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date: 27 February 2020

[UNTITLED]

A
Ability, definition of, 49
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) interventions, 262
Accommodation, definition of, 52
Activity scheduling, 410
Acts of kindness, 411
Aerobic exercise intervention, 415
Affect Valuation Theory (AVT), 196
Affiliation, 86
biological benefits of, 88–89
biological consequences
animal studies, 89–90
human studies, 90–91
functions of, 87
future directions, 96
and genetic pathways, 91–92
physical and mental health consequences, 93–94
protection against stress, 92–93
responses to stress, 86
acute stress, 92–93
origins of, 88
and social relationships, 86
role of oxytocin, 92
as unsupportive, 94–96
Allostasis, 177
Allostatic load, 177
Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire, 371
Anger, 4
Antiretroviral therapy (ART), 290
Appraisal¸ 152, 161, 166, 167f, 274, 293, 305, 307, 338, 411. See also Stress and coping theory
antecedents of, 454
appraised meaning, 228, 245
appraised stressfulness of illness, 252. See also Benefit finding
primary, 17
secondary, 17
stressor, 432–33
Assumptive world theory, 244
Awareness, definition of, 192
B
Behavior activation, 410
Behavioral signatures, 10, 395
Benefit-finding, 8, 22, 76
adjustment and, 254–56
dimensions, 248–49
explanatory models
existential revaluation, 244
psychological preparedness, 244
strength through suffering, 244
future research, 264
in illness, 243
measurement, 248
multi-item self-report scales, 248
nature of, 243
sense-making and, relationship, 250
stress and coping processes, 250–54
social desirability, 249
temporal stability, 249
terminology, 243
validity of self-reported, 249
Benefit-finding and sense-making, 8
appraised stressfulness of illness, 252
assumptive world theory, 244–45
cognitive adaptation theory, 244
meaning-as-comprehensibility, 244
meaning-as-significance, 244
meaning reconstruction, 245
coping resources
personality attributes, 252
religious beliefs, 251–52
social support, 251
coping strategies, 251
dimensions, 248–49
future research
interventions, 264
issues related to, 262–63
stress and coping processes, 262
illness and disease characteristics
disease and illness severity, 252–53
illness duration, 253–54
interpersonal aspects of, 259–60
meaning-making, 259
interventions, 260–62
ACT interventions, 262
CBT techniques, 261
clinician as expert companion approach, 261
meaning-making, 261
post-traumatic growth models, 245
social desirability, 249
and stress and coping processes, relationship, 254
stress process models, 245–46
temporal stability, 249–50
validity, 249
Benefit-Finding in Multiple Sclerosis Scale (BFiMSS), 2489
Benefit-Finding Scale (BFS), 248
Bereavement, 3, 6, 148
coping with. See Coping with bereavement
models
coping-specific, 163
psychosocial transition model, 162
two-track model, 162
and physical and mental health, 149
reactions to, 151 [link]
Broaden-and-build theory, 258, 408
C
Capacity beliefs, 5, 46
Caravan passageways, 129–31
cultural capital, 130
inter vivos transfers, 130
and psychosocial resources, 131–32
Caregiver Sense-Making Scale (CSMS), 245–46
Cellist of Sarajevo, The, 140
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 256
Child victimization, 19
Chronic illness, 242
as dyadic stressor, 102–3
Chronic stress, classic examples, 18
Cognitive adaptation theory, 259
maintaining mastery, 244
search for meaning, 244
self-enhancement, 244
Cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), 10
Cognitive-behavioral techniques (CBT), 10, 261
Cognitive emotion-focused coping strategies, 28
Cognitive-processing theory, 159
Cognitive theory of stress, 161–62. See also Stress and coping theory
Cohort-specific stressors, 16
Communion, 68. See also Unmitigated communion
Community agency, 293
(p. 464) Community resilience, 178–79
Compensatory secondary control, 50
Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, 6, 127
engagement and resiliency, 137
absorption, 137
critical nature of loss in, 137–38
dedication, 137
supportive environments creating passageways for, 138–39
vigor, 137
principles of, 128–29
caravan passageways, 129–32
loss primacy, 128–29
paradoxical, 132
psychosocial resources, 131–32
resource gains and family processes, 132–33
resource investment, 129
resource loss and gain spirals, 133
stressful challenges, 128
traumatic growth, 133–37
PTG and PTSD diagnosis, 134–35
terrorism exposure, 134
Continuing Bonds: New Understandings of Grief, 154
Control, definition of, 192
Control and the dynamics of coping, 39–40
Control beliefs, 46
COPE, 9, 370
subscales, 291
Coping, 21–26. See also individual entries
in adulthood, 24–26
age differences in problem-focused coping, 24
emotion regulation, 25
middle-aged and older men, 24–25
avoidance, 22
in older adults, 25
brief primer on, 21–23
cognitive/process approaches, 22
conscious and voluntary vs. unconscious and involuntary, 21–22
Dual Process model, 22
psychodynamic approach, 21
styles approaches, 22
types of strategies, 22
challenges in, 454–56
emotion-focused coping, 454–55
future-oriented coping, 455–56
interpersonal coping, 456
religious and spiritual coping, 456
in childhood, 23–24
adolescence, 23–24
cognitive strategies, 23
infancy, 23
preschoolers, 23
as conscious, deliberate effort, 231
definition, 4, 9, 21
as dynamic process, 388
gender differences in, 5
and health. See Health and coping
in infancy, 23
interventions
coping effectiveness training, 292
cognitive-behavioral stress management. See HIV/AIDS
emotional-approach interventions. See Emotional-approach coping
happiness interventions. See Hedonic adpatation
loving kindness meditation (LKM), 195, 414
new technologies and concepts, 9–10
positive and negative outcomes, 7–9
types of strategies, 22
Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), 9, 370
Coping signatures, 395. See also Behavioral signatures
Coping Strategies Indicator, 9
Coping vulnerability, 10
Coping with bereavement
adaptation principles, in theories and models, 158 [link]
adaptive coping, 157
attachment theory, 160–61
deactivation, 160
grief work, 160
hyperactivation, 160
relationship aspects, 161
vs. psychoanalytic theory, 160
cognitive stress theory, 161–62
emotion-focused coping, 161
meaning-based processes, 161
positive affect and appraisal, 161
problem-focused coping, 161
revised model, 161
ruminative coping, 162
empirical evidence on maladaptive coping, 153–56
avoidance, 155
continuing bonds, 154
emotional disclosure, 153
emotion regulation processes, 156
grief work, 153
meaning-making, 155
negative cognitions, 154
positive cognitions, 154
social sharing, 153
social support, 154
health consequences of
complicated grief, 151–52
mortality, 149
physical health detriments, 150
psychological symptoms and psychiatric disorders, 150–51
coping-specific bereavement models, 163–67
dual process model, 165–67, 166–67 [link]
incremental grief model, 164
integrative model, 164–65
new model of grief, 164
social construction/meaning-making models, 163–64
task model, 163
psychoanalytic theory, 160
grief work, 160
risk factors
integrative risk factor framework, 153 [link]
(mal)adaptive coping and appraisal, 152–53
research, 152
trauma theories
assumptive world views, 159–60
emotional disclosure, 159
stress response syndrome, 157–59
COR-Evaluation (COR-E), 129
Co-rumination
aspects of, 75
vs. self-focused rumination, 75
Couples coping with chronic illness
applications to clinical practice, 116–17
coping congruence, 108
empirical evidence for, 108–10
dyadic coping, 104
emotional disclosure and social constraints, 112–13
gender differences in psychological impact, 113
and psychological distress and adjustment, 112–13
transactional and dynamic qualities, 112
future directions, 117
gender and social role on, 5
methodological considerations, 113–15
daily process methodology, 115
multi-level modeling of dyadic data, 115–16
mutual influence models, 106–7
demand–withdraw communication, 106
mutual avoidance, 106
mutual constructive communication, 106
note on gender, 116
partner’s mood and, 113
mood contagion, 113
spouse depression, 113
relationship-focused coping, 104–6. See also Dyadic coping
active engagement, 105–6
communication processes, 105
empathic responding, 105
protective buffering, 105–6
relationship maintenance, 105
social support and communication, 111–12 (p. 465)
in arthritis and cancer patients, 111–12
stress and coping paradigm, 103–4
emotion-focused functions, 103
serving problem-functions, 103
social support, 103
systemic-transactional model, 107
and marital quality, 107
negative dyadic coping, 107
positive dyadic coping, 107
theory of dyadic coping, 110–11
interpersonal context, 111
situational context, 111
socio-cultural context, 110
temporal context, 111
D
Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE), 18
Daily stressors, 18, 21
age-related declines in, 21
in children, 19
measurement, 18
Decentering, 25
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 151
Disinhibition theory, 159
Dispositional optimism, 295, 297
Distraction coping, 22
Dual Process Model (DPM), 6, 165–67, 166–67 [link]
appraisal processes in, 167
confrontation vs. avoidance, 165–66
of coping with bereavement, 152
loss orientation, 6, 165
restoration orientation, 6, 165
Dyadic coping, 5, 25, 104
in cancer, 109
with chronic illness, 108–10
coping congruence, 108
empirical evidence for coping congruence, 108–10
collaborative coping, 108
and marital quality, 107
negative, 107, 108
positive, 107, 108
role of support, 104
social control strategies, 108
supportive strategies, 108
systemic-transactional model, 107
uninvolved coping, 108
Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), 190
E
Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), 18, 393
Efficiency, definition of, 192
Effortful Partnership, 109
Elders’ Life Stress Inventory (ELSI), 20
Emotional approach coping (EAC)
assessment of, 371–72
emotional expression, 371
emotional processing, 371
emotional regulation constructs, 372
self-report measures, 371
interventions promoting emotional processing and expression, 378–79
experimental intervention findings, 381
as mediator of intervention effects, 379–80
as moderator of expressive intervention effects, 380–81
psychological and physical health
cross-sectional research, 372–73
longitudinal research, 373–75
mechanisms for effects of EAC, 377
EAC and outcomes, relationship moderators, 375–76
Emotional Approach Coping (EAC), 9, 370
scales, 371, 455
Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire, 371
Emotional processing, 22
Emotional regulation, 23
Emotional support, 93
Emotion-focused coping, 9, 73, 161, 291, 292, 454–55
strategies, 23
Emotion regulation, 371
Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, 371
Empathic responding, 105
Engagement, 6, 137
Experience-sampling methodology (ESM), 196
Exposure theory, 159
Expressive writing, 216
Expressivity Questionnaire, 371
F
Fight-or-flight, 86–87
Fredrickson’s Broaden and Build theory, 189
Future orientation, 352
Future-oriented coping, 455–56. See also Coping
Future research, 381–82
G
Gender and coping
future directions, 80–81
sex differences in coping strategies, 73–74
context, 77
co-rumination, 75–76
emotion-focused coping, 73
gender roles, 77
primary versus secondary control, 76
problem-focused coping, 73
relative coping, 74
rumination, 74–75
status, 76–77
stress-related growth, 76
sex differences in relation of coping to health, 77–78
co-rumination and health, 79
primary versus secondary control, 79–80
rumination and health, 78–79
Generative transmission/personal force, 38
Gene–stress interactions, 10
Global beliefs, 228
Global meaning, 7, 227, 228, 245. See also Situational meaning
Goals
global goals, 228
unattainable goals
and emotional distress, and physical health, 320–21
goal adjustment capacities, 325–26
goal adjustment processes, 323–25
goal disengagement capacities, 327–29
goal re-engagement processes, beneficial effects, 325
individual differences in, 322
physical health prediction, 327–29
secondary control strategies, 322
self-protective, 322
self-regulation processes, 321–23
adaptive management of, 321
goal adjustment, 322
goal disengagement, 321–23
goal re-engagement, 322–23
subjective well-being prediction, 326–27
Gratitude, 214, 409
Grief work hypothesis, 153
H
Handbook of Adult Resilience, 176
Hassles, 18
Health and coping, 312
determining changes in coping, 458–59
mapping causal pathways, 459–60
methodological issues
capturing dynamic quality of coping, 460
creating stress and coping narrative, 460–61
measures, 460
Hedonic adaptation
adaptation-forestalling and -accelerating mechanisms
adaptation-hastening processes, 207
adaptation-thwarting, 207, 208
attention enticing, 207
dynamic and varied, 207–9
novel and surprising, 209
stream of emotions and events, 209
adaptive, 202
AREA model, 204
(p. 466)
as barrier to sustainable well-being
enhancing happiness, 206
variability in adaptation rates, 206
defined, 200, 201
future directions, 218–20
HAPNE model, 209–14
interventions
gratitude, savoring, and positive thinking, 214–15
happiness interventions, 214
important and intrinsic personal goals, 217–18
practicing kindness, 216–17
sense of positive experiences, 215–16
mechanisms, 201
to negative events, 206–7
to positive and negative experiences, 200
previous empirical findings
adaptation-hastening to positive experiences, 203–4
negative experiences, 202
positive experiences, 202–3
Hedonic Adaptation to Positive and Negative Experiences (HAPNE) model, 7, 201, 210–11 [link]
adaptation-forestalling and adaptation-hastening, 212–14
adaptation to positive/negative change, 210–12
negative domain, 211
positive domain, 210
Helplessness, 23
HIV/AIDS
CBSM interventions, 441 [link]
components and effects, 437–41, 438 [link]
efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions, 436–37
coping and physical health
approach and avoidant coping, 295, 296–97t
dispositional optimism, 295, 297
finding meaning, 297–98
longitudinal studies of, 298 [link]
positive expectancies, 297
coping and psychological well-being
active coping, 305
approach coping strategies, 304
avoidance coping strategies, 304
avoidance coping, 305
cognitive coping strategies, 305
confrontive coping and self-blame, 304
enhancing self-efficacy, 305–6
longitudinal studies, 304
positive reappraisal, 305
coping strategies, 433–34
active coping, 291
avoidant strategies, 291
emotion-focused coping, 291
positive cognitive coping, 291
problem-focused coping, 291
problem-solving, 291
seeking emotional and social support, 291
coping styles, 298–300, 299 [link]
coping with life-threatening illness to chronic disease, 290
future research, 441–43
interventions, 10–11
mental health challenges in, 429–31
physical health challenges in, 429
psychosocial interventions
rationale for, 435–36
social support, 300–303, 434–35
spiritual coping, 311–12
functional components approach, 8, 291–94, 292 [link] , 313
suggestions for health care workers, 312–13
stressors, 290–91
appraisals, 432–33
high-impact life events, 431–32
stressful life events, 431
stress responsivity studies, 432
stress-reducing activities, 303
Hostility, 4
Human resilience, 175
Humor, as coping strategy, 23
I
Informational support, 93
Instrumental support, 93
Intention, definition of, 192
Interpersonal coping, 456
Interpretative beliefs, 46
Intrusion–avoidance strategies, 157
J
Joyless Economy, the, 207
K
Kindness interventions, 217
L
Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale, 371
Life events, 20–21
age-related changes, 20
growth curve models of stress in adulthood, 21
inventories, 20
variations by age, 19
Lifespan developmental approach
current contextual factors, 16
individual differences in trajectories, 16
life-long processes, 16
multidisciplinary perspective, 16
Loss-orientation, 6, 165
Loving kindness meditation (LKM), 195, 414
M
Maladaptive coping strategies, 24
Mantram meditation, 414
Mastery-oriented coping, 4
Meaning and adjustment in context of stress
future directions
design and test meaning-making interventions, 237–38
interpersonal aspects of meaning-making, 237
measurement of meaning-related constructs, 236
research designs for meaning-related phenomena, 237
resilience vs. vulnerability of global meaning systems, 237
global meaning
global beliefs, 231–32
global goals, 232
sense of meaning, 232
stressful encounters as violations of, 232–33
meaning-making
and adjustment to stress, 234–36
and well-being, 233–34
Meaning-based coping processes, 8, 161
Meaning in Life, 227
Meaning-making, 7, 8, 22, 227, 228, 229 [link]
and adjustment to stress, 234–36
approach, 163
coping, 233
discrepancy-related distress, 230
global meaning, 228
meaning-making coping, 230–31
meanings made, 231
situational meaning, 228–30
influence health and well-being, 231
role of interpersonal and social processing, 259
and well-being, 233–34
Meaning reconstruction, 163, 242, 245
Measurement of coping
current research, limitations
coping as trait, 390–91
unidirectional perspective, 389–90
daily and momentary assessment, 393–94. See also Ecological Momenatry Assessment
daily process and experience sampling methods
behavioral and emotional correlates of genetic variation, 394–95
identifying hidden vulnerabilities, resilience, and coping signatures, 395–96
momentary coping and evaluating treatment mechanisms, 398–400
momentary coping behavior and influence on outcomes, 397–98
moving beyond fixed intervals, 396–97
dynamic nature of coping, 388
future directions, 400–401
measurement limitations (p. 467)
cross-sectional, 391
general, 391–92
retrospective, 392
multi-level, multivariate model, 389
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), 195, 414
Mindfulness meditation, 414
Mood contagion, 113
Motivational theory of lifespan development, 322
N
Near-real-time ambulatory assessment, 10
Negative emotions, 189
Negotiation, definition of, 52
Neighborhood resilience, 178–79
O
Objective control conditions, 38–39
Objective controllability, 39
Opioid peptides, 87
Organizational resilience, 177–78
Oxytocin, 87
and social distress, 92
in wound healing, 93
P
Parental divorce, children’s vulnerability to, 26
Perceived control, 4, 5, 35, 42
adaptive function of ways of coping, 41 [link]
during adolescence, 44
broader conceptual reorganizations, 44
inferential tactics, 44
meta-cognitive strategies, 44
long-term effects, 44
multiple perspectives and alternative pathways, 44
during adulthood, 44–45
domain-specific expertise, 45
dyadic and family-level coping, 45
and age-graded shifts
ability and, 49–50
adulthood and aging, 50
developmental course of, 47
differentiating self, 47–48
profiles of control, 46–47
social comparison and, 48–49
during childhood, 43–44
cognitive in nature, 43
developmental conceptualizations, 40–42
individual differences in
control and dynamics of coping, 39–40
during infancy, 42–43
action-outcome contingencies, 42
learning by doing, 42
repetition and practice, 42
sensitivity to contingencies, 42
multi-level systems of coping, 36–37, 38 [link]
nature of control, 37–38
during preschool age, 43
full-blown helplessness effects, 43
hypothesis-testing strategies, 43
repertoire of adaptive strategies, 43
repertoire of effective actions, 43
research implications
developmentally graded ways of coping, 52–53
qualitative shifts, 53
terminology of control, 38–39
types of, 5
Personal agency, 293
Physical activity interventions, 415
Physical violence, and stress, 64
Positive affect interventions
discussion and recommendations for, 419–21
researchers and clinicians, 420–21
measurement of affect, 409
PANAS, 409
Profile of Mood States (POMS), 409
multiple-component interventions, 417–19
positive psychotherapy, 418
well-being therapy, 418
single-component interventions
acts of kindness, 411
creative art activities, 417
exercise and yoga interventions, 415–16
forgiveness, 417
gratitude, 409
laughter/humor, 416
meditation, 413–14
positive events and savoring, 409–11
positive reappraisal, 411–12
self-affirmation/focusing on personal strengths, 412–13
setting attainable goals, 412
Positive cognitive reconstruction coping, 22
Positive emotions
and physical health outcomes, 189–90
automatic and controlled processes, intersections, 195–96
in everyday life, 190–91
form and function, 189
future research, 196
resilience in face of adversity, 191–92
resilience response
automatic processes of, 193–95
controlled processes of, 192–93
dual-process theories, 193
state and trait resilience, 187
autonomic correlates of, 188–89
neural correlates of, 187–88
Positive reappraisal, 411
Positive thinking, 215
Post-traumatic growth (PTG), 17, 134
models, role for sense-making
gradual breakdown of assumptive world, 245
seismic shattering, 245
Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), 248
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 26
and bereavement, 150
incidence, 64
Post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptom, 6
Preventive coping, 336
subscale, 352
Primary appraisals, 17
Primary control, 50
strategies, 76
Proactive coping, 9
advantages and disadvantages, 338–39
in aging
conceptual approaches to, 349
future-oriented thinking and outcomes, 349–50
research on, conceptual questions for, 350–51
Aspinwall and Taylor model, 337–38, 354 [link]
benefit from interventions to, 356
defined, 334
five-step model of, 354
forward-looking nature of
construal level theory, 356–57
implementation intentions, 357
mental simulation and mental contrasting, 357–58
future directions
dyadic and collective forms of, 360–61
social-developmental antecedents of, 360
study of proactive coping with interpersonal stressors, 360
health-promotion interventions, 347–48
implementation intentions, 348
mental contrasting, 347
health status and exposure to concurrent stressors, 355–56
individual differences in
in future orientation and time perspective, 352–53
other individual differences, 353–55
style and preference, 351–52
and management of chronic illness, 346–47
and medical decision-making, 348–49
predictors of interest in, 356
as prevention- vs. promotion-focused coping, 336
proactivity
definition of, 335–36
study, beyond achievement setting, 336–37
research on future-oriented thinking, 336, 338, 347–48, 349–50
role of affect in, 358–59
(p. 468)
serious familial disease, prevention and detection of
genetic testing and management of familial cancer, 344–46
socioeconomic status, 355
stages of, 337, 337 [link]
elicitation and use of feedback, 338
initial appraisal, 338
potential stressors, 338
preliminary coping efforts, 338
resource accumulation, 337
stigma and discrimination, 339–43
physical avoidance, 341
self-focused efforts, 341
situation-focused efforts, 341
terminology, 335
threats to health, 343
transactional nature of, 358
Proactive Coping Inventory, 351
Problem-focused coping, 24, 73
age differences in, 24
Problem-solving coping, 22
Profiles of control, 46
Proximal process, 37
Proxy agency, 293
Psychobiological resilience, 176–77
Psychological resilience, 187
Psychological stress, 3
Psychological Stress and the Coping Process, 3
Psychology of Religion and Coping, The, 270
Psychosocial stressors, older adults vulnerability to, 27
Purpose-Driven Life, The, 227
R
Reciprocal determinism, 388
Reflective coping subscale, 352
Regulation under stress, 40
Regulatory beliefs, 5
Relationship-focused coping, 5, 6, 105. See also Dyadic coping
Relative coping, 74
Religion
defined, 8
role in coping, 279
Religious coping, 23, 271 [link] , 456
definition and theoretical model of
sacred, 272
search, 271–72
significance, 270–71
distinctive dimension, 277–78
and events and appraisals, 274–75
and functions of coping, 273–74
future directions, 283–84
harmful effects, 280–82
helpful effects, 279–80
integrated treatments, 282–83
key to effective, 282
and methods of coping, 275–76, 276 [link]
and outcomes of coping, 276–77
role in coping, 279
themes, 270
Religious coping methods (RCOPE), 275, 276
Reminiscence therapy, 410
Resilience, 10, 128
application to affect models of, 176
automatic processes of, 193–95
automatic activation of positive emotion, 193–94
bottom-up processes, 194
emotion regulation, 194
implicit goals for coping, 194
classes of related variables, 175
controlled processes of, 192–93
benefit-finding, 193
benefit-reminding, 193
coping strategies, 192
meaning-making, 193
positive resolution, 192
redemption, 192
top-down strategies, 192
definition of, 174–75, 186, 188
developmental processes, 177
dimensions of processes, 175–76
growth, 175
interventions, 181–82
methods of inquiry
longitudinal design, 179–81
multilevel analysis, 181
neighborhood and community, 178–79
risk and resilience resource indices, 180 [link]
social capital, 178
organizational, 177–78
origins of thinking, 175
ordinary magic, 175
psychobiological, 176–77
role of genetic influences, 177
recovery, 175
sustainability, 175
Resilience model, 7, 174
Resilience trajectory, 6
Resource gain saliency, 132
Restoration of meaning, 242
Restoration orientation, 6, 165. See also Loss-orientation
Revised stress and coping theory, 408
Role constraint theory, 77
Rumination, 23
and depression, 75
S
Savoring, 214
Secondary appraisals, 17
Secondary control, 50
strategies, 76
Self-affirmation, 412
Self-focused rumination, 75–76
Self-help books on coping, 3
Self-regulation, development of, 23–24
adolescents, 24
infants, 23
preschoolers, 23
theory, 159
Sense-making, 8. See also Benefit-finding and sense-making in chronic illness
adjustment and, 256–59
future research, 263–64
in illness, 243
measurement, 246–48
multi-item scales, 246
multidimensional, 258
nature of, 243
rates of, 243
terminology, 243
Sense-Making Scale (SMS), 246
Sense of coherence, 244
meaningfulness subscale, 249
Situational meaning, 8, 228. See also Appraised meaning
Social cognition theory, 293
Social constraints, 112
Social construction theory, 259
Social integration theory, 159
Social isolation, 94, 96
Social learning theory, 388
Social support
defined, 93
explicit, 95
for HIV patients, 300–303, 434–35
implicit, 95
and mental and physical health, 93–94
Social withdrawal, 23
coping strategy, 24
Socioemotional skills, development of, 90–91
Spiritual coping, 309, 312, 456
Spirituality, 309 [link]
defined, 306
in HIV patients, 310 [link]
and decision-making and health behaviors, 308
importance of spirituality/religiousness, 306
and physical health, 309
and psychological health, 309–11
and HIV management and stressors, 306–7
spiritual framework, beliefs, and appraisal process, 307–8
spiritually oriented interventions, 311
Strategy beliefs, 5, 46
Stress, 88
in adulthood
daily stressors, 21
life events, 20–21
trauma, 20
appraisals, 17
in childhood and adolescence, 18–20
daily stressors and ECA of stress, 19
developmental epidemiology of stress, 19
(p. 469)
trauma, 18–19
victimization, 19
definitions, 16–17
measurement, 18
sex differences in, 5
societal factors influencing, 5
types of, 17–18
chronic stress, 18
daily stressors, 18
major events, 18
stress measure, 18
trauma, 17
Stress and coping theory. See also Cognitive theory of stress
components of, 8, 16–17
developmental perspectives on, 4–5
perceived control, 4–5
functional components approach to, 8, 291–94, 292 [link] , 313
appraisal and matching coping styles, 293
changeable and unchangeable self, 292–93
future directions, 29
paradigm, 292
resilience model, 7
social aspects of, 5–6
gender differences, 5
Stressful life events, sex differences in
adolescents, 70
age of sample, 66–67
caregiving, 65–66
couples with chronic illness, 69–70
explanations for, 67
encoding, 68–69
gender roles, 67–68
exposure vs. impact, 66
gender-related traits
laboratory studies, 71–73
implications for health, 69
interpersonal stressors, 69
nature of stressor, 66
physical violence, 64–65
poverty, 65
sexual harassment, 65
traumatic events, 63
unemployment, 64
work and financial stressors, 70–71
Stress of caregiving, 4
Stress process models, 245–46
meaning-making coping, 246
Stress-related growth, 17, 76, 234. See also Benefit-finding
Stress-related resilience, 4
Stress vulnerability, age differences in
physical stressors, 26
psychosocial stressors, 26–27
chronic illness, 26–27
cognitive impairment, 27
neuroticism, 27
Subjective control, 35, 39
Subjective feelings of meaning, 228
Support seeking coping, 22
emotion-focused modes of, 105
T
Tend and befriend theory, 5, 87
Theory. See also individual entries
assumptive world theory, 244
cognitive theory of stress, 161–62 See also Stress and coping theory
conservation of resources (COR) theory, 6, 127, 137–38
dual process model (DPM), 6, 165–67
HAPNE model, 7, 210–14
broaden-and-build theory, 258, 408
stress and coping theory. See Stress and coping theory
tend and befriend theory, 5, 87
theory of dyadic coping, 110–11
Transcendental Meditation (TM), 413
Trauma, 17
in children, 18–19
examples, 17
exposure in elderly, 20
cohort differences, 20
gender differences, 20
individual, 18
U
Unmitigated communion, 68, 77
W
Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL), 391
Ways of Coping Questionnaire, 291, 370
Y