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date: 06 July 2022

Abstract and Keywords

This article discusses Canada's efforts at safeguarding its border following the September 11 attack within the context of intelligence and law enforcement in Canada's immigration system. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attack, much attention on both sides of the U.S.-Canadian border has been directed to the two countries's immigration systems. The 9/11 rekindled the debate in both countries that the immigration policies, specifically in Canada, were lax. This was apprehended by fear of the porous nature of the Canadian border, and the government of Canada moved quickly to counter the fear through a host of measures. They developed the “smart border” accord with the U.S. This was a thirty-point commitment to integrate better intelligence and law enforcement activities on border security. In this article, topics include: intelligence collection in Canada's immigration system; and problems at Canada's borders.

Keywords: Canada, border, intelligence, law enforcement, immigration system, U.S.-Canadian border, smart border, border security

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