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date: 16 October 2019

(p. 843) Subject Index

(p. 843) Subject Index

abandonment, housing. See city abandonment
Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab at M.I.T., 409
academic planning, 7–9
accessibility, 166–167
access and mobility, 126
accessibility measures, 173–177
appraisal, 169–171
definitions of, 167–169
directions, 176, 178–179
Five C's of effective accessibility measures, 174
implementation, 172–173
matrix of accessibility, 168
policy, 173–176
sustainable places and, 126–127
accountable autonomy, 682
activity location models, 336–338
adequate public facilities ordinances (APFOs), 421
“advanced marginality”, 692
Advisory Commission on Regulatory Barriers to Affordable Housing, U.S., 356, 361
advocacy and participatory visualization, 316
advocacy planning, 26, 27, 599
aesthetics
aesthetic judgment, 116–117
environmental, 112–113
affordable housing
ad hoc solutions to problems of, 502–504
and inclusive neighborhoods, 514–515
regulatory barriers of, 356, 361–362
smart growth policies and, 422, 428–429
Africa
slums in, 527, 532
urban informality in, 695, 697
See also South Africa
African Americans
and construction industry, 749–750
and 1898 Wilmington, NC race riot, 221
and Hurricane Katrina, 209, 224
and politics of planning, 751–752
and slavery, 746
and social justice issues, 754–755
and urban renewal, 744–745
and urban sprawl, 748
black feminists, 611, 613
health issues concerning, 395–396, 397, 405
in population loss and disinvestment planning, 566, 571
migration of, 591
“Negro removal” programs, 599, 669–670
agent-based models, 340
aggregate models, 327
agonism, 28
agonistic pluralism theory, 28
air quality
and traffic safety modeling, 347–348
transportation policies and, 637
air quality and environmental health, 436–437
emissions estimation uncertainty, 441–443
emissions talk, 438
guide for future planning research, 446–448
researching exposures, 443–446
uncertainty in planning for emissions, 438–443
vehicle miles traveled (VMT) reductions, 439–441
Alliance for the Arts, 375, 379
Alsop Architects, 90
American City Planning Institute, 359
American Community Survey, 348
American Disabilities Act (ADA), 171
American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP), Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, 29, 141, 157–161
American Insurance Association, 362
American Journal of Public Health, 402
American Planning Association (APA), 29, 209, 310
Growing Smart Legislative Guidebook, 355
housing policy, 515
plan-making guidelines, 251
Planning and Urban Design Standards, 5
planning books, 563–564
standards of, 5, 355
American Public Health Association (APHA)
Committee on the Hygiene of Housing, 400
Planning the Neighborhood, 355, 400, 401
standards of, 355
American Red Cross, 224
American Rivers, 362
Americans for the Arts, 379
America's Waterfront Revival, Port Authorities and Urban Redevelopment (P. Brown), 269–270
antagonism, 28
anticipatory governance, 233
anti-eviction campaigns
Chicago, 795
South Africa, 716–717, 792–794, 795
Antipode, 612
Apartheid, 717, 790, 791, 792
(p. 844) Arbor Day, 109
Architectural Design & Regulation (Imrie and Street), 353–354
architecture, and sustainability, 130
art and culture, 373–376, 387
arts in economic development, 382–383
challenges to data and methods, 383–387
cultural economics, 379–380
definition of, 383–384
ethnographic and qualitative approaches, 386
geography of cultural production, 380–382
quantitative data, 384–386
sociology of the arts, 377–379
unconventional data, 386–387
what is known so far, 376–377
Arts Council of England, 379
Art Worlds (Becker), 378
Asia, developmental state model in, 59
Asian economic crisis, 1997–98, 715
Aspen Institute Workforce Strategies Initiative, 485
assessment. See plan assessment
asset building, 484–486
asset poverty, 486
Association of Community Organizations for Reform, 490
Atlanta, Georgia
income inequality in, 746
performance assessment of plans in, 815–816
visioning projects in, 810, 816
Atlantic, The, 512
attention process, 80
attention restoration theory, 113–114
attraction-accessibility measures, 173
Audubon Society, 676
Australia
citizenship rights in, 206
displacement of ethnic communities in, 209
planning culture in, 93
autonomous economic development, 483
autonomy, principle of, 38
Avtodizel Motor Works, 88, 89, 91
backward visualization, 314
Bangladesh, natural disasters in, 227
Baroque period, city planning during, 108
BBC News, 702
beauty, urban, 105–107, 118
and concerns as a city planning value, 115–117
and its importance in cities, 112–115
as aspirational goal of planning, 287–290, 302, 303
as motivation for city design and planning, 107–111
Behind Ghetto Walls, Black Family Life in a Federal Slum (Rainwater), 265
Belgium, citizenship rights in, 206
benefit assessment districts, 346
bicycle trips, 347
bid-rent models, 334, 335
Bilbao effect, 382
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 494
biomedical model of disease, 400–401
birth and death rates, 344
“Black Lung Lofts” accusations, 445, 448
block grant programs, 480
Bombay First (NGO), 702
Boomburgs: The Rise of America's Accidental Cities (Lang and LeFurgy), 270–271
Boston, Massachusetts
Boston Harbor, 275
early public health issues in, 396
income inequality in, 746
Vault (organization), 590
Boston Public Health Commission, 405
bourgeois environmentalism, 702
Brazil
City Statute of 2001, 701
favelas in, 528, 692, 795
justice and democracy in, 148
neighborhood planning process in Porto Alegre, 679
social movement in Porto Alegre, 710
urban informality in, 692, 699, 700–701
Brundtland Report, 122, 230
Buffalo Commons, Great Plains, 189
Building Act of 1844, London, 358
building codes and standards, 352, 362
Building Sustainable Urban Settlements: Approaches and Case Studies in the Developing World (Romaya and Rakodi), 124
building trades, 749–750
built environment, health and, 407, 408
bureaucratic city era, 401
Bureau of Commerce, U.S., 547
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), U.S., 7, 374, 375, 385
Metro and County Business Patterns, 385
Occupational Employment Statistics, 385
business location models, 338
calibrated models, 325, 327–328
California
air quality in, 443, 444–445
citizenship issues in Berkeley, 795
earthquakes in, 229
filmmaking in Hollywood, 379, 380, 381, 386
greenhouse gas emissions, 457, 460, 462, 466, 468, 471
Pavley Vehicle Efficiency Standards, 468
Proposition 13, 480
public finance needs in Petaluma, 541
real estate industry in, 730–731
Silicon Valley, 76
smart growth and climate change in, 228, 230
travel behavior in, 642–643, 646, 648, 649, 650
California Air Resources Board, 460, 466, 468
California Budget Project, 488
(p. 845) California High Speed Rail Authority, 438
California High-Speed Rail (CalHSR) project, 438
California Transportation Commission, 470
Cambridge Systematics, 439, 447–448, 459
Canada
citizenship rights in, 205, 206
gender and urban governance issues in, 619
planning bus routes in Calgary, 290–302
real estate industry in, 731
transportation and accessibility in, 169
Canadian Constitution, 206
capitalism
race, and American political development, 743–750
redevelopment and, 589, 600, 601
capitalist markets, 46, 73–74
career-ladder initiatives, 485–486
carrying capacity, 131
Car Smart program, 427
case-study research in urban planning, 259, 279–280
application to urban planning, 265–273
author as a witness, 275
authors revisiting phenomena, 276
edited multiple case studies, 271–273
examples of, 259, 260–264
patterns in the use of, 273–277
professional biographies, 276–277
some effects of, 277–279
the embedded multiple case, 270
the “mini” multiple case, 270–271
the multiple case, 269–270
the single case, 267–268
the single embedded case, 268–269
translating knowledge into action, 274–275
Casey Foundation National Fund for Workforce Solutions, 494
CDFI Data Project, 487
CDFI Fund, 487
cellular automata models, 340
Census Bureau, U.S., 344, 375, 385, 618
Public Use Microdata Area, 385
Public Use Microdata Sample, 385
Center for American Women in Politics, 619
Center for an Urban Future, 375
Center for Employment Training (CET), 485
Centers for Community Change, 674
central business districts (CBDs), 279, 568, 590
Central Park, New York, 109
Central Scientific Research and Design Institute for City Construction, Moscow, 88
Century of the City: No Time to Lose (Pierce and Johnson), 524
charitable foundations, CED programs and, 494
Charleston, South Carolina, preservation in, 181, 183
Chattanooga, Tennessee, plan-making processes in, 809
checkerboard clustering, 575–576
Chicago, Illinois
Anti-Eviction Campaign, 795
art and culture in, 386
community policing program in, 681, 682
Great Chicago Fire of 1871, 269
Hull House, 394
income inequality in, 746
Millennium Park, 275
1909 Plan of Chicago, 251, 763–764, 772, 777
1995 heat-related deaths in, 269
performance assessment of plans in, 816
Pilsen neighborhood planning process, 308
public housing in, 267, 268
women's health issues in, 624
Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP), 781
Chicago School of Sociology, 394, 612
Children's Bureau, U.S., 397
China
Communist Party in, 88
early urban planning standards in, 356, 357
institutionalism in, 69–70, 77
1976 Tangshan earthquake, 222
planning culture in, 94–96
urban preservation in, 185–186
China Academy for Urban Planning and Design, 95
China City Planning Review, 97
cities
city plan making, 241–254
urban resilient, 218–233
Cities and Gender (Jarvis, Kantor, and Cloke), 617
Cities Back from the Edge (Gratz and Mintz), 279
Cities of Whiteness (Shaw), 614
“Cities without Slums” campaign (UN), 524, 525, 534
citizen participation, in urban planning, 682–683
citizen planners, 706–707, 717–719
collective action, 708–709
community-based planning and self-help movements, 711–712
covert planning, 713–715
radical and insurgent planning, 715–717
social movements, 709–711
theoretical foundations for, 707–711
citizenship, 787–788, 798–799
citizenship debates, 788–790
decentering the state in citizenship debates, 790–791
from below, 792–794
global, 199
insurgent, 701, 795
participatory turn in planning, 796–798
rights and justice, 205–207, 794–796
structures of planning and, 205–207
city abandonment, 563–564
addressing widespread disinvestment and, 572–579
and efficiency in land use and housing, 573–575
and efficiency in public service delivery, 575–577
ecological approaches to, 568–570
equity and, 577–579
future of planning and, 580–581
(p. 846) planning and addressing, 565–566
political economy approaches to, 571–572
subcultural approaches to, 570–571
why does widespread abandonment occur?, 567–572
City and the Grassroots, The (Castells), 693
City Beautiful movement, 109, 611
City Demonstration Administration, 673
City Functional movement, 611
City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, The (Mumford), 107
city marketing, 60–61
City of Chicago, 781
City of Collective Memory, its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments, The (Boyer), 186–187
City of Detroit, 565
City of Dubuque, 772
City of Seattle, 425, 426, 428, 429
“City Planners, The” (Atwood), 3
city planning
beginning of, 108–109
defined, 4
“City Planning for Girls”, 609
“City Planning in Justice to the Working Population” (Marsh), 397–398
City Planning Process, A Political Analysis, The (Altshuler), 268–269
city planning, urban beauty and, 105–107
and sense of place and image ability, 114–115
and subjectivity of aesthetic judgment, 116–117
environmental aesthetics in, 112–113
environmental psychology in, 113–114
importance of beauty as planning concern, 115–116
in pre-modern era, 107–108
in the 1850s to the 1920s, 108–109
in the 1920s to the 1960s, 109–110
in the 1960s through the 1980s, 110–111
in the 1990s to the present, 111
City Requiem, Calcutta: Gender and the Politics of Poverty (Roy), 700
City Rules: How Regulations Affect Urban Form (Talen), 353
City Social movement, 609, 611
City, The (Park and Burgess), 399
citywide infrastructure and improvement programs, 533
citywide neighborhood association systems, 675–677
Civic Arts Movement, 109
civil rights movement, 1960s, 207, 671, 809
civil societies, 695–696
Clean Air Act (CAA), 1970, 438–439
Cleveland City Planning Commission, 577–578
Cleveland Land Lab, 575, 580
Cleveland, Ohio, population loss and disinvestment planning in, 566, 577–578
Cleveland Tomorrow, 590
climate change, 436
California's bill for, 228
transportation policies and, 637
Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Action Plan of Durban, South Africa, 226
climate change regulation, 455–457
attributing community transportation emissions to specific policies, 461–463
community GHG emissions measurement, 460
defining local inventory boundaries, 457–459
forecasting future policy effects, 461
GHG measurement for local places, 463–473
Local Government Operations Protocol, 459–460
measuring the performance of local policies, 457–463
Clinton Global Initiative, 494
clustering development, 421
clustering populations, 575–576
Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, AICP, 29, 141, 157–161
Code of the City, The (Ben-Joseph), 354
codes and standards, 352–354, 366
chronology of urban controls, 356–360
consequences and impacts of codes, 360–363
ethos and ecos, 363–365
modes and models of, 354–356
standard defined, 354
Codifying New Urbanism: How to Reform Municipal Land Development Regulations (Congress for the New Urbanism), 353
cognition
and learning, 314–315
social, 78–80, 315
cognitive approach, in environmental aesthetics, 112–113
cognitive institutionalism, 79
cohort-component models, 328, 331, 332–333
collaborative democracy, 680–681
collaborative planning, 26
collaborative problem solving, 807–808, 809
collective action, 25–27
and concept of public interest, 29–32
and legitimacy and planning, 33–35
and legitimizing communicative planning, 35–41
and paternalism, 30, 37–39
citizen planners and, 708–709
Condorcet jury theorem, 36–37
conflict or harmony, strife or consensus, 27–29
collective memory, preservation and, 186–187
collective selection, 377
Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, 181, 185
commercial district revitalization programs, 488
Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, UK, 365
Committee for Economic Development, 570–571
Committee on the Congestion of Population (CCP), New York, 392, 397, 398
common pool natural resources, collective action and, 709
(p. 847) communicative action, 204
in planning for housing, 512–515
communicative democracy, 188–190
communicative planning, 26, 27, 31–32, 285–287
coalition building and consensus building, 301–303
Condorcet jury theorem, 36–37
deliberative democracy as legitimate collective action, 39–41
expertise, power, and difference, 297–299
facilitative leadership in, 290–296
five objects of good intentions, 287–290, 302
gender and planning issues and, 620–621
goals and aspirations in, 287–290
integrating participation and negotiation, 299
interdependence, process design, and representation, 296–297
justice in, 147–148
legitimizing, 35–41
paternalism and, 37–39
pragmatic paradigm in, 289–290
processes of dialogue, debate, and negotiation, 299–300
public involvement in, 296–299
structure and process, outcome and micro-politics, 300–301
theoretical constituents of, 296–303
communicative visualization, 316
communism
fall of, 76, 588, 595
in China, 88
Community Action Program (CAP), 671–672
community-based organizations (CBOs), 481, 482, 487, 488
community-based planning, 711–712
community benefits agreements (CBAs), 489–490
Community Development Agency, 673
Community Development Block Grants (CDBGs), 480, 510, 574–575, 592
community development corporations (CDCs), 480, 481, 482, 487, 488, 494, 565, 593, 674–675
community development financial institutions (CDFIs), 482, 487, 491
community driven development (CDD), 712
community economic development (CED), 477–482, 493–494
community organizing for economic justice, 488–490
endogenous development, 483–484
human capital development and asset building, 484–486
ongoing debates in, 490–493
revitalizing the neighborhood, 487–488
Community Health Centers (CHCs), 402
community process tools, 309
Community Reinvestment Act, 504, 674
Community Reinvestment Strategy, Detroit, 565
community-wide GHG emissions, 457
compact neighborhoods/developments, 418, 445, 642
compactness, and sustainable urban places, 125–126
Comparative Planning Cultures (Sanyal), 92, 93, 271
Comprehensive City Plan for Dubuque, Iowa (1931 and 1936), 768–773
comprehensive planning, 599
concentric zone model, 342, 399–400, 568
Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution, The (Campanella), 95
Condorcet jury theorem, 36–37
conflict-harmony debate, planning and, 27
conflict resolution, 809
conformance assessment of plans, 812–814
Confucianism, 357
Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU), 353, 364, 365
Congressional Millennial Housing Commission, 355–356
connectivity, sustainable places and, 127
consensual approach to planning, 27–29
consensus building, 80, 808, 809
conservation easements, 420–421, 426
conspicuous consumption, 377
construction industry, 749–750
contagion, 394
contextual visualization, 316
“Control of Municipal Development by the Zone System and its Application in the United States, The” (speech), 359
Core of the City, A Pilot Study of Changing Land Uses in the Central Business Districts, The (Rannells), 279
corporate political power, rise in, 746
Corporation for Enterprise Development (CFED), 486
corporatism, 597
Corps of Engineers, U.S., 153
corrective justice, 143
cosmopolitanism, 199–200, 201
cosmopolitan patriot, 199
cost disease, 379
Costs of Sprawl: Environmental and Economic Costs of Alternative Residential Development Patterns at the Urban Fringe, The (RERC), 539, 540–541, 542
countergovernmentality, 696
covert planning, 713–715
creative class economic development strategies, 621
creative destruction, 587
cross-sectional models, 327
crowd-sourcing, 680
cultural diversity, 197–198, 211
contemporary planning controversies, 208–210
cosmopolitanism, multiculturalism, and self-determination, 198–203
dilemmas of diversity in planning, 203–208
cultural economics, 379–380
cultural goods, 377, 378, 379
(p. 848) culture
political culture, 743–744
preservation and, 186–187
culture of poverty, 268, 530
cultures of capitalism, 59, 60
cultures of planning, 59
cutback planning, 573, 580
Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, 184
Daily Record, 221
data shadows, 387
Death and Life of Great American Cities, The (Jacobs), 54–55, 110, 124, 277, 591
death rates, 344, 402, 405
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 202
defensible space design, 276
deindustrialization of America, 489
deliberation, 39
public deliberation in urban planning, 678–679
deliberative democracy, 39–41, 678, 806, 809, 810
deliberative planning processes, 204–205
demand-side economic development, 483
democracy and justice, 148–149
Democracy as Problem Solving: Civic Capacity in Communities Across the Globe (Briggs), 809
democracy, communicative, 188–190
democracy, deliberative, 39–41, 678, 806, 809, 810
democracy, participatory, 796
democratic deliberations, 299
democratic legitimacy, 33–35
Democratic Party, 745
democratic politics. See politics of planning
demographic and population projection models, 328–331, 344
Dempsey, Nicola, 123
Demsetz, H., 77
density
and sustainability, 126
using land-use patterns, 543–544
density bonus tool, 422
density-gradient model, 334
Department of Agriculture (USDA), U.S., 549
Department of Commerce, U.S., 360, 776
Department of Health and Human Services, U.S., 393
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), U.S, 276, 503, 504, 505, 570, 612, 673, 674
Department of Labor, U.S., 272, 276
Department of Transportation, U.S., 636
dependent variables, 324
descriptive urban models, 324
“Design Codes: Their Use and Potential” (Carmona, Marshall, and Stevens), 354
“Design Codes” (Carmona and Dann), 354
Design with Nature (McHarg), 311
deterministic models, 325
Detroit, Michigan
abandonment and infrastructure in, 577, 579
auto industry in, 385
Community Reinvestment Strategy, 565
community revitalization strategies in, 510
Empowerment Zone funding in, 565
Office of Restructuring, 577
planning politics in, 742
developmental state model, 59–60
development codes, 352
development impact fees, 421
Development Training Institute, 674
directed attention fatigue, 113
disaggregate data, 327
Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, 227
discriminating alignment, 58
disinvestment, and abandonment, 572–579
disjointed incremental planning, 26
displacement
and gentrification, 348, 509–510
and relocation, 208–209
distinctiveness art and culture, 382
distributive justice, 150–154
distributive social justice, 143
diverse economies, 696
diverse planning cultures, 57–62
diversity
sustainability and, 124–125
Divided Cities, Belfast, Beirut, Jerusalem, Mostar, and Nicosia (Calame and Charlesworth), 266, 275
Downtown Inc., How America Rebuilds Cities (Frieden and Sagalyn), 279
downtowns
and redevelopment, 590
literature on, 278–279
dualities, planning, 71, 74
duality, human vs. nature, 131–132
Dubuque, Iowa, Comprehensive City Plan for Dubuque, Iowa (1931 and 1936), 768–773
dwelling units, 568–569
earthquakes, 222–223
SPUR seismic resilience policy, 229
ecological footprint, 131, 363
economic base and multiplier models, 331, 334
economic crisis
global economic crisis of 1971, 55
global economic crisis of 2008, 48
“Great Debate” of the 1930s, 48, 49–52
planning system attack and, 54–57
postwar settlement, 48, 52–54
economic development, arts in, 382–383
Economic Development Administration (EDA), U.S., 269
economic development planning, 74, 79
economic globalization, 60–62
economic justice, 488–490
Economic Opportunity Act, 1966, 674
(p. 849) economics
and welfare theory, 27
new institutional, 71–79
economic sociologists, 73, 76
economic sustainability, 124
economic theories of abandonment, 568–570
Edge City, Life on the New Frontier (Garreau), 278
Edgeless Cities, Exploring the Elusive Metropolis (Lang), 278–279
education, smart growth and, 424
eGRID (EPA), 468–469
Egypt
early code system in, 356–357
slums in Cairo, 530
electricity emissions, measuring local, 468–470
elite theory, 741, 742
embodiment research, and health inequities, 408
Emerald Cities, Urban Sustainability and Economic Development (Fitzgerald), 273
emergency preparedness planning, paternalism in, 38
emplotment, 189
Employee Trip Reduction Program, 427
empowerment zones, 488, 510, 565
endogenous development, 483–484
endogenous variables, 324, 327
energy efficiency programs, and racial inequality, 748–749
Energy Programs Consortium, 749
energy retrofits, 749
engagement approach, in environmental aesthetics, 112
enlightened sexism, 623
Enterprise Foundation, 487, 674
enterprise zones, 595
entity-based inventory methods, for GHG emissions, 458
environmental aesthetics, urban beauty and, 112–113
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S., 438–439
eGRID database, 468–469
MOVES (modal emissions model), 470, 471
environmental psychology, urban beauty and, 113–114
environmental refugees, 225
environmental sustainability, 56–57, 123–124
environment, economy, and equity, three “E”s of planning, 122, 157, 230
Envision Utah, 809–810
equality
distribution based on, 150–151
equity as aspirational goal of planning, 287–290, 302, 303
equity in urban disinvestment and abandonment, 577–579
in the planning process, 208, 209
equity planning, 599
ethical justice, 143
ethnic enclave communities
in New Orleans, 223–224
naming of, 210
relocation of, 208–209
Europe
Healthy Cities Program (WHO) in, 403
Napoleonic legal system in, 62
urban redevelopment in, 594–597
European Planning Journal, 97
European Science Foundation, 167
European Union (EU), 57
and transnational planning, 92
approach to planning issues, 61–62
Directive on Environmental Impact Assessment, 62
neoliberal challenges and, 598
planning and formation of, 60
evaluation models, 327
excess commuting, 345
exogenous variables, 324, 327
“Expanding the Language of Planning: A Meditation on Planning Education for the Twenty-first Century/Comments” (Sandercock et al.), 188
explanatory urban models, 324, 325
faith-based organizations, 490
Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, 504
Fannie Mae's Homes for Working Families, 515
favelas, 528, 692, 795
Federal Aid Highway Act, 1956, 401
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 227
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), U.S., 355, 401
federalism, 742
Federal Transit Administration, U.S., 460
fee-simple property ownership, 220
feminist materialism, 610–611, 618, 624
feminist planners. See gender and planning
field site view of urban improvement, 400
filtering and spatial sorting models, 341–343
financial crisis
of 2007–09, 601–602
of 2008, 60, 61
financial deregulation, 491
financial institutions, in real estate industry, 733
financial investments, slums and attracting private investments, 532
financial sector, market regulation and, 48–49
financing energy retrofits, 749
First National Conference on City Planning and the Problems of Congestion, Washington, D.C., 1909, 358–359, 392, 398
first-source agreements, 489
Fiscal Policy Institute, 746
Florida
form-based codes in Seaside, 364
immigration issues in Miami, 752–753
local planning efforts in, 54
plan assessment in, 813
(p. 850) sprawl-reduction in, 423
3-D planning system in Hillsborough County, 312–313
Ford Foundation, 674
Fordism, 572, 597, 598
forecasting models, 327
form-based codes (FBC), 353, 364
Form-Based Codes (Parolek, Parolek, and Crawford), 353
form follows function doctrine, 109–110, 278
Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States (Blakely and Snyder), 270–271
forward visualization, 314
foundations, CED programs and, 494
Frame Reflection: Toward the Resolution of Intractable Policy Controversies (Schön and Rein), 406
framing campaigns, housing, 514–515
France, early public health issues in, 394
Franco-Prussian War, 359
free market model, 59
“free rider” problem, collective action and, 708
French Revolution, 788
From Puritans to the Projects: Public Housing and Public Neighbors (Vale), 268
Future of Old Neighborhoods, The (Frieden), 266, 277
Gallatin Plan, 1808, 479
Gamaliel Foundation, 490, 678
game theory, 815
garden cities, 49, 109
Garden City urban design, 399–400
gated communities, 270–271
gatekeepers, in art and culture, 377, 378, 379
“Gender Agenda: New Directions for Planning Theory” (Sandercosk and Forsyth), 613
gender and planning, 609–610, 617–618, 625
covert planning and gender inequality, 713–714
early feminist planners, 610–612
feminist urban scholars, 612–617, 622–623, 790
gender, cities, and health, 623–625
gender, homes/housing, and the city, 621–623
gender, urban politics, and planning, 619–621
women's citizenship, 790
General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (Keynes), 51
gentrification, 116, 348, 509, 599, 746
geo-coding, 387
GeoDesign techniques, 430
geographic boundaries, GHG emissions, 458
geographic information systems (GIS), 306–307, 308, 311–312, 325, 637, 639, 651, 680
geography, of art and cultural industries, 380–382, 385
geography of opportunity, 125
German Federal Cultural Foundation, 573
Germany
German zoning, 359
Rühr Valley preservation, 184
safety net goods in, 151–152
“Shrinking Cities” project, 573
social market model in, 59
germ theory, 395–396
global cities
as centers of finance, 273
income inequality in, 746
global citizenship, 199
Global City, New York, London, Tokyo, The (Sassen), 272
Global City Regions, Their Emerging Forms (Simmonds and Hack), 279
global emissions inventory, 458
globalization
economic, 60–62
urban redevelopment and, 588
Global North
citizenship rights and, 795
gender issues and, 614
resilient city strategies for, 225, 227
role of citizen planners in, 706–707
urban informality in, 699–700
welfare state in, 787
Global South
citizen planners in, 706, 707, 711–712, 713–714, 715–717
citizenship rights and, 795
demise of developmental state in, 787
gender issues and, 613, 614
resilient city strategies for, 225, 227
urban informality in, 692, 698–699, 700–703
Good City Form (Lynch), 129, 556
goods and services. See public goods and services
GO TO 2040 (Chicago regional plan), 781
government, justice and role of, 144
Government Accountability Office (GAO), U.S., 482, 484, 488
Government Accounting Office, U.S., 441
graphics, in planning and design, 308
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
Great Chicago Fire of 1871, 269
“Great Debate” of the 1930s, 48, 49–52
Great Depression, 49, 50, 55, 771, 772
Great Fire of London, 1666, 358
Great Plains, From Dust to Dust (Popper and Popper), 189
Great Streets (A. Jacobs), 269
Great Transformation, The (Polanyi), 51
Greek culture, ancient
citizenship in, 788
early urban planning standards in, 357
“Green Book” (planner's manual), 5, 563
Green Building Council, U.S. (USGBC), 365
green cities conflict, 131–132
greenhouse gas (GHG) effects, 455–456
community GHG emissions measurement, 460
facility-level reporting of GHG emissions, 459–460
future policy and research needs for GHG measurement, 463–473
GHG emissions measurement, 455–460
(p. 851) GHG inventory boundaries, 458–459, 463–465
Local Government Operations Protocol, 459–460
transportation and GHG emissions, 461–463
travel behavior and, 644, 650
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 444, 447, 455–473
greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, 438, 440, 456
Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are the Keys to Sustainability (Owen), 123
green spaces, 131
Green Urbanism, Learning from European Cities (Beatley), 273, 274
grounded visualization, 314
Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change (Ewing et al.), 439
Growing Smart Legislative Guidebook (APA), 355
“growth machine”, a city as a, 565, 590
growth-phasing regulations, 421
Guernica (Picasso), 222
guest worker programs, 600
habitus, 378
Hansen measure, 168, 173
harmony and conflict view of society, 27
hazard mitigation programs, 227–230
health
gender, cities and, 623–625
Health and Physique of the Negro American, The (DuBois), 395–396
health center movement, 402
health impact assessment (HIA), 409
Healthy Development Measurement Tool, 409
Healthy People 2010, 403
Heatwave, A Social Autopsy of a Disaster in Chicago (Klinenberg), 269
hedonic price models, 336, 337, 346
hierarchical models, 327
hierarchy, rule of, 150
high-density, compact development, 541
high-density sprawl, 540
historic preservation. See preservation
Historic Preservation Tax Credit, 488
homelessness, gendered, 622
Homes for Working Families, Fannie Mae's, 515
homevoters, 514
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 93, 94
HOPE VI public housing transformation program, 503, 508, 510
HOPE VI Resident Tracking Study, A Snapshot of Current Living Situation of the Original Residents from Eight Sites (Buron et al.), 270
household location and mover models, 336–338
House of Representatives Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, U.S., 572–573, 580
housing
gender and, 621–623
Housing Act of 1949, 590
Housing and Community Development Act, 1974, 592
housing associations (HAs), 595–596
housing choice concept, 515
Housing Opportunity Vouchers, 592
housing planning, 515–516
ad hoc solutions to problems of affordable housing, 502–504
communicative action in, 512–515
effects of inclusionary housing, 511–512
planning to anticipate change, 508–512
projections and policy, 506–507
regulatory functions of planning, 504–505
revitalization planning, 509–511, 513–515
social and political consequences of housing policies, 512
state of, 500–502
strategic planning framework for housing, 506–508
housing policies
and early public health, 395, 401
social and political consequences of, 512
housing price models, 334–335
housing submarkets, 509, 511–512, 569
Houston, Texas
public finance costs in, 542–543
real estate industry in, 725, 726, 730
How to Define and Measure Access and Need Satisfaction in Transport (workshop), 167
Hull House, Chicago, 394, 397
human capital development, 484–486
human vs. nature duality, 131–132
Hurricane Katrina, 209, 220, 223–225, 226, 230, 268
“hyper-shantytown”, 692
“hyper-unemployment”, 692
illegal subdivisions, 529–531, 532
Illinois
Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission (NIPC), 765, 777–782, 783
plan assessment in, 812
smart growth in, 419
See also Chicago
immigration
and politics of planning, 752–753
and urban redevelopment, 599–601
Mexican immigrants in Midwestern U.S., 793–794
impact assessment models, 327
Implementation, How Great Expectations in Washington Are Dashed in Oakland (Pressman and Wildavsky), 269
inclusionary housing, 511–512
inclusionary zoning programs, 422, 505
inclusive neighborhoods, 514–515
incremental development, 528–529, 531
incremental planning, 26
independent variables, 324
(p. 852) India
civil society in, 695
slums in, 530, 533–534, 696, 701–703
urban informality in, 698–699, 700, 701–703
indicator systems, for smart growth, 431–432
indigenous communities, 202–203
individual development accounts (IDAs) programs, 486, 494
individual justice, 142–143
Indonesia
citizen planners in, 711–712, 714–715
covert planning strategy in, 714–715
demonstrations in, 715
Kampung Improvement Program, 533, 711–712
Surabaya's slum program, 533
Industrial Areas Foundation, 490, 678
industrial paternalism, 38
infant mortality, 397, 405
infill development, 421, 426–427
informal city. See urban informality
informal sector, 697
informal survivalism, 695
infrastructure
and abandonment and public service delivery, 575–577
public finance and, 542–543
slums and improvements in, 533
injustice, distributional, 155–156
Institute for Justice, 8
Institute for Natural Resources, 425, 426, 427
Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, 791
Institute of Transportation Engineers, 126, 366
institutional approach in planning, 69–71, 81–82
beyond new institutionalism, 78–80
exuberance in institutionalism, 71–75
institutional approaches to the real estate industry, 727–729
problems with new institutionalism, 75–78
instrumental values, 157
insurgent citizenship, 701, 795
insurgent planning, 715–717, 797
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 457, 458
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), 1991, 69
International City Management Association, 354
International Code Council (ICC), 362
International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), 424
International Development Planning Review, 97
International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 612
International Labor Organization (ILO), 697
Convention No. 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, 202
International Monetary Fund, 272
International Private Sewage Disposal Code (IPSDC), 362
International Property Maintenance Code (IPMC), 362
International Residential Code (IRC), 362
international style design, 110
International Urban-Wildland Interface Code (IUWIC), 363
International Year of the World's Indigenous People, 202
International Zoning Code (IZC), 362–363
Interstate Highway System, U.S., 636, 649
Introduction to City Planning: Democracy's Challenge to the American City, An (Marsh), 392
Israel
conformance assessment of plans in, 813
urban informality in, 699
iterative models, 327
Japan
citizenship rights, 205
developmental state model in, 59
early urban planning standards in, 357
planning culture in, 93
Joint Center for Housing Studies, 503
Journal of the American Institute of Certified Planners, 540
Journal of the American Planning Association, 130, 146, 445–446, 764
“just city”, 157, 580
justice
advancing the cause of justice in planning, 157–159
AICP Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, 29, 141, 157–161
and relevance to planning, 141–142
as aspirational goal of planning, 287–290, 302, 303
as just distribution, 149–150
as nondiscrimination, 149
as one value among others, 156–157
as procedure, 147–149
as professional obligation vs. moral aspiration, 142
as the negative of injustice, 146–147
citizenship rights and, 205–207, 794–796
definitions of, 145–146, 148–149
distributional injustice, 155–156
distribution based on desert, 152–153
distribution based on equality, 150–151
distribution based on need, 151–152
distribution based on reasonable expectation, 153–154
distribution of, 150, 154–155
government vs. the market, 144
inputs vs. outputs, 145
planning and issues of, 207–208
remedying the causes of injustice, 155–156
social justice vs. individual justice, 142–143
(p. 853) Kampung Improvement Program (KIP), Indonesia, 533, 711–712
labor movement, 489
labor unions, 489, 744–745, 746, 749
laissez-faire economics, 53
land, smart growth plans and protection of, 420–421, 426
Land Development Corporation, Rotterdam, 90
land-price-density-land use-housing-price model, 334–335
landscape design, in creating place identity, 114
land use and housing, abandonment and, 573–575
land use and travel, 634–636
behavior studies methods, 637–640
controversies, research gaps, and next steps, 652–654
economic social welfare analysis of, 635
empirics of land use, 634–635
historical background, 636–637
land use and travel costs, 640–642
local vs. regional land use-travel relationships, 647–649
policies, plans, and urban development patterns, 643–644
program evaluation in land use-travel research, 650–652
residential selection, 642–643
results, 644–647
transportation literature on, 635
land-use change models, 340–341
land-use metrics, 543
land-use patterns, measuring density and, 543–544
land-use regulations, 505
large-scale places, literature on, 279
Latinos
and urban renewal, 744–745
employment and energy retrofits, 749
health issues concerning, 405
La Vida, A Puerto Rican Family and the Culture of Poverty in San Juan and New York (O. Lewis), 268
LA Weekly, 445
“law of chaos”, 693, 696
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND), 353, 364, 365
leapfrog development, 542
legal apartheid, 694
legal justice, 143
legitimacy
and planning, 33–35
legitimizing communicative planning, 35–41
legitimation of planning, 33
Levittowners, Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community, The (Gans), 278
liberal multiculturalism, 201
lifecycle GHG emissions, 458–459
Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 425
linkage policies, 489
Livable Rotterdam, 90
local government GHG emissions, 458–459
Local Government Operations Protocol, 459–460
local hire ordinances, 489
Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), 487, 574–575, 674
Local Planning: Contemporary Principles and Practice (Hack et al.), 5
local planning capacity, smart growth plans and, 424–425
local planning directives, 106
London
Building Act of 1844, 358
feminist urban scholars in, 612, 614
Great Fire of London, 1666, 358
low-emission vehicle zone, 443
during World War II, 222
Los Angeles, California
art and culture in, 379–380, 385, 386
immigration issues in, 752–753
public health issues in, 405
Staples Center CBA in, 490
Los Angeles Economic Development Corporation (LAEDC), 379, 384
Low Carbon Fuel Standard, California, 468
low-density development, 126, 544
low-density sprawl, 418, 540
Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), 487–488, 503, 579, 674
low spatial resolution models, 327
Maine, plan assessment in, 812
mainstream economic theory, 750–751
Major League Losers, The Real Cost of Sports and Who's Paying for It? (Rosentraub), 270
Major League Winners, Urban Change and New Destinies for Downtowns (Rosentraub), 266
Major League Winners, Using Sports and Cultural Centers as Tools for Economic Development (Rosentraub), 269–270
Making of the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940–1960 (Hirsch), 268
Mapping Decline, St. Louis and the Fate of One American City ( C. Gordon), 268
maps, in planning and design, 310–311
marginalized spaces, 692–693
market
and role of government, 144
leaving planning to the, 750–751
market economies
institutional economics and, 71–72
Russia's transition to a market economy, 88, 91
“Marshall Plan” (Kennedy), 487
Marxism, 55, 724, 728
(p. 854) Maryland
community revitalization strategies in Baltimore, 510
housing planning in Montgomery County, 505
smart growth program in, 418, 425, 426, 427, 428
masculinity, gender issues and, 620, 621
Massachusetts
excessive regulation by agencies in, 361
preservation initiatives in, 191
public health issues in, 401, 405
See also Boston
Master Plan 1964 City of Newark, New Jersey, 773–777
material-discursive, 618
material feminists, 610–611, 618, 624
McKinsey & Company, 702
Mega-Projects: The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment (Altshuler and Luberoff), 267
mega-projects, 89, 592, 593
Megaregions, Planning for Global Competitiveness (Ross), 279
mega-slums, 696
memory, place, 186–187
Merchant of Illusion (Bloom), 276
meta-analysis techniques, 644–645
Metro and County Business Patterns (BLS), 385
Metropolitan Building Act of 1844, London, 358
Metropolitan Government of Tokyo, 272
metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), 228, 339, 471, 647, 650
Mexico
citizenship rights in, 206
families and culture of poverty concept, 268
Mexican immigrants in Midwestern U.S., 793–794
1985 Mexico City earthquake, 222–223
planning culture in Mexico City, 93
radical planning in Oaxaca, 715–716
slums in Mexico City, 530, 531
3 for 1 Migrant Program, 716
miasma, 394
Michigan
plan assessment in Genesee County, 811
See also Detroit
Middle Way, The (Macmillan), 51
migrating ghetto, 512
migration, and urban redevelopment, 599–601
migration rates, 344
Milbank Memorial Fund, 397
Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota
accessibility issues in Twin Cities, 176–177
city planning in, 268–269, 278
mitigation, 226–230
mixed land uses, sustainable places and, 124
mixed-method research and techniques, 317–318
mobility, access and, 126
modal emissions models, 470–471
model calibration, 325, 327–328
Model Cities program, 480, 510, 592, 672–673
modeling pedestrian and bike trips, 347
modeling tours, 347
modeling urban systems, 323–324, 349
activity location models, 336–338
common urban models, 328–343
demographic and population projection models, 328–331, 344
economic base and multiplier models, 331, 334
filtering and spatial sorting models, 341–343, 348–349
hedonic price models, 336, 337, 346
model forms and functions, 324–328
models of urban form, density, and land and housing prices, 334–335
travel behavior models, 339–340, 346–348
urban growth and land-use change models, 340–341, 348
urban modeling gaps, 343–349
modernist city design, 109–110
moments of debate, 300
moments of dialogue, 300
moments of negotiation, 300
Money Sings: The Changing Politics of Urban Space in Post-Soviet Yaroslavl (Ruble), 89
monocentric job centers, 334
moral aspiration, justice as, 142
Mount Vernon, 183
Moving Cooler: An Analysis of Transportation Strategies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Cambridge Systematics), 439, 447–448
Moving to Opportunity, The Story of an American Experiment to Fight Ghetto Poverty (Briggs, Popkin, and Goering), 272, 273
Moynihan Report, 276
multiculturalism, 200–202
multilevel models, 327
multinucleated urbanism, 127
multiplier models, 331, 334
municipal housekeeping, 610
municipal operations, GHG emissions and, 457
music, 378
Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else, The (De Soto), 693–694
“myth of marginality”, 692, 697
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 441
National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) study committee, 645, 646
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 776
National Alliance of Peoples Movements (NAPM), 703
National Association of Home Builders, 505
Housing for Hometown Heroes, 515
National Association of Housing and Real Estate Boards (NAHREB), 590
National Building Code, 362
National Center on Child Poverty, 486
(p. 855) National Civic League, 678
National Conference on City Planning and the Problems of Congestion, Washington, D.C., 1909, 358–359, 392, 398
National Congress for Community and Economic Development (NCCED), 674, 675
National Defense and Interstate Highway Act of 1956, 636
national emissions inventory, 458
National Fund for Workforce Solutions, 494
National Grid Balanced Mechanism Reporting Services, UK, 469
National Historic Preservation Act, 1966, 181
National Historic Preservation Trust's Main Street program, 488
National Household Travel Survey, U.S., 637, 646, 648
National Park Service, 181
National Planning Conference, 359
national planning culture, 93
National Research Council (NRC), 441, 645, 646, 652
National Vacant Properties Campaign, 573
nation building, 200
Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS), 645–646
natural disasters, 209
Bangladesh as capital for, 227
earthquakes, 222–223
Hurricane Katrina, 209, 220, 223–225, 226, 230, 268
Natural Resources Defense Council, 362, 365
Natural Resources Inventory (USDA), 549
Nature Conservancy (TNC), 426
negative discrimination, 149
Negro Family, The Case for National Action, The (U.S. Dept. of Labor), 276
neighborhood associations, 675–677, 681
neighborhood district coordinators, 679
neighborhood life-cycle theory, 570
Neighborhood Progress, 575
neighborhood revitalization, 487–488, 510
neighborhood saturation, 482
neighborhoods, inclusive, 514–515
Neighborhood Transformation Initiative, Philadelphia, 510
Neighborhood Unit urban design, 399–400
neoclassical approaches, to the real estate industry, 724–726
neoclassical economics model, 71–73
neoliberalism, 598, 619
Netherlands
planning culture in Rotterdam, 89–92
urban redevelopment in, 595–596
Network on European Communications and Transport Activities Research (NECTAR), 167
Newark Central Planning Board, 773, 776, 777
Newark, New Jersey, 1964 Master Plan, 773–777
New Deal era, 49, 50, 401, 590
New Exploration: A Philosophy of Regional Planning, The (MacKaye), 130
new institutional economics, 72, 76
New Jersey
community revitalization strategies in Camden, 510
Mt. Laurel I and II cases, 275
New Markets Tax Credit, 483, 487–488
New Orleans, Louisiana
early public health issues in, 396
Hurricane Katrina, 209, 220, 223–225, 226, 230, 268
reasonable expectations and social justice, 153
New Right ideology, 56–57
New Towns Movement, England, 109
new urban ecology, 131
New Urbanism, 111, 132
air quality and, 439
gender issues and, 621
smart growth and, 230, 780
travel behavior and, 637, 648
New Urbanists, 353
and sustainability, 129, 130, 132
smart growth development and, 422, 423, 424, 429
“new urban marginality”, 692
new urban politics theory, 619
New York City
abandonment in South Bronx, 566, 573, 578
after 9/11, 222, 230
air quality in, 443, 446
art and culture in, 381, 382, 385, 386
blackouts of 1969 and 1977 in, 218
Central Park, 109
Committee on the Congestion of Population, 392, 397, 398
conformance assessment of plans in, 813–814
density and land-use patterns in, 543
distribution of outputs issue in, 145
early public health issues in, 396
electricity emissions in, 469–470
families and culture of poverty concept, 268
feminist urban scholars in Harlem, 613
Harlem Children's Zone, 494
immigration issues in, 752–753
income inequality in, 746
1929 Regional Plan of New York and Environs, 813–814
during 1975 fiscal crisis, 220
Penn Station preservation, 183
population loss and disinvestment planning in, 566
public health issues in, 394, 405
public housing in, 268
public plazas in, 277
redevelopment of Times Square, 275, 382
Regional Plan for New York, 247
transportation and accessibility, 169
urban design successes in, 277
urban redevelopment in, 591, 601
zoning issues in, 269
New York City Housing and Development Administration, 574
(p. 856) New York City Office of Long-Term Planning and Sustainability, 469–470
New York Daily News, 220
New York Times, 223–224
New Zealand, citizenship rights in, 206
Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 143
NIMBY (“not in my back yard”) concerns, 511
nondiversity, 125
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 702
Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission (NIPC), 765, 777–782, 783
Oakland, California
EDA employment programs in, 269
urban renewal and race riots in, 744
“occupancy urbanism”, 696
Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), 385
Office of Economic Opportunity, U.S., 402, 592
Office of Restructuring, Detroit, 577
open moral communities, 189
operational boundaries, GHG emissions, 458
oral histories, 189, 191
Oregon
Land Use Program, 425, 426
local planning efforts in, 54
smart growth policies in, 418, 421, 427, 428
See also Portland
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 272
Organization of Man, The (Whyte), 278
Original Green: Unlocking the Mystery of True Sustainability, The (Mouzon), 129
Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World, The (De Soto), 693
“overurbanization”, 692
Pakistan, slums in Hyderabad, 531
Paris World's Fair, 1937, 222
parks and playground movements, 394
parks and recreation plan, Newark, New Jersey, 775
participatory democracy, 796
participatory GIS (PGIS), 680
participatory planning, 797–798
particularism vs. universalism, 200, 203, 207–208
paternalism, 30, 37–39
path models, 327
Pavley Vehicle Efficiency Standards, California, 468
peak land value intersection (PLVI), 725
pedestrian and bike trips, 347
pellagra, 397
Penn Central Transportation Co. et al. v. New York Co. et al., 182
performance assessment of plans, 814–816
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, 202
Peru
guerilla movement in, 693
slums in Lima, 527, 528–530
Philadelphia Office of the Controller, 578–579
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
central business district in, 279
early public health issues in, 396
housing planning in, 510
Neighborhood Transformation Initiative, 510
Plan for Center City, 764
population loss and disinvestment planning in, 566, 578–579
The Reinvestment Fund, 510
religious congregations in, 273
Philadelphia Port Authority, 270
Phoenix, Arizona, land-use patterns in, 543
physical determinism, 111–112
physical form, 111
PICO National Network, 490, 678
Pioneer Institute for Public Policy Research, 361
pirate settlements, 528
Pittsburgh's Allegheny Conference, 590
place
and production of art, 381–382
relational view of healthy urban places, 406–408
sense of place, 114–115
Place and Placelessness (Relph), 114
place-based programs, 482
place inequities, 403
placelessness, 114
place memory, 186–187
place theory, 114–115
plan assessment, 803–804, 816–818
actions defined, 804
attributes of a good plan, 810–812
claims for making plans well, 806–812
claims for using plans well, 812–816
conformance, 812–814
decisions defined, 804
frame for assessing plans, 804–806
outcomes defined, 804
performance, 814–816
planning processes and effects on planning situations, 810
planning processes and effects on plans, 806–809
planning processes defined, 804
planning situation defined, 804
plans defined, 804
“planet of slums”, 692, 694
Planet of Slums (Davis), 534, 692
plan interpretation, 761–762, 782–784
Comprehensive City Plan for Dubuque, Iowa (1931 and 1936), 768–773
histories of planning, 762–765
Master Plan 1964 City of Newark, New Jersey, 773–777
toward a visual theory of, 765–768
2040 Regional Framework Plan (Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission, 2005), 777–782
plan making, urban, 241–243, 253–254
composing plans, 249–253
method, 248–249
plan-making goals, 244–245
plan-making knowledge, 245–249
(p. 857) policy in, 250, 253
precedent in, 250–251
protocols in, 250, 251–252
prototypes in, 250, 252–253
“small ‘p’ planning”, 241, 245
theory, 247–248
planned communities, 542–543
planners, and smart growth plans, 424–425
Planners Journal, The, 120
planning
academic, 7–9
accessibility and, 166–179
advocacy, 26, 27, 599
and regulation, 46–66
collective action and, 25–41
community economic development in, 477–494
conflict-harmony debate and, 27
consensus and, 27–29
critiques of, 8–9
cultural diversity and, 197–211
evolution of, 5–7
for preservation, 187–190
incremental, 26
institutional approach in, 69–82
justice in, 141–161
legitimacy and, 33–35
modes, 26–27
as a profession, 7, 48, 146
public interest and public, 29–32
purpose of, 4
sustainability and, 120–133
the market and, 46–63
three “E”s of, 122, 157, 230
visualization and, 306–318
planning actions, 804
planning and citizenship, 787–788, 798–799
citizenship debates, 788–790
citizenship from below, 792–794
citizenship rights and justice, 794–796
decentering the state in citizenship debates, 790–791
participatory turn in planning, 796–798
planning and public health, 392–393, 541
appreciative inquiry or practice-based research, 408–409
biomedical model and housing policies, 1950s-1990s, 400–401
city planning and health, 1840s-1890s, 393–395
democratizing urban science policy, 410
fragmentation of urban health research, 396–397
germ theory and planning “the city scientific”, 1900s-1940s, 395–396
health inequities, cities and social epidemiology, 403, 404
relational view of healthy places/cities, 406–408
social justice and of American city planning, 397–398
social resistance and critical research, 402–403
the laboratory ideal and city planning, 398–400
toward healthful and equitable city planning, 410
toward healthy and equitable urban governance, 405–406
twenty-first century healthy and equitable urban planning, 403, 405
Planning and Urban Design Standards (APA), 5
planning cultures, 57–62, 87, 98–99
Rotterdam, Netherlands, 89–92
what are, 92–96
why study, 96–98
Yaroslavl, Russia, 88–89, 91–92
planning decisions, 804
planning law, 53
planning outcomes, 804
planning processes, 804, 806–810
planning research, 4, 806
planning scholarship, 3–5
planning situations, 804, 810
planning support systems (PSS), 312, 430
Planning the Neighborhood (APHA), 355, 400, 401
planning theory, 764
Planning Theory, 797
Planning Theory and Practice, 97
plans, defined, 804
Plan Voisin (Le Corbusier), 591
playground and parks movements, 394
pluralism, 210, 589, 741–742, 745
pluralist multiculturalism, 201
plurality, as aspirational goal of planning, 287–290, 302, 303
Polanyi, Karl, 51, 59
policy effort, 456, 464–465
challenges to determining the range of potential, 466–468
defined, 464
as a political decision, 466
PolicyLink, 489
political culture, 743–744
political economy approaches, to the real estate industry, 726–727
political legitimacy, 33
political parties, 90
political societies, 695–696
politics
gender, urban politics, and planning, 619–621
of the informal city, 700–703
political consequences of housing policies, 512
political economy approaches to abandonment, 571–572
sociopolitical variables and smart growth, 424
urban redevelopment and, 588
politics of planning, 739–741
and future of cities, 750–754
planning for social justice, 753–755
race, capitalism, and American political development, 743–750
urban political process, 741–742
(p. 858) Politics, Planning and the Public Interest, The Case of Public Housing in Chicago (Meyerson and Banfield), 267, 277
polycentric job centers, 335
Polycentric Metropolis, Learning from Mega-City Regions in Europe, The (Hall and Pain), 279
polycentric urbanism, 127, 345
population
demographic and population projection models, 328–331
world's population in urban areas, 5–6
port authorities, 269–270
“Portland and ‘Elite Cities’: The New Model”, 643
Portland Edge: Challenges and Success in Growing Communities, The (Ozawa), 273
Portland, Oregon
plan assessment in, 815
smart growth in, 427, 428
travel behavior in, 647
Positive Development model, 231
post-Fordism, 572, 597, 600, 601
postwar settlement, planning in the, 48, 52–54
poverty
and urban informality, 691, 692–694
asset, 486
suburban and urban poverty rates, 125
power, 29–30, 35
and new institutionalism, 76–77
distribution of, 155
paternalism and, 37–39
Practice of Local Government Planning, The (Hoch, Dalton, and So), 5
Prayer for a City, A (Bissinger), 276
predictive urban models, 324–325
preservation, urban, 181–182, 190–192
authenticity and, 184–185
culture and memory in, 186–187
limits to the traditional approach, 183–187
planning and, 187–190
traditional preservation planning, 182–183
primacy, rule of, 150
primary goods, 152, 154
Priority Funding Areas, 421
private investments, slums and attracting, 532
process issues, in planning, 203, 208
Proclamation of the International Decades of the World's Indigenous People, 202
Progressive Era, 394, 400, 478, 617, 669, 683
progressive movement, 6
progressive planning, 798
pro-growth coalition, 590
Project QUEST, 485
projects of economic autonomy and experimentation, 696
property-based collateralized lending, 532
property rights, slum dwellers and private, 532
property taxes
housing abandonment and, 567
smart growth incentives and, 421
proportionality, rule of, 150, 152
Prussian zone system, 359
psychology, environmental, 113–114
public administration, public interest concept and, 32
public benefit corporations, 54
public facilities siting models, 338
public finance of urban form, 539–540, 556–557
behavioral model of, 544–547
empirical example of, 547–554
extant theory and evidence, 540–544
public goods and services
collective action and, 708
distribution of, 154–155
inputs vs. outputs, 145
public finance and, 542
public health. See planning and public health
Public Health Act, England, 359
“Public Health Asks of Sociology” (Rogers), 402
Public Health Service, U.S., 397, 438
public housing
case study citings, 265, 267–268, 272, 276
development of, 590, 744
in Chicago, 267, 268
Public Housing That Worked, New York in the Twentieth Century (Bloom), 268
public interest concept, 26, 27
alternative terms for public interest, 32
and conflict-harmony debate, 27
as support for public planning, 29–32
legitimacy and, 33, 34
public investments, in slums, 532–533, 574–575
public participation GIS (PPGIS), 680
public planning
and the public interest, 29–32
legitimacy and, 33
public-private partnerships (PPPs), 89
public sector, public finance and the, 542
public service delivery, abandonment and, 575–577
Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA), 385
Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS), 385
Public Works Administration, 611
Puerto Rico, families and culture of poverty concept, 268
race
and power in urban politics, 742
and urban renewal, 744–745
concept of, 747–748
racial justice and Code of Ethics, 158
racial resentment and corporate power, 746
race riots
and urban renewal in Oakland, CA, 744
in Wilmington, North Carolina, 1898, 221
racial discrimination, 146, 149, 624
racial exclusionary policies, 148–149
racial residential segregation, 209
racial segregation, 670, 747
racism, 611
(p. 859) radical and insurgent planning, 715–717
Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston, 361
rate of growth controls, 421
rational choice model, 72–73
rational-ethical politics, 740
rationalistic planning, 26
rationality, as aspirational goal of planning, 287–290, 302, 303
rational-scientific politics, 740
“Reading Plans” (Mandelbaum), 764
real estate development industry, 722–723, 734–735
development cycles, 729–731
institutional approaches, 727–729
local contingencies, 731–732
neoclassical approaches, 724–726
overview of, 723–724
political economy approaches, 726–727
popular corporate rankings, 724
real estate developers, 732–734
top-ranked real estate companies, 724
Real Estate Research Corporation (RERC), 570
The Costs of Sprawl report, 539, 540–541, 542
realistic justice, 145–146
“reality of marginality”, 692
Real Time Carbon, 469
Rebirth of Urban Democracy, The (Berry, Portney, and Thomson), 676
Rebuilding the Inner City: A History of Neighborhood Initiatives to Address Poverty in the United States (Halpern), 564
Rebuilding Urban Neighborhoods: Achievements, Opportunities, and Limits (Keating and Krumholz), 564
Rebuilding Urban Places After Disaster, Lessons from Katrina (Birch and Wachter), 268
recursive models, 327
redevelopment, urban, 110, 208–209, 269–270
reduced form models, 340
Reforming Suburbia, The Planned Communities of Irvine, Columbia and The Woodlands (Forsyth), 278
regime theory, 589, 742
Regional Blueprint Planning Grants Program, California, 229
Regional Plan for New York, 247
Regional Target Advisory Committee, California, 471
Regional Transportation Plans (RTPs), 339
Region, Planning the Future of the Twin Cities (Orfield and Luce), 278
Regulating Place (Ben-Joseph), 354
regulatory reforms, 361
Reinvestment Fund, The, Philadelphia, 510
“Relationships Among Development Patterns, Vehicle Miles Traveled, and Energy Consumption” (NAS/NRC), 645
remediability, 58
Renaissance
aesthetics and beauty during, 112
city planning during, 108
Renewing Cities (Gittell), 564
rental housing, 503–504, 508
rental vouchers, 503, 508
rent gap, 572
rent-subsidy program, 592
Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population in Great Britain (Chadwick), 394
Republican Party, 745
Republic, The (Plato), 145
residential segregation, spatial sorting and, 348
residential segregation model, 342, 343
residential selection, travel behavior and, 642–643
resilience, urban, 218–219, 231–233
in history, 219–225
resilient cities today and tomorrow, 225–231
Resilient City: How Modern Cities Recover From Disaster, The (Vale and Campanella), 221, 234, 271
respect, distribution based on, 155
retail location models, 338
reverse discrimination, 207
“Revisiting Rental Housing” (symposium), 503
revitalization
neighborhood, 487–488, 510
planning, 509–511, 513–514
Reviving America's Forgotten Neighborhoods: An Investigation of Inner City Revitalization Efforts (Bright), 564
Richmond, Virginia
community revitalization strategies in, 510
targeted neighborhoods investments in, 574–575
rightsizing cities, 566
Right-to-Buy program (UK), 595
“right to the city” slogan, 201–202, 287
Road to Serfdom, The (Hayek), 51
Robert Clifton Weaver and the American City: The Time and Life of an Urban Reformer (Pritchett), 277
Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York (Ballon and Jackson), 276
Roman culture, ancient
citizenship in, 788
early urban planning standards in, 357–358
resurrection of Carthage, 219
Rotterdam Central Station project, 90, 91
Rotterdam, Netherlands, 89–92
Russia, planning culture in Yaroslavl, 88–89, 91–92
safety net goods, 151–152, 154
San Diego Association of Governments, 312
San Francisco, California
Eastern Neighborhoods Community Health Impact Assessment, 409
Healthy Development Measurement Tool, 409
income inequality in, 746
1906 earthquake in, 229
real estate industry in, 730
Western Addition, 110
(p. 860) San Francisco Department of City Planning, 116
San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH), 409
San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association (SPUR), 229–230, 590
San Francisco Urban Design Plan, 116–117
sanitarians, 394, 395
Sanitary Conditions of the Laboring Population of New York, The (Griscom), 394
Scandinavia
citizenship rights in, 206
social market model in, 59
School of Social Science Administration, Chicago, 612
Science, 402
Seattle, Washington
neighborhood planning process in, 676, 679, 681, 682–683
smart growth program in, 425, 426, 428, 429
Section 8 (rent-subsidy program), 592
sector model, 342, 568
Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (Scott), 9
seismic resilience, 229
self-determination, 202–203, 210
self-help movements, 711–712
sense of community, 422, 429
Sense of History, The Place of the Past in American Life (Glassberg), 186
sense of place, 114–115
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks of, 222, 230
sequential models, 327
settlement house movement, 479
Shenzhen, Guandong Province, China, 93–94
Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, 94
Shining Path (guerilla movement), 693
Sierra Club, 676, 748
Signs, 612
simulation models, 327
slavery, 145–146, 746
slum clearance, 110, 525, 526, 527, 701–702
slums, 524–526, 534–535
community economic development and, 479
diversity and logic of, 527–530
1892 survey of American slums, 358
planning responses and options, 530–534
problematic language of, 526–527
slums of hope and despair, 527, 528–530, 693
urban informality and, 692–693, 701–703
small-lot zoning, 421
SmartCode, 364
smart development, 230
smart-grid appliances, 469
smart growth, 418–419, 429–432
air quality and, 439
and affordable housing, 428–429
and climate change in California, 228
and enhancing a sense of community, 429
and preserving land resources, 426
and promotion of dense, compact, and infill developments, 426–427
and re-orienting transportation, 427–428
elements of smart growth plans, 420–422
evaluating, 431–432
how to gain more public and institutional support for, 430
in NIPC framework, 780
outcomes of smart growth programs, 425–429
policy adoption, 423–425, 431
travel behavior and, 648
Smart Growth America, 362
Smart Growth in a Changing World (Barnett), 279
smart growth legislation, 418–419
Smart Growth Manual, The (Duany, Speck, and Lydon), 353
Smart Growth Policies: An Evaluation of Programs and Outcomes (Ingram), 278
Smart Growth Zoning Codes: A Resource Guide (Tracy), 353
smog, 441
smokestack chasing, 593
social cognition, 78–80, 315
Social Democrats, Rotterdam, 90, 91
social epidemiology, 403
social justice, 142–143, 748
defining, 147
planning for, 753–755
public health and, 397–398
Social Justice and the City (Harvey), 154
Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (Whyte), 277
social market model, 59
social movements
collective action and, 709–711
in India, 702–703
public health and, 402–403
social networks, 73, 76
social polarization, 61
social sciences
cognitive development in, 79, 112–113
economics in, 71, 72–73
“Social Science Theory as a Source of Hypotheses in Epidemiologic Research” (Cassel), 402
social sustainability, 125
social transformation, 707, 715
sociology, of the arts, 377–379
South Africa
Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Action Plan of Durban, 226
Growth Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) policy, 792
post-Apartheid South Africa, 717, 790, 791, 792
Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 158
Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign (AEC), 716–717, 792–794, 795
Southern California Travel Survey, 648
“Southern urbanism”, 700
Southside Solidarity Network, 795
space, distribution of, 154
(p. 861) Spain
Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, 382
Hitler's bombing of Guernica, 222
low-density development in, 544
Spanish Laws of the Indies regulations, 108
spatial interaction models, 340
spatial models, 325
spatial reaction function, 547
spatial sorting models, 341–343, 348–349
Special Impact Program, 1966, 674
sports facilities, 269–270
squatter settlements, 529–531, 532, 693, 713, 714–715, 795
Stafford Act, 227
stagflation, 598
Standard City Planning Enabling Act (SCPEA), 1928, 360
Standard Zoning Enabling Act (SZEA), 1922, 360, 361
starchitects, 594
state-market relations, 46, 47–49, 57
and the “Great Debate” of the 1930s, 48, 49–52
and the postwar settlement, 48, 52–54
globalization and, 60–62
planning cultures and, 57–62
state socialism, 589, 598, 599
statistical models, 325, 327
step-down models, 328, 331
St. Louis, Missouri
abandonment in, 566, 573
housing and renewal policies in, 268
population loss and disinvestment planning in, 566
stock market crash of 1929, 49, 51
storytelling
historical, 189, 191
professional biographies, 276–277
Streets and the Shaping of Towns and Cities (Ben-Joseph), 354
street science, 679–680
street standards, early, 357–359
strife, 28
structural equation modeling, 327
structural theory, 589
structure issues, in planning, 203, 205–207, 208
Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance (Panofsky), 765–767
subcultural approaches to abandonment, 570–571
subdivision development, codes and standards and, 362
submarkets, housing, 509, 511–512, 569
substance issues, in planning, 203, 207–208
substantive definitions, of the public interest, 30–31
substantive values, 157
suburbs, literature on, 278
sustainability, 120–122, 132–133
debates about, 127–132
sustainable places, 122–127
Sustainability Dashboard, 432
Sustainable Communities Planning Act, California, 460
Sustainable Urban Development, Vol. 3: The Toolkit for Assessment (Vreeker, Deakin, and Curwell eds.), 123
Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design with Nature (Farr), 122
Sweden, citizenship rights in, 206
Switzerland, citizenship rights in, 206
synoptic planning, 26, 27
Systems Approach and Its Enemies, The (Churchman), 290
targeting neighborhoods policy, 574–575
tax credit programs, 487–488, 503, 746
taxes, and smart growth incentives, 421
tax-increment financing (TIF), 252, 253, 365, 592
Tennessee Valley Authority, 49
Texas
colonias in, 699
See also Houston
Texas Transportation Institute, 166
Thailand, slums in Bangkok, 533
Theory of Justice, A (Rawls), 147, 148
Third World, urban informality in, 692–694, 695
3 for 1 Migrant Program, Mexico, 716
three-dimensional (3-D) and simulation models, 312–313
three “E”s of planning, environment, economy, and equity, 122, 157, 230
Tiebout model, 342
TIGGER program (FTA), 460
Times Square Roulette, Remaking a City Icon (Sagalyn), 275
tourism, arts and, 374, 382
Town Planning (Sharp), 50
transaction cost theory, 58, 59
transactive visualization, 316
transfer of development rights (TDRs), 421
transit-oriented developments (TODs), 422, 439, 445, 642, 651
transit-oriented neighborhoods, 418
transportation
air quality and traffic safety modeling, 347–348
and accessibility, 168–169
and sustainable places, 123, 126
annual average daily traffic volumes, 470
emissions, 461–463, 470–473
excess commuting, 345
micro-level traffic assignment procedures, 347
planning bus routes in Calgary, Canada, 290–302
policies, 470–471
smart growth programs and, 427–428
traffic congestion, 166
travel behavior models, 339–340, 346–348
urban renewal and highway construction, 591
vehicle hours operating (VHO), 470
vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), 647
(p. 862) vehicle miles traveled (VMT), 123, 428, 439–441, 445, 447, 459, 461, 470, 644–649
vehicle specific power (VSP), 470
VMT-based emissions inventory models, 470–471
transportation control measures (TCMs), 437, 439–441, 444, 445, 447, 448
Transportation Research Board, 459
“Enhancing Internal Trip Capture Estimation for Mixed-Use Developments”, 638
travel behavior models, 339–340, 346–348
trend models, 328, 331
triage, in population decline, 574, 578
trickle down economics, 56, 57, 61
Triumph of the City: How our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier (Glaeser), 123
Truly Disadvantaged, The Inner City, The (Wilson), 276
Tufts University, 676–677
Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 176
Twin Cities Metropolitan Council, Minnesota, 808
two-rate property tax, 421
typology, information visualization, 313–314, 316
ultimate values, 157
uncertainty, and planning process, 27, 31
Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature (Cronon), 131
underdevelopment, 563
Union of Concerned Scientists, 131
United Kingdom
and gender equality, 616
and 1930s economic crisis, 50, 51
and the postwar settlement, 52, 53
Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, 365
early public health issues in, 394
electricity emissions in, 469
Housing Market Renewal program, 510, 511
housing planning in, 501, 503, 505, 507, 510–511
legal system in, 62
National Grid Balanced Mechanism Reporting Services, 469
New Right ideology in, 56–57
New Towns Movement in England, 109
public finance in, 543
Public Health Act in England, 359
real estate industry in, 733
the arts in, 384
urban redevelopment in, 595, 602
See also London
United Kingdom Department of Employment, 272
United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations, 272
United Nations (UN), 5
and environmental refugees, 225
“Cities without Slums” campaign, 524, 525, 534, 692
Commission on Human Rights, 702
Millennium Project, 532, 533
State of the World's Indigenous Peoples report, 202
UN-Habitat, 524, 531
UN Women, 618
Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Populations, 202
United States
and climate change issues, 230
and 1930s economic crisis, 49–50
and the postwar settlement, 53–54
attack of planning system in, 54–56
citizenship rights in, 206, 793–794, 796–797
free market model planning in, 59
gender and urban governance issues in, 619
hazard mitigation programs in, 227–230
historic preservation in urban South, 181, 183, 188
Hurricane Katrina, 209, 220, 223–225, 226, 230, 268
safety net goods in, 152
urban planning in, 7
urban redevelopment in, 590–594
universalism, 36
vs. particularism, 200, 203, 207–208
University as Urban Developer, Cases and Analysis, The (Perry and Wiewel), 272
University of California, Berkeley, 179
University of Michigan, 577
University of Minnesota, 166
unplanable city, 691
upzoning, 421
urban areas, world's population in, 5–6
urban containment policies, 421, 427
urban cores, 127
Urban Design as Public Policy (Barnett), 269, 277
Urban Development Action Grants (UDAGs), 480, 510, 592
urban development corporations (UDCs), 54, 595
urban development patterns, travel behavior and, 643–644
urban development projects, beautification projects and, 110
urban growth and land-use change models, 340–341, 348
urban growth boundaries (UGB), 421, 427, 428
Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and South Asia (Roy and AlSayyad), 698
urban informality, 691–692
as a way of life?, 694–696
politics of the informal city, 700–703
the informal state, 697–700
two views of, 692–694
“Urbanism as a Way of Life” (Wirth), 694–695
“urbanization without growth”, 692
(p. 863) Urban Land Institute, 362, 439, 447
urban land use theory, 541–542
Urban Mobility Report, 166
urban models. See modeling urban systems
Urban Parks Movement, 109
urban planning
and regulation, 46–63
citywide neighborhood association systems, 675–677
civics of, 669–677
Community Action and Model Cities, 671–673
community development corporations, 674–675
ensuring adequate inclusiveness, 681–682
generating trust, 677–679
in the U.S., 7
profession of, 7, 48, 146
reciprocal accountability, 682–683
tools and practices of citizen engagement in, 677–683
tools and street science, 679–681
urban political science, 741–742
urban redevelopment, 587–588
delegitimization of urban utopias, 598–599
European, 594–597
explaining, 588–590
global political economy and local, 597–602
migration and, 599–601
neoliberalism and, 598
United States, 590–594
urban renewal, 208–209, 566
after WWII, 669–670
America's political culture and, 744
and slum clearance, 525, 526
urban services areas (USA), 421, 427
urban sprawl
defined, 122–123
race and, 748
RERC Costs of Sprawl report, 539, 540–541, 542
sustainable places and, 122–123, 127, 129
See also smart growth
urban theory, 156
urban utopias, delegitimization of, 598–599
Urban Villagers, Group and Class in the Life of Italian Americans, The (Gans), 277, 591
validated models, 328
value-capture, 421
values, planning, 157
vehicle hours operating (VHO), 470
vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), 647
vehicle miles traveled (VMT), 123, 428, 439–441, 445, 447, 459, 461, 470, 644–649
vehicle specific power (VSP), 470
vernacular landscapes, 192
Vietnamese enclave, in New Orleans, 223–224
Village of Euclid, Ohio, et al. v. Ambler Realty Company, 398
Virginia
air quality in Shenandoah Valley, 444, 445
See also Richmond
visioning, and plan-making processes, 808–809, 810
Vision Mumbai plan, 702, 703
visualizing information, 306–307
cognition and learning, 314–315
gaps and dilemmas, 314–318
geographic information systems, 306–307, 308, 311–312
graphics, 308
local expertise and knowledge, 315, 317–318
maps, 310–311
three-dimensional (3-D) and simulation models, 312–313
visualization and planning, 307–313
visualization defined, 307–308
visualization typologies, 313–314, 316
Web sites, 309–310
Visual Tools for Planners (Hopkins), 309
vouchers
housing choice voucher program, 508
Housing Opportunity Vouchers, 592
rental vouchers, 503, 508
Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago: Municipal Economy (Woody), 777
wage slavery, 146
walkable access to services, 126, 128
War on Poverty programs, 592, 599
Washington, D.C., Baroque design plan for, 108
waterfront districts, 61
waterfront revival, 269–270
water service, infrastructure and, 533
Web sites, in planning and design, 309–310
welfare state, 48, 50, 51, 52, 55, 481
Whistle-Blowers Support Fund, 159
“Whither Gender in Urban Health?” (Frye, Putnam, and O'Campo), 624
Who Lives Downtown? (Birch), 279
Why Not in My Backyard? (Galster et al.), 511–512
Wilmington, North Carolina, 1898 race riot in, 221
Wisconsin, early public health issues in Milwaukee, 394–395, 401
Wisconsin Regional Training Partnership (WRTP), 485
Wise Use movement, 8
women planners. See gender and planning
workfare programs, 481
workforce development, 484–485
Works Progress Administration, 49
World Bank, 60, 361, 524, 531, 694, 712
world cities concept, 277–278
World Cities, The (Hall), 277–278
World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), 122
World Health Day, 393
World Health Organization (WHO), 393, 403, 436
World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity (Union of Concerned Scientists), 131
(p. 864) World War I, 50, 51, 600
World War II, 48, 49, 50, 56, 57, 90, 91, 98, 222, 479, 587, 669
Yaroslavl, Russia, 88–89, 91–92
Youngstown, Ohio, abandonment and infrastructure in, 577
zonal or spatial interaction models, 340
zone system, Prussian, 359
zoning
and public health, 398
early zoning acts, 359, 360, 541
establishment of standardized, 362–363
inclusionary zoning programs, 422, 505