Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews dual-process models of resilience. One model of resilience considers the importance of investigating the intersections between positive and negative emotions (e.g., Folkman, 1997, 2001; Folkman & Moskowitz, 2000). Indeed, maintaining and enhancing positive emotions yields important advantages when coping with stress. Another dual-process model of resilience focuses on the interplay between automatic and controlled processes. Most prior research on resilience has centered mainly on deliberate, response-focused processes, which may be costly to an individual due to the conscious effort involved in cultivating positive emotions in times of stress. This literature, however, has excluded another important aspect of resilience: the automatic activation of positive emotions. The automatic activation of positive emotions is pervasive in everyday life, and may have far-reaching consequences for individuals’ abilities to cope with stressors. Automatic processes of resilience might operate with less cost to the individual, as they are executed relatively effortlessly. The theoretical underpinnings of these models will be examined and recent research will be reviewed, showing that dual-process models of resilience may lay the groundwork for important new directions in research on positive emotions, stress, and coping.
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