410 n4
Goldman, Jan, 745
“Ethics Phobia in the U.S. Intelligence Community,” 750
Goldsmith, Jack L., 251, 253
Goldwater-Nichols Act, 634 n13
Gonzales, Alberto R., 251–52
Goodman, Melvin, 729
Goodman, Michael, 141, 148, 371
The Good Shepherd (film), 72 n3
Google Earth, 234, 236
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 183, 367, 778
Gordievsky, Oleg, 148, 151, 527, 775
Gore Commission, 722
Goss, Porter
CIA and, 238, 298, 304
as DCI, 173, 186, 489, 490 n7, 492
Rodriguez and, 731
governance
centralized, 108–9
democratic civilian control, 757 n1, 765–68
The Governance of Britain (Wilson, H.), 700, 700 n1, 711–12, 715
and intelligence, 47–48
politicization of, 483–84
The Governance of Britain (Wilson, H.), 700, 700 n1, 711–12, 715
governmental structures, 108, 463–67
Government Code & Cypher School (GC&CS) (UK), 159–62, 557, 641 n1
Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (UK) (p. 865)
accountability and, 643–45, 701, 713
DSD and, 827
Fuchs and, 562
mission of, 641–43, 643 n9
SIGINT and, 641–43
statutory charter of, 640–41
Graham, Bob, 296
graphical Issues Based Information System (gIBIS), 350
Gravier, Charles, 608–9
graymail, 192, 514
Great Depression, 125
Greater Toronto Enforcement Center (GTEC), 317
Great Terror, 776, 780
The Great Terror (Conquest), 776
Green Berets, 577, 580
Greenglass, David, 512
Grenada, 90, 183
grey intelligence, 231
Grieve, Dominic, 714
group-think, 51, 146, 367, 378, 414, 749
GRU (Soviet Intelligence), 541, 541 n12, 551, 780, 782, 786
Gryllakis, Nikolaos, 542 n13
Guadalcanal, 166
Guantanamo Detention Center
Geneva Conventions and, 726
Kurnaz and, 802
legal status of, 200, 709
Mohamed, B., and, 709–10
private sector intelligence and, 300
terrorist suspects and, 134–35, 709–10
torture and, 200, 269, 731
Guatemala
CIA and, 24, 128, 185
covert actions and, 442, 570, 615
intelligence in, 766
guerrilla warfare, 111, 231
Guideon's Spies (Thomas), 747
Guillaume, Gunter, 219
Guiora, Amos, 744
Gulag Archipelago (Solzhenitsyn), 776
Gulf of Tonkin incident, 480–81
Gyngell, Allan, 829
habeus corpus, 200
Habyarimana, Juvénal, 288–89
Hachmeister, Lutz, 795 n4
Hadley, Stephen, 635–36
Haganah, 807
Haines, Gerald, 76
Haiti, 277, 291–93
Haldeman, H. R., 496
Hale, Nathan, 258–59
Hale Foundation, 173
Hall, Theodore Alvin, 512, 564–65
Hamas, 18, 35, 818, 820
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 200, 336–38
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 336
Hammarskjöld, Dag, 276, 284
Handel, Michael I., 372
Hanning, August, 799–800
Hanssen, Robert
Cherkashin and, 263
CI and, 96, 100, 265–67, 551
FBI and, 27, 269, 273–74
KGB and, 541–42, 784
Hanyok, Robert, J., 117 n4
Harding, Warren, 508
Harkabi, Yehoshafat, 372
Harman, Harriet, 648 n26
Harman, Jane, 631
Harmon, Reginald C., 660, 664–65
Harper, Stephen, 313 n3
Hastedt, Glenn, 49
Hawke, Bob, 830–31
Hayden, Michael
CIA and, 82, 88, 92, 304, 306, 490 n7, 491 n8, 580, 587–88, 604, 624, 633, 724
congressional oversight and, 593 n5
FISA and, 252
OSINT and, 240
Hayden, Nancy, The Complexity of Terrorism: Social and Behavioral Understanding,348 n9
Helgerson, John, 724
Helms, Richard
Castro and, 724
Church Committee and, 721, 724
CIA and, 721
as DCI, 76, 76 n6, 371, 392 n3, 488, 490 n7, 498
NIEs and, 437
Nixon and, 392 n3, 426, 496
Hennessy, P., 45–46
Herbig, Katherine, 527–28, 531
Herman, Michael, 142–43, 145–47, 149, 408, 750
Intelligence Power in Peace and War, 139
Hermann, Robert, 185
“The Hero” (Pushkin), 23
Herring, Patricia Reynolds, 663–64
Hersh, Seymour, 573, 575, 579
Heuer, Richard, 378
The Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, 405
heuristics, judgmental, 366–67, 479–83
Heusinger, Adolf, 793
Hewitt, Patricia, 648 n26
Hezbollah, 35, 810, 816
Hibbert, Reginald, 139, 145
high treason v. petit treason, 520–21
hijacking, 192
Hillenkoetter, Roscoe, 490 n7, 491
Hince, Lawrence, 124
Hiss, Alger, 263, 512
(p. 866) Historical Dictionary of Israeli Intelligence (Kahana), 747
historiography
of intelligence, 140–42
Johnson, L. K., and, 79
of Russian Federation, 774–75
history
classified documents as, 78
Covert Operations as a Tool for Presidential Foreign Policy in History (Carter, John J.), 609 n2
Diplomatic History (journal), 79
of FBI, 505–17
History Staff, of CIA, 71, 73–77, 76 n5, 76 n6
Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (Weiner), 74 n4, 135, 304, 745
of NRO, 80 n9, 82, 426, 532
of PDB, 78
of spying, 258–61
Hitler, Adolph, 110, 149, 272–73, 394, 399, 801
Hocking, Jenny, 837
Hoekstra, Peter, 724, 731
Hoffman, Bruce, 743
Hollerith data systems, 161, 164–65
Hollis, Roger, 560
Holmes v. Jennison, 330
homeland security
“complexities” in, 343–58, 344 t, 351 t
counterterrorism and, 60–62
DHS and, 7, 195–97, 223, 231, 301, 464–65, 538, 632, 722
intelligence for, 50, 60–62, 297, 417
homosexuals, 133
Hong Kong, 146
Honorable Men (Colby), 745
Hoover, J. Edgar
domestic spying and, 27–28, 118
MI5 and, 564–65
Hoover Commissions, 722, 725
Hope, Robert, 681, 828–29, 831 n1, 832
Hopkinson, Francis, 658
Horner, D., 825
Breaking the Codes, 825
Houghton, Harry, 533
Howard, Edward Lee, 183, 274, 540, 540 n9, 543
Howard, John, 830, 837–38, 840
Howells, Kim, 646, 714
Hoxha, Enver, 144
Huettenhain, Erich, 164
Hughes, Charles Evans, 333
Hughes-Ryan amendment, 118, 499, 589 n3, 590 n4, 724
Hull, John E., 176
human intelligence (HUMINT)
assets for, 15, 222, 393
CIA and, 362–64
Ford, G., and, 180–81
Israel and, 810
NATO and, 769–70
North Korea and, 18, 362
OSS and, 111
policymaking and, 442, 545
recruitment and, 257–74, 425, 551, 613
v. TECHINT, 17–19
UN and, 275–76, 279
human rights, 52, 409, 764
Human Rights Act (1998), 648–53
Human Rights Project, “Torture by Proxy,” 334
Human Rights Watch Arms Project, 288
human security v. national security, 49
Hume, David, 456
HUMINT. See human intelligence
Hungary, 127, 763
Hunter, Duncan, 631
Huntington, Samuel, 520
Hussein (king of Jordan), 363, 618 n13, 820
Hussein, Saddam
capture of, 266, 371
Iraq and, 382, 428, 453, 480, 550, 800
Kuwait and, 229
WMDs and, 28, 238, 379, 462, 482, 707, 838
Hutu people, 288–90
hypotheses and associations, 354 f, 355
ideologies, and treason, 527–28
imagery intelligence (IMINT)
CI and, 15, 25, 81, 393
NGA and, 19, 234
NSA and, 81–82
reconnaissance and, 216, 240, 408
U-2s and, 127, 129, 220, 237, 261, 442, 449
UN and, 276
Immerman, Richard, 24 n14, 419 n11
immigration
in Canada, 310–27
Immigration: The Economic Case (Francis), 311–12
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), 311, 316, 321, 337
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), 311, 316, 321, 337
Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), 166–67
improvised explosive devices (IEDs), 247
in camera inspection, 662
India, 98, 324–25, 359, 362
(p. 867) indications-and-warning methodologies, 65–67
Indonesia, 615, 762, 831, 834–35
industrial warfare, 407
information explosion, 408–9, 416
information-gathering spectrum, for UN, 280 t
information-processing models, 349–51
information revolution, 59–60, 63, 120, 407–9, 749
Information Security (INFOSEC), 243
“inherent enemies,” 453–54
Inman, Bobby Ray, 304
In-Q-Tel, 299
insider administrators, 492
inspector general of CIA, 680, 723, 731–32
Institute for Defense Analyses, 386
institutional checks and balances, reforms of, 669–72
institutional orthodoxies, 459–60
intelligence. See also intelligence community; intelligence cycle; intelligence estimates; military intelligence
accountability and, 27–28, 52–53, 213–15, 497–99, 719–39
assessments of, 87–103, 396
in Australia, 438, 463, 823–42
budgets for, 447–48, 499
in Canada, 314–16
in Chile, 759, 761, 764
civilian, 189–98, 209, 788
in Cold War, 28, 33–35, 43, 112–16, 259–60
collective, 16, 63–65
COMINT and, 243
courts and, 651
The Craft of Intelligence (Dulles, A.), 273, 487
culture of, 361–66, 433
defense and, 422–34, 629–39
in democracies, 52, 72, 85, 408, 418–20, 449–50, 498, 719
in developing democracies, 757–73
in DOD, 422–34
ethics and, 51–52
FISINT and, 243
in global era, 212–25
governance and, 47–48
grey, 231
in Guatemala, 766
GWOT and, 95, 270, 406
historiography of, 140–42
for homeland security, 50, 60–62, 297, 417
Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy (Lowenthal), 405, 745
in Iraq, 363–64, 376–77
in Israel, 89, 220, 806–22
law enforcement and, 189–211, 429
limits of, 452–71
monitoring of, 64, 90–91, 97–98, 99 t
9/11 attacks and, 4, 34–36, 43–44, 60, 89, 93, 229, 238, 298–99, 417, 428–29, 448, 769
operational, 157, 365, 550–51
OSINT and, 16, 64–65, 222, 229–41
outsourcing of, 50–51, 298–300, 306
oversight of, 52–53, 497–99
Pearl Harbor attack and, 89, 91, 93, 112, 124–25, 359, 417
peer review of, 723
performance measures for, 88–100, 396
of PKI, 275–96
to please, 366, 370, 417
policymaking and, 91, 95, 119, 122, 355–57, 366, 390, 437–51, 453, 476–79
PRC and, 513, 516, 524, 539
presidents and, 495–97, 725
in private sector, 50, 53, 296–309
public use of, 474–76
on Al Qaeda, 46, 66, 257, 266, 377, 834–35
RCMP and, 314, 510, 673, 694 n8
in Russian Federation, 774–89
Stalin and, 391, 489 n4, 779
structures of, 49–50
surveillance and, 45, 53
theories of, 43–58, 138–40
theories of intelligence performance, 87–92
totalitarian regimes and, 72, 108, 408, 410–11, 759
at transnational levels, 49–50, 53
transparency in, 758, 761–70
in US, rise of, 107–21
on Vietnam War, 114, 116–17, 407, 427
war and, 781–82
“When Everything is Intelligence, Nothing is Intelligence” (Argell), 722
wisdom and, 736–38
Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy (Lowenthal), 405, 745
Intelligence Accountability Act, 499
Intelligence Activities in Ancient Rome: Trust in the Gods but Verify (Sheldon), 608 n1
Intelligence and National Security (journal), 4, 79, 404, 758
Intelligence and Security Committee (ISC) (UK), 53, 645–47, 647 n25, 701–10, 703 t
Intelligence Assessments Staff (UK), 642
Intelligence Authorization Acts, 570–71, 596, 598, 610 n5, 618
(p. 868) intelligence community
AIC and, 824, 835
bureaucracy of, 7–11, 8 f
civil liberties and, 43, 108, 197, 208, 803
cooperation in, 50–51, 365–66, 389, 390 n1, 396–400, 418
democratization of, 51–52, 757–58, 765–68, 771
“Ethics Phobia in the U.S. Intelligence Community” (Goldman), 750
NRO and, 218, 223, 245, 427
professionalism in, 736–38, 760
in US, 8 f, 107–21
Intelligence Community Briefs, 99 n5
Intelligence Community Staff, 230, 426
intelligence cycle, 6, 11–21, 12 f, 59
analysis in, 20, 393, 409–13
collection, 15–17, 393–95
dissemination, 436–501
HUMINT v. TECHINT and, 17–19
planning, 12–15
processing in, 19–20, 48–49
of UN, 278–82
intelligence estimates, 90–92, 396
analysis and, 444
Board of National Estimates, 115
during Cold War, 149
Johnson, L. B., and, 370
nonfailure rates of, 98–99, 99 t
Office of National Estimates, 138, 372
policymaking and, 21, 380
Reagan and, 371
semi-annual reviews of, 723
Truman and, 112
Intelligence Executive Order 12333, 223, 635–37
Intelligence Identities Protection Act, 192
Intelligence in an Insecure World (Gill and Phythian), 44 n1
Intelligence Oversight Act (1980), 589 n3
Intelligence Oversight Board (IOB), 180–81
Intelligence Power in Peace and War (Herman), 139
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (2004) (IRTPA)
CIA and, 134, 264
cooperation and, 8 n5, 50, 213, 223, 411–12
DCIA and, 495 n12
DNI and, 196, 423, 429–30, 465–66, 631
OSINT and, 229, 233
reforms and, 419
terrorism and, 8 n5, 50, 134, 196
Intelligence Services Act (1994), 641, 645 n17, 702
intellipedia, 415
interceptions, 240, 510–11, 649–50, 654–55, 674
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM), 127, 149–50
interdependence, of nations, 36, 38, 49
intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs), 150, 261
International Assessment Staff, 675
international collaboration, 212–25
International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), 334, 337
International Criminal Court (ICC), 207
internationalism, 39
The International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (journal), 4, 79, 239, 404, 758
international law, 202, 204, 207–8, 269, 601–2
international research, 758–59
International Review Agencies Conference, 53
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), 222–23
Internet
access to, 63, 419
NSA and, 424
OSINT and, 64–65, 222, 411
terrorists and, 455, 836
internment, wartime, 558
interpersonal skills, 396–400
interrogation techniques. See also torture
of CIA, 19, 731
coercive, 52
Tenet and, 731
interventions, secret, 142–45. See also covert actions
INTS (intelligence activities), 15–19, 155–71, 409
intuition, 396–400
Investigatory Powers Tribunal, 648 n29, 651
Iran. See also Iran-Contra scandal
Carter, Jimmy and, 16
CIA and, 367–68, 570
Colby and, 25
DIA and, 131, 368
Islamist movement in, 77, 131, 182, 359, 362
Israel and, 368–69
nuclear materials of, 35, 100, 135, 411
Pahlavi and, 16, 24–25, 127–28, 131, 362
Roosevelt, K., and, 24 n14
Iran-Contra scandal
Boland Amendments and, 748
CIA and, 3–4, 24, 131–32
Contra faction and, 449–50, 570, 583, 595, 622, 680, 724
covert actions and, 3–4, 24
Israel and, 747
Reagan and, 3–4, 131–32, 206, 450, 492, 618–19
Iraq
Hussein, S., and, 382, 428, 453, 480, 550, 800
intelligence in, 363–64, 376–77
Kuwait and, 220, 816
US invasion of, 45, 186, 222, 242, 245–47, 277, 296, 462
(p. 869)
WMDs in, 4, 18, 20, 28, 49, 51, 64, 100, 257, 359, 366, 377, 438, 444, 653, 712, 730
Ireland, 37, 51, 145
Irish Quick Reaction Force (QRF), 201
Islamist movements, 263–64, 528
in Iran, 77, 131, 182, 359, 362
in Israel, 810
Munich Olympic Games and, 747, 803, 817
terrorism and, 261, 266, 456
Israel
assassinations and, 744
British Mandate in, 807, 812
covert actions by, 817–20
Eastern Europe and, 810
Germany and, 797
Historical Dictionary of Israeli Intelligence (Kahana), 747
HUMINT and, 810
IDF and, 809–10, 814
intelligence in, 89, 220, 806–22
Iran and, 368–69
Iran-Contra scandal and, 747
ISA and, 808–11, 813
Islamist movements in, 810
KGB and, 812
Pollard and, 270–71, 529, 543, 543 n16, 812
SIGINT in, 809
US and, 94
Israel Defense Forces (IDF), 809–10, 814
Israeli Security Agency (ISA), 808–11, 813
Issues Based Information System (IBIS), 350
Italy, 129, 338
Jackson, Robert, 511
James, Daniel, 533
Jane's Intelligence Digest, 764
Janis, Irving R., 378
Japan
CIA and, 363
codebreaking and, 160, 165–66
IJN and, 166–67
WWII and, 89, 91, 93, 113, 124–25, 522–23, 611, 825
Jay Treaty, 330
Al Jazeera, 233
Jedburgh teams, 216–17
Jefferson, Thomas, 329
Jemmah Islamiyah, 834
Jencks Act, 198–99
Jenkins, Brian Michael, 348, 743
Jervis, Robert, 368, 379, 457
Jews, in USSR, 777, 780
JFK (film), 84
jihad, 263
Jihad, Abu, 817
John Paul II (pope), 183
Johnson, Loch K.
accountability and, 676, 716
covert actions and, 610 n5, 619 n15
historiography and, 79
Strategic Intelligence, 142
Strategic Intelligence: Windows into a Secret World, 610 n5
Johnson, Lyndon B., 22, 116, 118, 128–30, 495
intelligence estimates and, 370
McCone and, 443
PFIAB and, 175, 178–79
PRC and, 178
Vietnam War and, 370, 473, 476
Johnston, Rob, 467
Joint Chiefs of Staff, 112, 115, 487
joint-duty assignments, 634
Joint Intelligence Bureau (JIB), 140
Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), 139–41, 145–52, 457–58, 461–62, 641–42, 714
Joint Intelligence-Law Enforcement Working Group (JICLE), 197
Joint Intelligence Operations Center, 223
Joint Intelligence Organization (JIO), 145–46
Joint Mission Analysis Cells (JMACs), 280, 292
Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC), 577–81
Joint Task Force on Intelligence and Law Enforcement, 197
Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (JTAC), 653
Jones, Brian, 707
Jones, Reginald V., 140, 372, 728
Jordan, 266–67, 363, 618 n13, 746
Journal of Cold War Studies, 79
Joyce, William (“Lord Haw Haw”), 522–23, 527
JSTARS aircraft, 428
judgmental heuristics, 366–67, 479–83
judicial finality, 663
judicial independence, 666–69
judicial oversight, in UK, 648
Just-War Theory, 728, 735, 741–42
Kahana, Ephraim, Historical Dictionary of Israeli Intelligence, 747
Kahle, Hans, 559, 563
(p. 870) Kalugin, Oleg Danilovich, 537 n3
Kam, Ephraim, 345 n3
Kamil, Hussein, 380
Kant, Immanuel, 741
Karadzic, Radovan, 92
Katangese Gendarmerie, 279, 284–85
Katsav, Moshe, 820
Keating, Paul, 830–31
Keegan, John, 454
Kelly, “Machine Gun,” 509
Kennan, George, 259
Kennedy, John F., 25, 147
Bay of Pigs Invasion and, 475, 614 n9, 721
Castro and, 177, 450, 615, 622 n17
CIA and, 83, 128–29, 495
covert actions and, 448
Cuba and, 28, 261, 365, 473
McCone and, 478–79, 497
PFIAB and, 175, 177–78
Kennedy, Joseph P., 175–76
Kennedy, Robert, 450
Kent, Sherman
analysis and, 370, 372, 398, 730
strategic intelligence and, 139, 141–42
Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy, 138, 145
Kenya, 207
Ker-Frisbie doctrine, 201, 333, 335 t
Kerr, Richard, 495
Kerry, John, 445
key assumptions checks, 379
key judgments (KJs), 444, 447
Keynes, John Maynard, 263
KGB
Ames and, 541–44, 549, 784
breakup of, 783–84
Directorate K of, 537 n3, 539
FBI and, 512–16
First Chief Directorate of, 537, 537 n2, 784
Fuchs and, 559
glasnost and, 778
Gordievsky and, 148, 151, 527, 775
Hanssen and, 541–42, 784
Israel and, 812
Khrushchev and, 777
Philby and, 144
Khan, Mohammad Siddique, 708–9
Khomeini, Ayatollah, 359, 367–68
Khrushchev, Nikita, 129, 147, 261
Communist Party and, 777
KGB and, 777
Mossad and, 817
Penkovsky and, 261
Kibbe, Jennifer D., 571–72
kidnapping, 52, 338
Killian, James R., Jr., 176–78
Kimball, Wilmoore, 145
Kimmel, Husband E., 729
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 113
King, Tom, 646, 702–3, 714
King Lear (Shakespeare), 518–19
Kipling, Rudyard, 259, 273
Kirkpatrick, William H., 658–60, 662, 664
Kissinger, Henry, 130, 132, 179, 220, 488
Allende and, 617
Colby and, 450
covert actions and, 619
Nixon and, 132, 220, 495–96
Kita, Yoshito, 747
KJs. See key judgments
Knight, Amy, 774
Knott, Stephen F., 609 n2
knowledge/power relationship, 45–47, 437–51
Knox, Frank, 729
Kohl, Helmut, 799–800
Kolbe, Fritz, 272–73
Korea, 114
North Korea, 18, 93 n2, 100, 135, 248, 362–64
Republic of Korea, 93 n2, 148, 276
UN Commission on Korea, 283–84
Korean War, 424, 449, 793
Truman and, 424, 449
Kosovo, 221, 702, 798
Koval, George, 787
Kremer, Simon, 559
Kriegsmarine, 164
Kryuchkov, Vladimir, 778
Kuala Lumpur, 20
Kuklinski, Ryszard, 83
Ku Klux Klan, 27
Kulik, Grigory, 779
Kurnaz, Murat, 802
Kuwait, 276, 359, 377, 379
Hussein, S., and, 229
Iraq and, 220, 816
Lackawanna Muslims, 271
Laird, Melvin, 304
Lake, Anthony, 184, 498
Lalas, Steven, 542
Land, Edwin, 180
Landau Commission, 811
Langer, William, 177, 372
language deficiency, 362, 367–68
Lansdale, Edward, 127–28, 130
Laquer, Walter, 348
Latin America, 43, 52, 168, 745–46
FBI and, 111, 511
Lauth, Jeff, 249
Lavon, Pinhas, 818–19
law
covert actions and, 570–74, 587–607
establishing, 764
(p. 871)
international, 202, 204, 207–8, 269, 601–2
in UK, 640–56
law enforcement
CI and, 553–54
complexities in, 353–55
constraints on, 61–62
covert actions and, 196
DHS and, 195–97
intelligence and, 189–211, 429
JICLE and, 197
Joint Task Force on Intelligence and Law Enforcement, 197
SIGINT and, 202–3, 208
terrorism and, 203–4, 206
at US-Canadian border, 310–27, 674–75
leadership typology, 490–94
Lebanon, 277
le Carré, John, A Most Wanted Man, 802
Lee, Charles, 329
Lee, Wen Ho, 185
Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (Weiner), 74 n4, 135, 304, 745
legal limitations, 494–95, 598–600
legal practice, 603–4
legal regime, of US, 590–98
legal templates, 600–604
Legare, Hugh, 330
legislative charters, 640–43, 765
Lenin, Vladimir I., 272, 507
Levi, Edward, 118, 513
Levin, Carl, 631
Lewis, Anthony, 24
Liberal National Party Coalition, 824
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), 323–24
Libya, 135, 207
Liddell, Guy, 511
Lie, Trygve, 283
Lieberman, Joseph, 631
limits
cognitive, 456–58
of intelligence, 452–71
on structures, 463–67
of time and space, 454–56
Lincoln, Abraham, 331–32
Lincoln, Franklin, 180
Lindh, John Walker, 281
linguists, cryptologic, 249, 394
Lisbon Summit (1952), 147
Litvinenko, Aleksandr, 787
Lloyd George, David, 370
Loader, I., 48
Loether, Judith, 663
logistics, 376
Lotz, Wolfgang, 808
Lovett, Robert A., 176
Lowenthal, Mark, 384, 389
Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy, 405, 745
low-probability scenarios, 381
loyalty testing, 27
Luftwaffe, 164
Lumumba, Patrice, 25, 285
Lycurgus, 519
MacArthur, Douglas, 167, 825
MacEachin, Douglas, 384
MacGregor, Douglas, Breaking the Phalanx,417
MacGuffin, John, 400 n7
machine cryptography, 156, 161–67
Enigma machines, 155, 161–62, 164, 168
MacLean, Donald, 81, 218
Madrid train bombing, 261
MAGIC material, 161, 217, 365
Mahl, Thomas, Desperate Deception: British Covert Operations in the United States 1939-1941, 611 n7
Major, John, 141, 701
Malaya, 143
Malaysia, 831, 834
manager-reformers, 492–93
Manhattan Project, 512, 523, 555–56, 559–60, 564, 787
Mann Act, 506
Mansfield, Mike, 176, 725
The Man Who Never Was (film), 549 n21
Mao Tse Tung, 146
mapping associations and hypotheses, 354 f, 355
Marks, James, 800
Marrin, Stephen, 737
Marshall, George C., 487, 511
Martin, Paul, 675
el-Masri, Khaled, 743
Massoud, Ahmed Shah, 144
Masterman, John C., The Double-Cross System, 551
Matei, Cristiana, 747
Maxwell-Fyfe Directive, 641–42, 649, 699
May, Alan Nunn, 559–60
May, Ernest, 99, 383
Mazière, Thomas de, 802
McCain, John, 631 n7
McCain Amendment, 270
McCarthy, Joseph, 721
McClellan, George B., 391
McCone, John
CIA and, 82, 129–30, 425–26, 488, 490 n7, 492
Johnson, L. B., and, 443
Kennedy, J. F., and, 478–79, 497
politicization and, 479
(p. 872) McConnell, J. M. “Mike”
eavesdropping program and, 251
GWOT and, 580
KJs and, 444
“Overhauling Intelligence,” 630 n3
processing and, 19
“responsibility to provide” and, 412–13, 413 n7, 553
Vision, 214
McDonald, David, 685
McDonald Commission, 686, 695
McFarlane, Robert, 182
McGrory, Mary, 73
McKinley, Andrew, 715
McKnight, David, 826
McLellan, Anne, 675
McNamara, Barbara, 304
McNamara, Robert, 114, 426, 488
McQuivey, James, 530
measurement and signatures intelligence (MASINT), 17, 82, 393
media coverage, 37
Medina, Carmen, 391, 400
medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBMs), 150
Medvedev, Dmitry, 787
Meir, Golda, 816
Melman, Yossi, Every Spy a Prince, 747
Membership Action Plan, of NATO, 770
Memorandum of Notification (MON), 594
Menzies, Robert, 830, 837
Merkel, Angela, 800–802
methodological nationalism, 49
Mexico, 259, 371, 392, 395
Meyer, J. T., 571, 571 n1
Meyerosse, Dale, 553
Mikhoels, Solomon, 779
Miliband, David, 716
military-industrial complex, 115, 126, 307
military intelligence
analysts in, 88
Military Intelligence Program, 447
in USSR, 779–82
Military Intelligence (MI) (Israel), 808–9, 811, 813–16, 818–19
Military Intelligence Program (MIP), 447
Mill, John Stuart, 741
Miller, Richard, 530, 530 n6, 533
Milosevic, Slobodan, 145
mindsets, 378, 553
Minihan, Ken, 297
ministerial oversight, 644–45, 678–79
MINUSTAH. See United Nations
Miranda warnings, 193, 200
Mirokhin, Vasili, 775
mirror-imaging, 362, 458
Mislock, Raymond, 515
“Missile Gap,” 127, 179, 370
missions
of Armed Services, 112–14
of CIA, 125, 133–34, 190, 260, 384
of DCI, 112–13, 125, 219, 486
of DIA, 422–23
of DNI, 213–14, 223
of FBI, 112–13, 125, 191, 516
of GCHQ, 641–43, 643 n9
of national security intelligence, 23–27, 112–13
of NGA, 7, 425
of NRO, 7, 424
of NSA, 115, 218, 243, 424
organizational mission statements, 88
of SOF, 576 t
Mitrokhin affair, 702, 710
Mitterrand, François, 611–12
Mohamed, Ali, 528
Mohamed, Binyam, 709–10
Mohammed, Khalid Sheikh, 269
Moldava, 768
monitoring
of intelligence, 64, 90–91, 97–98, 99 t
technologies for, 290–92
Moorer, Tom, 182
Moore's Law, 416
Morgan, Thomas B., 130
Morgenstein, Jonathan, 581
Morrison, John, 707, 712
Mossad, 747, 748 n2, 749, 806–22
Khrushchev and, 817
Le'Aliyah Beth of, 807, 812
Mossadeq, Mohammad, 24, 143, 363, 614–15
A Most Wanted Man (le Carré), 802
motivated biases, 369–72, 398, 460
motivations, for treason, 260–74, 524–33, 526 f
Moynihan, Daniel P., 133, 721
mujahideen fighters, 25, 144, 363, 449, 834
Mukasey, Michael, 731
Mulgan, Richard, 732
Mumbai terrorist attacks, 36, 274
Munguia, Ricardo, 246
Munich (film), 748 n2
Munich Olympic Games, terrorist attacks at, 747, 803, 817
Murphy, Franklin, 179–80
Murphy, Lionel, 828
Murphy, Paul, 646
Murphy Commission, 722
Murphy's Raid, 827–28
Murray, William, 519
Murrett, Robert B., 224
mysteries, 343–45, 344 t
Napoleonic period, 407
narcotics trafficking, 204, 231, 609
Nardone v. US, 204
Nasr, Hassan Mustafa Osama, 743
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 797, 814–15, 819
Nathanson, Philip, 819
National Archives and Records Administration, 174
National Clandestine Service (NCS), 9, 11, 82, 448, 539
National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX), 196, 553
National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), 196, 297, 464–65, 580
National Defense University (NDU), 237
National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP), 426
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
cooperation and, 223–24, 410, 423, 427
IMINT and, 19, 234
mission of, 7, 425
NIMA and, 82
National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), 81–82, 425
National Intelligence Council (NIC)
analysis and, 385–86, 457–58, 466
NIEs and, 91, 381–82
threat warnings and, 60–61, 91
National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs)
Helms and, 437
NIC and, 91, 381–82
NSC and, 99 n5
PFIAB and, 181
for 2000-2007, 98–99, 99 n5
for 2002, 64, 91, 372, 444, 446–47
National Intelligence Officer for Warning, 91
National Intelligence Program (NIP), 447, 631, 631 n8
National Intelligence Program Evaluation (NIPE), 426
The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America (Negroponte), 214
nationalism, methodological, 49
National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism, 579
National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC), 115, 177–78, 425
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)
CIA and, 115
history of, 80 n9, 82, 426, 532
intelligence community and, 218, 223, 245, 427
mission of, 7, 424
SIGINT and, 302, 423
national security. See also National Security Act (1947); National Security Agency; National Security Council; national security intelligence
academic study of, 138–41
of Australia, 823–42
Bush, George W., and, 35, 172, 239, 250, 445, 630 n6
v. human security, 49
public anxiety and, 33–39
National Security Act (1947)
CIA and, 8, 78, 125, 190–91, 218, 273, 485 n1, 487, 489, 589, 630
covert actions and, 590–95
mandate of, 23, 196, 202, 393, 425
Truman and, 112–13
National Security Agency (NSA)
Bush, George W., and, 244
Church Committee and, 722
DOD and, 423, 427
eavesdropping program of, 250–54
GWOT and, 242, 254
IMINT and, 81–82
Internet and, 424
mission of, 115, 218, 243, 424
9/11 attacks and, 244–45
Obama administration and, 242–56
PFIAB and, 175
Reagan and, 244
reconnaissance and, 7, 17, 19, 28, 80 n9
SIGINT and, 92, 167, 243–47, 249–50, 424
Smith, W., and, 115
Truman and, 424, 731
National Security Council (NSC)
CI and, 554
covert actions and, 589, 589 n2
NIEs and, 99 n5
as policymakers, 14, 112, 218, 386, 494 n11, 630
national security intelligence, 4–6
fragmentation of, 49–50, 61
as information, 21–23
mission of, 23–27, 112–13
organization of, 7–11, 8 f
process of, 12–21
National Students Association, 130
Naval Network Warfare Command, 243
Naval OPINTEL, 114
Nedze, Lucien, 680 n4
“need to know” v. “responsibility to provide,” 412–13, 413 n7, 467, 553
Negroponte, John
as DNI, 186, 214, 302, 432, 532, 632
The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America, 214
Neither Confirm Nor Deny response, 651
Nelson, John, 331
nerve gas, 17
(p. 874) Netanyahu, Benjamin, 820
Netherlands, 217
neutrality, 391
New Deal, 263
New Orleans, 38
Newsweek International, 19
Newton Committee, 654
“New World Order,” 406
New York City Bar Association, 334
The New Yorker, 4
New York (City) Police Department, 107
New York Times, 4, 16, 72, 250
New Zealand, 611–13, 681–82, 685
Nicaragua. See also Iran-Contra scandal
mining of harbor of, 23, 721
Reagan and, 23–24
Sandinistas and, 131–32, 622
Nicholson, Harold, 531, 533
Niger, 238
Nigeria, 220
Nimrody, Yaacov, 369
9/11 attacks
Bush, George W., and, 212
Canada and, 674
CIA and, 123
Commission Report on, 50, 53, 257, 272, 377, 382, 429, 432, 466, 529, 553, 630–31, 725–27
DNI and, 429–30
intelligence and, 4, 34–36, 43–44, 60, 89, 93, 229, 238, 298–99, 417, 428–29, 448, 769
NSA and, 244–45
planning of, 66
SOF and, 569
UK and, 652–53
ninja warriors, 746–47
Nixon, Richard M.
Allende and, 617–18
Cambodia and, 721
CIA and, 496, 614 n9, 730
Cold War and, 116–18, 496
Helms and, 392 n3, 426, 496
Kissinger and, 132, 220, 495–96
PFIAB and, 176, 179–80, 182
PRC and, 179
Schlesinger and, 497
Watergate scandal and, 130, 179, 450, 667
NKVD (Soviet intelligence), 161, 168, 775–76, 779–80
Nolan, James E., 515
non-democratic regimes, 759–61
nonfailure rates, of intelligence estimates, 98–99, 99 t
non-state actors, 221, 539
Normandy Invasion (1944), 111–12, 165, 217, 549
North Atlantic Council, 222
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Alliance, 207, 222
CIA and, 489 n4
France and, 489 n4
Germany and, 792, 797–98
HUMINT and, 769–70
Membership Action Plan of, 770
membership in, 219, 761–63, 767
UN and, 293
Northern Alliance, of Afghanistan, 90, 144, 212–13, 223
North Korea
CIA and, 100, 135, 248, 362–64
HUMINT and, 18, 362
invasion of Republic of Korea and, 93 n2
Norton-Taylor, Richard, 704
Norway, 163–64, 167
Norwood, Melita, 710, 779
Nowinski, Ed., 302
nuclear materials
in India, 362
of Iran, 35, 100, 135, 411
Libya and, 135
Manhattan Project and, 512, 523
tracking of, 7
weaponization of, 444, 455
Nujoma, Sam, 286–87
Nureddin, Muayyaed, 676
Obama, Barack, 35, 242, 251, 432
Obama administration, and NSA, 242–56
Obey, David, 573
objectivity, 472–74
O'Connor, Dennis, 53, 313 n3, 676
O'Connor, Sandra Day, 336
O'Connor Commission, 673, 693–95
offensive counterintelligence, 394 n5
Offensive Counterintelligence Operations (OFCO), 549
Office for Research and Collection of Information (ORCI), 280–81
(p. 875) Office of Coordinator of Information (COI), 124
Office of Foreign Missions (OFM), 515
Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence,7, 17
Office of Management and Budget, 117
Office of National Estimates, 138, 372
Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), 506
Office of Open Source Intelligence, 233
Office of Personnel Management (OPM), 401 n8
Office of Research Reports, 126
Office of Special Planning (OSP), 371
Office of Strategic Services (OSS)
democracy and, 72–73
Dulles, A., and, 272–73
founding of, 81
HUMINT and, 111
Truman and, 124
USSR and, 781
WWII and, 111, 124, 217, 259, 370, 372, 556
Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)
CIA and, 80 n9, 107
creation of, 8 n5, 49
DOD and, 432–33
OSINT and, 230, 239
private sector intelligence and, 297, 299, 304
Office of the Inspector General (IG), 680, 723, 731–32
Office of the National Executive for Counterintelligence (ONCIX), 524–25
Official Secrets Act (1889), 522–23, 525, 533, 564, 681
Ogorodnikov, Svetlana, 530
Okhrana (tsarist intelligence), 775, 778, 782
Olson, Eric, 580
Olympic Games in PRC, 2008, 35
On Active Service in Peace and War (Stimson), 72 n2
One Day of Ivan Denisovich (Solzhenitsyn), 777
open-minded personnel, 372
Open Source Center, of CIA (OSC), 229–30, 240
open-sources intelligence (OSINT), 229–41
analysis of, 230–31, 235
Bin Laden and, 233, 236
CI and, 236–37
collective intelligence and, 16, 63–65
DHS and, 231
early warning and, 231–32
Hayden, M., and, 240
intelligence and, 16, 64–65, 222, 229–41
Internet and, 64–65, 222, 411
IRTPA and, 229, 233
ODNI and, 230, 239
PDB and, 232
in private sector, 231
operating environments, 351 t
operational intelligence, 157, 365, 550–51
Operation Barbarossa, 163, 780
Operation Desert Shield, 220
Operation Desert Storm, 220, 427–28, 549–50
Operation Mountain Lion, 246
Operation Phoenix, 130
opportunities to exploit, 90–91, 99 t
ordinary renditions, 328
O'Reilly, Conor, 50
organizational evil, 737
organizational mission statements, 88
organized crime, 354–55, 736, 762
Orlov, Alexander, 547
Ostrovski, Victor, By Way of Deception, 747
Oswald, Lee Harvey, 527
Ottaway, Richard, 713–14
outsider administrators, 492–93
outsourcing, of intelligence, 50–51, 298–300, 306
Overend, William, 530 n6
“Overhauling Intelligence” (McConnell), 630 n3
oversight. See also congressional oversight
in Canada, 678–81
of intelligence, 52–53, 497–99
Intelligence Oversight Act (1980), 589 n3
IOB and, 180–81
judicial, in UK, 648
ministerial, 644–45, 678–79
parliamentary, 645–47, 688–89, 765, 791
for private sector intelligence, 306–7
of RCMP, 676, 685–86, 689–92
in UK, 699–702
overtaken by events (OBE), 21
Oxford Handbook on the United Nations, 276n1
Padilla, Jose, 271
Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza
CIA and, 367–68
Eisenhower and, 614–15
extradition treaties and, 329
Iran and, 16, 24–25, 127–28, 131, 362
Pakistan, 36, 233, 266–67, 359, 579–80, 583
Paladin, 208
Palestine, White Paper on, 807
Palestinian Islamic Jihad, 810
Pallitto, Robert, 669
Palmer, A. Mitchell, 507–8
Palya, Albert, 663
Palya, Elizabeth, 664
Pan-American Games, 769
pandemic illness, 37
paramilitary initiatives, 23–24, 143, 449, 609
Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO, ASIS and DSD (PJCAAD), 683–84
parliamentary oversight
in Canada, 688–89
in Germany, 791
in UK, 645–47, 765
Partners at the Creation (Critchfield), 795 n4
party associations, of presidents, 497
Paterno, Joe, 520
Patriot Act, 262, 311, 337, 429
Patterson, Geoffrey, 565
peace-dividend, 34, 406, 630
peacekeeping intelligence (PKI), 275–96
Pearl Harbor attack
intelligence and, 89, 91, 93, 112, 124–25, 359, 417
investigations into, 722
Roberts Commission and, 729–30
Wohlstetter and, 358n3, 359, 409, 727
WWII and, 116, 218, 259, 510
Peeke, Charles MacLean, 266, 270
peer review, of intelligence, 723
Peierls, Rudolf, 557–58
penetration, 48
Penkovsky, Oleg
Cold War and, 18, 395
Khrushchev and, 261
as US agent, 81, 148–49, 266–67, 270, 527, 547–48, 547 n20
Pentagon Papers, 130
Pentagon-style covert action, 569–86
People's Republic of China (PRC)
Chin and, 271, 529
Chinese-Taiwan dispute, 381
Communist Party in, 529
embassy bombing, in Belgrade, 97 n4, 428
intelligence and, 513, 516, 524, 539
Johnson, L. B., and, 178
Nixon and, 179
Olympic Games of 2008 in, 35
Stalin and, 146
perestroyka, 778
Pérez de Cuéllar, Javier, 280, 287
perfidy, 582
performance measures
for analysis, 400–401
for CIA, 92, 94, 96–98
for intelligence, 88–100, 396
theories of intelligence performance, 87–92
Perry, William, 304
Persian Gulf War (1991), 184, 220–21, 406, 427
The Conduct of the Persian Gulf War (DOD), 220
persona non grata, 202, 514
Personnel Security Research Center (PERSEREC), 525–26, 525n3
Espionage Cases 1974-2004, 525
Recent Espionage Cases, 525
Pers Z, 160
Peru, 763–64
Petraeus, David H., 247
petrodollars, 7
Petrov, Vladimir, 826
Pfaff, Tony, 728
Philby, Kim
KGB and, 144
USSR and, 81, 113 n2, 168, 218, 260, 557, 562
Philippines, 127
Phythian, Mark, 49
Intelligence in an Insecure World, 44 n1
Pike, Otis, 180, 680 n4
Pike, Thomas, 150
Pike Committee Report, 489 n4, 499, 722, 726
Pillar, Paul, 26, 371
plausibility, 353
plausible deniability, 588–89, 727
Poland, 51, 132, 135, 161–62, 763, 785
Polaris submarines, 149
policy coherence, 616–19
Policy Counterterrorism Evaluation Group, 462
policymakers
covert actions and, 613–19
dissemination to, 437–51
ethics and, 739
NSC as, 14, 112, 218, 386, 494 n11, 630
policymaking
analysis and, 395–402, 443–47
biases and, 369–72
failures of, 438, 449, 613–16, 621–23
HUMINT and, 442, 545
Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy (Lowenthal), 405, 745
intelligence and, 91, 95, 119, 122, 355–57, 366, 390, 437–51, 453, 476–79
intelligence estimates and, 21, 380
politicization and, 474–76
requirements of, 440–41, 473
torture and, 743–45
Policy Sciences (journal), 345
Politburo, 261
political crimes, 202
political spin, 22
political will, 707–10
politicization (political bias), 472–84
accountability and, 728–29, 762
(p. 877)
biases of, 242, 360, 363, 373, 398, 444, 458–63, 472–74
Bush, George W., and, 119, 371, 731
Casey and, 721
Cold War and, 132
competition and, 459–60
democratization and, 51
dissemination and, 472–84
Ford, G., and, 119
of governance, 483–84
McCone and, 479
policymaking and, 474–76
top-down model of, 459
Vietnam war and, 118, 370
WMDs and, 51, 444–45
politics, of accountability, 719–34
Politkovskaya, Anna, 786–87
Pollard, Jonathan, 270–71, 529, 543, 543 n16, 812
Polyakov, Alexander, 527
polygraph tests, 26–27, 238, 543 n15
Popov, Pyotr, 267
Portugal, 329–30, 791
Poseidon submarines, 149
Posner, Richard, 516
Post, Louis, 507–8
postmodernism, 44 n2
Powell, Colin, 220, 382, 401, 462, 475
power
knowledge/power relationship, 45–47, 437–51
sovereign v. facilitative, 47
Powers, Francis Gary, 442
Powles, Guy, 681
Prados, John, 621 n16
Prague Summit (2002), 222
“precision” air raids, 111
Predator aircraft, 17, 583, 591
prediction, of events, 61–62, 65–67, 379
pre-existing beliefs, 366
Presidential Decision Directive 35, of Clinton, 92
presidents
covert actions and, 589, 591–92, 601, 609 n2, 613, 617–21
intelligence and, 495–97, 725
party associations of, 497
PDB and, 21, 78, 84, 88, 232, 445, 496
President's Commission on CIA Activities,680 n4
President's Daily Brief (PDB)
dissemination of, 21, 88, 496
history of, 78
OSINT and, 232
Tenet and, 84, 445
President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB), 172–88
President's Intelligence Advisory Board (PIAB), 172
President's Intelligence Checklist, 496
Prevention of Terrorism Act (2005), 654 n42
Primakov, Yevgeniy, 784
primary inspection line (PIL), 318
privacy issues, 52, 108, 208, 649–51
private sector
DHS and, 301
disadvantages of, 300–303
Guantanamo Detention Center and, 300
intelligence in, 50, 53, 296–309
ODNI and, 297, 299, 304
OSINT and, 231
oversight for, 306–7
Truman and, 300
process accountability, 728–29
processing
information-processing models, 349–51
in intelligence cycle, 19–20, 48–49
McConnell and, 19
professional codes of ethics, 737–38
professionalism
in developing democracies, 763, 766, 768
in intelligence community, 736–38, 760
Profits of War (Ben-Menashe), 747
Profumo scandal, 699–700
Program on National Security Reform, 352 n12
Proscribed Organisations Appeals Commission, 654 n42
prosecution, 204–6
Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA), 37, 45–46
proxy wars, 588
prudential searches, 199
The Psychology of Intelligence Analysis (Heuer), 405
public anxiety, and national security, 33–39
Publications Review Board (PRB), 237–38
public health, 61–62
public relations, 364
Public Safety Canada (PSC), 674
public use, of intelligence, 474–76
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906), 71
Pushkin, Alexander, “The Hero”, 23
Putin, Vladimir, 400, 776, 784–85, 786–88
Stalin and, 787
Putnam, Robert, 520
puzzles, mysteries and complexities, 344 t
Al Qaeda
in Afghanistan, 24–25, 144
Bin Laden and, 243
Bush, George W., and, 475, 579–80
CIA and, 212–13
embassy attacks by, 34
Geneva Conventions and, 337, 582, 582 n3
intelligence on, 46, 66, 257, 266, 377, 834–35
Tenet and, 724
terrorist attacks by, 6, 13, 18–21, 37, 93, 98, 134, 208, 261, 423
Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), 578
Quirk, Richard J., III, 248
Raborn, William, 490 n7.491
radio communications, 108, 246, 453
Radio Free Europe, 116, 127
Radio Moscow, 232
radio station seizures, 232
Ramparts (journal), 130
Ranelagh, John, 79
rational-choice theory, 378–79
Raviv, Dan, Every Spy a Prince, 747
al-Rawi, Bisher, 709
Reagan, Ronald, 75
Afghanistan and, 23–25, 615
Casey and, 618–19
CIA and, 131–32
covert actions and, 610 n6, 611
intelligence estimates and, 371
Iran-Contra scandal and, 3–4, 131–32, 206, 450, 492, 618–19
Nicaragua and, 23–24
NSA and, 244
PFIAB and, 176, 182–84
USSR and, 151, 473, 515
realism, adaptive, 49
Recent Espionage Cases (PERSEREC), 525
reconnaissance. See also National Reconnaissance Office
aircraft for, 6, 17, 25, 73, 82, 216
Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Agency, 243
IMINT and, 216, 240, 408
NSA and, 7, 17, 19, 28, 80 n9
recruitment
CIA and, 466
of HUMINT, 257–74, 425, 551, 613
Red Army, 408, 775
red cell exercises, 379–80, 384
Red Cross, 201
Re-Defining the Future (Ackoff), 346 n4
Red Orchestra, 781
reforms, 101
accountability and, 761–70
Ames and, 100, 192, 721
of CI, 509–10
of CIA, 49, 117, 306–7, 360n2
DNI and, 465
of FBI, 49, 508–10, 513–14
of institutional checks and balances, 669–72
IRTPA and, 419
manager-reformers and, 492–93
of MI5, 653–54, 713
Program on National Security Reform,352 n12
Rumsfeld and, 633
in UK, 711–15
USSR and, 783–86
Refugee Convention (RC), 337
refugees
in Canada, 319–22
Canadian Council of Refugees, 322